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Specimen (Number) 1 2 3 4 5

Temperature (C) 20 0 -20 -40 -70

Energy (J) 50 39 30 29 26

Table 1-dependence of absorbed energy (for crack propagation) over temperature

The table above shows the fracture behavior of Fe-0.4wt% carbon as a function of temperature. The temperature is in the range of 20C (room temperature) and -70C.

Fracture dependence on heat treatment


60 50 Energy J 40 -40, 29 -20, 30 30 20 10 0 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Temperature C 0, 39 20, 50

-70, 26

Heat treatment Normalized 20C Heated to 950C and quenched heated to 950C, quenched then tempered to 680C and allowed to cool in air
Table 2-dependence of fracture behavior over heat treatment

Energy(J) 50 2 123

The table shows how the energy absorption changes when different heat treatment is applied to the samples. On sample 2 the low absorption of energy is due to the martensite formed which is extremely brittle. After tempering, some

the carbon has formed Fe3C. This process allows the material to become more ductile and as a result more energy is needed during propagation of cracks. Percentage carbon in steel 0.1 wt% 0.4 wt% Ferrite - iron
It is a solid solution of carbon and iron, where the iron is the main element. Ferrite has a bodycentered cubic crystal structure (packing fraction 0.68) which explains the medium strength (= 280 N/mm2). This structure is stable at low temperature and remains in this phase up to 910 C. Then it transforms to austenite ( iron) with FCC structure. Ferrite contains very little carbon due to the size of the C atoms (twice as big as Fe atoms) as carbon atoms are interstitial impurities in Fe structure. So at 0 C there is only 0.005 wt% C and the highest amount of C that can be dissolved is 0.022 wt%, reached at 727 C. Other key property is that ferrite is hard (80 kgf/m2) and ductile. It also has high electrical resistance and high magnetic permeability.

Energy (J) 114 50

Table 3- dependence of energy absorption on percentage carbon in steels at room temperature

Cementite - Fe3C
Is a chemical compound with crystal lattice structure. Its carbon content exceeds 6.67 wt%. This compound could be formed during cooling of austenite or tempering of martensite. Due to the high amount of carbon this compound is very hard and brittle. Also it is solid and inert as a result it could withstand crushing forces, chemical erosion as well as very high temperatures. This intermetallic compound is metastable, it remains as a compound at room T, but decomposes (very slowly, within several years) into -Fe and C (graphite) at 650 - 700 C

Pearlite
Pearlite is formed when cooling austenite below 727C with 0.77 wt% of carbon-an eutectoid reaction. At that point when the temperature drops, austenite transforms to a particular mixture of cementite (11%) and ferrite (89%). The process requires diffusion of all carbon atoms. Thus the formation of pearlites takes time and the process is considered relatively slow. This material is extremely strong (due to the small grain size of the ferrite) and brittle.

a) Ferrite starts to form at 880C b) Austenite (37%) and ferrite (63%) c) Pearlite- 11% Fe3C and 89% ferrite 3 Martensite Martensite is formed when austenite of high temperature is cooled very quickly so the carbon does not have time to diffuse during the transformation and as a result it remains trapped in a low temperature ferrite structure. This iron phase is called martensite. The carbon inside the structure creates a lot of disturbances and impacts the movement of dislocations. Once unable to distort the material becomes extremely strong, hard and brittle. a) 0.8 wt% carbon steel is known to be unweldable. This is because its CEV is over 0.4 wt%. In this case, the cooling rate of the steel is very high and allowed to cool a hard and brittle phase will easily develop. The formation of martensite may lead to failure of the steel when load is applied. However, there are ways to make 0.8 wt% carbon steel more receptive to welding. The first one is preheating. Preheating protects the parent metal by helping prevent hardening of the weld as brittle phases form. So creating softer, more ductile structure better resists cracking. Another method of improving 0.8 wt% carbon steel is by post heating. When the martensite has formed, tempering will result in increase of toughness as the amount of carbon trapped in the structure forms cementite and hence increase the ductility of the HAZ. b) 0.1% carbon steel is highly weldable. Its CE value is under 0.4 wt% following a formation of strong and very ductile material in the heat affected zones, if welded. Because of all it properties it could be used in nearly all welding processes with high quality results. c) The 300 series of austenic stainless steel are the most weldable of the stainless steels. There are two things to be considered when welding the 300 series. The first is avoidance of solidification of cracks and the next is preservation of corrosion resistance of the weld in the HAZ. The 300 series of stainless steel are modified and they contain max of 0.03 wt% Sulfur and 0.04 wt% Phosphorus since increased amount of S and P increases the material brittleness. So containing low amounts of P and S in the composition decreases the likelihood of solidification cracking. As far as the corrosion resistance is concerned, there are two approaches. One is lowering the carbon amount so that not much Cr would react with C and in this way disturb the Cr layer that prevents corrosion. So the range of C in the 300 series is from 0.01-0.08 wt%.The other method is to add elements that react more readily with C than Cr does. Such elements are Niobium and Titanium. Finally, the amount of Cr must be greater so that the losses would not affect the percentage of the Cr to be over 11wt%. The Cr range in the 300 series is 17-26 wt%.

4 Youngs modulus
Hookes law of elasticity defines Youngs modulus as the ratio of stress to corresponding strain below the elastic (proportional) limit . The load obtain in this experiment are at the yield load (the point at which plastic deformation starts) and at the tensile load (the maximum load that the sample can withstand).The yield load is measured as 0.2% offset proves. That point is determined by human who leaves great possibility for errors. Also the point is in the plastic region which makes the data even more invaluable to determine Youngs modulus. Moreover, in the experiment we measure the length and the cross section area of the sample before and after the tensile test. This gives as the overall extension whereas for the Youngs modulus we are interested in extension in the linear-elastic part of the stress strain graph. To enable the experiment output data to be manipulated in order to obtain result for youngs modulus the apparatus should enable us to take several measurement of the load and the extension of the sample in the elastic region.

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