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TAEDES401A Design and Develop learning programs

TAEDES401A - Design and develop learning programs


Candidates Learning Guide Author: John Bailey Copyright Text copyright 2009 by John N Bailey. Illustration, layout and design copyright 2009 by John N Bailey. Under Australias Copyright Act 1968 (the Act), except for any fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review, no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission from John N Bailey. All inquiries should be directed in the first instance to the publisher at the address below. Copying for Education Purposes The Act allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of this book, whichever is the greater, to be copied by an education institution for its educational purposes provided that that educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to JNB Publications. Disclaimer All reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the quality and accuracy of this publication. JNB Publications assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions and no warranties are made with regard to this publication. Neither JNB Publications nor any authorized distributors shall be held responsible for any direct, incidental or consequential damages resulting from the use of this publication.

Published in Australia by: JNB Publications PO Box, 268, Macarthur Square NSW 2560 Australia.

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Candidates Personal Details


Student ID:

Family Name: Given Name: Address:

Telephone: Email:

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TAEDES401A - Design and develop learning programs Contents


CANDIDATES PERSONAL DETAILS.............................................................3 Description:.......................................................................................................11 Competency Field:.............................................................................................11 Introduction.......................................................................................................11 This Learning Guide covers:...............................................................................11 Learning Program..............................................................................................11 Additional Learning Support..............................................................................12 Facilitation........................................................................................................12 Flexible Learning...............................................................................................13 Space................................................................................................................13 Study Resources................................................................................................13 Time..................................................................................................................13 Study Strategies................................................................................................14 Using this learning guide:..................................................................................14 PORTFOLIO GUIDELINES.........................................................................15 What is a Portfolio? ...........................................................................................15 Compiling your Portfolio....................................................................................15 Organising your Portfolio Structure ...................................................................16 Finally...............................................................................................................16 THE ICON KEY.......................................................................................17 How to get the most out of your learning guide.................................................18 Additional research, reading and note taking.....................................................18 PERFORMANCE CRITERIA........................................................................19 SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE.......................................................................21 Required knowledge..........................................................................................21 Required Skills ..................................................................................................21 RANGE STATEMENT...............................................................................22 EVIDENCE GUIDE...................................................................................23 EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS..........................................................................24 QUALIFICATION NOTES...........................................................................27 Descriptor ........................................................................................................27 Job roles ...........................................................................................................27 Qualification pathways .....................................................................................27 Licensing, legislative, regulatory or certification considerations ........................27 Packaging Rules................................................................................................28 Core units .........................................................................................................28 Elective units ....................................................................................................28 1. DEFINE THE PARAMETERS OF THE LEARNING PROGRAM.......................29 1.1 CLARIFY THE PURPOSE AND TYPE OF LEARNING PROGRAM WITH KEY STAKEHOLDERS ...........................29 Clarify the Purpose of the Learning Program......................................................29 Learning program defined.................................................................................30 Figure 1: ...........................................................................................................31 Activity 1...........................................................................................................32 Planning and promoting a training program.......................................................33 What is a training session?................................................................................33 What other factors should you consider?...........................................................34 Why plan training sessions?...............................................................................34 Figure 2: The process of training and developing others Typical model...........35 Learning programs and learning strategies........................................................36 Figure 3 Learning Strategy................................................................................36
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Characteristics of learners.................................................................................37 Figure 4:............................................................................................................37 Figure 5:............................................................................................................38 What are training outcomes?.............................................................................38 Why write training outcomes?...........................................................................39 Activity 2:..........................................................................................................39 Useful and accurate?.........................................................................................40 Figure 6: Checklist for writing training outcomes...............................................41 Checklist for selecting existing learning materials.............................................41 Appropriate activities and tasks.........................................................................42 Copyright..........................................................................................................43 Designing a session plan...................................................................................43 Structuring the session......................................................................................43 Selecting appropriate activities.........................................................................44 Use of training aids............................................................................................44 Planning for resources.......................................................................................45 Tips for writing a session plan............................................................................46 Figure 7: Model Session Plan (1)........................................................................47 General Information..........................................................................................47 Information........................................................................................................47 Delivery approach and resources.......................................................................47 Introduction.......................................................................................................47 Content.............................................................................................................47 Conclusion.........................................................................................................47 Comments.........................................................................................................47 Follow-up...........................................................................................................47 Figure 8: Model Session Plan (2)........................................................................48 Title of Session..................................................................................................48 General information...........................................................................................48 Training Outcomes............................................................................................48 Time..................................................................................................................48 Key Points.........................................................................................................48 Methods and learning aids.................................................................................48 Introduction.......................................................................................................48 Content.............................................................................................................48 Conclusion.........................................................................................................48 Assessment methods.........................................................................................48 Comments.........................................................................................................48 Figure 9: Model Session Plan (3)........................................................................49 General information...........................................................................................49 Learning outcomes............................................................................................49 Topic key points..............................................................................................49 Trainer activity..................................................................................................49 Learner Activity.................................................................................................49 Learning aids.....................................................................................................49 Skills of a designer............................................................................................50 Figure 10:..........................................................................................................50 Steps in designing and developing learning programs.......................................51 Figure 11:..........................................................................................................52 .................................................................................................................................52 Influences..........................................................................................................52 Useful forms, questionnaires and other material for the design process.............53 1.2 ACCESS AND CONFIRM THE COMPETENCY STANDARDS OR OTHER TRAINING SPECIFICATIONS ON WHICH TO BASE THE LEARNING PROGRAM ....................................................................................................54 Training Package coding system.......................................................................54 Qualification coding...........................................................................................54 Figure 12: Australian Training System Key Terms............................................55 Unit of competency coding................................................................................56 Qualification levels description..........................................................................56
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Identifying Learners and Their Characteristics...................................................59 Components of a Training Package....................................................................62 Employability Skills............................................................................................62 Skills.................................................................................................................64 Embedding .......................................................................................................64 Employability Skills Summaries website.............................................................64 Activity 4:..........................................................................................................64 Skills Sets..........................................................................................................66 Activity 5:..........................................................................................................66 Activity 6:..........................................................................................................68 Nominal hours...................................................................................................69 Activity 7:..........................................................................................................70 1.3 IDENTIFY LANGUAGE LITERACY AND NUMERACY REQUIREMENTS OF THE PROGRAM...............................70 Attitudes to professional development ..............................................................71 Dealing with the needs of specific groups of learners .......................................73 Resources and resource development ..............................................................73 Information and communications technology ....................................................73 Business compliance ........................................................................................74 Assessing and reporting student outcomes .......................................................74 Implementing training packages .......................................................................75 Learning Resources ..........................................................................................76 Indigenous LLN..................................................................................................78 Matching Activities............................................................................................79 Figure 13: Some ideas from prior participants ..................................................80 Figure 14: Example of matching terms to visuals ..............................................80 Figure 15: Examples of matching terms to visuals ............................................82 Generic assessments are not effective..............................................................82 Pre-entry assessments need to be customised..................................................83 Non-formal options for LLN assessments...........................................................83 Interviews.........................................................................................................83 Self assessment checklists................................................................................84 Observation.......................................................................................................84 Activity 8:..........................................................................................................84 1.4 IDENTIFY AND CONSIDER CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TARGET LEARNER GROUP....................................87 Actions..............................................................................................................87 Identify your stakeholders.................................................................................87 Who are your stakeholders?..............................................................................89 Mnemonic CUTIE...............................................................................................89 Template A : Stakeholders.................................................................................90 Figure 16: Project Dashboard.............................................................................91 Possible antagonists..........................................................................................91 Performance gaps.............................................................................................92 Figure 17:..........................................................................................................92 'Yes -I could do it'..............................................................................................93 Template B Exploring the Learning Options.....................................................94 'No - I can't do it'...............................................................................................95 Template C - Consider Learning and Development Options................................96 2. WORK WITHIN THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING POLICY FRAMEWORK.........................................................................................97 2.1 ACCESS AND APPLY RELEVANT NATIONAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING POLICIES AND FRAMEWORKS TO WORK PRACTICES..........................................................................................................97 Learning Strategy..............................................................................................97 Figure 18: Sample Excerpt from a Facilitator's Guide.........................................98 Options for learning program content ...............................................................98 Identify resources .............................................................................................99 Activity 9:........................................................................................................100 Activity 10:......................................................................................................101 Evaluating existing resources..........................................................................101 Activity 11:......................................................................................................102 2.2 IDENTIFY CHANGES TO TRAINING PACKAGES AND ACCREDITED COURSES AND APPLY THESE TO PROGRAM
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DEVELOPMENT...............................................................................................................103

Develop Options based on Competency Profile of Target Group.......................103 Developing a Learner Profile Checklist.............................................................103 Figure 19: Learner Profile Checklist.................................................................104 Activity 12:......................................................................................................104 Identify Existing Resources Available...............................................................107 Activity 13:......................................................................................................107 Collaborate with Others on Program Content...................................................108 ......................................................................................................................109 Content Options and Adult Learning Principles ................................................109 Figure 20: Content Option...............................................................................109 Option.............................................................................................................109 Description......................................................................................................109 Activities.........................................................................................................109 Consider learner characteristics......................................................................109 Delivery mode and resources..........................................................................109 Adult learning principles..................................................................................110 Activity 14:......................................................................................................110 Figure 21: The Adult Learning Cycle................................................................112 2.3 CONDUCT WORK IN ACCORDANCE WITH ORGANISATIONAL QUALITY ASSURANCE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ...............................................................................................................................113 Document your Interpretations and Decisions.................................................113 Quality Assurance and Improvement Cycle......................................................113 Figure 22: Quality and Improvement Cycle......................................................114 RTOs and regulatory requirements..................................................................115 The requirement for a quality management system.........................................116 Figure 23: Plan, Do, Check , Act.......................................................................117 Key aspects that need to be quality assured....................................................117 The assessment system..................................................................................117 The assessment process..................................................................................118 The assessors..................................................................................................118 Training Packages...........................................................................................118 Collecting the evidence...................................................................................119 Making the judgement.....................................................................................119 Consider Time Frames, Costs and Logistics......................................................120 Timeframes ....................................................................................................120 Nominal and funded hours ..............................................................................121 Budget and costs ............................................................................................121 Logistics .........................................................................................................122 Activity 15:......................................................................................................123 Benchmarks ...................................................................................................123 Activity 16:......................................................................................................124 Choosing Quality Assurance Strategies............................................................125 Figure 25: Strategies for the quality assurance of assessment.........................126 Activity 17:......................................................................................................128 Evaluating quality assurance strategies...........................................................128 Figure 26: Quality assurance strategies evaluation outcomes form...............129 Figure 27: Planning proforma for evaluating assurance strategies...................130 Figure 28: Planning Proforma for evaluating quality assurance strategies template..........................................................................................................131 Template D: Quality assurance strategies evaluation outcomes template ....132 Activity 18:......................................................................................................133 .........................................................................................................134 Activity 19:......................................................................................................135 Portfolio Activity 20:........................................................................................137 3. DEVELOP PROGRAM CONTENT...........................................................139 3.1 RESEARCH, DEVELOP AND DOCUMENT SPECIFIC SUBJECT MATTER CONTENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH AGREED DESIGN OPTIONS ...........................................................................................................139 Short Courses and Organisational Training......................................................139 Accredited Training and Training Packages......................................................139
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Figure 29: Sample Material Questionnaire.......................................................140 Duration..........................................................................................................141 Start and end times.........................................................................................141 Number of students.........................................................................................142 Method of delivery...........................................................................................142 Blended learning.............................................................................................143 Venue and equipment considerations..............................................................144 How many trainers will be required?................................................................144 Make or buy?...................................................................................................145 Template E: Course Envelope..........................................................................146 Template F: Make or Buy?.............................................................................148 Adult learning principles .................................................................................149 Motivation.......................................................................................................149 Figure 30: Maslows Hierarchy of Needs. .........................................................150 Learning styles................................................................................................152 Left brain Right brain.......................................................................................153 Figure 31: Left and Right Hemisphere..............................................................153 PART learning styles........................................................................................154 Global and analytical learner model.................................................................155 Activity 21:......................................................................................................155 ..............................................................................................................................157 3.2 EVALUATE EXISTING LEARNING RESOURCES FOR CONTENT RELEVANCE AND QUALITY .........................158 Contextualising existing resources .................................................................158 Figure 32: The Types of Changes that are Acceptable......................................158 Contextualise to Meet the Needs of the Training Package,...............................162 Looking for Information...................................................................................162 Consider OHS Issues........................................................................................163 Ensure the Safety of Yourself, Learners and Others.........................................163 Figure 33: OHS websites..................................................................................163 3.3 SPECIFY ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR THE LEARNING PROGRAM............................................164 Analyse the Assessment Guidelines.................................................................164 Read, Understand and Apply the Assessment Guidelines.................................164 What you will Find and How to Apply it............................................................164 Figure 34: Assessment Guidelines Summary....................................................165 Activity 24:......................................................................................................166 Meeting Client Needs.......................................................................................167 Interpret the Assessment Guidelines in Terms of the Needs of clients .............167 Figure 35: Use a Seven-step Procedure to Align the Assessment to Client Needs .......................................................................................................................167 Competency....................................................................................................168 What is a competency standard? ....................................................................168 Activity 25:......................................................................................................168 Portfolio Activity 26:........................................................................................169 4. DESIGN THE STRUCTURE OF THE LEARNING PROGRAM........................171 4.1 BREAK THE LEARNING CONTENT INTO MANAGEABLE SEGMENTS AND DOCUMENT THE TIMEFRAME FOR EACH SEGMENT.....................................................................................................................171 Learning Methodologies...................................................................................171 Trainer-led conference ....................................................................................172 Trainer-led lecture with Q&A ...........................................................................172 Trainer-led structured skills training ...............................................................172 Trainer-led behavioural simulation ..................................................................173 Self-study........................................................................................................173 Template G: Learning Methodologies...............................................................174 Time for decision.............................................................................................175 Four ways to communicate..............................................................................175 Which to use?..................................................................................................177 Timing the course outline ...............................................................................177 A program delivery plan..................................................................................177 Portfolio Activity 27: .......................................................................................178 Figure 36: Learning program plan proforma.....................................................179
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Template H: Provisional timings.......................................................................183 Employing 'unusual' activities..........................................................................183 Working into the evening.................................................................................183 Ebb and flow of energy levels..........................................................................184 Squeeze into the 'envelope'.............................................................................185 Sunflower analysis...........................................................................................185 Figure 37: Sunflower Part 1.............................................................................186 Figure 38: Sunflower Part 2.............................................................................186 Figure 39: Sunflower Part 3.............................................................................187 4.2 DETERMINE AND CONFIRM DELIVERY STRATEGIES AND ANY ASSESSMENT METHODS AND TOOLS..............188 Figure 40: Why change?..................................................................................188 Activity 28:......................................................................................................188 Review, Reflect and Improve to Satisfy Client Needs.......................................189 Selecting Delivery modes................................................................................189 Figure 41: Algorithm for selection of instructional mode..................................190 .......................................................................................................................190 Reviewing and Improving................................................................................190 Activity 29: Determine and confirm delivery strategies....................................191 4.3 DOCUMENT THE COMPLETE LEARNING PROGRAM IN LINE WITH ORGANISATION REQUIREMENTS..............192 Activity 30: .....................................................................................................194 Activity 31: .....................................................................................................195 Figure 42: Training Record Sheet.....................................................................196 Activity 32: .....................................................................................................197 Keeping others informed.................................................................................198 Activity 33: .....................................................................................................199 4.4 REVIEW COMPLETE PROGRAM WITH KEY STAKEHOLDERS AND AS REQUIRED....................................200 Review criteria ...............................................................................................200 Evaluation tools...............................................................................................200 .......................................................................................................................200 Figure 43: Example of an evaluation questionnaire..........................................201 Reviewers........................................................................................................203 Portfolio Activity 34:........................................................................................203 Adjusting a learning program..........................................................................203 Final approval..................................................................................................204 Activity 35:......................................................................................................204 4.5 ENSURE A SAFE LEARNING PROGRESSION BY ANALYSING RISKS IN THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND APPLYING A RISK CONTROL PLAN......................................................................................................205 Providing Support and Advice..........................................................................205 Activity 36:......................................................................................................205 ......................................................................................................................206 Explore the Benefits of Learning......................................................................207 Communicating Benefits..................................................................................207 Figure 44: Strategies to Highlight the Benefits of Learning...............................207 Activity 37:......................................................................................................208 Figure 45: Maslows Hierarchy.........................................................................209 Recognising Achievement................................................................................209 Nine Categories for Student Achievement........................................................209 Strategies........................................................................................................211 Figure 46: Recognition and Reward Strategies.................................................212 Activity 38:......................................................................................................212 Monitoring the Risk Control Action Plan...........................................................214 Monitor the Risk Control Action Plan to Continually Improve It.........................214 How to Monitor Risk Controls...........................................................................214 Figure 47: Risk Rating Table............................................................................216 Activity 39:......................................................................................................218 Reporting and Investigation Procedures to help Prevent Accidents and Incidents .......................................................................................................................219 Hazard/Accident/Incident Reporting Form example..........................................219 Figure 48: Hazard/Accident/Incident Report.....................................................220
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Activity 40:......................................................................................................221 Activity 41:......................................................................................................221 RESOURCE EVALUATION FORM..............................................................223

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TAEDES401A - Design and develop learning programs


Description: This unit specifies the competency required to conceptualise, design, develop and review learning programs to meet an identified need for a group of learners. Employability Skills: This unit contains employability skills. Application of unit: The competency specified in this unit is typically required by a trainer/ facilitator who uses learning programs to develop more specific and detailed delivery plans which contextualise and individualise the learning for particular groups. A learning program can be discrete, providing a planned learning approach, relating to specific learning/training needs, or it may form part of the learning design for a qualification. Competency Field: Learning Design Introduction As a worker, a trainee or a future worker you want to enjoy your work and become known as a valuable team member. This unit of competency will help you acquire the knowledge and skills to work effectively as an individual and in groups. It will give you the basis to contribute to the goals of the organisation which employs you. It is essential that you begin your training by becoming familiar with the industry standards to which organizations must conform. This unit of competency introduces you to some of the key issues and responsibilities of workers and organizations in this area. The unit also provides you with opportunities to develop the competencies necessary for employees to operate as team members. This Learning Guide covers: Define the parameters of the learning program Work within the vocational education and training policy framework Develop program content Design the structure of the learning program

Learning Program As you progress through this unit you will develop skills in locating and understanding an organizations policies and procedures. You will build up a sound knowledge of the industry standards within which
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organizations must operate. You should also become more aware of the effect that your own skills in dealing with people has on your success, or otherwise, in the workplace. Knowledge of your skills and capabilities will help you make informed choices about your further study and career options. Additional Learning Support To obtain additional support you may: Search for other resources in the Learning Resource Centres of your learning institution. You may find books, journals, videos and other materials which provide extra information for topics in this unit. Search in your local library. Most libraries keep information about government departments and other organizations, services and programs. Contact information services such as Infolink, Equal Opportunity Commission, and Commissioner of Workplace Agreements. Union organizations, and public relations and information services provided by various government departments. Many of these services are listed in the telephone directory. Contact your local shire or council office. Many councils have a community development or welfare officer as well as an information and referral service. Contact the relevant facilitator by telephone, mail or facsimile.

Facilitation Your training organisation will provide you with a flexible learning facilitator. Your facilitator will play an active role in supporting your learning, will make regular contact with you and if you have face to face access, should arrange to see you at least once. After you have enrolled your facilitator will contact you by telephone or letter as soon as possible to let you know: How and when to make contact What you need to do to complete this unit of study What support will be provided.

Here are some of the things your facilitator can do to make your study easier. Give you a clear visual timetable of events for the semester or term in which you are enrolled, including any deadlines for assessments. Check that you know how to access library facilities and services. Conduct small interest groups for some of the topics. Use action sheets and website updates to remind you about tasks you need to complete. Set up a chat line. If you have access to telephone conferencing or video conferencing, your facilitator can use these for specific topics or discussion sessions. Circulate a newsletter to keep you informed of events, topics and
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resources of interest to you. Keep in touch with you by telephone or email during your studies. Flexible Learning Studying to become a competent worker and learning about current issues in this area, is an interesting and exciting thing to do. You will establish relationships with other candidates, fellow workers and clients. You will also learn about your own ideas, attitudes and values. You will also have fun most of the time. At other times, study can seem overwhelming and impossibly demanding, particularly when you have an assignment to do and you arent sure how to tackle it..and your family and friends want you to spend time with themand a movie you want to watch is on television.and. Sometimes being a candidate can be hard. Here are some ideas to help you through the hard times. To study effectively, you need space, resources and time. Space Try to set up a place at home or at work where: You can keep your study materials You can be reasonably quiet and free from interruptions, and You can be reasonably comfortable, with good lighting, seating and a flat surface for writing.

If it is impossible for you to set up a study space, perhaps you could use your local library. You will not be able to store your study materials there, but you will have quiet, a desk and chair, and easy access to the other facilities. Study Resources The most basic resources you will need are: a chair a desk or table a reading lamp or good light a folder or file to keep your notes and study materials together materials to record information (pen and paper or notebooks, or a computer and printer) reference materials, including a dictionary

Do not forget that other people can be valuable study resources. Your fellow workers, work supervisor, other candidates, your flexible learning facilitator, your local librarian, and workers in this area can also help you. Time It is important to plan your study time. Work out a time that suits you and plan around it. Most people find that studying in short, concentrated blocks of time (an hour or two) at regular intervals (daily, every second day, once a week) is more effective than trying to cram a lot of learning into a whole day. You need time to digest the information in one
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section before you move on to the next, and everyone needs regular breaks from study to avoid overload. Be realistic in allocating time for study. Look at what is required for the unit and look at your other commitments. Make up a study timetable and stick to it. Build in deadlines and set yourself goals for completing study tasks. Allow time for reading and completing activities. Remember that it is the quality of the time you spend studying rather than the quantity that is important. Study Strategies Different people have different learning styles. Some people learn best by listening or repeating things out loud. Some learn best by doing, some by reading and making notes. Assess your own learning style, and try to identify any barriers to learning which might affect you. Are you easily distracted? Are you afraid you will fail? Are you taking study too seriously? Not seriously enough? Do you have supportive friends and family? Here are some ideas for effective study strategies. Make notes. This often helps you to remember new or unfamiliar information. Do not worry about spelling or neatness, as long as you can read your own notes. Keep your notes with the rest of your study materials and add to them as you go. Use pictures and diagrams if this helps. Underline key words when you are reading the materials in this learning guide. (Do not underline things in other peoples books). This also helps you to remember important points. Talk to other people (fellow workers, fellow candidates, friends, family, your facilitator) about what you are learning. As well as helping you to clarify and understand new ideas, talking also gives you a chance to find out extra information and to get fresh ideas and different points of view. Using this learning guide: A learning guide is just that, a guide to help you learn. A learning guide is not a text book. Your learning guide will describe the skills you need to demonstrate to achieve competency for this unit provide information and knowledge to help you develop your skills provide you with structured learning activities to help you absorb the knowledge and information and practice your skills direct you to other sources of additional knowledge and information about topics for this unit.

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Portfolio Guidelines
Throughout your learning guide you will be asked to complete Learning Activities which require you to include information in a portfolio. What is a Portfolio? The term portfolio describes a means of keeping a record of development to analyse and evaluate learning and practice. Your portfolio will include a range of evidence. Compiling your Portfolio The first step is to either buy a portfolio or make your own with an A4 ring binder file. Or you may choose to develop an e-portfolio. As you work though the activities in the teaching materials, clear guidance is given about the mandatory portfolio content. It is for you to decide what additional evidence you want to include. The diagram below contains some suggestions about other possible sources of evidence. Work Samples

Templates/Pro formas

Workplace training

Workplace policy documents Client Feedback

Projects

Learning Activity Outcomes

Research

Portfolio

Feedback Trainer

from

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Organising your Portfolio Structure There is no right or wrong way to complete your portfolio, as it should be designed to suit you. However, the contents must be organised in such a way that you can find all of the information easily. It might be a good idea to use the Progress Checklist (at the front of this learning guide) as a Table of Contents and place all of the evidence you collect in the order shown on this checklist. The information gathered from each Activity should be placed in the portfolio immediately so that you do not misplace it. Do not wait until you have finished a Section to add it to the portfolio or you will waste time trying to sort it all out. Start today and move forwards. You might wish to use dividers to separate the contents, if required, grouping evidence into areas of learning. Finally Everything you do during this unit is evidence of your competence, so don't destroy anything place it in your portfolio!

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The Icon Key


Key Points
Explains the actions taken by a competent person.

Example
Illustrates the concept or competency by providing examples.

Activity
Provides activities to reinforce understanding of the action.

Chart
Provides images that represent data symbolically. They are used to present complex information and numerical data in a simple, compact format.

Intended Outcomes or Objectives


Statements of intended outcomes or objectives are descriptions of the work that will be done.

Assessment
Strategies with which information will be collected in order to validate each intended outcome or objective.

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How to get the most out of your learning guide 1. Read through the information in the learning guide carefully. Make sure you understand the material. Some sections are quite long and cover complex ideas and information. If you come across anything you do not understand: talk to your facilitator research the area using the books and materials listed under Resources discuss the issue with other people (your workplace supervisor, fellow workers, fellow candidates) try to relate the information presented in this learning guide to your own experience and to what you already know.

Ask yourself questions as you go: For example Have I seen this happening anywhere? Could this apply to me? What if.? This will help you to make sense of new material and to build on your existing knowledge. 2. 3. 4. Talk to people about your study. Talking is a great way to reinforce what you are learning. Make notes. Work through the activities. Even if you are tempted to skip some activities, do them anyway. They are there for a reason, and even if you already have the knowledge or skills relating to a particular activity, doing them will help to reinforce what you already know. If you do not understand an activity, think carefully about the way the questions or instructions are phrased. Read the section again to see if you can make sense of it. If you are still confused, contact your facilitator or discuss the activity with other candidates, fellow workers or with your workplace supervisor. Additional research, reading and note taking. If you are using the additional references and resources suggested in the learning guide to take your knowledge a step further, there are a few simple things to keep in mind to make this kind of research easier. Always make a note of the authors name, the title of the book or article, the edition, when it was published, where it was published, and the name of the publisher. If you are taking notes about specific ideas or information, you will need to put the page number as well. This is called the reference information. You will need this for some assessment tasks and it will help you to find the book again if needed. Keep your notes short and to the point. Relate your notes to the material in your learning guide. Put things into your own words. This will give you a better understanding of the material. Start off with a question you want answered when you are exploring additional resource materials. This will structure your reading and save you time.

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TAEDES401A - Design and develop learning programs Element

Performance Criteria
Define the parameters of the learning program

1.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.

Clarify the purpose and type of learning program with key stakeholders Access and confirm the competency standards or other training specifications on which to base the learning program Identify language literacy and numeracy requirements of the program Identify and consider characteristics of the target learner group

Work within the vocational education and training policy framework

2.1 2.2 2.3 3.

Access and apply relevant national vocational education and training policies and frameworks to work practices Identify changes to training packages and accredited courses and apply these to program development Conduct work in accordance with organisational quality assurance policies and procedures

Develop program content

3.1 3.2 3.3 4.

Research, develop and document specific subject matter content in accordance with agreed design options Evaluate existing learning resources for content relevance and quality Specify assessment requirements for the learning program

Design the structure of the learning program

4.1 4.2 4.3

Break the learning content into manageable segments and document the timeframe for each segment Determine and confirm delivery strategies and any assessment methods and tools Document the complete learning program in line with organisation requirements

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4.4 4.5

Review complete program with key stakeholders and adjust as required Ensure a safe learning progression by analysing risks in the learning environment and applying a risk control plan

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Skills and Knowledge


Required knowledge information about training package developers and course accreditation agencies responsible for specific learning program parameters Training Package/ s and/ or relevant competency standards to be used as the basis of the learning program other performance standards/ criteria to be used as the basis of the learning program, where relevant the distinction and relationship between a Training Package/accredited courses, learning strategy and learning program, where linked different purposes and focus of learning programs a sound knowledge of learning principles,

instructional design principles relating to different design options for learning program design/ structure availability and types of different relevant learning resources, learning materials and pre-developed learning activities how to develop and document new learning activities and related learning materials different delivery modes and delivery methods relevant policies, legal requirements, codes of practice and national standards including Commonwealth and state/ territory legislation, relevant OHS knowledge relating to the work role, and OHS considerations which need to be included in the learning program Required Skills organisational skills to ensure resources are available

time management skills to determine the time required for each learning segment and the overall timelines of the learning program cognitive skills to develop the learning program content and design its structure language and literacy skills read and interpret a range of documentation including technical and subject matter documents, references and texts

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Range Statement
The range statement relates to the unit of competency as a whole. It allows for different work environments and situations that may affect performance. Bold italicised wording, if used in the performance criteria, is detailed below. Essential operating conditions that may be present with training and assessment (depending on the work situation, needs of the candidate, accessibility of the item, and local industry and regional contexts) may also be included. Purpose may include: developing vocational competency/vocational skills developing language, literacy, numeracy skills developing general education meeting legislation, licensing or registration requirements, such as occupational health and safety (OHS) requirements curriculum specifications product specifications organisational work requirements/training needs induction needs language, literacy and numeracy development needs regulatory/ licensing requirements policies and procedures set by national organisation such as the National Quality Council the Australian Quality Training Framework 2007 other relevant policies the focus of delivery in terms of size and type of group the context of delivery ,for example, in the workplace, at a training room, in a community setting the mode of delivery, for example: face-to-face, online, blended delivery mode lock step/ learner-paced/ mixed interactive/ participative/ collaborative blended delivery methods delivery methods, for example:

Other specifications include: training may Vocational education and training policies may include: Delivery strategies may include:

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Evidence Guide
The evidence guide provides advice on assessment and must be read in conjunction with the performance criteria, required skills and knowledge, range statement and the Assessment Guidelines for the Training Package. Assessment must address the scope of this unit and reflect all components of the unit. A range of appropriate assessment methods/ evidence gathering techniques must be used to determine competency. A judgement of competency should only be made when the assessor is confident that the required outcomes of the unit have been achieved and that consistent performance has been demonstrated. Candidates must demonstrate that they can design and develop learning programs within the vocational education and training context. The preparation and development of a minimum of two learning programs. These must contain: Critical aspects for assessment and evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit differentiated learning program designs to reflect particular needs, contexts and timelines at least one learning program must be based on competency standards or accredited courses each program must cover at least one entire unit of competency or accredited course module. Context of and specific resources for assessment Method of assessment Guidance information for assessment For further information about assessment of this and other TAA units, including case studies of delivery and assessment approaches, see the TAA User Guide, available from www.ibsa.org.au . Evidence must be gathered in the workplace whenever possible. Where no workplace is available, a simulated workplace must be provided.

Overview of assessment

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Employability Skills
EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS FACETS ADDRESSED: Industry/enterprise requirements for this qualification include the following facets: 1. 2. Interpreting client needs and writing to these Using a range of communication skills, such as listening, questioning, reading, interpreting and writing documents Writing hazard and incident reports Using effective facilitation and interpersonal skills, including verbal and non-verbal language that is sensitive to the needs and differences of others Mentoring, coaching and tutoring techniques Working with colleagues to compare, review, and evaluate assessment processes and outcomes Actively participating in assessment validation sessions Managing work relationships and seeking feedback from colleagues and clients on professional performance Code

C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 T1 T2

Communication

3. 4.

5. 1. 2. Teamwork 3.

T3

4.

Developing and evaluating with others learning T4 programs customised for individuals or group needs

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EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS

FACETS ADDRESSED: Industry/enterprise requirements for this qualification include the following facets: 1. 2.

Code

Identifying hazards and assessing risks in the P1 learning environment Using time-management skills in designing learning P2 programs Calculating costs of programs and logistics of P3 delivery, and accessing appropriate resources Generating a range of options to meet client needs P4

Problem solving 3. 4. 1.

Interpreting the learning environment and selecting delivery approaches which motivate and engage I1 learners Monitoring and improving work practices to enhance I2 inclusivity and learning Being creative to meet clients training needs I3

Initiative enterprise

and

2. 3. 4.

Applying design skills to develop innovative and I4 flexible cost-effective programs Researching, reading, analysing and interpreting O1 workplace specifications Planning, prioritising and organising workflow Interpreting collected evidence judgements of competency and making O2 O3 O4

Planning organising

and

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Documenting actions plans and hazard reports

Working with clients in developing personal or group O5 learning programs Organising the human, physical and material O6 resources required for learning and assessment

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EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS

FACETS ADDRESSED: Industry/enterprise requirements for this qualification include the following facets: 1. 2. 3. Working within policy and organisational frameworks Managing work and work relationships Adhering to ethical and legal responsibilities Taking personal responsibility in the planning, delivery and review of training Being a role model for inclusiveness and demonstrating professionalism Examining personal perceptions and attitudes

Code

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6

Self management

4. 5. 6.

Learning

1. 2.

Undertaking self-evaluation and reflection practices L1 Researching information and accessing policies and L2 frameworks to maintain currency of skills and knowledge Promoting a culture of learning in the workplace Seeking feedback from colleagues L3 L4

3. 4. 5. Technology 1. 2. 3. 4.

Facilitating individual, group-based and work-based L5 learning Using technology to enhance outcomes, including online delivery and research using the internet Using student information management systems to record assessments Identifying and organising technology and equipment needs prior to training Using a range of software, including presentation packages E1 E2 E3 E4

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Qualification notes
Descriptor This qualification reflects the roles of individuals delivering training and assessment services in the vocational education and training (VET) sector. Achievement of this qualification or an equivalent by trainers and assessors is a requirement of the Australian Quality Training Framework Essential Standards for Registration (Standard 1 as outlined in Appendix 2 of the Users' Guide to the Essential Standards for Registration). This qualification, or the skill sets derived from units of competency within it, is also suitable preparation for those engaged in the delivery of training and assessment of competence in a workplace context, as a component of a structured VET program. Job roles Job roles associated with this qualification relate to the delivery of training and assessment of competence within the VET sector. Possible job titles and roles relevant to this qualification include: enterprise trainer enterprise assessor registered training organisation (RTO) trainer RTO assessor training adviser or training needs analyst vocational education trainer. Qualification pathways Prerequisite requirements There are no prerequisite requirements for individual units of competency. Pathways from the qualification After achieving TAE40110 Certificate IV in Training and Assessment, candidates may undertake TAA50104 Diploma of Training and Assessment or may choose to undertake TAE70110 Vocational Graduate Certificate in Adult Language, Literacy and Numeracy Practice. Licensing, legislative, regulatory or certification considerations There is no direct link between this qualification and licensing, legislative and/or regulatory requirements. However, where required, a unit of competency will specify relevant licensing, legislative and/or regulatory requirements that impact on the unit.

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Packaging Rules Total number of units = 10 7 core units plus 3 elective units At least 2 elective units must be selected from the elective units listed below. One elective unit may be selected from any currently endorsed Training Package or accredited course. Elective units must be relevant to the work outcome, local industry requirements and the qualification level. Where a unit is chosen from another currently endorsed Training Package or accredited course, it must be from a qualification or course at Certificate III level or above, and must contribute towards the vocational outcome of the program. Core units TAEASS401A TAEASS402A TAEASS403A TAEDEL401A TAEDEL402A TAEDES401A TAEDES402A Elective units Assessment TAEASS301A TAEASS502A TAEDEL301A TAEDEL403A TAEDEL404A TAEDEL501A TAELLN401A TAETAS401A Imported units BSBAUD402B BSBLED401A BSBMKG413A BSBREL402A Participate in a quality audit Develop teams and individuals Promote products and services Build client relationships and business networks BSBCMM401A Make a presentation Contribute to assessment Design and develop assessment tools Provide work skill instruction Coordinate and facilitate distance-based learning Mentor in the workplace Facilitate e-learning Address adult language, literacy and numeracy skills Maintain training and assessment information Plan assessment activities and processes Assess competence Participate in assessment validation Plan, organise and deliver group-based learning Plan, organise and facilitate learning in the workplace Design and develop learning programs Use training packages and accredited courses to meet client needs

Delivery and facilitation

Language, literacy and numeracy Training advisory services

BSBRES401A Analyse and present research information


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1. Define the parameters of learning program


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

the

Clarify the purpose and type of learning program with key stakeholders Access and confirm the competency standards or other training specifications on which to base the learning program Identify language literacy and numeracy requirements of the program Identify and consider characteristics of the target learner group

1.1

Clarify the purpose and type of learning program with key stakeholders
A learning program must be justified within available resources. Before a learning program is designed and developed, it is necessary to determine why the program is required - that is, its purpose. Clarify the Purpose of the Learning Program Organisations may have a number of reasons why a learning program is required. Some reasons include:

to effect organisational change - such as the introduction of new policies, new procedures, new standards, or even to change the culture of the organisation to develop skills within the organisation - for example, when new equipment is introduced to develop people within the organisation - for example, developing individual management skills or the vocational competency of individuals to fulfil new legal requirements -for example, when the occupational health and safety (OHS) laws were amended to amend an existing learning program or strategy - for example, the organisation's new employee induction program may need updating.

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Learning program defined A learning program provides the basis for a cohesive and integrated learning process by outlining the processes of learning and assessment (and it can be part of a bigger delivery and assessment strategy). Endorsed Training Packages dont come with prescribed delivery and assessment programs or strategies. They provide the mandatory benchmarks for workplace outcomes (in their units of competency and assessment guidelines) but leave decisions about the processes of delivery and assessment up to youthe facilitator and assessor. So, as the facilitator or trainer, you will need to design (or source) the learning program, but you have the freedom to design whatever is required to deliver the Training Package outcomes while meeting the needs of enterprises and learners. Learning programs in this context relate to a vocational training program based around a unit, or units, of competency from an endorsed Training Package (or the modules in an accredited course). These can be delivered in the workplace, in a training environment, as part of a schools-based VET program or a New Apprenticeships or Traineeships program. However, you could also design and develop learning programs for a range of other training purposes such as delivering short courses, providing workplace learning that is not nationally recognised and for induction training or other professional development. The focus or program type may be: a subset of a learning strategy a short course/vocational program a professional development program a community education program a workplace learning program a transition program part of an apprenticeship/traineeship a short-term development plan for coaching purposes a short-term induction program. A learning program should also identify: its purpose the target group, their needs and characteristics

the outcomes to be achieved, such as the units of competency or other benchmarks this the learning and assessment activities including any flexibilities associated with any required resources.

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It should also include: learning objectives a plan of how the learners will achieve the objectives a structure and sequence for learning content of the learning delivery and assessment methods assessment requirements. The components of a learning program can be seen diagrammatically below. Figure 1:

Le St arni ra te ng gy

Resources required to support delivery

Benchmarks to be met

e on al m d an ra St rog ning p ar gy Le rate St

Delivery and Assessment Methods

may be stand alone or part of a Learning Strategy

Learning program

Learning Activities

Assessment Requirements

Outline of content, sequence and structure

Delivery Plan

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Activity 1. Acme Training is a well-established private training company who has won a major contract with the Bailey Blu Banana Manufacturing Co. 3BM has a base in five states and exports to fourteen countries. They employ 1850 staff. New legislation has been introduced relating to workplace health and safety and the company's management think that this would be a good opportunity to educate the staff about the new legislation. They're also wondering if there might be some other training needs which could be filled at the same time. Acme Training has scheduled the first meeting with 3BM's senior management to discuss their requirements for a learning program. 1. What type of learning program is illustrated in the above example? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. In groups, brainstorm a list of questions that Acme Training will need to raise with 3BM's management to help define the purpose and type of the learning program. Describe your result below. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
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Planning and promoting a training program There are steps to planning and promoting a training program for a client group which are listed below; 1. 2. 3. 4. Establish the client group. Document the request or problem. Detail the knowledge and skills required to perform the standard. Find out the current competencies of the group.

5. Identify the gap between required competencies and the learner(s) current competencies. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Decide if there is a non-training alternative. Decide on the most appropriate training program. Research existing resources and courses. Gather everything together. Promote the training program. A typical model of the process of training and developing is shown in Figure 2 on the next page this is a model that may have some or all of the activities needed in your modelling. This will be used by you at a later stage in this unit to develop your own process. What is a training session? Each training session will have one or a number of training outcomes, so that at the end of the session, the learners have achieved one portion of the training. In order to work out the training sessions involved in a training program, there are a number of steps you can follow. 1. You identify the training goal. The goal is the desired outcome of the training. It should be measurable and observable after training. 2. You find the relevant competency standard or number of standards that will achieve the training goal. 3. 4. 5. You clarify the training program that can be used to reach the goal. You break the training program into a number of training sessions. You write training outcomes for each training session.

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What other factors should you consider? Underpinning knowledge and skills When developing your session plans, the other factor to consider is the underpinning knowledge and skill required to achieve competence. When you get into more detail of developing training session plans, you will cover this area in more detail, but you should be thinking about that the early stages. Underpinning knowledge and skills are required to perform a job or task, but they may not be immediately obvious to the trainer. For example, to operate a fax machine properly, a person needs to be able to identify the machine, know what the buttons on the machine do and so on. These skills and pieces of knowledge underpin the person's ability to use the fax machine. The evidence guide of a competency standard usually provides trainers with good information on underpinning knowledge and skill requirements. Contextualisation Throughout this guide, you will find references to contextualisation. Contextualisation is the process of taking a learning program or resource and making it meaningful to individual learners. It could mean that the learning program is modified for: a particular workplace individual learning styles groups of learners who are unable to access the planned environment learners with special language, literacy and numeracy requirements learners with disabilities particular age groups and levels of previous experience.

Even the best learning programs will need to be contextualised for the learners. Why plan training sessions? To conduct effective training sessions, they have to be planned. session plan should take into account a number of factors including: The information that the trainer wants to present to the participants The training outcomes of the session The activities and tasks that will be facilitated The training environment, room and equipment Possible assessment methods The characteristics of the participants in training The approach, delivery approach and techniques of delivery. A

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Figure 2: The process of training and developing others Typical model

Activities
First understand yourself, your skills, style, and training needs

Tools
Psychometrics, graphology, reflection, discussion with others and any other available methods

Job Description and scale parameters Understand the trainee's job. Identify the essential and desirable job skills that affect performance and results

Establish psychometric profile for job

Establish a skill set and behaviour set of attributes required for the role Assess the trainee's skills, style, attributes, situation, and especially their learning style (see Kolb) Psychometrics, graphology, interview, discussion and any other assessment methods available Counselling one-to-one, get to know the other person, listen, understand

Agree and explain everything with the other person. Keep doing it

Involve the other person in completing the documents that you use

Identify and agree development priorities - the basic training plan

Prioritise training needs (TNA)

Counselling one-to-one, listen, understand. Record in writing. Break down each skill to train. Identify and agree elements and standards at each part (not too many at once) Assess and agree current ability per element).

Relevant reference materials (manuals, standards, company documents, etc.)

Skill elements assessment sheet.

Identify and agree tasks, activities and/or objectives to train each element to the required standard

Involve the other person in completing the documents that you use.

Task delegation form (eg. SMART) Draw on other resources available (training courses, managers, colleagues, external resources) Task delegation form (eg. SMART)

Implement, follow-up, review. Encourage, measure, record and support. Adjust the plan and priorities if appropriate. Continue positive, ongoing recorded review.

Other company systems, appraisals

Counsel, listen, understand

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Problems can arise for a trainer who does not have a session plan, for example, time is lost because steps are missed, trainees get frustrated because they are lost, equipment is not set up or does not work or the trainer can get side-tracked on non-essential information. A session plan is a set notes a trainer prepares to show them the logical order that they want to occur in the training session. The layout of the notes depends on each trainer and what they find most useful. An organised trainer with an accurate training plan will find positive results from using a plan: The plan gives the trainer an idea of where they are and where they are going. It forms a record of the training sessions you have taken. It is extremely useful if another trainer has to take over the session. It gives you a firm base when you review your performance. It provides a starting point for further training. Learning programs and learning strategies A learning program could be a subset of a bigger learning strategy. The learning strategy can provides an organising framework for the delivery and assessment of a full Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) qualification. Figure 3 shows the relationship between learning programs and learning strategies in the bigger picture of the learning design process. Figure 3 Learning Strategy

Training Package

Training Needs Analysis

Learning Strategy

Stakeholder/ Client input

Learning Programs Learning Programs

Learning Programs

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Characteristics of learners One important part of planning a training session is to analyse the learners so that the training suits their ability level, their learning preferences and so on. In the table below are some factors that you should consider about learners when you are planning a training session, whether they are in the organisation or coming to you for training from elsewhere. Figure 4:

Characteristics of learners Language, numeracy literacy and

What does this mean to the plan? This is a big issue in terms of your plan, because it influences the type of delivery you can use, and the activities and tasks that are suitable. You should be prepared for different LL&N levels and have numerous resources available for different requirements. This is a sensitive issue, so take care not to make anyone feel uncomfortable or inadequate. Being aware of different cultures and language abilities is important as well. There may be activities that you choose which are inappropriate for people because of culture or language and if English is a second language, that needs to be taken into account. Getting an idea of general education levels is helpful, so that you know at what level to pitch the delivery of the session. It can affect your plan if you have a group of all female, all male or a mixture, if there are activities that involve demonstration, role play and so on. Age can affect your plan depending on what is being delivered, how and at what pace.

Cultural and background

language

Education knowledge Gender

and

general

Age

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Figure 5:

Characteristics of learners Physical ability

What does this mean to the plan? You need to be aware of any learner who is less able than others to perform physical tasks before you begin delivery. Different levels of experience can be useful, and to plan well you should know who has what experience so it can be used to your and other learners advantage. Competency based training is a unique way of learning, and can be difficult for some learners at first, especially the concept of assessment. If you are training in an organisation you should be aware of people's responsibilities during training. It is helpful if you have knowledge of learner's general attitudes to learning.

Previous experience with the topic

Experience in competency based training

Work organisation or roster

Previous learning experience

What are training outcomes? A training outcome is a statement which clearly describes all the skills and knowledge that the learner should be able to demonstrate as a result of training. It states what the learner is required to achieve in a training program. A competency standard, on the other hand, states the expected performance in the workplace. Training outcomes go into much more detail than the goal of the training, and often the competency standard itself if one is being used, because they describe all the underpinning knowledge and skill required to perform to standard. Training outcomes must meet three criteria: 1. They must be observable. Can you actually see or observe the progress of the learner? 2. They must be measurable. Can you measure the output or progress of the learner? 3. They must be written using language that is clear and cannot be subject to ambiguity or misinterpretation.

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In competency based training, training outcomes must be clearly specified in terms of: Performance - what the learner will be able to do as a result of what has been learned. Standards - the minimal acceptable performance level the participant must demonstrate to be considered proficient in the competency. Conditions under which the learning will take place. Why write training outcomes? Well written training outcomes are beneficial to the training process and in particular the planning process. Clear training outcomes may be beneficial because: They limit the task and remove ambiguity and difficulties of interpretation. They provide direction for the trainer and clearly convey their intent to others. They give clear direction to the learners of what they are expected to achieve.

They provide a guide for selecting the subject matter, the training methods and the materials to be used. They provide a guide for constructing assessment and other instruments for evaluating learner's progress. They enable both the learner and trainer to distinguish between different varieties or types of behaviour and so it helps them decide which learning strategy is likely to be optimal. Activity 2: Collect samples of learning programs from your practice environment, or locate some with the help of your facilitator. The samples do not need to relate to your practice environment, you are just getting an idea of how they might be shaped. Take notice of layout, language, style or anything that you think works well. You are a learner as well as a trainer; think about the samples from both sides of the training fence. Talk this through with colleagues, other trainers or even learners. Do the learning programs clearly define the benchmarks to be met? ___________________________________________________________ Is the target group defined? ___________________________________________________________ Are resources listed? ___________________________________________________________

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Is there a plan that details individual sessions? ___________________________________________________________

Are delivery and assessment methods included? ___________________________________________________________

Discuss the features of these learning programs. Do they meet the need? If not how could these features be added? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Useful and accurate? How do you know if the training outcomes are useful and accurate? Below is a checklist you can use to help you when you are writing training outcomes. When you begin writing them, they can be quite difficult, but as you practice they will become easier.

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Figure 6: Checklist for writing training outcomes

1. Is the language simple, clear and precise? 2. Is the outcome free from misinterpretation? 3. Is the outcome realistic in terms of time, resources and learner ability? 4. Does the statement clearly describe what the learner will do when they demonstrate what they have learnt? 5. Is the performance observable and measurable? 6. Does the statement start with an action verb? 7. If the performance stated as a training outcome rather than as part of the learning process? 8. Does the training outcome state clearly the minimal level of acceptable performance? 9. Are all the relevant conditions under which learners must perform clearly stated? 10. Are all resources, equipment and tools that learner require clearly indicated? 11. Are there any statements of safety or environmental factors under which the learners must perform?

Checklist for selecting existing learning materials Are the materials current? Do the materials cover the competency standards or training outcomes that need to be addressed in the training? Do the materials provide clear and comprehensive information? Do the materials identify clearly the purpose and objective of training? Are the materials able to be customised to meet your training needs? Do the materials offer flexibility for delivery and assessment?

If materials have been selected, do the cost and resource requirements seem reasonable? Are the materials recognised by accredited bodies or organisations as covering the training requirements? Are the activities or tasks appropriate to the performance level required of the learners? Are the language, literacy and numeracy skills required appropriate to the training goal and the learner characteristics?
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You should always select learning materials very carefully and ensure they are appropriate for each group that is being trained. If you are delivering the training as well as planning the session, then ultimately the quality of the materials depends on your choices. Appropriate activities and tasks How do you select appropriate activities and tasks when developing materials? When you are developing materials or customising existing materials, there are many activity and task types to choose from and it can be difficult to decide what the most appropriate activity might be for a particular skill. To begin with, you should consider some general factors that might affect the type of activity you should choose. For example: Barriers to learning that participant's might have: dislike of group work language barriers fear of failure belief that the training is unnecessary finding the topic difficult to understand fear of machinery being used. Facilities, for example: learning aids and materials resources including personnel accessibility of refreshments and facilities Budget limitations, for example: funding for materials, staff, excursions etc. guest speakers The learning environment, for example: the space available for training seating arrangements The characteristics of the learners in any group will vary enormously and to effectively plan a session, you should have some information about the people in the group. Characteristics you should consider include: Language, Literacy & Numeracy skills Cultural and language background Educational background or general knowledge Gender Age Physical abilities

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Previous experience with the topic Experience in training and assessment Level of confidence, nervousness or anxiety Work organisation or roster. Copyright Copyright applies to all published material whether written, audio, video or computer based materials. Every publication will have information on copyright written at the beginning somewhere, so you should always refer to that information before you make any copies of anything or include anything in your own materials. If you are uncertain about the copyright of any materials, you can consult the publisher. Designing a session plan How do you design a session plan? To develop a session plan, you need to identify the following factors:

The title of the session and competency to be achieved The delivery approaches you will use Topic or subject titles The goal of the training The participant's needs The training outcomes The timeframe of activities and tasks The resources and training aids required Special requirements or needs of the participants Industry or organisation requirements. To begin a session plan, you need to work out what should be included in the plan. Structuring the session When you get down to the details of the actual session, how you are going to open, what the content will be and how you will finish the session, there are lots of things to consider. It is useful to include lots of detail in your plan, so that you don't have to rely on your memory in case you get flustered during delivery.

Introduction Get the learner's attention, interest and involvement Link with things the trainees may already have experienced Outcomes of the session Structure of the session Stimulate motivation.

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Selecting appropriate activities When you are planning the details of the training session, you will have to decide on the most appropriate ways of delivering the information so that it is clear, interesting and fulfils the training outcomes. There are a number of factors that will influence your decision about delivery and activities. 1. The training outcome - Will affect your choice of delivery because it may set specifications about what the learner needs to be able to do. The trainer therefore has to ensure the learner has the opportunity to practice this skill or apply that knowledge to meet the training outcome. 2. The organisation or workplace goal for training - Will determine what the learner has to do to achieve the goal, and this goal may be built into the training. For example, if the goal is to reduce accidents on the job, the learner may need access to organisational procedures manuals, or practice on the job. 3. The characteristics of the participants - This will affect delivery enormously. Characteristics of the learner may include language, literacy and numeracy needs, cultural or language background, educational background, gender, age, physical ability, previous experience with a topic, experience in training and assessment, level of confidence and work roster. 4. Learning resources or facilities - It is all very well to plan delivery on the job using equipment found there, but when planning you may find access is restricted, there are OH&S regulations associated with training there and so on. Delivery and activities have to suit the learner as well as be practical and achievable. 5. Equipment and consumable resources - When you are planning activities, there may be resources that you need, for example, paper, pens, computer discs, flipchart paper and so on. You need to plan for these resources and equipment and make sure they will be available before you finalise your plan. 6. Industry / enterprise / workplace contexts and requirements - The organisation or workplace may have certain requirements or restrictions about the types of activity or delivery that is possible. Check these before you finalise the plan. 7. The topics being covered - The topics will have obvious influences on the activities and delivery approaches that you use, they will to some extent dictate the type of activity that is appropriate. For example, a topic covering computer software would dictate access to a computer, the software and theoretical information. 8. Learning styles of the participants - Learning styles will affect choice of activity or delivery because some people learn well through reading, others through watching, others through listening, and these variations need to be considered when organising delivery and activities. 9. Workplace application - There is a need for the learners to apply their learning to the workplace during and after training. The plan should incorporate opportunities for workplace application of skills and knowledge. 10. Dimensions of competency - The five dimensions of competency have to be covered during training, so the choice of delivery and activity need to reflect the dimensions of competency. Use of training aids What are training aids and how do you plan for their use? Training aids are basically the equipment, tools or resources that you might use to add to your training session. Training aids include:
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Overhead projector Computer generated slides Videos Audio tapes Whiteboards Flip charts Handouts Books Computer packages. If you are going to need any of these training aids, then you need to include that in your plan. You should specify when they will be used, for what purpose, how long they will be used, and what you could do if anything went wrong when using them. Planning for resources It is very important to plan for all the resources you might need during training, the location, access to everything you need, any other personnel who might have to be involved and time required from the learners or other personnel. Resources to consider during planning include:

Location of the training, which may be on the job, in a simulated setting in a training room, or in a combination locations. Additional costs involved with any portion of the training. If the session is going to involve a visit somewhere, extra materials, a guest speaker or demonstration equipment, there may be costs associated with the resource and you need to plan for those costs and who will cover them. Similarly, if the learners have to purchase anything during the session that will help them learn, you might include that in your plan with a note to yourself about the item and its costs. Technical support from appropriate people. You will have to plan for any extra people who might be required during training, for example, a specialist trainer, a supervisor, technical expert, union representative, language literacy and numeracy specialist or assessment specialist. Equipment required for training needs to be planned, training aids as described above and consumable resources like pens and paper, refreshments or technology. You should note break times in your plan as well so that learners get enough breaks during the session. Some resources may require approval from other people or special access in certain circumstances, especially if there are OH&S regulations attached to the resource. Plan for these situations as well. The need for a safe and accessible environment One of the most important resources you can plan for is the training environment itself; and its safety and accessibility. You should always ensure that all learners have access to a safe environment and are trained appropriately. Consult your organisation or industry OH&S regulations when planning the training session to ensure you are covered in this area.
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Tips for writing a session plan Use double spacing when you write out your plan - you can write ideas for activities at the same time or later. Write words in CAPITALS if you want to emphasise them. After writing, use a highlighter pen to mark major points for easy reference.

Use post-it notes to remind yourself of things you want to do during delivery, for example eye contact, ask a question etc. Work out the approximate time for each segment. For example, if you want the learners to read an article, read it yourself so you know how long it will take. Develop and use your own shorthand for writing the plans. For example, L for learner or OHP for overhead projector. Note down the aids, resources and materials you will need for each part of the session. Also note if you have to complete any tasks before the session like photocopying or setting up the flip chart. As you write an activity, picture in your mind the actions that will take place in the training room as the learners do the activity. This will help you see how you can make the session flow more smoothly from one segment to the next. Use a variety of activities that follow each other, for example, reading then a role play, then a discussion and so on. Vary the number of people who work together on an activity if you are working with a group, pairs, then five, then three etc. Read and re-read your session plan so you get a good sense of the flow of the session. Visualise the parts of the session as you plan them as that will help you construct a smooth session. For example, having the learners move into groups of three around the room, followed by a central role play and then back to their places, means a lot of moving of chairs and people, which may disrupt the flow of the session.

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Figure 7: Model Session Plan (1)

General Information Information Introduction Delivery approach and resources

Content

Conclusion

Comments

Follow-up

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Figure 8: Model Session Plan (2) Title of Session General information

Training Outcomes

Time

Key Points Introduction

Methods and learning aids

Content

Conclusion

Assessment methods

Comments

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Figure 9: Model Session Plan (3) General information Learning outcomes

Topic key points

Trainer activity

Learner Activity

Learning aids

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Skills of a designer Lets look at the types of competencies a designer needs, whether they are designing learning or any other product or service. Figure 10:
Creativity Design 'thinking' skills

Communication Skills
listen negotiate collaborate question articulate

Interpret and analyse information and documents

The Designer
Problem solving skills Research Skills
Gather and Interpret if information relevant to the learning program

Planning and organisational skills


identify tasks to complete set timelines measure progress

Technical Literacy
terminology writing read and interpret information

You need all these skills in designing learning programs. For example, you must be able to perform analytical and research tasks such as defining the parameters of the learning program in consultation with your client, and designing the programs structure. You need effective interpersonal and communication skills to gather information from clients and determine their needs. In some instances you will need to use negotiation skills, for example when negotiating the program with the client and to articulating its benefits. In addition, as the designer of effective learning programs that meet individual needs, you need to be innovative and creative and be able to reflect upon and review your designs. A good designer will ensure their work is not becoming stale and that it suits the requirements of the clients brief.
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What skills would help you to find a solution? The client is having difficulty articulating the benchmarks for the learning program. You have identified some ideal resources but they have copyright restrictions.

You have structured the learning program into ten sessions, but now your client tells you the target learners are only available for five sessions. A new client wants a learning program designed quickly so training can begin in four weeks. You have other work commitments in the coming month and fitting in this additional request will be difficult, but must be done. What will be your approach? Steps in designing and developing learning programs You need to develop learning programs that meet the identified benchmarks, are logical yet innovative, and engage the learners. To do this you need to: define the parameters of the learning program in consultation with the client generate and select appropriate options for designing the learning program develop the learning program content design the structure of the learning program review the learning program gain approval from appropriate personnel. Look at Figure 11 below; the diagram maps stages in developing and designing a learning program and provides an overview of the process that might be involved.

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Figure 11:

Define the parameters of the learning program with the client

Step 1

Step 2
Generate options for the design of the learning program

(covered in delivery and assessment streams)

Implement the learning program

Step 6

Development Stages of a Learning Program

Develop the learning program content

Step 3

Review the learning program

Step 5

Design the structure of the learning program

Step 4

As the designer of the learning program, you need to allow the flexibility to re-visit any of the stages at any time in the design process. Influences In thinking about the design stages reflected in the diagram above, consider the influences on learning program designwhat it is that directs the design of the learning program. From the following list consider what is critical: Training Packages units of competency existing learning strategies organisational needs provided by the client learner target group, attributes, current skills and knowledge.

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Useful forms, questionnaires and other material for the design process You may find it useful in this unit to design forms that can be used every time you design a new learning program, and to add these to your portfolio. For example, you could design a questionnaire to be used with clients when defining the parameters of the learning program. This may have standard questions to ask the client to help you determine the purpose of the learning program. You can modify the standard form each time you use it in order to contextualise it for each specific learning program. Here are examples of some useful standard forms you could design: Parameters of the learning program questionnaire Characteristics of target group learners checklist Research summarylisting websites, books, and customisation requirements

Learner Profilelisting the learner characteristics, preferred learning styles, learning environment, attributes, prior knowledge, concerns Program Planoutlining each component part of the program Learning program questionnaire for reviewers Standard letter to ask for reviewers assistance Collation or summary sheet of review feedback and recommendations Client Status Report. It is critical to keep your learners needs in the forefront of your thoughts during design. What is most useful to them? What would be a logical flow of information for them? What delivery mode is best suited to their needs? How can the learning program be flexible for them? What resources do they have access to already? The task of designing learning programs requires both structured and systematic work processes as well as innovative thinking to ensure you engage the learner group. So, the design task is quite a challenge. You need the design process to structure your ideas so that the learning program you design meets the required benchmarks.

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1.2 Access and confirm the competency standards or other training specifications on which to base the learning program
Training Packages are a flexible system featuring performance indicators that detail the level to which a worker is expected to perform in a variety of work activities. These performance indicators form the national standard for a range of activities in a given industry. They provide a guide for training and a standard for assessment. An accredited course is a training specification which has been accredited and which meets the Australian Quality Training Framework (AQTF the standards for State and Territory registering or course accrediting bodies). When working with Training Packages or accredited courses, you should first determine what the training, assessment and learning needs of your client are. Then select a Training Package or course (or more than one if necessary) to meet those needs. Figure 12 shows not only the key terms but the hierarchy of the Australian Training System. Training Package coding system A national coding system is used to identify every Training Package, qualification and unit of competency. The coding system contains important information and is worth understanding. Training Package coding The alphanumeric code contains three letters and two numbers. The first two letters identify the industry. The third letter identifies the industry sector. The two numbers identify the year in which the package was endorsed. For example, SIT07 is the Hospitality Training Package, endorsed in 2007: SI INDUSTRY (Tourism, Hospitality and Events Training Package) T INDUSTRY SECTOR (Tourism) 07 YEAR OF ENDORSEMENT (2007)

Qualification coding Each qualification in a Training Package has its own unique code commencing with the three letters of the Training Package code. This is followed by single numeric code that reflects the level of the qualification within the Australian Qualifications Framework, and is followed by a twodigit identifier. If there are multiple qualifications at one level, they are numbered sequentially, starting with 01. Finally, a two-digit code indicates the year in which the qualification was endorsed. For example, SIT30107, Certificate III in Tourism indicates the third Certificate III qualification endorsed in 2002 for the Hospitality Training Package.

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Figure 12: Australian Training System Key Terms The Ministerial Council for Vocational and Technical Education (known as MCVTE) comprises the Australian Government State and Territory ministers with responsibility for vocational education and training These are acronyms for National Training Framework, and National Quality Council

MCVTE

NTF-NQC
AQF is an acronym for Australian Qualifications Framework. This is a system of National qualifications in schools, VET and in Higher Education, http://www.aqf.edu.au

AQF

INDUSTRY

Interested industry groups may involve Industry Skills Councils, Industry Training Boards, employers, employer organisations and unions Australian Quality Training Framework (AQTF) is a national framework which provides the basis for nationally consistent high quality VET training in Australia http://www.training.com.au/aqtf2007/ VET is an acronym for Vocational Education and Training

AQTF

VET

VRQA

The Victorian Registration and Qualifications Authority (VRQA) is a statutory authority. It is the Victorian regulator of schools, education and training providers and qualifications. The VRQA incorporates and expands upon the former responsibilities of the Victorian Qualifications Authority (VQA), the Registered Schools Board (RSB) and functions of the Office of Training and Tertiary Education (OTTE). http://www.vrqa.vic.gov.au Registered Training Organisation (RTO) is a generic term provided to organisations that provide accredited Training and Assessment Services. TAFE Organisations are RTOs Scope of registration identifies the qualifications that your organisation can deliver. For further information see http://www.ntis.gov.au

RTO

Scope of registration

YOU
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SIT Industry Identifier

3 Australian Qualifications Framework Level

01 Qualification

07 Year qualification was endorsed

Unit of competency coding Each unit of competency code commences with the three letters of the Training Package code. The Training Package developer then assigns an identifier for the unit. This identifier can include numbers and letters, can be up to eight characters in length, and may have its own logic based on the approach of the developer. Version control for units of competency is indicated by a single end letter. The code for an original version of a unit of competency ends in A. Subsequent versions replace the A with B, then C and so on. Any change to a unit of competency that alters the unit outcome requires the unit title to be changed and a new unit code assigned. Minor variations and inconsistencies exist in the coding of some Training Packages. Qualifications available in the vocational education and training sector A qualification is a formal certification recognising that a person has achieved a specific group of competencies. Qualifications in Training Packages consist of groups of competency standards. Qualification levels range from Certificate I to Vocational Graduate Diploma. Qualifications are made up of core units of competency and elective units. Core units must be completed. Each Training Package provides guidance on the choice of electives. Packaging a qualification involves grouping core and elective units in accordance with advice in the Qualifications section of the Training Package. The information is often described as 'packaging rules'. Qualification levels description Certificate I Certificate I is a limited qualification used in some industries as a baseline entry point. It often comprises generic industry competency requirements with a limited technical range where work is routine and closely supervised. A person achieving a qualification at this level would be able to: demonstrate knowledge by recall in a narrow range of areas demonstrate basic practical skills such as the use of relevant tools perform a sequence of routine tasks given clear direction receive and pass on messages/information. Certificate II Certificate II is a base operational qualification that encompasses a range
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of functions/activities requiring fundamental operational knowledge and limited practical skills in a defined context. A person achieving a qualification at this level would be able to: demonstrate basic operational knowledge in a moderate range of areas apply a defined range of skills apply known solutions to a limited range of predictable problems

perform a range of tasks where choice between a limited range of options is required access and record information from varied sources take limited responsibility for their own outputs in work and learning. Certificate III Certificate III is a qualification of the skilled operator who applies a broad range of competencies within a more varied work context, possibly providing technical advice and support to a team. This qualification can include team leader responsibilities. A person achieving a qualification at this level would be able to: demonstrate some relevant theoretical knowledge apply a range of well developed skills apply their own solutions to a variety of predictable problems

perform processes that require a range of well-developed skills where some discretion and judgment is required interpret available information, using discretion and judgment take responsibility for their own outputs in work and learning take limited responsibility for the work of others. Certificate IV Certificate IV is based on more sophisticated technical applications involving competencies requiring increased theoretical knowledge, applied in a non-routine environment and possibly involving team leadership, management and increased responsibility for outcomes. A person achieving a qualification at this level would be able to: demonstrate an understanding of a broad knowledge base incorporating some theoretical concepts apply solutions to a defined range of unpredictable problems identify, analyse and evaluate information from a variety of sources

identify and apply skill and knowledge areas to a wide variety of contexts with depth in some areas take responsibility for own outputs in relation to specified quality standards take limited responsibility for the quantity and quality of the outputs of others. Diploma The Diploma assumes a greater theoretical base and consists of
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specialised, technical or managerial competencies used to plan, carry out and evaluate the work of an individual or team. A person achieving a qualification at this level would be able to: demonstrate an understanding of a broad knowledge base incorporating theoretical concepts, with substantial depth in some areas analyse and plan approaches to technical problems or management requirements evaluate information using it to forecast for planning or research purposes

transfer and apply theoretical concepts and/or technical or creative skills to a range of situations take responsibility for their own outputs in relation to broad quantity and quality parameters take limited responsibility for the achievement of group outcomes. Advanced Diploma The Advanced Diploma involves technical, creative, conceptual or managerial applications built around competencies of either a broad or specialised base and related to a broader organisational focus. A person achieving a qualification at this level would be able to: demonstrate an understanding of specialised knowledge with depth in some areas analyse, diagnose, design and execute judgments across a broad range of technical or management functions level generate ideas through the analysis of information and concepts at an abstract

demonstrate a command of wide ranging, highly specialised technical, creative or conceptual skills demonstrate accountability for personal outputs within broad parameters demonstrate accountability for personal and group outcomes within broad parameters. Vocational Graduate Certificate The Vocational Graduate Certificate involves making significant, high level independent judgments in major, broad or specialised planning, design, operational, technical and or management functions in varied or specialised contexts. A person achieving a qualification at this level would be able to: demonstrate self-directed development and achievement of broad and/or specialised areas of knowledge and skills building on prior knowledge and skills initiate, analyse, design, plan, execute and evaluate major, broad or specialised technical and/or management functions in highly varied or specialised contexts generate and evaluate ideas through the analysis of information and concepts at an abstract level demonstrate a command of wide ranging, highly specialised technical, creative or conceptual skills in complex contexts demonstrate responsibility and broad ranging accountability for personal outputs
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demonstrate responsibility and broad ranging accountability for the structure, management and output of the work of others. Vocational Graduate Diploma The Vocational Graduate Diploma involves making high level, fully independent, complex judgments in broad or highly specialised planning, design, operational, technical and or management functions in highly varied or complex contexts. A person achieving a qualification at this level would be able to: demonstrate self-directed development and achievement of broad and/or highly specialised areas of knowledge and skills building on prior knowledge and skills initiate, analyse, design, plan, execute and evaluate major functions either broad and/or highly specialised within highly specialised or complex contexts generate and evaluate complex ideas through the analysis of information and concepts at an abstract level demonstrate an expert command of wide ranging, highly specialised technical, creative or conceptual skills in complex and/or highly specialised or varied contexts demonstrate full responsibility and accountability for personal outputs demonstrate full responsibility and accountability for all aspects of the work of others and functions including planning, budgeting and strategy. Identify and Consider Learners and Characteristics Learning needs vary amongst individuals, as people: learn in different ways learn at a different pace have different backgrounds have varying reasons for attending the program are motivated in different ways will handle barriers to their learning in individual ways. Identifying Learners and Their Characteristics The learning program is likely to be developed with a specific or target group of learners in mind. The target learner group may include: existing industry or enterprise employees school leavers or new entrants to the workforce apprentices or trainees individuals learning new skills or knowledge individuals changing careers unemployed

equity target groups, such as the disadvantaged, Australian Torres Strait Islanders (ATSI), or the disabled overseas students

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recent migrants individuals or groups meeting licensing or other regulatory requirements. The learner characteristics may include:

level and breadth of experience level and previous experiences of formal education skill or competency profile socio-economic background cultural background and needs age special needs, physical or psychological motivation for learning language, literacy and numeracy needs learning style and preferences. The combination of the target group and its learner characteristics makes each learning program unique. Activity 3: Tom, Dick and Harry are an unlikely trio, yet in the workplace they're a formidable team. Tom is in his early sixties and has been employed in the same company for nearly forty years. Harry - who was a roads maintenance engineer in his home country - emigrated with his wife and children from Europe five years ago and has been working with Tom for nearly all of that time. Dick is a young, single Irishman working his way around the world. Recently the company has undertaken a training analysis of the workplace and management has discovered just why the three colleagues are working so well together. They discovered that Tom, Dick and Harry have developed an unspoken bond where they support each other's weaknesses. Harry reads the plans and tells the others what needs to be done and how to do it. Tom plans and orders the resources needed. Dick and Harry look up to Tom and respect him for his superior practical knowledge and skills. They read the memos and newsletters aloud over morning tea or lunch breaks.

1. How would knowing the characteristics of Tom, Dick and Harry help when designing a learning program? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________ 2. Why does the learner group influence the design of a learning program? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 3. Why might a person's past learning experiences be relevant to a new learning program? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 4. In a group, brainstorm what effect each of the below influences might have on learning: low level of literacy _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ socio-economic background _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ age. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Components of a Training Package A Training Package consists of 2 components: endorsed components non endorsed components (support materials) Endorsed components The three compulsory endorsed components of a Training Package are: National competency standards the skills and knowledge a person must be able to demonstrate at work are defined by industry and packaged into combinations that form various qualifications aligned to the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF). National qualifications all qualifications (certificate I, II, III, IV, Diploma, Advanced Diploma) for an industry and the units of competency required for each qualification. For example, the CHC08 Contains 74 qualifications in 4 qualification categories Contains 32 skill sets Contains 551 community services units of competency Includes qualifications in advanced practice and coordination/ management. Assessment guidelines the requirements for an individual's performance to meet the competency standards. They are designed to ensure judgments made by the people assessing the competence of an individual's performance are valid, reliable, fair and consistent. Non-Endorsed Components This is supplementary material developed by ISCs, Independent entities such as JNB Publications and of course RTOs and includes: information on learning strategies training and assessment resources professional development materials Employability Skills1 Employability Skills are skills that apply across a variety of jobs and life contexts. They are sometimes referred to as key skills, core skills, life skills, essential skills, key competencies, necessary skills, and transferable skills. Industry's preferred term is Employability Skills. Employability Skills are defined as "skills required not only to gain employment, but also to progress within an enterprise so as to achieve one's potential and contribute successfully to enterprise strategic directions". Employability Skills replacing Key Competencies In May 2005, the approach to incorporate Employability Skills within Training Package qualifications and units of competency was endorsed. As
1

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a result, from 2006 Employability Skills will progressively replace Key Competency information in Training Packages. Background to Employability Skills Employability Skills are also sometimes referred to as generic skills, capabilities or Key Competencies. The Employability Skills discussed here build on the Mayer Committees Key Competencies, which were developed in 1992 and attempted to describe generic competencies for effective participation in work. The Business Council of Australia (BCA) and the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ACCI), produced the Employability Skills for the Future report in 2002 in consultation with other peak employer bodies and with funding provided by the Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST) and the Australian National Training Authority (DEEWR). Officially released by Dr Nelson (Minister for Education, Science and Training) on 23 May 2002, copies of the report are available from the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) website. The report indicated that business and industry now require a broader range of skills than the Mayer Key Competencies Framework and featured an Employability Skills Framework identifying eight Employability Skills: communication teamwork problem solving initiative and enterprise planning and organising self-management learning technology

Employability skills will change both in their nature and priority in line with the business activity of enterprises. In addition, new work and production processes, new threats and opportunities, and new technology will have an impact on the facets in an Employability Skills Framework. Communication skills that contribute to productive and harmonious relations between employees and customers Teamwork skills that contribute to productive working relationships and outcomes Problem solving skills that contribute to productive outcomes Initiative and enterprise skills that contribute to innovative outcomes

Planning and organising skills that contribute to long-term and short-term strategic planning Self-management skills that contribute to employee satisfaction and growth Learning skills that contribute to ongoing improvement and expansion in employee and company operations and outcomes

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Technology skills that contribute to effective execution of tasks. Skills Skills is the term used in the 2002 report to describe the learned capacity the individual. The report explains that the term skills was used instead competencies to reflect the language of the enterprises interviewed and avoid any definitional confusion with the different ways competencies used. Embedding The explicit embedding of Employability Skills into technical units of competency in Training Packages is being undertaken by Industry Skills Councils. The process is a systematic one which includes: of of to is

analysing of workplace requirements and developing of Employability Skills Statements; developing of an Employability Skills Framework; mapping of the Employability Skills facets to the units within a qualification; an additional quality assurance process; embedding of Employability Skills in qualification components; and developing of an Employability Skills Summary for each qualification. Employability Skills can be embedded in various components of a unit of competency i.e.: Title Descriptor Element Performance Criteria Range Statement Evidence Guide (Critical Aspects of Evidence). Employability Skills Summaries website This website provides quick access to Employability Skills Summaries that have been developed for national Training Package qualifications. Visit the Employability Skills Summaries website. http://employabilityskills.training.com.au/ Activity 4: Using the web, look up the employability skills for CHC30208 Certificate III in Aged Care Work and CHC40108 Certificate IV in Aged Care Work. 1. What are the differences in these skills? __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 2. Why are these differences important? __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

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Skills Sets Skill sets have been established to meet a defined/recommended industry requirements Skill sets do not replace qualifications Most skill sets build on qualified workers existing skills and knowledge Skills sets enhance skills mobility across the community services industry For example; there are 32 skill sets in the CHC08 Training Package across 6 skill set groups: The four qualification groups Management & leadership Skill sets primarily for voluntary work not needing previous qualification. Skill sets do not replace qualifications. In most cases a worker must hold a full qualification before being eligible to commence a skill set. However in the CHC08 training package, there is three skill sets contained in the package which may not require a person to hold a previous qualification dependant on jurisdictional guidelines. Skill sets have been established where there is a licensing or regulatory requirement or defined/recommended industry requirement and indicate specific groups of competencies for work in a particular area and the pathways required to undertake the skill set. Additionally, skills sets have been identified by industry as a means to improve higher education graduates ability to apply their knowledge in the workplace, hence making skill sets applicable as a pathway for both VET and higher education trained workers. For example in the CHC08 package, Skill sets in areas not previously addressed, such as financial literacy, problem gambling and for a range of community services available for workers have been developed. Activity 5: Using the internet find examples of skill sets for the hospitality and retail sectors and describe below also in your own words discuss why you think these are needed. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

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Activity 6: 1. Where can you get additional information about the content of a Training Package and its requirements? __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 2. Go to the NTIS website www.ntis.gov.au and look at the Information Technology package. a. If you wanted to train IT staff working in projects, which units of competency could you choose? Why? __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ b. Look at the Qualification Packaging Rules. How could you package these needs into a Certificate II level qualification? __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

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c.

What would the Employability Skills be for these 2 courses? __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

d. Is there a skill set for this particular request? That is, IT staff working in projects? If not why not? __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Nominal hours Nominal hours are allocated to each unit of competency and qualification within each Training Package. Nominal hours are an estimate, based on industry advice, of the time required to provide training and assessment for a Training Package qualification. The nominal hours provide a quantitative measure of the training and assessment required for a person to achieve
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competence whether that training and assessment takes place on the job, in a classroom, or in a combination of both. Nominal hours have two major uses: by registered training organisations, when designing the structure of training programs to determine the amount of time needed for training delivery and assessment by the DEEWR Employment and Training Division, to determine the cost of training and assessment services purchased from registered training organisations under Resource Agreements. Occasionally, Training Package developers will import a unit of competency from an existing Training Package. In this process, the nominal hours for the unit are sometimes changed as recognition of the time difference required for a person to achieve competence in the same skill in a different industry area. This means that the same unit of competency may have different nominal hours allocated to it in each Purchasing Guide where it appears. When the DEEWR Employment and Training Division purchases training and assessment services, the nominal hours it uses are based on the Purchasing Guide for the Training Package for which the unit of competency was originally developed. For example, the unit of competency BSBMKG503A Develop a marketing communications plan was developed for the Business Services Training Package (BSB07). The Victorian Purchasing Guide for the Business Services Training Package identifies this unit as having 50 nominal hours. The same unit of competency has also been imported into the Retail Training Package (SIR07). The Victorian Purchasing Guide for the Retail Training Package identifies the unit of competency as having 80 nominal hours. As the unit was developed for the Business Training Package, the DEET Employment and Training Division would purchase the unit of competency for 50 nominal hours. Activity 7: You are to source the nominal hours for the course you are involved in and describe those hours below. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

1.3

Identify language literacy and numeracy requirements of the program


This excerpt is from Current and future professional development needs

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of the Language, literacy and numeracy workforce, S. Mackay et al 2 Vocational trainers are interested in professional development to raise their awareness of language, literacy and numeracy issues, but they see language, literacy and numeracy support trainers as best equipped to provide assistance to students. Volunteer tutors have some concerns about whether they can meet future skill needs because of a lack of access to professional development opportunities and value the opportunity to interact with other tutors and trainers through informal networks. A number of innovative, relevant and comprehensive professional development programs are being offered at national, state and local provider levels. Better dissemination of information about good practice professional development initiatives may benefit a wider audience of language, literacy and numeracy workers, particularly casual and regional workers. Compliance with the reporting demands of external funding and regulatory bodies has increased the administrative workload of many specialist trainers and vocational trainers, to the point where they believe it is adversely affecting both the quality of their teaching and the time and energy available to engage in professional development activities. Employers currently offer significant amounts of professional development aimed at achieving compliance. This creates something of a mismatch between what is offered and what is desired by language, literacy and numeracy workers. All workers want additional professional development in teaching and managing the changing profile of learners and information technology skills. Language, literacy and numeracy workers have quite strongly held views on adult learning, and their own preferred means of accessing professional development. Face-toface interaction with colleagues, a practical hands-on approach, and peer learning are highly valued modes across all sectors of the workforce.

Attitudes to professional development A sense of being valued Language, literacy and numeracy specialist trainers and vocational trainers see an interrelationship between access to professional development and a sense of being valued by the employing organisation. Volunteer tutors were less concerned about this interrelationship saying that their sense of value comes from the rewards of interaction with their learners and peers. Volunteer tutors were clear that they do what they do because it is intrinsically rewarding. Although generally less experienced than participants from the other two sectors, most volunteer tutors were satisfied that their initial training had equipped them with the skills they needed, realistic about the amount of professional development their organisations can provide to them and keen to augment this initial training and develop their competence through informal support structures. An ageing language, literacy and numeracy specialist workforce More than half of the language, literacy and numeracy specialist trainers in
2

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this study have been in the field for over ten years, and a significant number of the TAFE and Adult Migrant English Service workforces, in particular, are nearing retirement age. While there was still strong interest in attending professional development seen as relevant to their specific teaching contexts, a number of research participants did draw a connection between their time of career and the types of professional development activity they now saw as relevant. They expressed concern about the gap in knowledge and expertise that would occur with this coming generational change and recommended a cyclic approach to professional development to address the differing needs of experienced trainers and those of new trainers. High expectations being placed on vocational trainers A challenge of the integration of literacy within vocational skills training in the Australian training model is that specialist adult literacy teaching skills and vocational training skills are required by the whole VET workforce (McKenna & Fitzpatrick 2004). However, the majority of the vocational trainers who participated in this research are not being offered professional development related to language, literacy and numeracy. The many other demands on their time are so pressing that such professional development is not a high priority, despite an interest in learning how to better assist their learners. The clear message from the vocational trainers participating in this study 3 was that vocational trainers, in general, cannot become experts in the language, literacy and numeracy area. They recommended awarenessraising professional development on language, literacy and numeracy issues, preferably at the time of entry to the workforce. The vocational trainers argued that language, literacy and numeracy support is best integrated in the delivery of vocational training through a team-teaching approach between vocational trainers and the language, literacy and numeracy specialists who had themselves undergone awareness-raising in the particular industry areas in which they were to provide support. In the telephone interviews and focus groups there was recurring discussion of the valuable informal professional development opportunities provided to the vocational trainers and language, literacy and numeracy specialist trainers involved in team teaching. Through discussions with the specialist trainer the vocational trainer gained valuable insights into how to identify and address language, literacy and numeracy issues in their teaching materials and delivery. By working in the vocational context alongside the content expert the specialist trainer deepened her or his understanding of the actual and specific language, literacy and numeracy demands of the vocational competencies being delivered or assessed. Vocational trainers, then, saw improving the lines of communication with language, literacy and numeracy specialists and providing adequate funding for specialist support to be the best means of ensuring quality language, literacy and numeracy support to their students
3

Current and future professional development needs of the language, literacy and numeracy workforce: Support document NCVERs website http://www.ncver.edu.au. Accessed 1st May, 2010

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Dealing with the needs of specific groups of learners Dealing with specific groups of learners and the changing learner profile emerged as an urgent current and future professional development need for all sectors. Trainers felt the need for strategies to assist learners with disadvantages far beyond a lack of language, literacy and numeracy. Particular student groups mentioned included youth at risk, students with undisclosed psychiatric and neurological disability, African and other students with a background of limited literacy in their first language coupled with experience of torture and trauma. One participant said that the problems of some of these new and severely disadvantaged groups of students are only being managed by organisations riding on the back of experienced trainers who are managing to cope with a very difficult situation. It was suggested that organisations offer staff training on critical incident procedures. There is no evidence that risk management training is widely available to language, literacy and numeracy workers. Such training appears to be only routinely available to trainers working in juvenile justice or correctional contexts. Many interviewees felt the need for specific professional development for working with youth at risk. As one of the interviewees put it: The educational needs of young people at risk are very closely bound up with other needs, such as emotional, physical, mental health and financial, and I want professional development that can explain how all their other issues impact on engagement with education and what strategies others are using to deal with these in an integrated way. Resources and resource development All three sectors saw learning material or curriculum development as their most important current and future non-teaching-related professional development need. Appropriate teaching and learning resources and skills in resource development was a recurring theme throughout the research. The issue was often expressed in the context of teaching emerging groups with specific needs, and the inter-relationship of these two themes was the most significant response in regard to future professional development needs. This finding is somewhat difficult to unpack as there are some embedded issues requiring consideration. Many excellent language, literacy and numeracy teaching and learning resources have been produced at national, state and local levels, and efforts have been made to make practitioners aware of these resources as they are produced, but it would appear that more work is still needed to disseminate such information. Concern about access to resources may be, in part, an expression of lack of time to source and adapt such resources as much as a need for professional development in how to go about such customisation. Information and communications technology Information and communications technology skill development was perceived as a key future need by all sectors. The skills that were identified as necessary included expertise in: using mainstream software packages, facilitating computer assisted language and literacy learning, online teaching, using the computer to create resource materials quickly, assisting older trainers to keep up with young computer literate students, knowing how to contextualise computer skills into the classroom, and
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computer skills in relation to administration documents. Despite this list of skill gaps, motivation to attend specific information and communications technology professional development programs was not particularly high. The great majority of language, literacy and numeracy provision still occur face to face, and there was some resistance to the uncritical acceptance of technology-based approaches to teaching and learning. There was also some anxiety about this need to gain skills in the new teaching and learning technologies, particularly from older members of the workforce, and some comments indicate significant skills gaps in the information and communications technology delivery area: This is a big area of concern because of emerging technologies with not many trainers in the age group who grew up knowing about computers and the new technology. Most at the college dont know much more about them than how to turn them on. Other practitioners highlighted the infrastructure requirements for information and communications technology delivery to be a realistic option: The main need is in resources and funding for these resources. There is never enough money to buy the appropriate technology to support the needs of students who know a lot about computers. Staff have skills but not the technology to teach the skills. Business compliance The escalating amount of time spent on administrative tasks, such as reporting on outcomes to funding bodies, was seen as time taken away from attending professional development, from developing classroom teaching resources and from meeting students learning needs. Interviewees said that organisations were requiring systematic reporting on outcomes because of audits and accountability in the large number of externally funded programs. The feeling was that trainers need new skills to meet the need for compliance with such regulatory, auditing and funding bodies and that this increased need for compliance has greatly increased the administrative workload of trainers. Participants felt they were drowning in paperwork. Both VET and ACE practitioners were weighed down by this burden of administration. Assessing and reporting student outcomes Achieving consistent and reliable assessment practices was an important teaching-related future professional development need for language, literacy and numeracy specialists and vocational trainers. A key aspect of the serious concern about the growing administrative burden placed on trainers was the issue of reporting on students language, literacy and numeracy outcomes, especially in the areas of assessment, validation and moderation. Language, literacy and numeracy specialist trainers are particularly overwhelmed by the reporting demands of externally funded language literacy and numeracy programs and felt the need for professional development on the expertise required to assess and report validly, reliably and efficiently. For trainers in community centres, the problems of compliance are further compounded by infrastructure and resourcing issues:
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We [community centre staff] are still expected to do all the work. We are still expected to do all the assessments. However, we only get paid for the hours we teach so we dont get any extra money for all the assessment we are doing and with the amount that the work is increasing, it is becoming more and more difficult and more and more cumbersome to get it all done, and especially when a lot of community houses really dont have the space to have a room where trainers can actually put their work and sort it and go back to it. Very little space to do it, very little time to do it and no actual pay to do it. Teaching numeracy Lack of confidence in meeting the numeracy learning outcomes of programs was expressed in the survey responses and again in the telephone interviews. Numeracy classroom strategies were identified as a professional development need, particularly for trainers who are isolated. These trainers were keen to share ideas with other trainers. Teaching numeracy was also identified as an area of professional development need by English language trainers who are now required to explicitly include numeracy in their teaching programs. There were also problems for trainers with maths degrees employed to specifically teach numeracy, but who felt that their training did not equip them with the methodology to assist students with very low numeracy skills. Implementing training packages Training package implementation was a key professional development need for those language, literacy and numeracy trainers who teach across vocational areas, in tutorial support and workplace English language and literacy programs. Linked to training package implementation was the need for incorporating employability skills into the curriculum. There were no identified resources showing how to achieve this, in spite of the discussion surrounding the Employability Skills Framework. Some interviewees misunderstood the term employability skills and took it to mean teaching job-seeking skills to students, indicating a knowledge gap in this area.

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Learning Resources Training materials Adult learners have a clear perspective on what they would like to achieve by accessing a program. It is important for them to feel that the training is relevant to their personal and employment objectives. Training from a textbook or from copious amounts of photocopied pages can be daunting to an adult literacy participant, who possibly could have had very negative experiences in learning. Training materials used with participants of the Course in Adult Literacy and Numeracy should involve texts (spoken, written and viewed) and numeracy directly related to a learner's everyday activities e.g. forms, letters, bills, newspapers, public notices, or technology instructions. Depending on the level of language, literacy or numeracy a person is undertaking, these texts should be in plain English, explicit straightforward and in context. Each Literacy module of the Course in Adult Literacy and Numeracy contains a list of the types of texts that may be interpreted or produced according to the learners needs, goals and the level of the module. Library resources Often adult literacy participants attend programs to improve their reading skills and library resources are best to be appeal to adult audiences. Whilst some childrens books make easy reading matter and have colourful pictures, they do not always appeal to adult students who may view them as childish. Library resources for an adult literacy program should include plenty of everyday reading materials such as newspapers and magazines. Local newspapers are also often easier to read than daily newspapers. Assessment Assessment of a persons competence in language, literacy and numeracy, should be reflective of the real life literacy and numeracy tasks undertaken as they work through the learning outcomes of modules undertaken. Details of assessment are outlined in the course within each module in learning outcomes and assessment criteria. The learning outcomes define the competence a learner must attain and progression according to the level of complexity and support given. Assessment criteria accompany each learning outcome of each module and define levels of complexity. It is best practice to use a variety of assessment methods to give fair and equitable opportunities for all learners to demonstrate competence at the standards expressed in the learning outcomes and assessment criteria. Assessment tasks may be developed to assess more than one learning outcome at a time in an integrated, holistic manner. Literacy participants will demonstrate an understanding and ability to produce texts (spoken, written and viewed) against the six aspects of communication i.e. personal, cooperative, systems, public, procedural and technical. Competence at any given level will depend on the complexity of literacy and numeracy tasks, the level of the module and the degree of
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support given to a participant. Learning outcomes for the Numeracy modules relate to a learners competence with whole number operations used in everyday life. Assessment methods in the Adult Literacy and Numeracy should include but not limited to the following: Self-assessment Portfolio of evidence Written tasks Reading tasks Numeracy tasks Oral questioning Group interaction/presentation Practical demonstration/observation Peer-evaluation In programs where there is group interaction, the competence of each learner within the group must be assessed. Organisations should ensure that adequate records of each participant are kept. Literacy development and support should be built into the training not bolted on at the end Adults never read and write without a purpose. For literacy to take hold in remote Communities it must have meaning and purpose over the changing domains and practices that span a persons life (Kral 2009) There are three steps you as a trainer can take to ensure your training is supporting the literacy and numeracy development of the participants. Trainers need to have a thorough understanding of literacy and numeracy development opportunities that are embedded in competency standards and job requirements tasks that requires the use of reading, writing, mathematical calculations, listening, communicating all require a level of literacy and numeracy competence to be able to do the task well. Trainers need to identify the language literacy and numeracy tasks required to perform a job and collect information relating to: the reading involved the writing involved the numeracy involved collect samples.

Trainers need to priorities / identify the core literacy and numeracy tasks required and use this as a starting point for development and support - literacy learning is a gradual process that cannot be sped up so finding a starting point and building from this will ensure the activities are purposeful and you are building from a solid foundation. During the Roadmap to Country project, they concentrated on unpacking the language of enterprise development and tourism development. During the initial consultation it became clear that this was the starting point and to ensure training / literacy / numeracy support was purposeful efforts were concentrated around this.
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To ensure learning is purposeful it is also important that your training materials are based on the actual workplace or activity your participants are developing. Different tasks require different skills, knowledge, use of literacy and numeracy to perform it is important to train and assess with this in mind. For example - if a task requires competent oral communication assess this task through observation rather than requiring a written response. Accessing professional development on supporting language, literacy and numeracy in the workplace. Make use of WELL funding to build literacy development and support for your workers. Training in literacy and numeracy with Indigenous learners is far more productive if cultural relevance is considered in delivery. Trainers need to have regard for cultural issues as well as different learning styles. Acting as a facilitator rather than direct teaching encourages independent learning, leading to increased self esteem. Participants will benefit from occasional one to one tutoring. The need for flexibility in the training cannot be underestimated.

Often some juggling is needed to be both flexible and meet the necessary outcomes. Indigenous LLN Good practice principles for training in literacy and numeracy skills for Indigenous students and Communities include:4 Develop positive relationships with each participant. Recognise that adult learners bring existing knowledge and skills. Develop your cultural awareness and cross cultural skills. Collaborate with Indigenous Communities and Indigenous staff.

Customise resources to the individual student to make it meaningful for their day to day life Work with other trainers, learning centres and resources. Standard Australian English will be seldom spoken in remote Indigenous Communities so trainers need to take the time to observe the: predominate languages used. way people communicate. use of non verbal communication. use of Standard Australian English where and when people need to use it.

(MCGLUSKY Narelle, THAKER, 2006 Lenora, Good Practice Guide Literacy Support for Indigenous Students)

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Matching Activities Matching activities are usually done in small groups or pairs. Each group is given two sets of cards which they match together cooperatively, pooling their knowledge and understanding as they do so. Uses of matching activities Matching activities can consist of: specialised terminology matched with definitions or meanings components of diagrams or graphics matched with their technical names conceptual terms matched with meanings objects matched with estimated measurements (numeracy) pictures of tools or equipment with their names or uses. They can also be extended to three sets of cards, for instance pictures of tools, names of the tools, matched with what they would be used for. These activities can be used: As short activities to begin or end a session To introduce new language or terminology To clarify concepts and their meanings As a brief re-visit of concepts or language previously covered in the course

As an opportunity to find out what learners already know (their existing knowledge) before commencing a new topic Note: When using matching activities to focus on language and terminology it is a good idea to encourage students to use the language themselves by talking in their small groups about what they are choosing and why, and by asking some of them to read out their responses to ensure pronunciation is correct. Benefits of matching activities Matching activities are non-threatening because all of the answers are there and difficult items can be worked out by a process of elimination. They boost student confidence because they acknowledge their existing knowledge rather than having the trainer as the only expert. Matching activities encourage students to share their different areas of expertise. Establishing a cooperative approach through structured activities like this tends to have flow on benefits as students will then help each other in other aspects of their theory and practical work. They allow the trainer to observe student learning/understanding. By listening to a group discussion they can pick up on students areas of strength and weakness. They provide opportunities for students to give feedback about their thinking to the trainer as they discuss the reasons for their choices. This empowers learners and provides insight on their level of confidence for the trainer.

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Figure 13: Some ideas from prior participants Electrical trades Current Watt Battery Power Live a flow of electrons a unit of electrical consumption group of cells to produce electricity the rate at which energy is used active electricity

These could be supplemented with other examples and a third set containing the units used to measure the quantities of each. Health - Enteric pathogens Shigella species Salmonella species Campylobacter jejuni Vibrio parahaemolyticus Staph aureus Listeria monocytogenes E. Coli Clostridium perfringens Bacillus cereus Food poisoning from undercooked chicken which may last for 10 days An NLF diarrhoea with blood and pus Causes illness due to pre-formed toxin, usually fatty foods Important for pregnant women and immunosuppressed May be fatal due to haemolytic uraemic syndrome Usually associated with large quantities of food, e.g. institutions Typical infection from poorly handled rice Always associated with fish and shellfish An NLF may cause large outbreaks, e.g. pork rolls

Figure 14: Example of matching terms to visuals Plumbing - Matching activity A Wall Mounted Basin Match the words in the box below to the correct parts of the diagram

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I.O Bend Wall sleeve Lugged elbow

Nogging Clip Copper connection

Trap Pillar tap Wall bracket

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Figure 15: Examples of matching terms to visuals

Numeracy example that matches real world situations, approximate amounts and mathematical meanings A possible wage rise Goods and Services Tax Time and a half overtime rate A home interest rate

4%

For every $100 you earn now you will get an extra 4 dollars You will pay an extra 1/10 of the cost A pay rate of $16 per hour becomes $22 per hour Every year you have to pay $7 interest for each $100 borrowed Completely one thing An extra $17.50 for each $100 of your wage to make up for loss of overtime A percentage much lower than 1% blank

10% 150% 7%

Pure cotton Holiday loading

100% 17.5%

Blood alcohol content A typical credit card interest rate

.05% 16%

Generic assessments are not effective Every vocational course is different in terms of the level and kind of LLN required at entry as well as during the program. For example, some VET courses require an understanding of higher level Maths and so a numeracy test which assessed only competency in the four basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division would obviously be inappropriate. Similarly some VET courses are more language intensive than others. For example competencies in Business Law in the Financial Services training package require students to learn new and difficult legal terminology and to analyse and argue a response to a legal case study require higher level language and literacy skills than perhaps students embarking on a retail traineeship. By the same token it would be pointless give a complex reading task say using an Age feature article to students embarking on a trade apprenticeship. These students will need to understand and learn a whole lot of new trade language and quite technical procedures but they wont need to critically analyse a writers arguments.

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Pre-entry assessments need to be customised An important principle for any LLN assessment in VET is that it is customised for the competencies required for any particular VET program and it may be helpful to seek the assistances of LLN specialist in your institute. You will see the texts and tasks included in the test are related to the course of study but do not require specific prior knowledge. You may also see that the skills assessed are all skills that will be needed by students in order to undertake the course. Necessary LLN skills include the ability to: read documents relevant to the subject matter of the course of study interpret graphs and charts that relate to the course content

perform simple but related calculations and measurements in course related contexts write sufficiently to undertake the tasks of the profession. Those skills chosen to include in the assessment are those which the trainer knows, from her experience, can prove difficult to the students. The aim of the test is to gain a broad picture of the number of students who may need support and in what areas. From that information, planning decisions can be made about the appropriate methods of support. Non-formal options for LLN assessments Formal tests are very intimidating for students. If it is possible it is a good idea to use less formal means of assessing the LLN needs of students at pre entry. In fact you are more likely to gain an accurate assessment of students current LLN skills if they are relaxed and responsive to the assessment. For example a short literacy writing assessment could be part of the part of the enrolments process with a requirement for a written response ( page one page depending on the level of the course) to the questions like: How did you come to choose this course? Or What do you see yourself doing in 5 years time? Some other effective methods of assessing LLN skills pre entry or in initial VET program classes are described below. Interviews Although interviews are time intensive, they can provide valid and useful information about pre entry LLN skills of your students. Questions about educational background assist trainers in identifying students who may need additional LLN support with their course. LLN issues related to interrupted schooling history, non completion of secondary education or non completion of requisite subjects like Maths at year 11 or 12 for example, for an electrical apprenticeship, can indicate students who will require extra or targeted support to successfully complete their VET program. It is also possible to follow up the initial part of an interview by asking students some questions that target critical skills identified by the staff as potential problems for students later in the course. Such interview assessment techniques should start gradually, so that students can exhibit
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skills they do have and gain confidence whilst leading them to the critical skill areas. Self assessment checklists Students (particularly post entry) usually do not over estimate their own skills. Giving students a one page checklist containing statements which cover the underpinning competencies of your VET program which students are required to respond to allows students to reflect on their current skills as well as the skills they are required to develop to successfully complete their chosen VET program. LLN skills and perhaps also the current learning and study skills is invaluable for VET trainer trainers in program and course planning as strategic support and LLN skills development can be integrated into the VET program prior to the first assessment or assignment. Observation As well as analysing the results of any formal or non formal assessment you can also gain very useful information about LLN skills by observing how students are responding to either an assessment or even the enrolment process. LLN support needs may also be indicated by the length of time any assessment or enrolment process is taking students. Activity 8: As can be seen from the information previously there is no real generic assessment method for LLN individuals this impacts on how you as a trainer will design and develop learning programs. Below is a short yet insightful quiz complete the quiz then discuss why you answered the way you did and discuss this with your tutor or group and then if necessary reassess you style of learning further. Learning Styles what type of learner do you think you are? Rank the three answers to each question. Give 3 marks for your most preferred answer, 2 marks for your second preference and 1 mark for your last preference. 1. a. b. c. 2. a. b. c. I learn best from diagrams, pictures or handouts hearing a good explanation or having a discussion either taking notes or being involved in some activity If I cant find something, I picture where I might I have left it either talk to myself about where I may have left it or ask others for clues or ideas physically retrace my steps

3. When I am learning something new, like running a new piece of software, I generally a. b. c. refer to the manual ask others to explain the instructions to me just jump in, make mistakes and learn as I go

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4. a. b. c. 5. a. b. c. 6. a. b. c. 7. a. b. c. 8. a. b. c.

I solve problems most easily by visualising how they could be solved discussing possible solutions with others working on the problems When I want to concentrate, Im most easily distracted by seeing people moving around noises, music or people talking physical discomfort, such as being either too hot or too cold When I am reading a book, I see the characters in my mind as if I am watching a movie pay most of my attention to what the characters are saying feel for the characters and identify with their experiences When I spell difficult words, I would prefer to: see the word in my mind or write it down to see how it looks hear it in my mind or sound the words out see the word on paper or in my mind to find out if it feels right I would find it easier to: draw a picture, diagram or sketch of something write a letter, story or compose a song make something or do an experiment Ranking Tally the results for each question: Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Totals a b c

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Answer key 1. 2. 3. If you get a result of a majority of a answers your learning style is visual. If you get a result of a majority of b answers your learning style is auditory. If you get a result of a majority of c answers your learning style is kinaesthetic. Often participants may find that their results show that they have a preference for more than one style. Discussion: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Revision: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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1.4

Identify and consider characteristics of the target learner group


Actions The actions you might expect to take include:

Identify the sponsor, and other stakeholders. Establish a project team and hold initial meetings. Discuss any constraints you might identify, including budgets. Are there any 'localization' issues - for example: What languages would be required? any 'cultural' issues which need to be reflected in the

Are there course-ware?

Explore requirements - carry out learning needs analysis. Summarize what you find. The output from these steps would include an agreed statement of the learning needs. Identify your stakeholders So you've been asked to design a course - where do you start? It's tempting to get stuck into the detailed design of the course, but there are more important aspects to get to grips with. First of all, you need to establish your training design team. Start by identifying all the key people who have an interest in the project - in current jargon, the 'stakeholders'. This sounds so obvious but, if you don't involve all the right people, you can end up wasting days of effort. Not to mention damaged reputations! Here's a cautionary tale. Tony Bray once worked in a freelance capacity for a team of independent consultants who had designed and delivered an intensive quality initiative program for one of the UK's leading fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) companies. Following the success of this program the company's quality director (QD) asked the consultants to design and deliver some follow-on workshops, which would train the company's managers to take responsibility for the quality initiative. Tony and the consulting company spent several days designing the initiative and practising the presentation, which was to be made to the managing director (MD) and the quality director. On the due day they arrived, loaded down with overhead projector (OHP) slides and handouts and, after the usual preliminaries, started their presentation. Within a few minutes the MD stopped the presentation, saying: 'I never expected an extension of the Quality Initiative - what I wanted was a Management Development program.' 'No, countered the quality director, 'when we spoke the other week you said you wanted to see Quality Improvement teams established in the company.' So the whole thing ended in chaos. Clearly the MD and QD had failed to agree between them what they really wanted but, more fundamentally, the representative from the consulting firm had failed to identify and resolve this rift between the two key stakeholders.

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They walked away from this valuable learning experience with their selfesteem and professional image damaged, and have never repeated the same mistake. The lesson is clear - before you start any design work you must identify the key people who will have an impact on your project and whom you need to involve from the very beginning. Your list will probably include some or all of the following. A project 'champion' or sponsor A champion or sponsor needs to be someone well known in the company who is able to influence a wide range of key people, especially operational and financial 'movers and shakers'. The sponsor will promote your project and, if things get tough, argue why it should not be abandoned in favour of other projects. Your sponsor will probably have an operational interest in the successful outcome of the training initiative, perhaps contributing towards the success of corporate objectives with which they are personally associated. Budget-holder You will need to gain [and keep] the active support of the budget-holder to ensure that progress is not held up by irritating budgetary approvals or delays. Topic 'owner' Each topic in the training portfolio will have someone who is recognized as its 'owner' and who has the power to 'sign off changes to the strategy or the content of any materials related to it. Subject matter experts Depending on the topic, you may need input from acknowledged experts in the field to provide up-to-the-minute advice or guidance on the way the topic is being implemented, or how it may change in the light of future technological developments or legislative changes. This may be you or, depending on the topic, someone in an operational department. You also have another issue to consider - do you employ internal or external people? Internal people: They will have extensive knowledge of current initiatives, be soaked in the culture and need no introduction to current processes or procedures. They will be less expensive than external subject matter experts or designers, but may not have so much flexibility in terms of availability. External people: They bring a fresh approach and are able to share best practice from other companies, unencumbered by all the internal politics or 'baggage'. The downsides are that they will need to spend time familiarizing themselves with your internal procedures or initiatives and, of course, they generally cost more than internal people. So the choice may simply come down to costs, time or just availability to enable a project to be completed in a given timescale.

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Line managers You also need to gain the commitment of the managers who will be affected by the training, and then keep them actively involved throughout the whole development life-cycle. Listen to what they say and build their ideas into the program as it develops. Trade union representatives If you have significant trade union representation in your organisation, you will be well advised to involve them at an early stage. The resulting training will almost certainly involve their members, and gaining active support from the trade union early on will be very helpful. Members of staff Include a number of staff from a representative 'slice' of the organization different grades, departments, disciplines etc. Who are your stakeholders? Take a few minutes to identify who your key stakeholders are, and whom you might wish to involve in the project team. Once you have clarified your ideas you may wish to record the key points in Template A on the next page. Mnemonic CUTIE Now that you've identified your stakeholders it can be useful to clarify in your own mind the status and influence that each of them has. A useful technique to help at this stage is the project dashboard. You will need to prepare a blank dashboard for each of your stakeholders so that you can enter the key information for each person individually. This is what it looks like: The dashboard enables you to record: their name; the amount of influence they can exert, classified under: high moderate low; the role they will probably have in the project, using the mnemonic CUTIE:

Champion User Technical Inhibitor Economic

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Template A : Stakeholders The key stakeholders I will involve in the project team are:

My list might include: A project champion or sponsor Budget-holder Topic owner Subject matter experts Internal External Line managers Trades union representatives Staff

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Figure 16: Project Dashboard

Their involvement meter, using three categories: Total Oversee Partial Issues or concerns As you start talking with people in the organization about the proposed course you will quickly realize that they fall into one of three broad categories

Those who broadly support the idea;

Those who are neutral ideally get them to support the project, or at least to stay neutral; Those who are anti the project. Possible antagonists For most of us the last person we would choose to speak with is anyone who is likely to object to or oppose our ideas. But speaking with them at an early stage can help you in one of two ways; Neutral reaction Discussing your ideas may encourage them to adopt, at the very least, a neutral response, when they do nothing to inhibit or harm your project. Positive reaction Spending time with them may turn their attitude around and encourage them to adopt a positive attitude towards the project, in which case you now have an ally rather than an enemy. And a very strong ally as well.
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In any event, spending time with people who have different views from your own, and exploring why they think that way, can give you valuable insights or other perspectives of the way the company operates or how things get done. Let them know you are speaking to them early because their opinion is important to you. Very often we put off difficult discussions until last, by which time these individuals are aware that youve spoken to everyone else first. This can make a challenging situation worse. Performance gaps You may have uncovered many performance gaps where the current performance fails to meets the required level of performance. And as trainers we like to think that training is the most appropriate solution. Look at the following flow chart to ascertain whether or not training is the answer. Figure 17:
Identify the performance gap

Can they do the job?

Test question: "If I gave you $XXX could you do it?

NO Then it's a training or development problem Consider a training solution Have they ever done it?

YES Then its a motivation or organisational problem

NO Consider other development solutions

Does Performance matter?

YES - try providing feedback

YES Is good performance rewarded? Do they do it regularly? NO -try rewarding good performance

Do obstacles prevent good performance? YES - try coaching with feedback

YES - try removing the obstacles

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'Yes -I could do it' If you think they would answer 'Yes', then their under-performance is a matter of willingness, corporate culture or departmental barriers, and no amount of training will change things. The solutions for these performancerelated problems will go much deeper than you can probably deal with. Some of the questions which need to be asked include: Does performance matter? If the answer is 'Yes' then try providing feedback. Is good performance rewarded? If the answer is 'No' then try rewarding performance differently. Do obstacles prevent good performance? If the answer is 'Yes' then try removing the obstacles. Get the rocks off the runway! The managers of the departments concerned will need to search for other solutions, which may include motivation, different equipment, new processes, changed working practices, organizational changes, environmental issues etc. As you can appreciate, these won't be a 'quick fix' and must be in place before any training starts, or it will be a complete waste of time. On several occasions I have been asked to recommend a training solution for an organisation and, after conducting a learning needs analysis, I have reported back to the managers that I have revealed an underlying issue that needed to be addressed first before the focus could switch to training. On some occasions I was able to help the company to address these issues, before turning to the training solution. But several other times I had to walk away - if the training had been delivered as requested, the only observable change would have been to my reputation! Please take a few minutes to consider - are there potentially any underlying performance issues for which learning or development will not be a solution? Using Template B Exploring the Learning Options will help you ascertain whether or not the person or group is suitable for training or indeed it is just an operational problem.

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Template B Exploring the Learning Options Learning or Development Wont Solve This If you believe that the underlying causes of the following performance gap will not be solved by learning or development of the individuals concerned you need to look for operational solutions.

The possible solutions include: Motivation Different equipment New processes Changed working practices Organizational changes Environmental issues

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'No - I can't do it' If, however, you think they might answer 'No' then you can go down the left-hand side of the flow chart and look for training and development options. Don't get too excited yet - you've still some other solutions to consider before you recommend 'training' as the solution. Depending on your situation you may be able to offer some or all of these additional developmental opportunities: secondments; project work; temporary promotion; self-study using books or multimedia; watching video or DVDs; surfing the net; coaching; open-learning; shadowing an experienced person; professional development or qualification; on-the-job development; being mentored; learning from other people or companies doing a similar role. Which of them looks promising depends entirely on the situation. Your role is to recommend a package of solutions which represent the most productive, stimulating and cost-effective way of developing people's abilities in the required areas. Referring back to your own situation, can you see any development opportunities, other than training, which might be appropriate? Use Template C - consider Learning and Development Options to help clarify the needs and wants of your targeted learning group.

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Template C - Consider Learning and Development Options If you believe that learning or development will solve the performance gap, and you should consider the following solutions as well as training.

Should you recommend any of the following development activities? Secondments Project work Temporary promotion Self-study using books or multimedia Watching video or DVDs Surfing the net Coaching Open-learning Shadowing an experienced person Professional development or qualification On-the-job development Being mentored Learning from other people or companies doing a similar role
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2. Work within the vocational education and training policy framework


2.1 2.2 2.3
Access and apply relevant national vocational education and training policies and frameworks to work practices Identify changes to training packages and accredited courses and apply these to program development Conduct work in accordance with organisational quality assurance policies and procedures

2.1

Access and apply relevant national vocational education and training policies and frameworks to work practices
Learning Strategy A learning strategy is defined by DEEWR's website as a non-endorsed component of a Training Package which provides information on how training programs may be organised, such as pathways and training materials. It is a guideline for the ways the program can be used. Access and use Learning Strategy Documentation as a Guide Learning strategies are generally documented in formal documents such as:

course structures Training Packages. With nationally accredited training programs, existing documentation will be available through the Training Package itself, and can assist in the development of these and other learning programs. Using Strategy Documentation Most nationally accredited courses come with a Facilitator's Guide, which is part of the learning strategy. The Facilitator's Guide is a direction tool for facilitators and provides options for learning when training. Sometimes, the Facilitator's Guide offers learning options for each element or performance criteria. Figure 18 illustrates this.

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Figure 18: Sample Excerpt from a Facilitator's Guide

Learning Option 7

What are the goals of training?

There are a number of factors about the way that adults learn which need to be understood and acknowledged. This activity should be completed after reading, researching and discussion. Refer participants to good books and the content section of this document. The case study demonstrates some of the differences between adults and children. Use it to highlight some principles for designing training for adults.
Source: Training Package for Assessment and Workplace Training Facilitator's Pack, Plan and Promote a Training Session 40.5 (1.8), Australian National Training Authority, 1999

Options for learning program content You may generate a range of options for the learning program content through discussions with other personnel on the project or anyone else who can provide input to the development of the learning program. People you may collaborate with when planning the learning program content could include: work colleagues trainers, facilitators, assessors industry contacts vendors human resource personnel marketing personnel end users subject or technical specialists OHS specialists language, literacy and numeracy specialists. As a group or working individually with specialists for specific input, you may brainstorm possible activities, assessment methods, specific content, work tasks or simulations, a variety of delivery modes and a range of possible resources that could be used in the proposed learning program. Consider the best way to record this information, so it can be summarised, reviewed and used to make a decision about the most appropriate option for learning program content. Some people like to work with information in tables, while others like flowcharts and mind maps.

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Identify resources Existing learning resources may include: Support materials for Training Packageslearner guides, facilitator guides, how to organise training guides, example training programs, specific case studies other published, commercially available materials to support Training Packages or courses competency standards as a learning resource videos, CDs and audio tapes references and texts equipment and tools

materials developed under the Workplace English Language and Literacy (WELL) program learning resources and support materials produced in languages other than English, as appropriate to the learner groups and the workplace. Existing learning materials may include: handouts for learners worksheets workbooks prepared case studies prepared task sheets prepared activity sheets prepared topic, unit, subject information sheets prepared role-plays prepared presentations and overheads prepared scenarios, projects, assignments

materials sourced from the workplace, for example, workplace documentation, operating procedures, specifications prepared research tasks.

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Activity 9: 1. How can learning strategy documentation assist in program development? 2. Conduct your own research into the learning strategies contained in this learning program and answer the following questions: a. in your own words, describe the learning strategy for this program _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

b.

how closely do you think the program fits the documented learning strategy? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Activity 10: In this activity you will research existing resources for your learning program. Develop a format to record the information that you find. The example below will give you some guidance. For each of these areas, list the resources and where you have found them, or what you know about them.
What is the resource called? Winning at selling What type of resource is it? Video Where is the resource? Organisation library Describe the resource 15 minute video on suggested selling Is the resource suitable? Yes How will you use the resource? Use to develop skills for case study. Use after case study prior to activity.

Evaluating existing resources Now that you have identified some resources, you need to decide if they are of good quality and meet the requirements of the learning program. What do you need to ask about resources or existing courses to check they are of good quality?

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Activity 11: Below is a checklist with some of the questions you can ask about resources or courses to check if they are of good quality and suitable for your needs. Add to the list if you can think of any other things to check. Use the list to check the resources you have identified for your learning program. Checklist for selecting resources

Is the resource current? Does the resource cover the competency standards or learning outcomes
that need to be addressed in the learning program?

Does the resource provide clear and comprehensive information? Does the resource clearly identify its purpose and objective? Is the resource able to be contextualised to meet your learners needs? Does the resource respond to access and equity issues? Does the resource offer flexibility for delivery and assessment? If a course has been selected, do the hours and costs seem reasonable? Is
the resource recognised by accredited bodies or organisations as covering the training requirements?

When you have selected the final resources, provide reasons why you made the choices you did. What was significant about the resource that made you choose it? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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2.2

Identify changes to training packages and accredited courses and apply these to program development
Develop Options based on Competency Profile of Target Group It helps to undertake an assessment of the competency levels and identify the educational profile of the participants in such areas as:

job roles and tasks formal learning on-the-job learning. This type of assessment is called a learner profile. The learner profile will have an effect on material design and the general program structure and design. A learner profile may identify the following characteristics;

gender age bracket level of education employment status level of English specific cultural requirements particular skills or expertise in the area positive or negative attitude to learning and training language, literacy or numeracy needs. When such information has been gained and evaluated, options can then be considered for developing the learning program. You can make specific recommendations regarding how the course is to be developed and delivered. Developing a Learner Profile Checklist Use the results of your initial investigations into the learner group (characteristics and so on) to build your learner profile. For example, Figure 19.

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Figure 19: Learner Profile Checklist

Question Have you done any training like this before? Are you comfortable using computers? Do you like extra notes to be handed out? Do you like role play activities? Are there any specific comments you would like to make?

Yes

Comments

2.2.3 Activity 12: Laura has received notice from the HR department that she has been selected to attend a one-day training course. Details of the course have been included along with a program outline showing Laura what topics are going to be covered. As she reads through the outline, Laura realises that the content includes a session on the new payroll software. But Laura is already using the software in her work - she was part of the test group when the software was being trialled by the IT department. Laura is reluctant to sit through an hour and a half on the basics of a program which she is highly competent in using. 1. How could a facilitator or program designer avoid a problem like Laura's? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________
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_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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2. Why is it important to know the competency and educational profile of the target learner group? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 3. Why might older learners be uncomfortable with a learning program? Why might younger learners be uncomfortable with a learning program? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 4. Given the following learner profile for a training program in Motor Vehicle Driver Instruction, in a group brainstorm the considerations for the design and structure of the program and then list your responses below; either male or female are over 40 years old are engaged mainly in manual work have not completed education higher than Year 10 have average literacy and numeracy skills may not see the training program as necessary _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________
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Identify Existing Resources Available Often, ample resources already exist and it's simply a matter of finding out what is available, where it can be found and how it can be accessed. Sometimes the search will produce the perfect resources to fit the learning program, or just some customising is needed. Activity 13: Peter is the newly employed training coordinator developing an induction program for his organisation, the SafeTStep Ladders. He has talked to supervisors in the factory and to some of the workers, and he has searched the management files and bookshelves for any sign of training programs that have been conducted previously. He can't find anything. He has been working now for four days on designing and developing an induction program for new employees and has even taken it home to work on it at nights. His new boss asks him what he's working on. When Peter tells him, he laughs. Why didn't you ask me? We have an induction program for new workers in the factory which has been working very well for a number of years. No need to rewrite the book - if something's working, leave it alone! Peter is confused. But I looked everywhere! The boss shook his head. It's stored in electronic format in the SD file - staff development file. Next time, ask first. 1. How could Peter have saved himself some time and effort? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. Why should you research existing resources before developing new ones for a learning program? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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3.

Why might existing resources need to be customised for the learning program? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

4. Conduct your own research into existing resources for Training Packages. Check the NTIS website for resources aligned to the BSB07 Business Services Training Package, and then list several here. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ A range of options for the learning program content needs to be generated in collaboration with other stakeholders and would need to be based on research findings and application of learning principles. Collaborate with Others on Program Content Other personnel to consult may include: Colleagues trainers/trainers

industry contacts - for instance, industry associations and bodies such as unions and employer groups HR personnel marketing personnel end users subject or technical specialists

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Talking to others about content options may also reveal the findings of relevant or recent research into: the effectiveness of industry or job task specific activities recommended changes to industry or training practices different learning

the value of including certain common information in a range of programs.

Wherever possible, use research findings to help keep the content of the learning program up to date. Content Options and Adult Learning Principles All of the above personnel can contribute to a range of options for the learning program content. Figure 20 illustrates some of these options and considerations. Figure 20: Content Option Option Activities Description Practical, hands-on learning tasks which might include group discussions, role play, problem solving exercises, demonstrations. Consider learner characteristics Visual (needs to see) Kinaesthetic (needs to feel or sense) Auditory (needs to hear) Theorist (needs to know the theory or model behind the information) Pragmatist (needs to know how to apply the information in a real world, practical sense) Activist (needs to do) Reflector (needs time to think over information).

Consider learning styles

The characteristics of the learner will influence the content; for example, a program with a strong mathematical base would not suit a learner whose skills are weak in this area. Face-to-Face Online Self-directed distance learning Workplace (on the job).

Delivery mode and resources

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Adult learning principles When developing content, always keep adult learning principles in mind. Generally: adults have a need to be self-directing adults have a range of life experiences and connecting learning to experience is how they add meaning to the learning adults have a need to know why they are learning something training needs to be learner-centred to engage learners the learning process needs to support increasing learner independence the emphasis should be on experimental and participative learning the use of modelling (watching and copying others) assists adults to learn reflecting individual circumstances is a useful tool. Activity 14: A regional milk factory made a commitment to have all of their 450 staff trained in CPR (cardio pulmonary resuscitation). The training manager consulted with medical and emergency personnel, with internal managers regarding the learner characteristics and styles of their staff, and with educators with experience in OHS and similar training. With the specialist information provided, the organisation developed a learning program in collaboration with the education body, and used training personnel from the emergency services bodies to deliver the program in a series of short practical sessions to small groups of staff at a time. All staff were required to demonstrate their learning and received a certificate of accreditation to prove their competency. 1. In the above example, can you think of anyone else who could have been consulted? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. Why should the program developer seek information and guidance from other personnel? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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3. How does a knowledge of adult learning styles affect the design and development of the learning program? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 4. In a group, develop an outline of content for a leadership course for a group of older staff. Use your knowledge of adult learning principles to guide your choices. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Figure 21: The Adult Learning Cycle Participatory training is the hallmark of adult learning. It moves participants through the four phases of the Adult Learning Cycle.

to (d 1 ge oin ) th g E er an x or e pe x ex dra erc ri pe w is en "D ri in e o c oi en g o r in ng ce n ac g " ) a tiv sh it ar y ed

g in nd ss s a ce ion ro rvat t the ) P bse bou ) (2 ring o gs a nce " a lin perie ting (sh fee ex flec e "R

The Adult Learning Cycle


r s fo n g n tio wo in pla tua e t n" ly n si th ctio p tio e p c lif om a A n a al- fr ing ) g a r re ned Tak (4opin g o gai s) " el nin hts se ev rai ig ha (d t-t ins s p s g u po sin vio u re p

m e an or a n xa nc (e erie es, les Me p enc cip ing ex eri v in pr Deri p " ex

er ani it to en en e mering ying g) ) G th pa tif rns (3 ining, com idenpatteing" d

g in the r lisng of otheeral a

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2.3

Conduct work in accordance with organisational quality assurance policies and procedures
Document your Interpretations and Decisions Any documentation you develop to record this information should include:

your interpretation of each performance criterion and how it applies to the activities of the workplace or industry how the range of variables applies to your training or assessment program your initial plan for meeting the requirements of the evidence guide, plus note any critical aspects of assessment, resources needed and how you might address the key competencies and dimensions of competence. Once you have documented all this information for each competency standard or module, it can also be useful to compare each record. That way you can look for similarities in how you have applied the performance criteria to work activities, and how you might assess each competency unit. Such similarities can give you clues about whether holistic assessment across more than one competency standard or module would be easily achieved. Quality Assurance and Improvement Cycle The academic quality of courses and programs should be monitored, assured and subject to review and improvement through a continuing cycle based on the principles of PIMRI:

Plan Implement Monitor Review Improve

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Figure 22: Quality and Improvement Cycle

PLAN
IM PR OV E

T EN EM PL IM

Quality & Improvement Cycle

REVIEW

MONITOR

The major aims of an Academic Quality Assurance and Improvement Cycle are: To support a culture of quality assurance and continuous improvement; To build quality into all educational courses and activities; To gain staff commitment to continuous quality improvement;

To establish, in due course, reliable performance indicators and benchmarks of quality in all areas; To establish a variety of ways of gaining information from stakeholders and using that information for continuous improvement. Some RTOs have academic boards that address their quality assurance and improvement mandate through; 1. The design, approval and review of key policies and procedures responsibilities for 2. The work of key sub-committees with designated implementation of policies and regular reporting mechanisms; and 3.

Annual and triennial processes for feedback and review in relation to all courses. As part of an RTOs policies and procedures there should be a Learning and Teaching Policy, which is intended to promote the importance of good teaching based on scholarship, and of effective learning as a self-directed

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lifelong quest for skills, knowledge and wisdom. The Learning and Teaching Policy would also support a four-stage process for effective teaching, namely; 1. 2. 3. 4. The design and development of the curriculum The delivery of the courses The assessment of the students; and The further improvement of learning and teaching experiences for students Deriving from and supporting the aims of the Learning and Teaching policy are a number of key related policies and procedures such as those relating to Student Admission, Access and Equity, Academic Honesty, Intellectual Property, Assessment, and Student Progression, Exclusion and Graduation. RTOs and regulatory requirements5 The key objective of the AQTF is to provide the basis for a nationally consistent, high quality vocational education and training system. A training organisation that provides recognition (Statements of Attainment and/or qualifications) within the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) must become registered with a State or Territory Registering Body. To gain and maintain registration an RTO must meet the Australian Quality Training Framework Standards for Registered Training Organisations (AQTF Standards for RTOs). Information regarding the AQTF Standards for RTOs can be obtained from the DEEWR web site: www.deewr.gov.au . Organisations can be registered either for training delivery and assessment or for assessment-only services. In both cases, registration authorises the RTO to issue specific AQF qualifications and/or Statements of Attainment. This is its scope of registration. All training and assessment services relating to this scope, and therefore the issuance of a related AQF qualification and/or Statement of Attainment, are bound by the requirements of the AQTF Standards for RTOs. The AQTF Standards for RTOs outline the requirement to have written policies and procedures for ensuring quality. The system needs to be consistent with the level and breadth of assessment services provided by the RTO. These Standards also outline the roles and responsibilities of the RTO and its Chief Executive Officer (or nominated person) in regards to: 1. systems for quality training and assessment 2. compliance with Commonwealth, State/Territory legislation and regulatory requirements 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. effective financial management procedures effective administrative and records management procedures recognition of qualifications issued by other RTOs access and equity the competence of RTO staff RTO assessments Learning and assessment strategies

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10. 11. 12.

issuing AQF qualifications and Statements of Attainment use of national and State/Territory logos ethical marketing and advertising. It is the RTOs responsibility to ensure that it complies with these Standards. RTOs may need to meet additional requirements beyond those of the AQTF Standards for RTOs. For example, if they wish to provide vocational education and training to overseas students in Australia they will have to meet the requirements of the National Code of Practice for Registration Authorities and Providers of Education and Training to Overseas Students. This Code of Practice places obligations on registered providers and is a legally enforceable instrument with sanctions attached. RTOs must also refer to the State or Territory Registering Body with which they are registered for any additional requirements to which they must adhere. The roles and responsibilities that assessors undertake in a quality assured assessment system are critical. Assessors should be aware of their obligations in working within this system. They must support their RTO by complying with the requirements of the system. Strategies for continuous improvement of assessment as well as maintenance of vocational currency and assessment skills form part of this compliance. The requirement for a quality management system6 Regardless of any regulatory requirements for providing a quality management system, an organisation should be committed to providing the best possible training delivery and assessment services that are within its scope of registration. Within a training organisation, the purpose of a quality management strategy is premised on the belief that an organisational system specifically supports its assessment services a core business of the RTO. Therefore the assessment system forms part of the framework of the organisational system. Quality assurance focuses on a systematic approach to improvement that recognises and responds to the needs and expectations of all stakeholders in the enterprise. Stakeholders in the VET sector expect quality training and assessment conducted in a systematic environment that also assures its processes and services. Quality assurance processes support staff, enabling them to provide an efficient and effective service that is appropriately focused on the needs of clients and customers. Quality assurance is about continuous improvement. The cyclical plan, do, check and act approach emphasises the need to implement processes, evaluate their effectiveness and act to initiate further improvement. The quality assurance of assessment should follow a similar pattern.

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Figure 23: Plan, Do, Check , Act7


Choose quality assurance strategies for assessment plan evaluation of strategies

PLAN

DO

Implement quality assurance strategies for assessment

Identify ways of improving quality assurance of assessment

ACT

CHECK

Evaluate quality assurance strategies

Key aspects that need to be quality assured8 Regardless of the form it takes or the context in which it is undertaken, assessment that leads to an AQF qualification and/or Statement of Attainment needs to be quality assured. Therefore Recognition processes, such as Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL), Recognition of Current Competency (RCC) and on-and off-the-job assessments all need to be monitored and continually improved. The key components of assessment that need to be quality assured are: the assessment system the assessment process the assessors collecting the evidence making the judgement. These components of assessment are further explained below. The assessment system An assessment system is a controlled and ordered process designed to
7

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ensure that assessment decisions made in relation to many individuals, by many assessors, in many situations are consistent, fair, valid and reliable. An assessment system exists within an RTO and includes: policy relating to the conduct of assessment and to the professional development of assessors procedures and other relevant documentation relating to record-keeping arrangements and to the issuing of qualifications resources to support the assessors, candidates and assessments quality management and evaluation systems. The assessment system in its broadest sense encompasses the processes, documentation, people and resources that support assessments. It also includes the assessment processes, assessors, evidence collected and the judgements made. The assessment process The assessment process is the agreed series of steps that the candidate undertakes within the enrolment, assessment, recording and reporting cycle. The process must not only suit the needs of all stakeholders. It must also be simple to run and cost-effective. The assessors The competence of people carrying out the assessment is a critical factor in ensuring that competency based assessment is effective and meets the required quality criteria. Assessors must meet the requirements as set out in the AQTF Standards for RTOs, as well as meet (and continue to meet) any additional requirements that may appear in the relevant Training Packages. As the maintenance of the competence of assessors is an issue in assessment, it is important to continually monitor and review that competence. Assessor competence consists of: assessment expertise current knowledge of industry practices interpersonal skills and an ability to be fair and reasonable. The processes of selection, initial training and ongoing professional development of assessors are critical in a quality management assessment system.

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Collecting the evidence Assessors are required to collect evidence that is drawn from a range of sources. The evidence may be collected by the assessor only, or the assessor and the candidate, or a third party such as a workplace supervisor. It can be a mix of current and past evidence. Whatever the approach, the focus should be on gathering quality evidence that is valid, sufficient, current and authentic. Quality evidence is crucial to the assessment process and the judgement made. It is important to ensure that the evidence requirements of the relevant Training Package are met and this should be monitored in an ongoing way. Making the judgement Establishing ways to improve the validity and reliability of assessment judgements is the goal of a quality assured assessment system. The implications of inconsistent and poor judgements are that: confidence in the process of mutual recognition of qualifications and/or Statements of Attainment between RTOs will be undermined employers and employees will not readily accept AQF qualifications and/or Statements of Attainment. Ensuring valid and reliable judgements will improve the consistency of outcomes, building confidence and credibility, which underpin the vocational education and training system. However, to infer or make a judgement of a candidates competence can be a complex process. It requires assessors to have: current skills and knowledge of the broader industry practice (or access to another person with those skills and knowledge, such as an industry expert, who will agree to assist with the design and/or conduct of the assessment) a common understanding of the assessment requirements as set out in the relevant Training Package a common interpretation of the unit(s) of competency being assessed. Assessors then need the ability to interpret the evidence collected and make a confident judgement of competence. The most important strategy in ensuring valid and reliable judgements is to establish a process of validation. This will provide the opportunity for checking, confirming and discussing to ensure a high degree of comparability.

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Consider Time Frames, Costs and Logistics Often, in the design and development of the learning program, there will be competing priorities to juggle. For example, the organisation may have a limited budget and will need to weigh up the costs of the program. Some factors will have little impact on the program itself, but others may present a significant risk to the learning outcome. Timeframes The amount of time that will be allocated to the learning program will influence what your learning program covers, the extent of detail and how it can be broken down into sections or chunks to enhance learning. Your planning may be guided by a number of factors. Training Packages and units of competency will provide guidelines, and states and territories provide guidelines such as nominal hours. The client may specify the amount of time learners can dedicate to the learning program. You may need to present options to the client and justify the time required by learners in the suggested learning programs. Time estimations may be based on previous learning programs that have similarities to the one you are designing. Your prior experience in designing learning programs and delivering training will provide you with an estimated timeframe. Other experts may assist in estimating the timeframe for the proposed learning program You need to plan what has to be done in the learning program and map this against timelines to estimate how long is required for the learning program. The options you present may need to be negotiated with the client. Your learning program may need to be modified if you have timeframe constraints on the design of the learning program. Your research during the analysis phase gives you some guidelines on the suggested time for the learning program or the clients expectations of the length of the program. It is important to discuss this with the client during the front-end analysis stage of your project, as time and costs can be key influences on learning program design for organisations. Also, consider your target group learners when estimating the time the learning program will require. Some learners may require more time than others to achieve competence and your time allocation may only be a guide, rather than a specific direction.

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Nominal and funded hours State and Territory training authorities decide on the nominal hours for qualifications and individual units, and these form part of purchasing agreements. It is important to know the suggested nominal hours for a qualification, as it is around these that many courses are structured. When funding is tied to delivery of nominal hours, there are links between nominal hours, budgets and staffing. Nominal hours are listed on State and Territory training authority websites. Other programs are based on funding tendered for by training and/or assessment organisations. To what extent does funding determine how the services of your practice environment are offered? Have you ever significantly changed an aspect of your services because of changes in funding? Budget and costs Costs are almost always an important factor in any learning program. Management may see learning programs as an extra rather than a must have when running their business. When times are tough, learning programs may be postponed or reduced. Managers and clients are mindful of the costs of a learning program and so, as a developer, you must work within the cost boundaries provided to you by the client. Costs associated with a learning program may include: venue hire technology and equipment purchase of Training Packages purchase of learning support materials and related costs resource design and development photocopying or printing production of materials and other documents use of training and/or assessment personnel use of consultants and other support personnel cost-benefit analysis of the learning program to the client

distance mode costs associated with communication with learners -postage, phones, email accounts production cost to the organisation for learners to be away from the workplace while learning.

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Logistics As you plan the learning program and consider options for how the program would be best developed, consider the logistics involved in running the program. Some logistics may include: organising rooms, venues or the location of the program organising special equipment or technology coordinating locations appropriate scheduling and time frames catering for special needs of the learners investigating the learning environment to identify, assess and control OHS risks communication with learners, particularly for distance learners assessment requirements use of specialists and booking their time Figure 24: Considerations Consideration Time frames Description Cost Logistics How long will the program run for? When should it be conducted? How often should it be conducted? How much will the venue cost? Does equipment and technology need to be purchased or hired? Do I have to purchase a Training Package? Do I need to buy support materials? Are there any production costs? Do I need to hire other staff? Is the venue appropriate? Is the venue available? Are the necessary tools and equipment available and working? Can all the participants attend at the same time? Can any participants with special needs be catered for?

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Activity 15: Estimate timeframes, possible costs and logistics of your proposed learning program. Choose the most suitable method to present your findings. For example, you may wish to have a program outline that shows a breakdown of the key subject areas or objectives and key topics, activities and assessment, and the time required for each of the key topics or areas of the learning program. If the delivery mode of the learning program is structured and you know, for example, you have 3-hour blocks with the learners, you can show an overview of the learning program and what would be covered in each 3hour block and the total number of sessions required to complete the learning program. List the costs associated with your proposed learning program. You may need to consult the client, content experts and work colleagues to make sure you have thought of all the costs involved. Try and find out the cost of other learning programs that have been developed for the same client, group or objectives. It is good to compare your program to others to benchmark the cost of your proposal against other learning programs in the market. This may be critical if you are going to be competitive. The costs of the program could be provided in a table or spreadsheet along with the different options so the client can see a range of options and can remove or reduce some costs of the program if budgetary constraints exist. The logistics of the learning program need to be recorded, so these tasks can be planned and allocated to specific people. This information can be recorded on your learning program plan. Benchmarks Once you have identified the learners and decided their learning program needs, you need to work out the competency level or standard for the learners. You have to work out exactly what level or standard of learning is required. You need standards on which to base the program. How do you work this out? The list in the activity below covers many of the sources you can use to identify the level of learning required for your learners.

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Activity 16: For your learning program, select the benchmark sources that you are going to use. Where can you access them? If possible, collect them to use in your development. Document the sources which will assist you to determine the outcomes for your learners in your learning program. Source of benchmark Client brief Market research Job description Standard operating procedure Skills audit Organisation benchmark Industry publication Government policy or report Licensing or regulatory requirements Enterprise Bargaining Agreement Endorsed Training Package Do I need it? Where can I find it?

Your learning program needs to be based on units of competency or other benchmarks specific to a job activity in an industry. If using competency standards, you will need to clarify with the client what competencies are required in the learning program. At times, the competency standards may be enough to structure a learning program. You may need to work out what the competency standard means to the target learning group and their specific learning needs. You may also need to explain the competency standards in terms that are more familiar to the client and their industry.

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Choosing Quality Assurance Strategies The Quality assurance guide for assessment 9 guide sets out a number of strategies which can be used to assure the quality of assessment. There are clear interrelationships between the strategies as they form the quality assurance framework. Some strategies are essential requirements for meeting the AQTF Standards for RTOs and others provide support for continuous improvement and ongoing quality assurance. These relate to: assessment plan assessment policy assessment system procedures assessment tools partnership assessment arrangements evidence collection exemplars and benchmarks third party evidence information for assessors information for candidates professional judgement professional development of assessors record keeping selection and training of assessors simulated assessment team assessments. Other strategies directly address the monitoring and evaluation of assessments and the assessment system. These strategies focus on: benchmarking internal audit RTO self-assessment validation strategies. Table 1 (Figure 25) from the Quality assurance guide for assessment from DETYA (now DEEWR) provides an overview of the 20 strategies included in this guide. As you can see each strategy is mapped against the component of assessment to which it relates. For example, an assessment plan addresses the quality assurance requirements of the assessment process, the assessors, the evidence and the judgement, while validation strategies cover all aspects of assessment.

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Figure 25: Strategies for the quality assurance of assessment Quality assurance strategy Relevant aspect of assessment Assessment System A Assessment plan Assessment policy Assessment system procedures Assessment tools Benchmarking Evidence collection guidelines Exemplar and benchmark materials Guidelines for gathering third party evidence Information for assessors Information for candidates Internal audits Mechanisms to support professional judgement Partnership assessment arrangements Professional development for assessors Record keeping RTO self-assessment Selection and training of assessors Simulated assessment guidelines Team assessment Validation strategies Assessment process B Assessors C Evidence D Assessment Judgement E

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Activity 17: In what ways are you to conduct work in accordance with organisational quality assurance policies and procedures? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Evaluating quality assurance strategies Once a decision has been made on what strategies to use, it is important to think about evaluating how they will work when they are first implemented. This does not need to be a complicated process. Two evaluation planning tools have been included in Figure 27 and Figure 28. The first is a partially worked example that explains the process for setting up a review. The second is a template that can be customised to suit particular circumstances. As each quality assurance strategy is reviewed it is also important to note where processes can be improved. This will assist in determining what actions need to be taken to put a better quality assurance system in place. This information will be evidence for the internal audit that RTOs are required to undertake as part of compliance with the AQTF Standards. Following is a worked example of a Quality assurance strategies evaluation outcomes form (Figure 26) which explains the process for reporting the findings of an evaluation.

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Figure 26: Quality assurance strategies evaluation outcomes form10 Quality assurance strategy Information to assessors Outcome of review strategies The four assessors were asked to get together and work out how well their Assessor Kits work forthe new units of competency that they were assessing. All agreed that some guidelines need to be developed for handling the portfolios of evidence Some of the checklists need updating because of the changes in work practice Follow-up action for continuous improvement Jo and Alex will work together with some of the workplace supervisors to put together samples of the documents being included in portfolios. Exemplar materials will be developed from these samples Completion and trailing during the next inservice training Phan to complete after talking to supervisors

Assessment tools

Identify which quality assurance strategies were used and which were reviewed

Outline the outcomes of the review process. What did you find when you evaluated the strategies you had used to quality assure your assessment?

From the findings of your review, set out what you can improve in your quality assurance approach. What changes will make it better? Who will make the changes? When should the changes be made? This form should be kept to use as evidence in your internal audit. It will also be a starting point when you quality assure your assessment again.

10

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Figure 27: Planning proforma for evaluating assurance strategies11

Quality assurance strategy 1.

Description of activities

Timin g

Responsibilit y

Resources required

Record keeping requirement s

2.

3.

Write in which upfront and ongoing quality assurance strategies you will be using

Describe how you are going to evaluate each of the quality assurance strategies

Indicate the date(s) the review will take place

Name the person(s) who will be responsible for evaluating the quality assurance activities

Describe what resources these activities will need, for example; people, time, physical resources

Identify what records need to be kept and what form these will take, for example recording sheets, feedback sheets, etc.

11

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Figure 28: Planning Proforma for evaluating quality assurance strategies template12

Quality assurance strategy 1.

Description of activities

Timin g

Responsibilit y

Resources required

Record keeping requirement s

2.

3.

4.

5.

12

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Template D: Quality assurance strategies evaluation outcomes template 13

Quality assurance strategy 1.

Outcome of review strategies

Follow-up action for continuous improvement

2.

3.

4.

5.

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Activity 18: As part of your quality assurance strategy you are to develop an evaluation outcome for an accredited unit taken from any course you desire. Use the templates to map your reasoning for this unit and keep this result in your portfolio as an example of how you should enable the process for quality assurance. The strategy you develop will help you develop a more quality assured learning program and it is for this reason you need to endeavour to be as thorough as possible in this activity. Discuss below any thoughts you may have on how you will approach this task the approach (preparation for the activity) believe it or not is as important as the actual activity. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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Activity 19: Laura is the HR manager of a large registered club. New legislation has been introduced which requires all staff, management and board members to be trained and accredited in RSA (responsible service of alcohol). Laura has sourced a training program which can be delivered by a local RTO (registered training organisation) in a four hour session. They can deliver onsite, using the club's boardroom, taking fifteen participants per session, and will provide all necessary training materials. The boardroom has audiovisual equipment and whiteboard facilities. She knows that the club premises meet all necessary OHS requirements because they conduct regular safety audits. However, Laura faces some challenges in getting this program off the ground. The club has two premises within a five-kilometre radius, and staff from both premises have to be accommodated in the program. There are fourteen management and board members, plus seventy-five staff between the two clubs, and around 70% of the staff are part-timers which means that if the club brings them in for training outside of their shift hours, they will have to be paid as if they are working a four-hour shift. Additionally, some staff have second and third jobs so it's sometimes difficult to bring them in outside of their regular shift hours. While the boardroom will accommodate fifteen participants, it's a tight fit and Laura has just been informed that one of the staff has had an accident and will be on crutches for a couple of months. She's checked the leave rosters and discovered that six of her bar staff are away on holidays at various times over the next month. What a headache for Laura! She has to balance the logistical, cost, and time factors to the satisfaction of all stakeholders - including the government inspectors who will be checking the club's records for compliance with the accreditation requirements. 1. List all the variables Laura has to consider. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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2. Why might an external training venue be used even if the organisation has a suitable meeting room? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Why might an organisation conduct multiple sessions of the same program instead of just holding one session for all participants to attend? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Work in small groups to discuss the above example. What options does Laura have, to balance the time, cost, and logistical hurdles of the training? How would you resolve? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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Portfolio Activity 20: Generate Options for Designing the Learning Program Scenario You are developing a program for older people who want to develop computer skills. Participants are doing the program on their own initiative and are very keen to learn. You have developed an outcome and a Scope Statement, and know a little about the participants. 1. Develop a learner profile for the participants. You can make this a broad, generalised profile. 2. Find any existing resources that may help you in the development of the program. List them below. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Who would you consult when developing the content of the program? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. In a group, brainstorm and document what time, cost and logistical constraints might exist. Detail your findings below: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________
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3. Develop program content


3.1 3.2 3.3
Research, develop and document specific subject matter content in accordance with agreed design options Evaluate existing learning resources for content relevance and quality Specify assessment requirements for the learning program

3.1

Research, develop and document specific subject matter content in accordance with agreed design options
You as a program developer have a multitude of sources from which to gather your subject matter research, but you must also remember that too much information can be as bad as too little. Short Courses and Organisational Training Sources of information for the subject matter of a learning program which is not required to meet the standards for national accreditation can be found:

through organisational literature through industry literature (including online) via experienced personnel who already have the information via other trainers and program developers. Accredited Training and Training Packages Today there is a plethora of learning and assessment materials for VET programs including:

the Training Packages themselves ISCs (Industry Skills Council) websites, newsletters

VETAB (Vocational Education And Training Accreditation Board) website, literature and newsletters/journals the Internet publishers and marketers of learning materials (such as J.N. Bailey & Australian Training Products Ltd). In the case of accredited Training Packages, the research may have already been done by the developer of the package itself. As you develop the content for the learning program, you also need to consider the structure of the program. Both takes impact on the other, so the process is not linear (a straight line process). The developer would be working between these two stages, jumping back and forth between the two. In the course of researching the subject matter, it helps to take a
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systematic approach and develop criteria for selection of information. This can be done simply by developing - and documenting - a set of questions to guide the research. Early on you will need to confirm exactly what learning outcomes stakeholders expect students to gain from the training, and this needs to be agreed upon before you can start to formulate your training regime. Once this is clear you can start to apply the overall design envelope within which your course needs to fit. Key elements would be: Duration Start and end times Number of students Method of delivery Venue and equipment considerations How many trainers will be required? Make or buy resources Figure 29: Sample Material Questionnaire Question Will this information require complex explanation or can it be summarised for a handout reference? Is this information relevant to the program objective and the learner group? Could this concept be summarised easily for an overhead transparency? Would this suit the learning styles of the majority of participants? Could this be effective as a self-directed research activity? Will this be new information for the group? Is the style of presentation appropriate for the group? Are there copyright issues? Is the language appropriate for the group? Does it suit people of varying levels of literacy and numeracy skills? Yes No Comments

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Duration How long should the course last? In an ideal world you would collect your thoughts, arrange the topics for the best flow, and strike the optimum balance between theory and practice. Only once you have done all that might you decide, for example: 'This is a two-day course.' But generally the real world isn't like this anymore. Instead it's quite likely that your sponsor will tell you in the first minutes of your discussion: 'The longest we can spare people away from their workplace is...'. The challenge for you is then to get the best fit between what you would like to do, and what you can realistically do, in the available time. Very few organizations nowadays can afford the luxury of generous, or even adequate, time for courses. As you discuss how long the course should last, you might wish to bear in mind these guidelines: One to two hours is good for evening sessions devoted to continuing personal development. But make them interactive or the students will fall asleep! Half-day is great for 'refresher' sessions, or some topics like minutewriting skills where you can cover all the concepts and still give time for practice. One day is ideal for many topics as it allows a fast-paced course to cover key theory, with some time for participation and interaction, for example time management and writing skills. Two days are essential for courses where you need to cover theory and provide a greater amount of time to practise the skills, for example presentation skills or recruitment interviewing. Three days and more - required for courses where there is a greater amount of theory to grasp, probably coupled with the need to demonstrate mastery of the skills. Start and end times As you decide when to start and end your course, you need to recognise that you will be largely conditioned by people's normal working hours. If you try to start earlier than they are used to, you will find people drifting in over an extended period, which makes it difficult to make a high-impact start. Similarly, if you plan to end later than they are used to, you will find people's concentration starting to lapse, or some individuals needing to leave before the end because of travel or child-care problems.

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Number of students How many students to have on a course? Bear in mind the following guidelines developed from past experience. It's important to agree this upfront - if the sponsor suddenly decides that the number of students needs to increase from eight to twelve you may have to redesign whole chunks of the course. One-to-one. This may be the only way for the most senior managers or professionals in an organization to receive feedback on their performance. It's very intensive as you don't get a break from each other. Up to three students. Good for advanced presentation skills or similar courses where you need to give a small amount of theory, but most of the course is devoted to individual presentations, followed by in-depth feedback. Up to six students. Ideal for standard, two-day presentation courses as it gives the optimum balance of theory, presentations and feedback. Up to eight students. Ideal for most interpersonal skills courses, as it gives a good balance between the varieties of ideas and experience the students bring, and a comfortable number for the trainer to give individual attention. Up to twelve students. The maximum a trainer should normally work with on a conventional training course. The exceptions to these guidelines include: Networking sessions. Courses on networking work much better the more people you have in the room because it not only allows them to practise the skills you're exploring, but enables them to do some real networking. Complete teams. When you're asked to run an event for a complete team, for example the management team at a particular location, or a complete department, then obviously you have to take the whole team. Leaving just one person out gives people a let-out clause for not having to change. Open courses. You may be asked to design an open course, which may last from several hours to a full day, when an unlimited number of people may attend. The fundamental issue is that, in general, the more people you have the less interaction there is between the trainer and the students. So it tends to be more theoretical with less opportunity for participation. But it's not always the case. Method of delivery This is an important topic to clarify with the sponsor and, put simply, you have three main choices: trainer-led, self-study or a blend of the two. Let's examine the pros and cons of each choice. Trainer- led courses - advantages Gives opportunity to practise skills and receive feedback. Students interact with each other - discuss common issues and concerns. The trainer can modify the content or flow to meet the students' needs. Trainer-led courses - disadvantages The pace is determined by the slowest student. Students will have varying levels of knowledge of the underlying theory.
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Expensive in terms of person-hours and venue costs. Self-study - advantages they need them, instead of

People can acquire new skills when waiting for the next scheduled training course.

Students can choose their own learning path to suit their prior knowledge of the topic. Minimum disruption to normal work, as people can study at times convenient to them. Students can revisit sections they find challenging. You can use multimedia - text, sound and vision. You can build in clever animations to explain complex topics. You can train a lot of people in widely spread sites in a short time.

Students receive a consistent message irrespective of when or where they are trained. Self-study - disadvantages Can feel very lonely, especially if you're struggling with a section. You're reliant on people completing all sections of the work. Take care about using 'right' answers.

E-learning solutions - the upfront investment can be high, so use it for carefully selected topics. E-learning solutions - once designed, the course is expensive to modify. E-learning solutions are very dependent on the quality of your IT network. Blended learning Increasingly companies are looking to bring together the best of trainer-led and self-study solutions, particularly using e-learning. These 'blended learning' courses typically offer the learner a two-stage learning experience: First, they study an e-learning package, which covers all the theory they need to know about the topic. Then they experience a short, normally one-day, trainer-led course when they get to practise the key skills they acquired through the e-learning. Blended learning - advantages Keeps students' non-revenue earning time to a minimum. Allows key skills to be practised. No need to devote time to covering underlying theory. Blended learning - disadvantages Not all students will have completed the e-learning course or, if they did, it may be some time ago. There's concerns.
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The time pressure means that that there's no time to introduce new concepts or models. Without some follow-up coaching, whether 'live' or online, it's easy for the newly acquired skills to wither. Venue and equipment considerations Although the choice of venue will be more of an issue when it comes to the actual course delivery, there may be specific equipment or facilities which must be available for the course to be effective, and these may have to be defined in the course design. For example, you may need to: ensure that your venue can welcome students irrespective of their mobility or visual capabilities; have access to IT or other specialist training equipment to enable the students to develop their skills; select venues with suitable outdoor training facilities if that's part of the course design. How many trainers will be required? This is an important issue to consider early on as it will affect the way you design the course. In general, if you follow the guidelines on numbers of students we outlined above, one trainer should be able to manage quite satisfactorily. However, there may be situations when additional trainers are justified: The course design may require students to work in small teams which require trainer input, facilitation, observation or feedback and one trainer simply can't manage - eg development centres. There may be parts of the course which require specialist knowledge that the 'main' trainer doesn't have, for example managing outdoor activities safely, etc. The course may involve fast changeovers to different tasks or activi ties so, whilst one trainer is managing the group, the other can be preparing the next activity. Will you need any guest speakers? A similar consideration is the need for guest speakers: There may be topics which are so specialized that few people have the required level of knowledge or expertise - so you need to invite a guest speaker along. There may be other topics for which, although your own trainers could do equally well, bringing along a guest speaker with acknowledged expertise or reputation will dramatically enhance the acceptability of what they have to say. If you're considering using guest speakers there are several additional points to consider: Do you have the budget? Guest speakers will cost you, and not just the direct fees but also the additional items associated with travel, accommodation and 'meeting and greeting'. You will need to get the dates into their diary early - many months ahead of the planned date.

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Have a 'fall back' position in case you can't get the person you want, or circumstances change and their involvement would no longer be acceptable or desirable. Considering any 'unusual' events or activities? Sometimes it's decided to include 'unusual' events or activities, such as gokarting, rock climbing, walking on hot coals, horse whispering - the list is endless. If you're considering any of these, just a few additional considerations are: Time - it will certainly eat into precious time. Cost - involving specialist activities will hit your budget hard! Travel - you may need to travel to a different location. Distraction - will everyone see the relevance of the experience? Threats - some people may see the activity as threatening. You need to carry out a ruthless cost-benefit analysis before committing to these types of activity. Please take a few minutes to consider the factors which will define your course 'envelope' and enter them in Template E: Course Envelope. Make or buy? An important decision is whether to develop the courses or workshops internally, or to buy-in resources from an external training provider. External suppliers could either provide you with an existing course or, for extra cost, design something new especially for you. If you struggle with this issue, why not use these selection criteria to guide your decisionmaking process: Do we have it already? Check the company catalogue of existing courses and resources to see if you have a product which is a good fit, or could be modified easily. Check preferred suppliers. Do they have a product which is a good fit, or could be modified easily? Lastly, check new suppliers. Do they have a product which is a good fit, or could be modified easily? If you work in a large company you'll be amazed how many courses are designed in separate departments, and the people in the next office are quite unaware of what exists. Remember - there's only one sin worse than redesigning the wheel - and that's paying a consultant to do it for you! Credibility Buy-in existing external products. The external facilitators who run the courses are more familiar with the issues and possible solutions than internal facilitators might be. Develop internally. Your staff will attribute more credibility and relevance to the event if it is obviously developed internally.

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Template E: Course Envelope I need to consider the following factors as I define the course envelope. Learning outcomes

Duration Start and end times Number of students Method of delivery Venue and equipment considerations:

How many trainers? Any guest speakers?

Any unusual events or activities?

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Costs Buy-in existing products. The cost of buying-in the programs is less than the cost of resources and staff development time required to produce a program of the same quality. Develop internally. Consider the price of the course you're planning on a costper-person basis. If you need to train a significant number of staff, a program developed internally would be significantly cheaper. Content Buy-in existing products. The content and objectives of the course under review might provide such a close fit with your needs that you could not justify developing a program yourselves. Develop internally. A workshop to meet your training objectives may require frequent revisions or updating, which is easier to do with an internally developed program. Time Buy-in existing products. You can't afford the time to develop and refine an internal program. The courses you'll be buying-in are fully proven and validated, and will be fully effective from the very first event. Develop internally. Developing a course around the specific needs of your staff is more valuable than the staff time and other costs you would save by buying-in an existing program. Design capability Buy-in existing products. The people who designed the event being considered have more design experience for this topic/objective than your internal training designers have. Develop internally. Your internal course designers have enough resources and experience to develop a program that will satisfy your training objectives in every way. Specific Buy-in existing products. Buying-in one of the programmes under review will free up staff development time for courses you will have to develop internally. Develop internally. The training objectives you have are so specific to your organization that it would be difficult to modify any packaged training program to meet them. Culture Buy-in existing products. The programmes being considered are developed from resources that are more sophisticated or specialized than internal resources. Develop internally. Management policy or organization culture strongly supports internal development of training programmes.

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Template F: Make or Buy? I will consider the following factors when we decide to either design the products ourselves or buy them in. Check whats available:

Do we have it already, either at this or other sites?

Do preferred suppliers have a similar product which could be modified easily?

Do new suppliers have similar products?

Make or buy decision consider: Credibility Costs Content Time Design capability Specific Culture

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Adult learning principles Focusing on adult learning principles we need to spend some time on the underpinning knowledge required by a designer about adult learners. The reason for this is that adult learners are your target audience. This resource provides some basic adult learning concepts. You will need to research this area in more detail as part of your professional development reading. It would be beneficial for you to discuss with your trainer/facilitator for clues and guidance on how to research this area of adult learning principles. A starting point would be to use the internet. Some key adult learning principles: Adults have a need to be self-directing. Adults have a range of life experience, so connecting learning to experience is meaningful. Adults have a need to know why they are learning something. Training needs to be learner-centred to engage learners. The learning process needs to support increasing learner independence. Emphasis on experimental and participative learning. Use of modelling. Reflecting individual circumstances. Motivation As you can see from the principles above, a number relate to motivation of the learners. If the learners are not motivated to engage in the learning, their success will be limited. Abraham Maslow (1954) attempted to synthesize a large body of research related to human motivation. Prior to Maslow, researchers generally focused separately on such factors as biology, achievement, or power to explain what energizes, directs, and sustains human behaviour. Maslow posited a hierarchy of human needs based on two groupings: deficiency needs and growth needs. Within the deficiency needs, each lower need must be met before moving to the next higher level. Once each of these needs has been satisfied, if at some future time a deficiency is detected, the individual will act to remove the deficiency. The first four levels are: 1. Physiological: hunger, thirst, bodily comforts, etc.; 2. Safety/security: out of danger; 3. Belongingness and Love: affiliate with others, be accepted; and 4. Esteem: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition. As the lower level needs of your learners are met, they will be able to concentrate on the higher needs where learning motivation occurs.

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Figure 30: Maslows Hierarchy of Needs.

According to Maslow, an individual is ready to act upon the growth needs if and only if the deficiency needs are met. Maslow's initial conceptualization included only one growth need--self-actualization. Self-actualized people are characterized by: 1. 2. 3. 4. being problem-focused; incorporating an ongoing freshness of appreciation of life; a concern about personal growth; and the ability to have peak experiences. Maslow later differentiated the growth need of self-actualization, specifically identifying two of the first growth needs as part of the more general level of self-actualization (Maslow & Lowery, 1998) and one beyond the general level that focused on growth beyond that oriented towards self (Maslow, 1971). They are: 5. 6. 7. Cognitive: to know, to understand, and explore; Aesthetic: symmetry, order, and beauty; Self-actualization: to find self-fulfillment and realize one's potential; and

8. Self-transcendence: to connect to something beyond the ego or to help others find self-fulfillment and realize their potential. Maslow's basic position is that as one becomes more self-actualized and self-transcendent, one becomes more wise (develops wisdom) and automatically knows what to do in a wide variety of situations. Daniels (2001) suggested that Maslow's ultimate conclusion that the highest levels of self-actualization are transcendent in their nature may be one of his most important contributions to the study of human behaviour and motivation. Norwood (1999) proposed that Maslow's hierarchy can be used to describe the kinds of information individual's seek at different levels of
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development. For example, individuals at the lowest level seek coping information in order to meet their basic needs. Information that is not directly connected to helping a person meet his or her needs in a very short time span is simply left unattended. Individuals at the safety level need helping information. They seek to be assisted in seeing how they can be safe and secure. Enlightening information is sought by individuals seeking to meet their belongingness needs. Quite often this can be found in books or other materials on relationship development. Empowering information is sought by people at the esteem level. They are looking for information on how their egos can be developed. Finally, people in the growth levels of cognitive, aesthetic, and self-actualization seek edifying information. While Norwood does not specifically address the level of transcendence, I believe it is safe to say that individuals at this stage would seek information on how to connect to something beyond themselves or to how others could be edified. Maslow published his first conceptualization of his theory over 50 years ago (Maslow, 1943) and it has since become one of the most popular and often cited theories of human motivation. An interesting phenomenon related to Maslow's work is that in spite of a lack of empirical evidence to support his hierarchy, it enjoys wide acceptance. Motivation is a not a simple process and the forces that drive learners come from both within the learner (intrinsic motivation) and outside (extrinsic motivation). Some extrinsic motivations are: money status reward Internal motivations are less obvious but include: desire to understand need for independence stimulation self-actualisation. Even the most motivated learner can easily lose motivation if the learning does not suit their needs. To keep learners motivated remember the statement from the beginning of this guide. Learners need to be engaged in meaningful productive activity for effective learning to occur.

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Learning styles Each of us has different learning styles and we each have an individual preference for the ways in which we learn. Wide-ranging research has been carried out in this area and we will consider only four different views of learning styles. By understanding the differences in personal learning style preferences, you are able to tailor the delivery of your training to be more effective for all learners. Visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learning styles Richard Bandler and John Grinder developed a body of work known as Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP), which looks at both our internal and external communication. They are concerned with understanding the impact of the senses in learning. Bandler and Grinder refer to visual, auditory and kinaesthetic approaches to learning. We have the capacity to use all of our available senses for learning however; most of us tend to have a preference for one or more senses. Visual Visual learners need to see what is going on. They will be attracted during training to words like see, look, appear, picture, make clear, overview, imagine. They may not talk much and dislike listening for too long. You can support a visual learner best by using: posters, charts and graphs visual displays booklets, brochures and handouts variety in colours and shapes clear layout with headings and plenty of white space. Auditory Auditory learners learn by listening. They prefer to hear things rather than read them. You can train an auditory learner best by using: question and answer lectures and stories audio tapes discussion pairs or groups variety in tone, rate, pitch and volume music or slogans. Kinaesthetic Kinaesthetic learners learn by doing. They enjoy games and dont really like reading. They will remember best through practice. You can train a kinaesthetic learner best by using: team activities hands-on experience

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role-plays note taking emotional discussion. Left brain Right brain Another model which explores the way we prefer to learn focuses on the two hemispheres of our brain and how we use these. Figure 31: Left and Right Hemisphere

Left Hemisphere Functions and Characteristics Mathematical Verbal Sequential Literal Logical Linear Analytic Rational Verbal Symbolic Abstract Temporal

Right Hemisphere Functions and Characteristics Artistic Imagination Random Spatial Holistic Intuitive Synthesizer Non-rational Nonverbal Metaphoric Concrete Non-temporal

Much of the research about learning indicates that learning is most effective when we integrate left and right hemispheres of the brain and activate whole brain learning. While we may have a preference or dominance of left or right brain function, we have a whole brain which can be fully utilised in learning. An artful facilitator will provide a range of approaches which will involve both left and right brain function.

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PART learning styles Allan Honey and Peter Mumford identified the following four PART learning styles, based on Kolbs learning cycle model (Experiential Learning, 1984). Pragmatists are keen to try out new ideas, theories and techniques to see if they work in practice search out new ideas and take the first opportunity to use them like to get on with things act quickly and confidently on ideas that attract them tend to be impatient

are down-to-earth people who like making practical decisions and solving problems respond to problems and opportunities as a challenge believe there Activists involve themselves fully and without bias in new experiences enjoy the here and now and are happy to be dominated by immediate experiences are open-minded are enthusiastic about anything new tend to act first and consider consequences afterwards fill their days with activities tend to tackle problems by brainstorming like to be in the middle of things get bored with implementation and longer term consolidation believe that you should try anything once. Reflectors like to stand back and ponder experiences from many perspectives like to collect data and analyse it thoroughly before coming to conclusions tend to postpone reaching a definitive conclusion because of data collection like to consider all possible angles and implications before making a move prefer to watch others in action tend to take a back seat in meetings or discussions act with a view to the wider context believe in being cautious is always a better way and if it works its good.

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adopt a low profile and have a slightly distant, tolerant air about them. Theorists

adapt and integrate observations into complex but logically sound theories think problems through in a vertical, step-by-step, logical way tend to be perfectionists

are keen on basic assumptions, principles, theories, models and systems of thinking tend to be detached, analytical and dedicated to rational objectivity need things to make sense

prefer to maximise certainty and are uncomfortable with subjective judgement and later thinking believe in rationality and logic: If its logical its good. Global and analytical learner model In the broadest sense, learners can be divided into two groupsglobal learners and analytical learners. Global learners need to see the big picture first, they like to see the whole picture and know the end result before beginning. Analytical learners like to learn one piece at a time, they enjoy a clear sequence which starts at the beginning and moves to the end one step at a time. Imagine that all learners sit somewhere along a continuum which runs between these two positions. Some people move along the continuum depending on the task at hand. Others are more fixed in their approach and need information to be presented in one particular style. Activity 21: To find out if you are predominately a global or analytical learner, answer Yes or No to the following questions. How to analyse your result is at the end of the quiz. Circle "Yes" following each statement if it is true for you most of the time 1. Do you like working alone better than working in groups? 2. Do you need to understand what the whole task is before you can set out to do it step by step? 3. Do you feel like you need to finish one task before starting another? 4. Do you always try to relate what you learn to your life? 5. Do you prefer a trainer who doesn't talk about his/her personal life? 6. Do you enjoy team competition more than individual competition?
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7. Do you find that you aren't bothered by criticism as much as other people seem to be? 8. Is it hard for you to take criticism? 9. Do you need to work in an organized environment? 10. Do you want to know exactly what is expected of you on the job, all of the rules and regulations? 11. Do you enjoy individual sports more than team sports? 12. Do you often turn to others to talk about an assignment before starting it? 13. Do you find it easy to concentrate on something without getting distracted? 14. Do you often feel inspired or tempted to stop whatever you are doing to do something else? 15. Do you take your time making decisions, thinking though all of the possible outcomes carefully? 16. Do you see or get impressions of the whole before you see any details? 17. If you got a poor rating on an evaluation form would you want to know exactly what you had done wrong? 18. Do you enjoy learning about your boss' or trainer's private life? 19. Does it bother you when there is a task to get done and people interrupt the flow of what they are doing to gossip? 20. Do you seek others' opinions before making decisions? 21. Do you carry around a day planner?

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

No No No No No No No No No No No No No

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

No No No No No

22. Does it bother you when you are called on to concentrate on more than a couple of things at a time? 23. Do you enjoy trying out several ways of solving a problem? 24. Would you resent losing points on a history test because of a spelling mistake?

Count the number of "Yes" answers you wrote after odd numbers. How many were there? Count the number of "Yes" answers you wrote after
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even numbers. How many were there? If you wrote "Yes" for more of the odd numbers your primary learning style is ANALYTICAL. If you wrote "Yes" for more of the even numbers your primary learning style is GLOBAL. Read below to find out more about your learning style. After each item ask yourself, "Does that sound like me?" IF YOU ARE ANALYTICAL YOU TEND TO: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. be good with details and be very organized work independently very well be a good problem solver and have a lot of patience like to do things in new ways concentrate easily without getting distracted finish one task before moving on to the next IF YOU ARE ANALYTICAL YOU MAY HAVE TROUBLE: working with others in a group to get a task done sharing personal stories at work and/or at school being forced to so something in a specific way getting to the main point when telling a story getting directions from someone who talks a lot about himself in the process writing letters or essays quickly IF YOU ARE GLOBAL YOU TEND TO: enjoy working with others do several things at the same time focus on the big picture rather than the details tell a story that gets to the point easily follow instructions easily share examples from your life which relate to what you are learning IF YOU ARE GLOBAL YOU MAY HAVE TROUBLE: being organized. concentrating for long periods of time on one thing. working hard without getting recognition from your boss or trainer. remembering the details of an assignment or task. being competitive with another person.

6. learning something step by step without knowing what the whole picture is going to be.

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3.2

Evaluate existing learning resources for content relevance and quality


Contextualisation, or customisation, describes how each item in the competency standard applies to the workplace. It directly links the competency standard to the client's needs using language they are familiar with. Contextualising existing resources Access any existing learning resources and prepare these for the learning program. Acknowledge the developers of the resources you use and observe copyright. You may wish to contextualise the existing resources. Contextualising may include:

changing the materials to relate to the specific industry and organisation of the target group changing the level of language used to suit the target group removing information or adding information to ensure it is current and accurate modifying information to suit the specific state or territory legislation

modifying information to use specific organisational policies and procedures as guidelines adding information, activities and assessment methods specific to the learning program providing sources of further informationreading, websites, industry groups changing the sequence of material changing the context of generic material to relate to the learners specific situation.

Figure 32: The Types of Changes that are Acceptable

Below you will find some examples of how certain parts of a competency unit can be contextualised. The unit in the example is BSBWOR202A: Organise and complete daily work activities from the Business Services Training Package BSB07.

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What Appears in the Competency Standard Element 1. Organise work schedule Performance Criteria

How it can be Contextualised to suit the workplace

Ask for help when you plan what you will do each day

Negotiate and agree upon work goals and1. Ask the Office Manager what you are expected to achieve each day, plans with assistance appropriate persons and how you should plan for it Range Statement Appropriate persons may include: colleagues other staff members supervisors, mentors or trainers Factors affecting requirements would include: work normally

Factors affecting work requirements may include: changes to procedures or new procedures competing work demands environmental factors such as time, weather other work demands resource issues technology/equipment breakdowns

number of telephone calls to be answered number of orders generated by telephone calls number of personal enquiries number of orders generated by personal enquiries covering for absent office staff as required downtime of photocopier, printer and computer system due to servicing

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Evidence Guide Critical aspects of evidence: Evidence of the following is essential: organising and completing own work activities seeking and acting on feedback from clients, colleagues and supervisors using available business technology appropriate to the task, under direct instruction The participant must demonstrate effective use of the telephone system, photocopier, printer, computer system for ordering and administration, and email messaging system, while being supervised For training and assessment, the following must be available telephone, photocopier, printer, computer system for ordering and administration, the correct stationery items, and email

Resource implications: Personnel, materials and equipment specific to job tasks must be available.

Employability Skills Communication listening and questioning to identify customer needs writing customer notes, emails, faxes referring matters to nominated personnel as required working as a member of a team and applying knowledge of one's own role to achieve team goals maintaining customer records operating multiple enterprise systems Working with teams and others; the participant needs to talk to an work with customers, the two other administration staff in the office, the Office manager, the orders, processor, and others who may come into contact with the participant for work purposes, to get their job done as planned.

Teamwork

Planning and Organising

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Activity 22: 1. What is contextualisation? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. Why should competency standards be contextualised where appropriate? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 3. a. Who should you consult with to make sure of: the need for contextualisation, and ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ b. whether the contextualisation that occurs is an accurate reflection of the activities in the workplace or industry?

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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Contextualise to Meet the Needs of the Training Package, Specifically, information on contextualisation can be found: in Training Package Guidelines or possibly in a section called Training Package Guidelines on Contextualisation in non-endorsed components of the Training Package or supplementary information such as Implementation Guides by consulting the publisher of the Training Package or course or its ISC by consulting DEEWR

by consulting your own contacts within VET networks or colleagues with experience using the Training Package or course.

Looking for Information On the Internet, go to DEEWR's Training Packages Support Materials site http://www.DEEWR.gov.au/sectors/training_skills/policy_issues_reviews /key_issues/nts/ for more information about additional materials available to help you contextualise the Training Packages you work with. For a list of specific materials that have been contextualised for industries such as automotive, building and construction, finance and others, visit www.ntis.gov.au , and look under the supporting resources links for each Training Package. Activity 23: 1. Why should you seek feedback on contextualisation? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. How should you seek feedback on contextualisation? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Consider OHS Issues When contextualizing competency standards or accredited courses, or when planning your training and assessment, you must always consider the occupational health and safety (OHS) of the learners and others in the classroom. Ensure the Safety of Yourself, Learners and Others As a trainer or assessor, you have a duty of care. That is, you have a legal responsibility to be aware of potential hazards in the learning environment and take steps to prevent accidents, injuries and illness. Your duty of care exists whether you are working in a classroom setting in an existing RTO, or on site at any workplace in any industry. To fulfill your duty of care you must know about and be able to address: Commonwealth and State/Territory OHS legislation, codes of practice and national standards the OHS obligations of you as a trainer or assessor, of the learner, and of the training organisation you work for the OHS obligations of your client's organisation and its internal OHS policies and procedures hazards and risks commonly found in the learning or work environment. Further information about OHS can be found by visiting the following websites: Figure 33: OHS websites Australian Capital Territory Government http://www.health.act.gov.au Northern Territory Work Health and Electrical Safety http://www.nt.gov.au/wha WorkCover NSW http://www.workcover.nsw.gov.au Queensland Government http://www.qld.gov.au Victorian WorkCover Authority http://www.workcover.vic.gov.au WorkCover Corporation South Australia http://www.workcover.sa.gov.au Workplace Standards Tasmania http://www.wsa.tas.gov.au Government of Western Australia Consumer and Employment Protection http://www.safetyline.wa.gov.au Standards Australia http://www.standards.com.au

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3.3 Specify assessment requirements for the learning program.


Analyse the Assessment Guidelines The names of the sections in the assessment guidelines of each Training Package or course you work with may differ, but the information provided will be similar. This information will include: an assessment system overview assessor requirements or qualifications designing assessment resources conducting assessments additional resources. Read, Understand and Apply the Assessment Guidelines The purpose of assessment is to confirm that an individual can perform to the standards expected in the workplace. The level of performance required is detailed in the competency standards or modules. Assessments conducted for national recognition purposes - that is, to achieve a qualification or a statement of attainment - must meet the requirements of the assessment guidelines in the Training Package or accredited course. To ensure this happens you must understand every section of the assessment guidelines, and then apply this information to: your client's needs the competency standard or module being assessed. What you will Find and How to Apply it Figure 34 provides details about some of the information you can expect to find in the assessment guidelines of a Training Package, and how to relate them to your assessment planning. For each item in the assessment guidelines, think about how you can best apply it to the assessment situation you are in.

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Figure 34: Assessment Guidelines Summary

Assessment Guidelines Assessment in a simulated environment Assessment requirements for RTOs Reasonable adjustment

Applying it to your Assessment Situation Tells you why you might need to assess this way, and suggests how it can be done. If you are working for an RTO, this tells you what you must do. Tells you how to adapt an assessment tool or method to meet the special needs of a learner. The RTO that issues the qualification or statement of attainment is responsible for recording, storing, retrieval and accessibility of the assessment outcomes - if you work for an RTO and procedures that you can use for this don't already exist, they must be developed. Tells you how learners can achieve competency standards in ways other than the traditional train then assess pathway. Specifies the qualifications a person must have in order to be a qualified assessor under the Training Package. Includes options such as a partnership arrangement where an assessor with little experience in the industry can assess in partnership with a technical expert. Tells you about the requirements any assessment resources you use must meet. Includes details about how to: establish the assessment context prepare the candidate gather evidence make the assessment decision provide feedback record and report results review the assessment process deal with appeals and reassessment.

Recording assessment outcomes

Training and assessment pathways Assessor qualifications

Assessment resources Conducting assessments

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Assessment Guidelines Employability skills Cultural sensitivities

Applying it to your Assessment Situation How to include them in the competency standards you are assessing. Provides information about working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in particular. Lists sources regarding issues such as designing assessment tools, assessor training, conducting assessments, gathering evidence, designing and managing assessment systems.

Additional resources

Activity 24: 1. What is the purpose of assessment? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. Why should you follow the assessment guidelines that appear in the Training Package you use? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 3. What should you do if you use competency standards for more than one Training Package? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Meeting Client Needs Establish the assessment requirements of the client, target group or individual. As you have already analysed the relevant Training Package or course assessment guidelines, establishing assessment requirements in this sense refers to the specific arrangements to be made for the proposed assessment. This is an important planning step because it allows: decisions about costings and budgets to be made determination of the impact of assessment on normal operations and production preparation of group or individual training and assessment plans selection of the methods of assessment. Interpret the Assessment Guidelines in Terms of the Needs of clients Interpretation of the assessment guidelines involves three critical areas: 1. the client's responsibility to identify their needs and consult with the qualified trainer(s) and assessor(s) 2. the trainer or assessor's responsibility to interpret and explain how the client's needs may be aligned to the assessment guidelines 3. the specific procedure used to align the assessment to the needs of the client. Figure 35: Use a Seven-step Procedure to Align the Assessment to Client Needs Step 1 Consult with the client to: identify skill gap and how the skill will be developed (mentoring, training, on-the-job coaching, other) determine the activities to be assessed and the dimensions of competency to be assessed. Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Determine the competency standard or module relating to the activity to be assessed. Write a purpose statement for the assessment. Analyse the elements of competence, performance criteria, evidence guide and range of variables that apply for the particular client. Establish suitable assessment methods. Discuss with the client to ensure the methods meet their requirements. Make revisions (if necessary).

Step 5 Step 6 Step 7

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Competency. The term competency implies there is an integration of knowledge, skills and application in the performance of an activity. What is a competency standard? A competency standard is a document that specifies in a structured format how people should perform a job or work role. Organisations use competency standards: as a frame of reference for nominating how they expect job or work roles to be performed to judge whether people are competent at their job or work role Competency standards attempt to capture the various dimensions that, when taken together, account for 'competent' performance. An example in this case could be the competency standard specified in the role of driving ambulance service vehicles. Types of competency standards There are two common types of competency standards. Standards that are recognised throughout the country and serve as the basis for assessment and formal qualifications. These are developed for and by an entire industry. Standards developed for a specific enterprise. These are sometimes called 'inhouse standards'. Activity 25: Use the seven-step procedure to ensure you cover all the dimensions required of a competent trainer and assessor. 1. Identify at least three purposes for assessing in the workplace. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. Why is it important to identify the arrangements necessary for a proposed assessment? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 3. How does a specific procedure help you apply assessment guidelines to meet client needs?

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___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Portfolio Activity 26: Learning program content Find samples of the following learning program content for your learning program. Put them into your portfolio for referencing as you develop your own materials. You need to realise that materials need to be able to be contextualised from existing resources or newly developed materials. Examples could include learning activities, such as: group-based activities role-plays written activities case studies simulation audio or visual activities practice or demonstration individual assignments individual group projects workplace practice research and/or learning materials: handouts worksheets workbooks overhead transparencies
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PowerPoint presentations role plays, scenarios and instructions projects or assignment specifications

materials sourced from the workplacefor example, documentation, policies, operating procedures, specifications materials available on websites, CD-ROMs

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4. Design the structure of the learning program


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5
4.1
Break the learning content into manageable segments and document the timeframe for each segment Determine and confirm delivery strategies and any assessment methods and tools Document the complete learning program in line with organisation requirements Review complete program with key stakeholders and adjust as required Ensure a safe learning progression by analysing risks in the learning environment and applying a risk control plan

Break the learning content into manageable segments and document the timeframe for each segment
Learning Methodologies Now that you have the overall flow for your course the next step is to decide how each element is to be delivered. There are three main choices: trainer-led, self-study, or a combination. The decision may already have been made for you by, for example, the sponsor, who may have to work within internal political or commercial constraints. But if the choice is yours then consider the following guidelines:

Trainer-led courses, when a group learn together, are essential for developing skills or shaping behaviours, and the success is very dependent on the knowledge, skills and style of the trainer. Self-study, on the other hand, is good for acquiring knowledge, especially as the learner can select which materials to explore, and work at their own pace and at the most convenient times. Self-study isn't limited to e-learning, and you will quickly realize that you probably already have a wealth of learning resources available, including: books and training packs; published articles; video tapes; DVDs; audio tapes; interactive videos; one-to-one discussions; and visits. Although training is normally delivered in a 'training room', in practice it could be delivered in any environment - it just depends on the topic and the industry. Training 'environments' ranged from the classroom to the simulated work place area.

Wherever possible, try to identify more than one resource for each chunk of the course. For example, the variety of learning styles in your target audience means that a video which interests one group may be a real turnoff for others. Before moving on, let's briefly explore the advantages and disadvantages of these different methodologies, starting with trainer-led. Trainer-led conference Advantages Very large numbers-100+. Good for imparting information or knowledge. Learners can choose sessions or subjects relevant to them. Lots of opportunity for informal learning and networking. Design time to delivery ratio quite high. Disadvantages Can be 'samey' if all sessions are given in a lecture format. Little opportunity to test understanding or application. Trainer-led lecture with Q&A Advantages Imparting large quantities of information or knowledge quickly. Should be current, based on trainer's up-to-date expertise. People get learning direct from high-quality source. Large numbers of people. Low design time to delivery ratio. Some opportunity for interaction. Low cost per head. Disadvantages Not useful for demonstrations or practical application. Difficult to check understanding or ability to apply knowledge. Not good for behavioural or interpersonal skills. Trainer centred - can be dull if variety is not designed in. Trainer-led structured skills training Advantages Learning practical, technical them in a structured and controlled way. Testing can be easily incorporated. Reasonable design time to delivery ratio. Moderate cost per head. or interpersonal skills and practising

Good opportunities for trainer and student feedback.

Disadvantages Practising the skills is often not in a real-world environment. Must keep the student numbers down to ensure optimum feedback. Can be too trainer controlled or centred. Less opportunity for learners to drive the agenda. Trainer-led behavioural simulation Advantages Excellent for interpersonal and behavioural skills. Gets as close to the real world as possible. Opportunity to practise what the learner wants to practise in a safe environment. Lots of opportunity for feedback. Design time to delivery ratio quite high. Moderate to high cost per head. Disadvantages Sometimes difficult to assess individual capability. Limited to small groups - 10 to 20. Resource intensive - can be higher cost to stage. Self-study Having looked at the group learning methodologies, now let's briefly explore the advantages and disadvantages of self-study, which might be any combination of the traditional distance learning resources or a more sophisticated computer-based learning system. Advantages Learner controls the pace of learning and when it's done. knowledge and information and certain levels of Good for acquiring skills e.g. language.

Can be done during or outside working hours. Good for geographically dispersed or isolated learners. Can cover large numbers of people - from a hundred to many thousands. Delivers a consistent message. Costs are largely upfront, with low ongoing delivery costs.

Can be combined with other methods to create pre- and post-learning opportunities.

Template G: Learning Methodologies Review your notes and group the various elements under one of three main approaches. Once you have the overall flow for your course the next step is to decide how each element is to be delivered. There are three main choices: Trainer-led

Self-study

Or a combination

The decision may already have been made for you by, for example, the sponsor, who may have to work within tight constraints.

Disadvantages Little opportunity for skills practice, so not good for interpersonal skills. the material unless combined No opportunity to question or debate with some form of face-to-face or telephone support.

Once the design is completed there is no opportunity to make quick changes. Materials require more effort and cost to update. Time for decision By now you'll have some idea of which parts of your course will be delivered in trainer-led sessions and which might be appropriate for self-study, so it's time for a task. You have now reached a significant milestone in your course design ideally write down the order or transfer it directly to a PC. This outline will form the basis for the design of the course and, while it will need refining to allow some small changes to the overall flow or sequence, the basic 'spine' of the course is now in place. Four ways to communicate Now that you have developed the basic flow for your course, the next significant task is to allocate time to each chunk so you can start to finalize the overall timetable. But before you can do that you will need to consider the way that each session is delivered, as this will have an impact on the time each session needs. Telling One popular approach is to use the telling style, of which the key characteristics are:

The trainer or presenter delivers the message with little active involvement from the students. He/she is explicit about what needs to be done, and how it is to be achieved. The delivery will be well prepared, well rehearsed and perhaps involve multimedia visual aids. This style of communication is most effective when: There are specific management or performance messages to be passed on, which allow little or no scope for debate or discussion. There are urgent or quick responses to deal with specific situations. The students are new or inexperienced staff who would be able to contribute little to the discussions. Selling Another approach is to use the selling style, of which the key characteristics are: The trainer 'sells' the idea or concept. for students to raise issues or He/she provides some opportunities concerns to gain their partial 'buy in'.

The delivery will again be well prepared, well rehearsed and perhaps involve multimedia visual aids. There should also be time for some small group discussions. This style of communication is most effective when: It's important that you gain some degree of 'buy in' to new initiatives or ideas. You're dealing with medium term initiatives and there's not quite as much time pressure. The audience comprises staff with growing confidence and/or skill and who would be able to contribute meaningfully to the discussions. Involving Now let's explore the involving style, and the key characteristics of this approach are: The trainer essentially leads the students through a well-defined decision-making process. There is a high level of participation, which ensures the full commitment of all students to the resulting outcomes. Preparation will process to be followed. focus on defining of the desired for end results group and the

There should be plenty and capturing the resulting outputs.

opportunity

small

discussions

This style of communication is most effective when: It's important that you gain a high degree of 'buy in' to new initiatives or ideas. You're dealing with medium-term initiatives and there's not quite as much time pressure. The audience comprises experienced staff with high levels of confidence and/or skill and who contribute meaningfully to the development of the business. Facilitating Now let's move onto the facilitating style and explore its key characteristics: The trainer acts as a facilitator leading the students through a journey of discovery. There is maximum participation and control by the students, which ensures their full commitment. Preparation will focus on the process to be followed since the facilitator will need to respond 'on the hoof as the discussions develop. There should be plenty and capturing the resulting outputs. of opportunity for small group discussions

This style of communication is most effective when: You're breaking new ground, 'blue sky' type of approach.

You have longer timescales with no immediate time pressures.

The audience comprises seasoned professionals who contribute meaningfully to the development of the business. Which to use? In reality you will probably use a variety of these approaches during any one course - what you have to decide is which is most suitable at any particular moment. And of course they each eat up course time at different rates - telling being the quickest and facilitating being the slowest. Timing the course outline Because adult learners have different motivators, and think and process information in different ways, the program developer (as well as the facilitator) must factor this into the learning program. This is commonly set out in a session or training plan . Three key considerations are the need to: 1. 2. 3. follow a logical progression of information intersperse information with other brain stimulation break the information into manageable chunks or segments. Enhance and Support Learning to Achieve Benchmarks Once you have a clear outline of the main knowledge and skills needed, and the content of the program, write the session plan. A session plan will have: time schedule content facilitator activities learner activities assessment strategies assessment criteria resources and aids required. A program delivery plan A program delivery plan (session plan) is a tool to use for designing and developing a learning program. It outlines each component of the program, so you can see a clear breakdown of the program. It may be set against a timeline or it may show a series of sessions that make up the learning program. The outline will clearly show:

the competencies or other benchmarks to be achieved the specific learning outcomes for each session or part of the learning program the content and learning activities for each session the delivery methods for each session workplace tasks or applications practice opportunities assessment points in the program where the learners progress is measured assessment methods and tools used to gather evidence of competency the personnel assigned to facilitate the implementation of each session. The learning strategy may already contain information that can guide the development of your program delivery. The program plan will also provide a basis for designing individual session plans for delivery of the program. Portfolio Activity 27: Research Gather examples of program delivery plan outlines to determine best practice, and put them into your portfolio for each one of them make a critical prcis of their content and delivery so as to enable you to be able to ascertain at a later stage how those types of delivery plans will fit into your delivery methods. Program delivery plan examples you find may be called training plans, session plans, etc. You might also find learning strategies that could be fleshed out to develop a course plan. Compare your findings with other learners in your group and decide what information your program plan will include.

Figure 36: Learning program plan proforma


Name of training/assessment organisation ______________________________________________________________ Title of program _____________________________________________________________________________________ Client (Name, organisation and contact details) _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Purpose of the learning program ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

Learners

Target learners characteristics

Learners special needs

Description

Management strategy

Benchmark information

AQF qualification Training package Benchmarks/ competency standards to be achieved Code Name Status

Content

Overview of content

Structure of content

Resources

Existing resources

Required resources

Delivery and assessment

Delivery strategy

Assessment/evidence gathering

Learning environment

Timeframe

Summary of costs

Program delivery plan

Session

Specific learning outcome s

Learning activities

Resource s

Assessm ent methods/ tools

Delivery method

OHS

Staff

10

11

12

13

Program delivery plan

Session

Specific learning outcome s

Learning activities

Resource s

Assessm ent methods/ tools

Delivery method

OHS

Staff

14

15

16

17

18

19

Review

Reviewersname, organisation and contact details

Time each session By now you've got a better idea of how you intend each session to be delivered - is the trainer simply going to deliver the concepts or will he/she involve the students to a greater or lesser extent? Having settled this, you can move on to the next major step in the design process, which is to allocate a time to each chunk in the outline timetable. So it's time to go back to the notes for the trainer-led sessions and consider each one in turn. Decide how much time each session will need, and then write the time in pencil on the note. Template H: Provisional timings Review the notes you have been developing for the trainer-led sessions, and written in pencil on each one how much time each session will need. Enter your response here, using your notes as prompts

Employing 'unusual' activities This early stage of developing the timetable is a good moment to consider if you are intending to incorporate any 'unusual' activities into the design. If you've decided to include any of these 'unusual' events or activities, such as go-karting, rock climbing, walking on hot coals or horse whispering, you will now need to decide how to build them into your timetable. There are two time issues to consider: The actual activities will take a finite amount of time, which will eat into the precious time you have available. You will almost certainly need to travel to a different location, so you will have to build this in as well. It will take longer than you expect -getting everyone on and off the bus, for example, takes a surprising amount of time. Working into the evening It can be very tempting to schedule work into the evening, especially if

delegates are being invited to stay overnight in a hotel or residential conference centre. 'They can't complain - after all they're being put up in a nice hotel!' You'll often hear managers saying this but this can be selfdefeating as most people's energy levels quickly flag. A pattern which is often suggested is to break from the day session sometime before dinner, then expect people to re-energize themselves after their meal and work late into the evening. Of course, a lot comes down to company culture but, given a choice, it's better to work on to say, 6.30 and then close for the day. This approach also allows delegates to enjoy the leisure facilities which most residential conference centres offer a bonus most delegates relish. If evening working is to be scheduled then try to make it a fun activity. I once had to facilitate a challenging team-building workshop for a team who managed the sales of duty-free products in New South Wales. The sessions during the day were tense and conflict-laden so we had to lighten the mood for the evening. So for the after-dinner event we divided them into four teams, and their challenge was to produce a fun, 5-minute video marketing a new duty-free opportunity for their products in Australia. To add an extra bit of fun each team selected at random two fancy-dress costumes, one male and one female, which had to be woven into the story somehow. The teams chose from: Mexican bandit Panto 'Dame' Olive Oyl Nun Denis the menace Cleopatra Fred Flintstone Convict The cost of hiring the costumes was modest and greatly enlivened the activity. Afterwards we had an Awards Ceremony when 'winners' from various categories were awarded miniature Oscars for their efforts. One of the most notable was the guy who squeezed into Cleopatra's dress - he looked quite stunning! Ebb and flow of energy levels People aren't machines so as a designer you must recognise and work with human energy peaks and troughs. The evening isn't the only time you need to be wary of - there are other times throughout the day when people are more or less active, or more easily stimulated. Some of the obvious guidelines are: Try to limit sessions of input or theory to the morning. Certainly avoid less-active sessions straight after lunch or towards the end of the afternoon. Devote after lunch or late afternoon to active sessions or team working. Have shorter, more frequent breaks instead of infrequent, longer breaks.

If using video you need to have short bursts rather than longer sessions - otherwise you'll feel the energy levels sagging around the room. Be able to keep the ambient light levels in the room - don't turn down the lights or people will fall asleep. Design activities which encourage people to get up, meet and work with different people. Squeeze into the 'envelope' All of these considerations will have an impact on when during the day particular activities are scheduled. So once you've done some adjustments, moving things back or forwards, gradually things will settle down and a pattern will emerge. The next stage can often be quite a surprise! Add up the times from each session and compare it to the total time available for the course. In general you will find that the sum of the parts exceeds the time available. If that's the case you have several options: Option 1. Option 2. Option 3. Option 4. Go back to the course sponsor and ask for the course duration to be extended. Decide which sessions must stay and which must have the full time you've allocated. Decide which sessions must also stay, but for which you can reduce the time you devote to them. Decide which sessions can be relegated to the 'nice to have' category and be delivered if you find you have extra time.

Assuming that you haven't had a sprinkling of 'magic dust' and had the course duration extended, by a combination of options 2, 3 and 4 you will be able to reduce the overall time to fit the time available. Let's turn theory into reality go to your course design. Working with your set of notes, total the time for the individual sessions and, by a process of adding and deleting mould your outline so that it fits the overall time you have available. Sunflower analysis You are aware that you need to get help or support from a wide variety of people to enable you to get the design process under way. To help plan effectively you may wish to use sunflower analysis its called that because the final diagram vaguely resembles a sunflower This is how you start by drawing a circle in the centre of a sheet of A3 paper, in which you write the project or task, Like this;

Figure 37: Sunflower Part 1

Designing your course

Now draw a ring of petals in which you write the names of the people, departments, or organisations whose help or support youll need. There are 8 petals shown but there can be as many as you require. The diagram starts to grow and now looks like this; Figure 38: Sunflower Part 2

Line managers The design team and staff

HR Department

Topic owner

IT Department

Designing your course

Budget holder

Course trainers

Repro graphics

Now add a further ring of petals in which you will write exactly what help or support youll need, for example; Topic owner accurate advice and quick responses to sign-offs. Budget-holder frequent updates, fight for the project and flexibility The design team commitment, creativity, enthusiasm, and time management and staff honest input on work processes and

Line managers genuine feedback.

HR department - up-to-date advice and quick responses to 'sign offs'. IT department - accurate advice and quick solutions to problems. Course trainers - honest input, open attitude to new approaches and creativity. Reprographics - timely, cost-effective, attractive and functional materials Figure 39: Sunflower Part 3

4.2

Determine and confirm delivery strategies and any assessment methods and tools
Figure 40: Why change?

"

We have been doing business this way for years - why change?" Activity 28: Looking at the cartoon above why is it in the best interests of every stakeholder to look at continuous improvement? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Review, Reflect and Improve to Satisfy Client Needs Lets look at the overall purpose of the Training Package or course you have chosen to work with how you have applied it to meet the needs of your client the specific requirements of the Training Package or course the Training Package or course guidelines. It is also important that the three endorsed components of the Training Package - the competency standards, the assessment guidelines and the qualifications framework - relate to each other. How you have done this needs to be clear from the way you have applied them. Selecting Delivery modes To plan performance objectives, design also needs to include a delivery mode. A delivery mode means the choice made about the conditions under which instruction is to be offered. Not to be confused with media or instructional strategy, delivery mode is synonymous with the situation that confronts learners as they learn. The range of delivery modes is not great. There are only four basic choices, according to a classic discussion on this issue (Ellington, 1985): Mass instruction involving many learners Group instruction involving fewer learners Individualised instruction involving only one learner at a time

Direct experience involving real-time learning, such as informal on-the-job training Make a selection of delivery mode based on the performance objectives to be achieved (Figure 41). If many people share the same instructional need, select mass instruction. IT is appropriate, for instance, when everyone in the same organisation should receive the same instruction. If only some people, such as employees in one work unit, require instruction, select group instruction. It is often appropriate for introducing new work methods or new technology. If only one person experiences an instructional need, select individualised instruction. If the need is a minor one not really enough of a chunk of information to warrant preparation of a planned learning experience then rely on such direct experiential methods such as supervisory coaching or on-the-job training to supply learners with what they need to perform competently.

Figure 41: Algorithm for selection of instructional mode.


START

What performance objectives do you want to achieve?

What basic instructional strategy(ies) do you think would be most suitable for achieving these objectives with the people you will be working with, taking account of all relevant factors?

Mass instruction

Individualised instruction

Group learning

Direct experience

Reviewing and Improving Training Packages and accredited courses are comprehensive integrated documents that provide national benchmarks and resources for: Delivery; Assessment, and; qualifications in vocational education and training. They represent national products developed by industry to meet current and emerging skills needs. The intention is to provide closer integration of work and training.

Activity 29: Determine and confirm delivery strategies Answer the following checklist to see if you are close to satisfying your clients needs in regards to determining and confirming delivery strategies

Questions
Have I identified the real needs of my client? Does this Training Package meet those needs? Have I understood the qualifications framework and packaging rules correctly? Have I applied the packaging rules correctly? Do the competency standards chosen meet my client's needs and the packaging rules? Have I applied the competency standards in the most effective way? Does my documentation clearly show what I am doing and why? Could the competency standards be contextualised more? Could the competency standards be contextualised less? Does the contextualisation fit within the Training Package guidelines? Have I considered all the OHS issues? Do I fully understand the assessment guidelines? Have I applied the assessment guidelines in the correct way? Are the links I have made between the qualifications framework, the competency standards and the assessment guidelines clear? Have I contacted all the relevant people I can for help and guidance when needed? Overall, have I used every part of the Training Package in the most effective way to meet my client's needs?

Yes

No

1. When reviewing your analysis and interpretation of the Training Package or course, what issues should you consider? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

2. How can you improve on the process you go through each time you use a Training Package or accredited course? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

4.3

Document the complete learning program in line with organisation requirements


Training records The role of establishing and maintaining a record system is usually the responsibility of a human resources department. However, as a Frontline Manager you will need to establish your own records of training and associated activities. These should include who has been involved in what type of training and some indication of costs. Typical training records would include:

who has been involved as a trainee who has been involved as a trainer the subject areas which have been addressed by training the types of training which have been used the cost of the training any trainee assessments which have been carried out evaluation reports. Records such as these should be able to show you whether all employees have had equal access to training. Do your records show that more men than women have taken part in training? Do they show that the training has tended to focus on a particular range of skill areas and ignored others? Remember that equity and access has to extend to training. Situations may even arise when these training records are required for legal or industrial purposes as in the following two cases.

Case Study An accident has occurred in a warehouse. A newly trained forklift driver has speared a pallet loaded with containers of acid with one of the fork blades. The resulting release of fumes has caused three of the staff to be taken to hospital and the clean-up costs are expected to be substantial. The general manager has decided to dismiss the worker. The supervisor of the section is asked why an incompetent person was allowed to operate the forklift. The reply is that the employee was tested only last week by a qualified workplace assessor and found to be competent. The operator claims that although he felt competent to operate the equipment he had not really been given enough opportunity to practise on this particular type of load. If this claim can be upheld the worker has a good chance of winning a case for unfair dismissal. This will cost the company a lot of money and will affect the future of the training unit. The worst part for the trainer is that she knows that the operator had actually performed the unloading procedure a number of times while training under supervision in the warehouse. All she needs to do is prove it. As well, she has heard that the newly appointed operator was showing off to some mates and had experienced a number of near-misses minutes before the accident. Of course, the mates are not prepared to testify to this fact. Consider a case where, by contrast, good records were kept. Case Study In the enterprise agreement under which you and your team operate there is provision for pay increases with every competency gained. One of the team members has gone to the union delegate protesting that he is ready for testing on a particular competency but that you, his team leader, will not allow him to be assessed. You explain to the union delegate that the person is not ready to be tested; however, you and another of the team members have been providing ongoing training on a regular basis to prepare the person for testing. Unfortunately, the worker is more interested in the pay increase than in learning the skills required and tends not to take the training seriously. The union delegate asks for proof that training has been regularly occurring as you have claimed. On production of the person's training record the delegate advises the member to not waste everybody's time and take the training more seriously in future. You are relieved that an industrial incident did not occur.

Activity 30: Types of training record 1. What records should you keep to support the training that occurs in your work area? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. Do you keep manual or computerised records? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 3. Should employees have access to these records? Why?/Why not? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 4. How can records such as these help with planning? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Activity 31: Designing training records On a separate piece of paper, outline a record sheet to record the formal and informal training that will occur for a typical employee under training in your work group. Include headings for all information that you may wish to include. When you design the form, ensure that the issues arising from the two cases above are covered. 1. Who is going to have access to the training records? Explain. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. Should you include comments on how well a trainee is doing? Why? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

The following page is a suggested way to record training on particular tasks for your work group. You could discuss the matter with your human resource department to allow them to guide you and to ensure that the records you keep complement theirs. Figure 42: Training Record Sheet

Branch/Unit: Name of individual: Task: Ready for formal assessment (date): Result of assessment: SKILL 1 Formal Training On Job Training On Job Training On Job Training On Job Training On Job Training SKILL 2 Formal Training On Job Training On Job Training On Job Training On Job Training On Job Training SKILL 3 Formal Training On Job Training On Job Training On Job Training On Job Training On Job Training Date Comments Init. Date Comments Init. Date Comments Init.

There are a number of factors we need to keep in mind when compiling records of trainees. Remember that these records are very personal and for the system to be accepted by the trainees they must know that the records can only be examined by selected people. For security reasons records must be kept in a secure storage place with access limited to select people. The confidentiality of all that transpires between the trainer and trainee must be maintained and only under unusual circumstances should this confidentiality be breached. All comments on a training record must be professional and relate specifically to the training. Degrading comments, highly subjective comments or inappropriate language must not be used. Activity 32: Evaluating and recording the benefits of training 1. Give two reasons why the effectiveness of training is difficult to measure. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. Devise a question you might ask a candidate to find out whether they found a training session worthwhile. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 3. Should training result in changed behaviour? Please explain. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 4. Who might want/need to know whether training is successful? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 5. Who should have access to training records? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Keeping others informed Part of the planning process involves identifying other people in your organisation who should be kept informed of training activities or who could provide assistance. There is no real substitute for getting out and talking either formally or informally to staff members to find out what they are thinking and how to react to their needs. In these discussions, however, you need to point out that it is the individual who also has to take responsibility for their own learning. What you need to foster is a culture or environment where that individual is prepared to come and talk to you about their needs and desires in regard to training or learning opportunities. Like most aspects of your role, the training function often requires you to liaise with a number of other people in your organisation. You may need to deal with a human resources or training department over matters such as enrolments for training, records of results; with finance on matters such as costing training programs, organising payments for outside trainers; with technical staff for the use of specialised equipment-and the list goes on. If your organisation has a specialist training area it is highly likely that you will seek their advice and assistance in training your own workers. The training manager may have to approve any training you organise and may be involved with its evaluation. Usually, the outcome of an assessment is that someone is deemed competent or they are not. The latter usually means that they have not yet reached the desired standard. This information needs to be relayed to the relevant parties. Who they are will depend upon the reasons for the assessment and the nature of the organisation. Certainly the person being assessed needs to know the result as does their supervisor. It may be that a human resources or training department also keeps records of assessments.

Activity 33: Negotiating modifications to learning plans List those people in your organisation with whom you should consult on training matters. Keep this list on your wall for future reference.

Unit/person

Matters on which you might consult

4.4

Review complete program with key stakeholders and as required


Review criteria The learning program needs to be reviewed against criteria that key stakeholders deem appropriate. Quality criteria to measure in a review process may stipulate that the learning program:

content and structure addresses all aspects required by the units of competency or other benchmarks sequence provides effective and manageable blocks of learning activities are interesting, relevant and appropriate to outcomes and learner characteristics assessment points, methods and tools are appropriate and effective effectively addresses equity needs identifies risk areas and contingencies Evaluation tools Collaborate with your key stakeholders to determine a suitable method to gather the above feedback. It is recommended that an evaluation tool be used to gather the feedback. Examples of evaluation tools include: a questionnairewith open or closed questions a mapping tool a checklist a focus group discussion a structured interview.

Figure 43: Example of an evaluation questionnaire.

LEARNERS Are learners clearly identified? Are all learners needs included? If not, what other needs should be included?

__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

PLANNING Are the chosen units of competency appropriate for the learners and their needs? Does the content and structure address all aspects of the units? Does the learning sequence provide effective and manageable blocks of learning? Does the plan cater for diversity of gender, ethnicity and disability? Are the activities interesting and relevant? Will the activities motivate the learners? Will you be able to contextualise the activities to suit your learner needs?

ASSESSMENT TASKS Will the suggested assessment tasks adequately assess the requirements of the units of competency? Are the assessment tasks:

too detailed?
Will you be able to contextualise the suggested assessment tasks to suit your learner needs?

just right?

not

detailed

enough?

GENERAL Does the program plan identify risks and contingencies? Is the timeframe suitable for the content? Does the costing represent an achievable program?

What are the strengths of the learning plan? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ What are the weaknesses of the learning plan? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Do you have any other comments? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Thank you for the time youve put into reviewing this resource. Your efforts will contribute to the production of resources to meet learner needs.

You or your colleagues may have performed evaluations already for learning programs or within another context. Share current experience amongst the group and identify the pros and cons of different evaluation tools. You may wish to research evaluation tools and find examples to discuss with your group. Reviewers Once you have determined the evaluation tool and the criteria to be used to evaluate the learning program, you need to confirm who will be involved in the review process. Who will you gather feedback from? Depending on the criteria, you may wish to gather feedback from some of the following key stakeholders about the draft learning program: managers, employers, supervisors, team leaders participants, employees, learners

technical and subject experts including language, literacy, numeracy and OHS specialists government regulatory bodies industry, union, employee representatives employer bodies training providers, human resource departments training and/or assessment partners trainers, facilitators, assessors. Portfolio Activity 34: Evaluation tool design Design an evaluation tool that you will use in your practice environment which can be used or modified for future learning program reviews you will perform. You may wish to base the design of your evaluation tool on others you have reviewed or opt for one currently used in your organisation. As a summary, complete the following questions, attach a copy to the evaluation tool you have designed and submit to your trainer/assessor. Review of Learning Program List the people who reviewed the learning program. Describe the evaluation tool used and attach a copy of it.

What communication is required to complete the review process? Explain the steps you took. How will you gather the feedback, analyse the information and then document the findings in a summary format? Adjusting a learning program After undertaking the review process, there may be a number of recommendations made by reviewers. The designer of the program, together with the client or other appropriate personnel, needs to determine what adjustments should be made to the learning program to reflect the review outcomes. The recommendations need to be analysed to determine

whether or not making changes would improve the program. The designer and review panel also need to determine if the time and cost required to adjust the program is feasible. Final approval Once adjustments are made, the designer needs to gain final approval for the learning program from the appropriate personnel. Depending on your practice environment, this may be a: program manager head of department senior teacher apprenticeship or traineeship supervisor training coordinator, manager human resource manager. Activity 35: Final approval Who is the person responsible for giving final approval for the learning programs you design? Speak to this person to clarify the review process with them and how final approval is gained. Ensure all learning programs you design undergo a review phase and are approved by the appropriate person. Detail this final approval below ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

4.5

Ensure a safe learning progression by analysing risks in the learning environment and applying a risk control plan.
Clients and colleagues may need to be supported either financially, or by providing additional time and resources to assist them in their learning activities. Colleagues and clients will also need advice and guidance in selecting the appropriate learning pathway and in applying for RPL/RCC (where relevant). Providing Support and Advice Support and advice to clients and colleagues may take the form of:

financial support time off work to attend classes time off work to study time off work to attend exams counselling in time management counselling in stress management advice on appropriate learning pathways advice on appropriate courses of study advice on pattern of study (part-time, distance, other) advice on recognition of prior learning (RPL) and recognition of current competencies (RCC) advice on payment of tuition fees and loans advice on internal learning opportunities advice on internal mentoring systems advice on internal coaching systems. Activity 36: Deidres workplace is keen to create a culture of learning and is offering subsidised courses of study to selected staff. Deidre is undertaking studies to complete the Frontline Management course. The course is being offered in conjunction with her local university and is coordinated by her training manager. Deidre was advised of the subjects for which she may be eligible for RPL, and has just received the outcome of her assessment, which was successful. Deidres employer has conducted four units of study internally and Deidre has also successfully completed those units. Deidre now has four units outstanding to complete the Certificate IV in Frontline Management. However, her employer will not be conducting any further training sessions and Deidres training manager, Lisa, needs to advise her of her options. Lisa organises a meeting with Deidre to review her progress and document a plan of action.

Lisa suggests Deidre should continue her studies directly with the RTO they have been working with, as she is already enrolled and will only have to pay fees for the individual units of study that she undertakes. Lisa provides Deidre with the name and phone number of the appropriate person for her to talk to about enrolment for the specific units of study required. It is her organisation's policy to provide study assistance and the training manager provides details of this policy to Deidre. 1. How is Deidres organisation supporting her learning? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. Describe what a culture of learning means to you. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 3. List three key elements of support that should be provided to colleagues and clients undertaking learning. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Explore the Benefits of Learning Learning can benefit: individuals colleagues clients supervisors management the organisation. The benefits may include: greater productivity better morale fewer errors less staff turnover increased communication options. Communicating Benefits Depending on the organisation, several strategies can be used to communicate the benefits of learning. Figure 15 illustrates just some of these strategies. Figure 44: Strategies to Highlight the Benefits of Learning

Strategy Reports to management

Description Reports can emphasise the benefit learning has for the organisation, in terms of greater skill and efficiency. Staff newsletters can include reports on training held, comments of participants, and training schedules for the future.

Newsletters

Participant questionnaire Include a question on the benefits a participant gained from training at the end of the training questionnaire. Word of mouth Word of mouth, particularly in a workplace environment, can influence others in a powerful way. Encourage participants to speak to others about the benefits they have gained from training. Reports to supervisors In some organisations, participants need to report back to their immediate supervisor on training, which helps them gauge its effectiveness.

Activity 37: Cathy is the training manager in a large retail chain. She would like to obtain agreement from management to conduct customer service training for all store staff as recent mystery shopping results have shown a drop in standards. However, Cathy usually gets significant resistance from the store managers who do not want staff taken off the floor during work hours. Cathy prepares a detailed benefits statement for the managers and a summary of the mystery shopping results to support her request. 1. What else could Cathy do to communicate the benefits of the customer service training? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. Working in pairs, discuss what benefits you and your organisation have obtained from your learning activities. Discuss below ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 3. Can you think of any ways, other than those mentioned in Figure 39 to communicate the benefits of training? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________ To become a learning organisation both recognition and reward should be provided to staff undertaking learning, as this will foster motivation and enthusiasm. Three questions relevant to motivation are, 1. 2. 3. What are people's basic needs? What do they need from their work? What happens if their needs are not met? Abraham Maslow developed a hierarchy of human needs, one of which is esteem; in the work environment, this can mean job responsibility, recognition, merit awards, praise and authority. For organisations, this can mean recognising what staff want to achieve in their work, and helping them do so. The consequences of not providing the chance to achieve, and not recognising achievement, can be high. Figure 45: Maslows Hierarchy

Recognising Achievement Trainers are always looking for the most effective Training strategies to engage students and improve performance. Through many meta-analyses of action research around various instructional strategies, Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock have identified the methods that result in the most gains in student achievement. Nine Categories for Student Achievement The nine categories found to be the most effective are strategies trainers everywhere use. What makes them more effective are the manners in which they are presented and monitored. Each category is in order of its effectiveness. Identifying Similarities and Differences Defining the best ways to use analogies, Venn diagrams, and compare

and contrast strategies. By modelling and using references to defend the point of view, students develop critical thinking skills. Marzanos research shows this to have the highest percentile gain of all the strategies. Summarizing and Note Taking Training students the most effective way to take notes and summarize learning allows them to transfer and retain knowledge, resulting in the second highest gains for the students. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Marzano asserts that simply rewarding students for excellent work is good, but recognizing effort is even more effective. Students are motivated when effort is rewarded, and they strive to achieve higher goals. Projects and Practice Projects that are directly related to classroom activities and acts as reinforcement and practice that students can complete independently are best. Immediate, daily feedback on the project and practice proves to provide students with the support they need to correct mistakes early, and to reinforce proper procedures. Non-linguistic Representations These include all types of graphic organisers, pictures, and representations of concepts studied in class. It is in the trainer's best professional practice to find the organisers that fit the learning needs of the students and subject. Cooperative Learning Purposeful cooperative learning, where each student has a defined role to play, can be very effective in developing student understanding. However, as with any strategy, Marzano asserts that cooperative learning can be overused, or used ineffectively. He states that using it sparingly, and having each student participate with a purpose, makes it effective. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Setting learning goals and objectives at the beginning of a unit of study helps students to focus on the material important to their learning, and to disregard inessential information. Marzano gives an example of a class that disregarded extraneous information in a unit that was not specified in the learning objectives. This helped the students focus on the core concepts. Generating and Testing Hypotheses When students must predict and infer, creating hypotheses about causes and effects, they develop a deeper understanding of content matter. This can be applied in social studies, language arts, and sciences. Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers Also commonly referred to as activating prior knowledge, using these strategies allow trainers to set a baseline for their students and address the needs of each student as they work through lessons. These examples are broad and should be adapted to the classroom by individual trainers. Using these strategies to guide and improve instructional practice, educators can reach all students and see remarkable gains in their learning. That is the goal of effective training.

Though higher education clearly relies upon the ability of the individual to show a high level of personal motivation and to self-teach, the value of quality contact time with trainers/tutors cannot be undervalued. Much as at school, most students remember a good trainer and all remember a bad one. All of us know members of academic staff who are world class and respected experts in their field of study but who lack the skills to be able to convey this knowledge and passion for their subject to the students they teach. Such a situation is a waste of this expertise and means that neither the trainer nor the taught benefit from their contact time. Simply put, lecturers who are experts in their subject are not necessarily competent trainers. So what makes a good trainer? First, such trainers will recognise that each student will have developed his or her own preferred learning style. To maximise each students learning, good trainers will utilise a wide range of delivery methods and supporting materials. They will also encourage students to experiment with different learning methods in order to develop their ability to use methods with which they are less familiar. A good trainer will also be aware of students specific needs. These may include disabilities such as dyslexia, dyspraxia and other hidden disabilities. There may be other requirements for students whose first language is not English. Finally, a good trainer is one who actively seeks feedback from students, uses this to analyse critically their training styles and methodology and seeks to make improvements on an ongoing basis. Equally importantly, the results of such feedback are given back to students and positive changes are also communicated not just to students but also to peers in the training community of that institution and beyond. The very best trainers seek not only to improve their own techniques but also to improve those of their colleagues through mentoring and similar schemes. Students are becoming ever more conscious of their rights and continue to be more aware of the quality of their learning experience. This in turn places a greater responsibility on training staff to ensure that the lectures, seminars and tutorials they deliver really meet the needs of their students. Current initiatives are encouraging a change in culture but they need the full and willing support of staff across the sector to succeed in the long run. Strategies Strategies for recognising and rewarding achievement will vary between organisations. Some are listed in Figure 46 below.

Figure 46: Recognition and Reward Strategies

Certificates Promotion Addition of new responsibility Article in staff newsletter Pay increase Mention at formal and informal meetings Seek advice and feedback

Activity 38: Dorothy is the HR manager for a law firm. She is currently reviewing the remuneration system for the firm and in conjunction with the training manager she wants to establish a system of recognition and reward for training. This system is to be tied to the salary structure and performance review systems and integrated to form one component on which staff are evaluated and remunerated. Dorothy and the training manager decide to hire a consultancy firm to investigate their ongoing learning and development needs and how this can be integrated to their existing pay and review systems. The consultancy firm will start by sending out a questionnaire to all staff asking for input on learning and development activities. 1. Develop a questionnaire for Dorothy asking for input on learning and development activities. List the questions here. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. Working in pairs, discuss your organisation's approach to communicating and rewarding learning. Explain this approach below ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Monitoring the Risk Control Action Plan By regularly checking on the risk control action plan, you will be able to determine how successful it has been. If no accidents, incidents or damage have occurred, you can learn from the success of the hazards controls in place. If accidents, incidents or damage have occurred, you may need to rethink the controls in place. By doing this risk controls can be continually improved. Monitor the Risk Control Action Plan to Continually Improve It After the initial review of the risk control measures has been completed, regular evaluations must continue to take occur. This will help you work out: if the controls measures in place are working if people are following them. what management think of the controls. what the people who work with the controls think of them. if the controls are still relevant. if the nature of the hazards has changed. Again, you may not have the authority to monitor the effectiveness of the risk control action plan yourself. If this is the case, you should make regular progress checks with the person who is responsible for the monitoring. How to Monitor Risk Controls Assessing whether or not the risk control action plan has achieved its goals of controlling risks can be done in several ways: Consult the workers or learners involved with the controls. Consult management who administer the controls. Check accident and incident reports to see how effective the controls have been.

Check first aid reports to see what kind of treatment was undertaken for any accidents that may have occurred. Physically check the condition of the controls if applicable. Any issues identified through the monitoring process should be addressed as soon as possible. This helps ensure that the risk control action plan remains effective. One person or a committee of people should have clear responsibility for addressing these issues. The monitoring process should be documented on a Monitoring of Risk Controls sheet. This sheet should include detail about: the hazard the controls in place dates of monitoring how the monitoring was done who was consulted and when what documentation was consulted and the dates on the documentation

outcome of the monitoring process how this outcome was determined recommendations who has responsibility for any future action name of the person conducting the monitoring process the date the Monitoring of Risk Controls sheet has been completed.

Figure 47: Risk Rating Table

Consequences
Minor first aid injury or illness, minor damage to equipment or property Medical treatment injury, some damage to equipment or property Long Term Illness or serious injury, major damage to equipment or property

Probability

Very likely Could happen at any time Likely Could happen at times, or a common occurrence Unlikely Could happen occasionally, but rarely does Very unlikely Could happen, but probably won't

Death or Permanent Disability, destruction of equipment or property

1 1 2 3

1 2 3 3

2 2 3 4

3 3 4 4

1 = very high risk 2 = high risk 3 = moderate risk 4 = low risk For example: a situation that is very likely to happen at any time, and if it did happen would result in death or permanent disability, has a risk rating of 1

a hazard that is very unlikely to happen, but if it did happen it would result in minor damage to property, has a risk rating of 4.

Activity 39: 1. Why should the risk control action plan be monitored? __________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. Draft a Monitoring of Risk Controls sheet. Fill it in, based on the risk control you worked with in your action plan as above. Make any assumptions you need to and fill in as much of the sheet as possible.

Reporting and Investigation Procedures to help Prevent Accidents and Incidents Anyone in the learning environment must report any damage, accidents or incidents that occur. This includes: learners management ancillary staff trainers and assessors workers at all levels. A reporting form must be developed and must be accessible to everyone. It is important to: train people how to correctly fill out the form, or assist them in filling it out if training has not yet been completed provide as much detail as possible to help the process of investigation let people know that no damage, accident or incident is too small to report reporting it now could help prevent the same event from occurring on a larger scale in the future make sure a report form is filled out as soon as possible after noticing the hazard or the accident or incident occurring let people know who to give the form to. An investigation must: be conducted by a qualified person, or at least in consultation with a qualified person (such as a technical expert or a safety specialist) occur as soon as possible after receipt of the report form consult the person who reported it consult other people who may be affected involve physical inspection of the relevant location if applicable recommend action as appropriate be thoroughly documented. Hazard/Accident/Incident Reporting Form example

Figure 48: Hazard/Accident/Incident Report Hazard/Accident/Incident Report Completed by: Position: Work location: Describe the hazard, accident or incident? (provide as much detail as possible) Where is it/did it happen? When did you notice the hazard/did the accident or incident occur? day, / / AM/PM What immediate action was taken? What could be or was the result of the hazard, accident or incident? What do you suggest is done about it? Signature of reporter: Date: / / Investigation Undertaken by: . Position: .. In consultation with: . from . (name of person) (organisation or work location) . from . (name of person) (organisation or work location) . from . (name of person) (organisation or work location) How did you investigate the hazard/accident/incident? What is/was the cause? Action recommended by / / Signature of investigator: . Responsibility for action: Action completed (provide details): By: Signed: Date: / /

Date: /

Activity 40: 3. Write a few lines about why an effective reporting and investigation process is essential in any workplace or learning environment. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 4. What should investigation of a hazard, accident or incident involve? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Activity 41: Monitor OHS Arrangements in the Learning Environment 1. Use the Hazard, Accident and Incident Report template provided above Think about an accident or incident you were involved in at work or in a training environment. (Use an accident or incident from your personal life if you can't think of a work or training example.) 2. Fill in a report for the accident or incident including as much detail as possible. Assume an investigation was undertaken, and provide details about what it may have involved. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 3. Identify the OHS documentation available in your organisation. How do you access the OHS documentation relevant to your responsibilities for learners and others in the workplace? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 4. Outline the most recent OHS actions you undertook. How did you know these met your organisation's requirements? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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