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The enormous retail boom in India has given space to many companies who have mushroomed out to benefit from this retail boom, which is nothing but a structured format of the unorganized retail business which is being done in India from ages. Many stores have come up with exquisite interiors, state of the art infrastructure and the best possible brands to the customer which has led to the growth of mall culture in India. The stores try and attract customers by providing them with such services and plethora of options in brands in different categories so that they can retail customers for long and make them loyal towards their retail stores. The retail business is booming in India and there has been remarkable shift in the buying behavior of the people from traditional stores to these departmental stores. It becomes important for the marketers to understand these relationships for successful design and execution of retail strategies. It would also enable the researcher to understand the organized retail formats and consumers buying attitude towards these stores. The data was collected by getting the questionnaire filled by the respondents to find out that what makes them loyal towards organized retail stores and makes them visit organized retail stores again and motivates them to purchase more from here. The purpose of this paper is to raise the question of the relationship between the various factors and how they affect the consumer preference towards the organized retail store.

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Retailing encompasses the business activities involved in selling goods and services to consumers for their personal, family, or household use. It includes every sale to the final consumer. Retailing is the set of activities that adds value to the products and services sold to consumers for their personal or family use. Retailers attempt to satisfy consumer needs by offering the right merchandise, at the right price, at the right place, in the right time. For Indian retailing, things started to change slowly in the 1980s when India first began opening its economy. Textiles sector (which companies like Bombay Dyeing, Raymonds S Kumars and Grasim) was the first to see the emergence of retail chins. Later on, maker of premium watches successfully created an organized retailing concept in India by establishing a series of elegant showrooms. For long, these remained the only organized retailers, but the latter half of 1990s saw a fresh wave of entrants in the retailing business. This time around it was not the manufacturer looking for an alternative sales channel. These were pure retailers with no serious plans of getting into manufacturing. These entrants were in various fields, like Food world, Subhiksha and Nilgris in food and FMCG: Planet M and Music World in music; Crossword and Fountainhead in books.

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As of the year 2011 ending, the size of the organized retail industry was estimated at around Rs 13,000 crore. The various segments that make up the organized retail industry along with their size are in table given below. Retail growth is already gathering momentum and organized retail industry is expected to grow by 30 percent in the next five years and is expected to touch Rs 55,000 crore in 2015. Thus, the growth potential for the organized retailer is enormous.

Segment Textiles and clothings Jewellery Consumer Durables Footwear Food and personal care Non store retail Luggage, watches and tyre Books and music

Market Size (Rs. Crore) 4050 2,000-2,500 1500 1,300-7,500 1,000 900 500 390

Global Retail Industry


The latter half of the 20 Century, in both Europe and North America, has seen the emergence of the supermarket as the dominant grocery retail form. The reasons why supermarkets have come to dominate food retailing are not hard to find. The search for convenience in food shopping and consumption, coupled to car ownership, led to the birth of the supermarket. As incomes rose and shoppers sought both convenience and new tastes and stimulation, supermarkets were able to expand the products offered. The invention of the bar code allowed a store to manage thousands of items and their prices and led to 'just-in-time' store replenishment and the ability to carry tens of thousands of individual items. Computer-operated depots and logistical systems integrated store
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replenishment with consumer demand in a single electronic system. The superstore was born. On the Global Retail Stage, little has remained the same over the last decade. One of the few similarities with today is that Wal-Mart was ranked the top retailer in the world then and it still holds that distinction. Other than Wal-Marts dominance, theres little about todays environment that looks like the mid-1990s. The global economy has changed, consumer demand has shifted, and retailers operating systems today are infused with far more technology than was the case six years ago. Saturated home markets, fierce competition and restrictive legislation have relentlessly pushed major food retailers into the globalization mode. Since the mid-1990s, numerous governments have opened up their economies as well, to the free markets and foreign investment that has been a plus for many a retailer. However, a more near-term concern, has been the global economic slowdown that has resulted from dramatic cutback in corporate IT and other types of capital spending. Consumers themselves have become much more price sensitive and conservative in their buying, particularly in the more advanced economies. From an operational point of view, active practitioners have voiced their opinion that retailer concerns in 2003 have turned to deflation, lack of pricing power, global overcapacity, low interest rates, economic stagnation, slump in world tourism and declining consumer confidence. But, even before the global economic slowdown that forced retailers into monitoring costs more effectively, technological advances were a way of life in retail organizations. Technology has become the real enabler for retailers over the last six years. Supply chain innovations for retailers were particularly strong in the second half of the 1990s and have continued into today. With all the emphasis on technology and cost-cutting, a major thrust of retailers continues to be demand-based i.e. finding new markets through globalization efforts. Four years ago, more than half (53 per cent) of the top 200 retailers operated in only one country. Today, only 44 per cent remain single-country merchants. This globalization trend can only intensify in the years ahead. The benefits of increased sales and greater economies of scale are too large to be ignored. The global retail industry has traveled a long way from a small beginning to an industry where the world wide retail sale alone is valued at $ 7 trillion. The top 200 retailers alone account for 30% of worldwide demand. Retail sales being generally driven by peoples ability (disposable income) and willingness (consumer confidence) to buy, compliments the fact that the money spent on household consumption worldwide increased 68% between 1980 and 2003. The leader has in-disputably been the USA where some two-thirds or $6.6 trillions out of the $10 trillions American economy is consumer spending. About 40% of that ($3 trillions) is spending on discretionary products and services. Retail turnover in the EU is approximately Euros 2000 billion and the sector average growth looks to be following an upward pattern. The Asian economies (excluding Japan) are expected to grow at 6% consistently till 2005-06. Positive forces at work in retail consumer markets today include high rates of personal expenditures, low interest rates, low unemployment and very low inflation. Negative factors that hold retail sales back involve weakening consumer confidence.

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The global general merchandise store sector generated a market value of $1,375 billion in 2005, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.8% during the period 20012005, outperforming the 4.7% CAGR of the entire global retail industry in the same period. Moving into the future, the sectors growth is set to decelerate slightly. Apparel and footwear forms a leading sub-sector for the global general merchandise store sector group. The apparel and footwear market generated revenues of $311.7 billion in 2005, representing 22.7% of the market value of global general merchandise store sector. Groceries and F&B also contributed significantly to the sectors value, with revenues of $255.9 billion in 2005, representing 18.6% of the sector market value. Demand for these goods is expected to grow with population levels and exhibit relatively little price elasticity of demand. Drug, health and beauty aids formed the third lucrative sub-sector group contributing 10.5% of the sectors market value. US is leading growth generating revenues of $520.4 billion in 2005, representing 40.3% while Europe accounted for 34% and Asia Pacific 14.5%. The global department store sector exhibited modest growth during the period 20012005, and is forecast to have a sluggish growth in the future. The industry sector generated a market value of $491.5 billion in 2005, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.8% during 2001-2005, which is lower than the 4.7% CAGR of the entire global retail industry in the same period. The relatively sluggish performance was attributed in part to competition from other modes of retail, such as online shopping, and also to declining customer traffic in the US shopping malls. US market was the largest driving force to account for 48.4% of the global department store sector industry in 2005, corresponding to $237.9 billion. In comparison, Asia-Pacific generated 24.1% of the sectors market value. India has a retail market value of US$7 billion with 12 million retail outlets. Retailers of organized formats such as department stores, discounters, big boxes, and specialty stores, constitute only 3% of the Indian retail market. More than 80% of the countrys retail market is run by small family businesses using household labour. According to Ernst & Young, India is the 4th largest economy in the world in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). India's consumer products market is expected to grow to S$400 billion by 2010, making it one of the five largest markets in the world. The research company expects India to become the 3rd by 2010, just behind the US and China. Chinas total retail market grew 88.47% in current terms to RMB 5.387trn in1997 and 2004 representing an annual average growth rate of 10.87%. At constant 1996 prices, the market grew by 88.64% over the same period an average annual rate of 9.52%. Large-scale operation requirement and heavy capital investment have limited local entrants into Chinas mass merchandising market. As a result, foreign retailers such as Wal-Mart and Carrefour run most of the hypermarket businesses in China. A small handful of local players in hypermarkets include Shanghai Lianhua Century Hypermarket and Beijing Hualian Hypermarket.

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The U.S. has Wal-Mart. France has Carrefour. Each country has a retailer that has become the biggest and best, and the one to catch up to. Some of the major countries with their top retailers are mentioned below: United States Wal-Mart Stores (Fortune 1) Cash and Carry/Warehouse Club, Discount Department Store, Hypermarket/Supercenter/Superstore, Supermarket. The top retailer in the U.S. is also the largest retailer in the world, using total annual revenue as the measure. Australia Woolworths Ltd. Convenience/Forecourt Store, Discount Department Store, Electronics Specialty, Other Specialty, Supermarket. Brazil Comanhia Brasileira de Distribuicao SA Grupo Pao De Acucar Convenience/Forecourt Store, Electronics Specialty, Hypermarket/Supercenter/Superstore, Supermarket. Canada Loblaw Companies, Ltd. Cash & Carry/Warehouse Club, Discount Store, Hypermarket/Supercenter/Superstore, Supermarket. China Bailian Group Convenience/Forecourt Store, Department Store, Home Improvement, Hypermarket/Supercenter/Superstore, Supermarket. France - Carrefour (Fortune 33) Cash and Carry/Warehouse Club, Discount Department Store, Hypermarket/Supercenter/Superstore, Supermarket, convenience/forecourt store. Germany - Metro AG (Fortune 56) Apparel/Footwear Specialty, Cash & Carry/Warehouse Club, Department Store, Electronics, Specialty, Hypermarket/Supercenter/Superstore, Other Specialty, Supermarket. Mexico Organizacion Soriana S.A. de C.V. Cash & Carry/Warehouse Club, Hypermarket/Supercenter/Superstore. Russia X5 Retail Group N.V. Convenience/Forecourt Store, Discount Store, Hypermarket/Supercenter/Superstore, Supermarket. South Africa Pick n Pay Stores Ltd. Apparel/Footwear Specialty, Convenience/Forecourt Store, Drug Store/Pharmacy, Home Improvement, Hypermarket/Supercenter/Superstore, Other Specialty, Supermarket. United Kingdom Tesco Convenience/Forecourt Store, Department Store, Discount Department Store, Hypermarket/Supercenter/Superstore, Supermarket.
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Retailing as an industry Retailing is world's largest private industry with annual sales over $ 6600 billion. WalMart annual sales are over $ 250 billion. It has share of 2.3% of U.S. G.D.P. There are nine retailers in Fortune 100, which highlights the importance of retailing as category. According to a market estimate after agriculture, retail is the largest single sector, both in term of turnover or will as employment in India. With market size of $200 billion, the report said Indian retail industry is in revolution phase. Organized retailing in India, which account for less than 4%, is likely to grow four fold in the next five years. That means it will grow from current size of around $4 billion (Rs. 17,000 Crore) to around $15 billion (Rs. 66000 Crore) the neighborhoods corner shops estimated at 70 million across the country, and village Melas characterize the unorganized and fragmented nature of retailing in India.

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1) K. Raheja Group a) Shoppers stop b) Home Stop c) Mother care d) Hyper city e) Crossword f) Planet M 2) Tata Trent a) Westside b) Star India Bazaar c) Landmark 3) RPG Group a) Spencers supermarket b) Spencers daily c) Spencers hypermarket d) Music world

4) Reliance Group a) Reliance fresh

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b) Subhiksha 5) Bharti Group 6) Aditya Birla Group 7) Caf Coffee Day 8) Pantaloon retail (I) Pvt. Ltd a) Pantaloons b) Big bazaar c) Food bazaar d) Fashion station e) All f) Blue sky g) E Zone h) Collection I i) Home Town j) Central Mall 9) Godrej Group a) Godrej Aadhar b) Natures Basket


Modern Format retailers Supermarkets Hypermarkets Department Stores Specialty Chains Company Owned Company Operated (Food world) (Big Bazaar) (S Stop) (Ikea)

Traditional Format Retailers

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Kiranas: Traditional Mom and Pop Stores Kiosks Street Markets Exclusive /Multiple Brand Outlets

Hypermarket Big Bazaar Giants Star

Department store Lifestyle Pantaloons Piramyds Shoppers Stop Trent

Entertainment Fame Adlabs Fun Republic PVR The largest form of organized retailing today is located mainly in metro cities, in proximity to urban outskirts which ranges from 60,000 sq ft to 7,00,000 sq ft and above. They lend an ideal shopping experience with an amalgamation of product, service and entertainment, all under a common roof. Examples include Shoppers Stop, Piraymd, Pantaloon.

Departmental Stores are expected to take over the apparel business from exclusive brand showrooms. Among these, the biggest success is K Raheja's Shoppers Stop, which started in Mumbai and now has more than seven large stores (over 30,000 sq. ft) across India and even has its own in store brand for clothes called Stop!. Large stores ranging from 20000-50000 sq. ft, catering to a variety of consumer needs.

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Hypermarket/ supermarket Large self service outlets, catering to varied shopper needs are termed as Supermarkets. These are located in or near residential high streets. These stores today contribute to 30% of all food & grocery organized retail sales. Super Markets can further be classified in to mini supermarkets typically 1,000 sq ft to 2,000 sq ft and large supermarkets ranging from of 3,500 sq ft to 5,000 sq ft. having a strong focus on food & grocery and personal sales.

Convenience stores These are relatively small stores 400-2,000 sq. feet located near residential areas. They stock a limited range of high-turnover convenience products and are usually open for extended periods during the day, seven days a week. Prices are slightly higher due to the convenience premium

Specialty stores Chains such as the Bangalore based Kids Kemp, the Mumbai books retailer Crossword, RPG's Music World and the Times Group's music chain Planet M, are focusing on specific market segments and have established themselves strongly in their sectors.

Discount stores As the name suggests, discount stores or factory outlets, offer discounts on the MRP through selling in bulk reaching economies of scale or excess stock left over at the season. The product category can range from a variety of perishable/ non-perishable goods MBOs Multi Brand outlets, also known as Category Killers, offer several brands across a single product category. These usually do well in busy market places and Metros.

Department Stores

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A department store is a retail establishment which specializes in satisfying a wide range of the consumer's personal and residential durable goods product needs; and at the same time offering the consumer a choice multiple merchandise lines, at variable price points, in all product categories. Department stores usually sell products including apparel, furniture, appliances, electronics, and additionally select other lines of products such as paint, hardware, toiletries, cosmetics, photographic equipment, jewellery, toys, and sporting goods. Certain department stores are further classified as discount department stores. Discount department stores commonly have central customer checkout areas, generally in the front area of the store. Department stores are usually part of a retail chain of many stores situated around a country or several countries.

Shopping malls A shopping mall or shopping centre is a building or set of buildings which contain retail units, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit.

Specialty Chains A Specialty Chains is numbers stores which are specialized in a specific range of merchandise and related items. Most stores have an extensive width and depth of stock in the item that they specify in and provide high levels of service and expertise. They differ from department stores and supermarkets which carry a wide range of merchandise.


Retailing in India is at a nascent stage of its evolution, but within a small period of time certain trends are clearly emerging which are in line with the global experiences. Organized retailing is witnessing a wave of players entering the industry. These players are experimenting with various retail formats. Yet, Indian retailing has not been able to come up with many successful formats that can be scaled up and applied across India. Some of the notable exceptions have been garment retailers like Madhura garments & Raymonds who has scaled their exclusive showroom format across the country.

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Experimentation with formats Retailing in India is still evolving and the sector is witnessing a series of experiments across the country with new formats being tested out; the old ones tweaked around or just discarded. Retailers are also trying out smaller versions of their stores in an attempt to reach a maximum number of consumers. Crossword bookstores are experimenting with Crossword Corner, to increase reach and business from their stores. Foodword is experimenting with a format of one fourth the normal size called Foodword Express.

Store design Irrespective of the format, the biggest challenge for organized retailing is to create an environment that pulls in people and makes them spend more time shopping and also increases the amount of impulse shopping. Research across the world shows that the chances of senses dictating sales are as much as 10-15% for certain categories. This reason is good enough for organized retailers to bring in professional designers while developing a new property. And, that is why retail chains like Musicworld, Baristal, Piramyd and Globus and laying major emphasis and investing heavily in store design. Musicworld spent three months in college campus and metros studying the market and talking to youngsters before starting work. The brand identity was created after extensive research: a logo was designed and the look of the stores across the country was decided upon. Apart from the visual , the functionality, of the store design was also taken care of. Listening posts have been created for people to listen to their favorite album and an area in the centre of the stores has been earmarked for celebrity visits and promotions.

Emergence of Discount stores What does Subhiksha did in Chennai, Margin free in Kerala and recent entrants like Bombay Bazaar in Mumbai, RPGs- Giant in Hyderabad, Big Bazaar in Kolkata, Hyderabad and Bangalore have in common? Their products are below MRP. Discount stores have finally arrived in India and they are expected to spearhead the revolution in organized retailing. Though this segment is growing, it is small compared to international standards where around 60 percent of the business comes from this format. Internationally, the largest retailer in the world Wal-Mart is a discounter. These discount stores have advantages of price, assortment dominance and quality assurance
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and have the ability to quickly build scale and pass on the benefits. However, the success would be for retailers who are able to build the scale fast and manage their operations efficiently while offering value to the customer consistently.

Unorganized retailing is getting organized To meet the challenges of organized retailing that is luring customers away from the unorganized sector, the unorganized sector is getting organized. 25stores in Delhi under the banner of Provision mart are joining hands to combine monthly buying. Bombay Bazaar and Efoodmart have also been formed which are aggregations of kiranas. In a novel move, six Delhi based restaurants have come together and formed a consortium: NFC, to promote New Friends Colony, a posh locality in the Capital, as a branded place in town. The aim is to increase footfalls in the area, which is fast placing its shine to its closest and upcoming destinations such as large cineplexes, and malls, which are backed by the corporate house such as Ansals and PVR.

Challenges of Retailing in India

Retailing as an industry in India has still a long way to go. To become a truly flourishing industry, retailing needs to cross the following hurdles: Automatic approval is not allowed for foreign investment in retail. Regulations restricting real estate purchases, and cumbersome local laws. Taxation, which favors small retail businesses. Absence of developed supply chain and integrated IT management. Lack of trained work force. Low skill level for retailing management. Intrinsic complexity of retailing rapid price changes, constant threat of product obsolescence and low margins. The retailers in India have to learn both the art and science of retailing by closely following: How retailers in other parts of the world are organizing, managing, and coping up with new challenges in an ever-changing marketplace. Indian retailers must use innovative retail formats to enhance shopping experience, and try to understand the regional variations in consumer attitudes to retailing. Retail marketing efforts have to improve in the country - advertising, promotions, and campaigns to attract customers; building loyalty by identifying regular
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shoppers and offering benefits to them; efficiently managing high-value customers; and monitoring customer needs constantly, are some of the aspects which Indian retailers need to focus upon on a more pro-active basis. Despite the presence of the basic ingredients required for growth of the retail industry in India, it still faces substantial hurdles that will retard and inhibit its growth in the future. One of the key impediments is the lack of FDI status. This has largely limited capital investments in supply chain infrastructure, which is a key for development and growth of food retailing and has also constrained access to world-class retail practices. Multiplicity and complexity of taxes, lack of proper infrastructure and relatively high cost of real estate are the other impediments to the growth of retailing. While the industry and the government are trying to remove many of these hurdles, some of the roadblocks will remain and will continue to affect the smooth growth of this industry. Fitch believes that while the market share of organised retail will grow and become significant in the next decade, this growth would, however, not be at the same rapid pace as in other emerging markets. Organised retailing in India is gaining wider acceptance. The development of the organised retail sector, during the last decade, has begun to change the face of retailing, especially, in the major metros of the country. Experiences in the developed and developing countries prove that performance of organised retail is strongly linked to the performance of the economy as a whole. This is mainly on account of the reach and penetration of this business and its scientific approach in dealing with customers and their needs. In spite of the positive prospects of this industry, Indian retailing faces some major hurdles (see Table 1), which have stymied its growth. Early signs of organized retail were visible even in the 1970s when Nilgiris (food), Viveks (consumer durables) and Nallis (sarees) started their operations. However, as a result of the roadblocks (mentioned in Table 1), the industry remained in a rudimentary stage. While these retailers gave the necessary ambience to customers, little effort was made to introduce world-class customer care practices and improve operating efficiencies. Moreover, most of these modern developments were restricted to south India, which is still regarded as a Mecca of Indian Retail.

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Seasons of Retailing Summer Season

Its usually from May to July. Low sales are recorded during this period. This season is good for promotions and launching new advertisement campaigns.

Fall Season

August and September are important months. Retailers are provided a good opportunity to increase their share.
It begins usually at the end of October and carries through the fourth quarter ending in January. Festivals like Dusherra, Diwali, Halloween, Christmas and New Year Eve bring more customers. Usually its the best time for retailers.

Holiday Season

Spring Season
It lasts from February to May Fewer footfalls are recorded in malls.

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Consumer behavior refers to the mental and emotional process and the observable behavior of consumers during searching, purchasing and post consumption of a product or service. Consumer behavior involves study of how people buy, what they buy, when they buy and why they buy. It blends the elements from psychology, sociology, sociopsychology, anthropology and economics. It also tries to assess the influence on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups and society in general. Buyer behavior has two aspects: the final purchase activity visible to any observer and the detailed or short decision process that may involve the interplay of a number of complex variables not visible to anyone. Factors Affecting Consumer Buying Behavior

Consumer buying behavior is influenced by the major three factors: Social Factors Psychological Factors Personal Factors.

A. Social Factor Social factors refer to forces that other people exert and which affect consumers purchase behavior. These social factors can include culture and subculture, roles and family, social class and reference groups. B. Psychological Factors These are internal to an individual and generate forces within that influence her/his purchase behavior. The major forces include motives, perception, learning, attitude and personality. C. Personal Factors These include those aspects that are unique to a person and influence purchase behavior. These factors include demographic factors, lifestyle, and situational factors.

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1. Potential to be the third largest economy in terms of GDP in next few years.

2. It ranks high amongst the top 10 FDI destinations of the world.

3. Fastest growing tourist market in Asia.

4. World bank states, India to be worlds second largest economy after China by the year 2050.

5. Stable and investor friendly Central Government at the helm of affairs.

6. Introduction of Value Added Tax or VAT and tax reforms.

7. High degree of professionalism and corporate ethics.

8. Excellent Investment opportunities in Indian retail sector and in allied sectors; sure and high returns on investments.

9. To invest US $130 billion for the development of infrastructure, by year 2010.

10. Bullish stock markets.

11. Hordes of foreign investors are thronging in to invest in Indian retail markets.

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12. Highly educated English speaking young workforce.

13. Vibrant and multi cultured cities.

14. Huge opportunity exists, especially in semi-rural and rural areas.

15. Till date the second largest employer after agriculture sector, for the huge semiskilled Indian population.

16. Offers highest shop density in the whole world.

17. Having almost 1,20,000 shops, across the length and breadth of the country.

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Retail comes from the French word retailer which refers to "cutting off, clip and divide" in terms of tailoring. It first was recorded as a noun with the meaning of a "sale in small quantities" in. Its literal meaning for retail was to "cut off, shred, paring. Like the French, the word retail in both Dutch and German (detail Handel and Einzelhandel respectively) which also refer to sale of small quantities of items.The retail sector in India has been hailed as one of the sun shine sector today. Global consultancy major, AT Kearney recently identified India as the ``second most attractive retail destination'' from among 30 emergent markets. It has made India the cause of a good deal of excitement and the cynosure of many foreign eyes. With a contribution of 14 per cent to GDP and employing 7 per cent of the total workforce or 42 million (only agriculture employs more) in the country, the retail industry is definitely one of the pillars of the economy. If numbers are to be believed, Indias retail industry is estimated at about USD 350 billion and forecast to be double by 2015. After agriculture, retail is the largest source of employment and has deep penetration into rural India. Retailing contributes to 10% of GDP. As per Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM), the overall retail market is expected to grow by 36%. The organized sector is expected to register growth amounting to Rs 150 billion by 2013. The total size of the market is also expected to increase to Rs 14,790 billion from the current level of Rs 5,880 billion. Retail is amongst the fastest growing sectors in the country and India ranks 1st, ahead of Russia, in terms of emerging markets potential in retail. Not only is it the largest component of the services sector, but is also double the size of the next largest broad economic activity in the services sector. The Indian retail market, which was largely unorganized till recently, has undergone an immense transformation in the post liberalization era. Given the attractiveness of the Indian retail sector, foreign retailers like Wal-Mart, Carrefour SA, Europe's largest retailer and Tesco Plc, the UK's largest retailer, were keen to enter this growing market.The retail environment is changing more rapidly than ever before (Dabholkar, 1996). It is characterized by intensifying competition from both domestic and foreign companies, a spate of mergers and acquisitions, and more sophisticated and demanding customers
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who have great expectations related to their consumption experiences (Sellers, 1990; Smith, 1989). Consequently, retailers today must differentiate themselves by meeting the needs of their customers better than the competition. There is general agreement that a basic retailing strategy for creating competitive advantage is the delivery of high service quality (e.g., Berry, 1986; Hummel and Savitt, 1988; Reichheld and Sasser, 1990). Before looking at the markets themselves it is first necessary to define what is meant by retailing. The purpose of retail shops or markets for any commodity is to provide an environment for looking at and buying merchandise that is displayed for sale. With a conventional shop, including a large-scale supermarket, there is usually a sales area where goods are displayed, a shop front used for advertising the goods and a service area where goods can be received, re-packed and stored. With a market stall these functions occur at one place. Or in other words, retailing offers a bundle of products and product benefits at one point to its customer In modern retailing, a key strategic choice is the format. Innovation in formats can provide an edge to retailers. Organized retailers in India are trying a variety of formats, ranging from discount stores to supermarkets to hypermarkets to specialty chains. In commerce, a retailer buys goods or products in large quantities from manufacturers or importers, either directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells individual items or small quantities to the general public or end user customers, usually in a shop, also called store. Retailers are at the end of the supply chain. Marketers see retailing as part of their overall distribution strategy. Retailing It consists of all activities involved in selling goods and services to end consumers for their personal, family, or household use. Retailing (organized & unorganized) can take place in any of the following possible formats like Mom-and-Pop , Mass Discounters, Warehouse Stores , Category Killers Department Stores , Boutique Catalog Retailers, E-tailors, Franchise , Convenience, Vending Hypermarkets, and Supermarkets etc.

Success of retail depends upon Store image formed by the customer in their mind. Retail store image can be described as the series of mental pictures and feelings that a store evokes within the beholder. In other words it is the overall perception of customers about a Retail store which is the result of Physical characteristics of a store such as its brand name, logo, symbol, layout, presentation, signing, displays, entrances, events, flooring, cleanliness etc as well as other variables
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related to employee behavior within the store

image has been defined and

operationalized in a myriad ways. Martineau, 1958 was among the first to link store image or what he called as personality of the store, to the image that a shopper has of oneself. Martineau suggested that a shopper is unable to differentiate based only on price amongst various grocery stores and would tend to shop at that store which is congruent with the self image. The shopper seeks the store whose image is most congruent with the image she has of herself. Some stores may intimidate her; others may seem beneath her. A store may be acceptable for one type of goods and not for others. A model proposed by Huff, in 1964 states that customer patronage is directly proportional to utility factors given by square feet and inversely proportional to disutility factors given by physical distance. Applebaum, 1966 studied that the limits to enhancing loyalty can essentially be seen as the limited centripetal pull of a store/shopping centre.

Hubbard, 1978 researched on location-related variables to conclude that customers give more importance to location related variables in analyzing both trade areas and retail patronage behavior. These studies most often count the benefits of locating a store in a shopping centre/mall to increase the store destination traffic rather than just stay with the convenience pull. The same work was further supported by Gautschi, 1981 to determine that shopping centre traffic more accurately than single store traffic. The Huff model has subsequently been studied by introducing trade overlap areas for effects on store patronage. (Bucklin, 1971). Generically speaking, these studies have resulted in the formation of the Theory of Gravitational Pull in the field of retailing patronage studies. Moore and Barry, 1969 fount out that apart from distance, several other factors such as Income and social class perceptions have also affect retail centre patronage decisions.

Arnold et al.1983, Craig et al. 1984, Louviere and Gaeth, 1987 studied the effect of product characteristics on store patronage. They concluded that within a given trade area, the uniqueness of assortment is a way of influencing store loyalty and patronage. In consumer priorities, assortment and variety comes after convenience and price. Given that consumers are favorably inclined to revisit a store where they have had positive shopping experiences (found something they could not find anywhere
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else), these studies suggest that competing stores need to differentiate themselves based on type and quality of assortment. Several studies (Kunkel and Berry-1968,

Reynolds, Darden and Martin, Korgaonkar, Lund and Price-1985) have report direct linkages between Store Image and intensity of Store Loyalty. Thus, we can conclude that more positive the Store Image the greater is the degree of loyalty. M.Z. Osman, 1993 proposed a model that showed patronage as a result of past purchasing experience and the customers (favorable) image of the store. He stressed that Patronage behavior is the culmination of Past purchase experience and the congruity of the Store Image between the retailer and the consumer.

Miller and Ginter, 1979 in his study found that situational factors impact consumer characteristics and produce significantly varying store choice and shopping trip behavior. Usage context has been considered as a critical factor determining consumer preferences and satisfaction In 1981, Hirschman and Krishnan, concluded that Evaluating Store Image on purely objective criteria without accounting for individual subjectivity would lead to insufficient and maybe erroneous information to retailers.Several studies (Stone, 1954, Darden and Reynolds, 1971 and Darden and Ashton 1974) have found correlations between shopping orientations and life style, with store loyalty and preferences for stores. A study by Moschis (1976) found that shopping orientation correlates differently with the information mix elements- varying with source, source credibility, preference for a source by some consumers and usage of such information.

Popkowski, L. and Timmermans-1997, Kim and Park-1997 concluded that Store choice and shopping trip timing decisions tend to differ for individuals and households as a result of personal differences, household composition and activity patterns. In a research in 1989 Kahn and Schmittlein, quoted Store Choice is dependent on the timing of shopping trips, as consumers may go to a smaller local store for short fill-in trips and go to a larger store for regular shopping trips. According to Popkowski, Sinha and Timmermans-2000, personal differences interact with situational factors and together they determine the store choice and shopping trip behaviour.

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Several studies show that store choice is affected by the past experiences of the consumer. Aaker and Jones, 1971, quote from an unpublished dissertation by Rao, (Rao, Tanniru R., Modeling Consumers Purchase behaviour as a Stochastic Process 1968) A consumers selection of a storeis not completely random. The more recent her purchase experienceand the more frequent her visits to the store, the more she is likely to repurchase that product in that store. This shows that past experience influence store choice and trip pattern to change, alter or reinforce the new shopping experience. Thus we can say that Consumer Characteristics interact with Situational Variables to impact how information about the retail mix elements is processed, resulting in store choice and trip patterns.

The concept of store loyalty is derived originally from the brand loyalty concept which refers to the tendency to repeat purchase the same brand. Osman in his review paper, concludes that at the store level, it refers to the tendency to repeat purchase at the same Store for similar or other products. Borrowing from the concepts of loyalty and commitment from the field of Organizational Behavior, there is inherently a large affective component in loyalty. Amongst others factors, it has elements of trust as built over a period of time (repeated experiences at the store) and is relatively stable over a long period of time. A loyal customer would give priority to the specific store over competition. Though much work has been done there is still no clear conceptualization of what store loyalty means. Reynolds, Darden, Martin in 1974 found out that store loyalty has been related to store patronage dimensions i.e. repeat purchase over time indicates loyalty as related to attitudes where as research by Tidwell and Horgan, in 1992 indicated brand loyalty as an attitude which may result in a purchase behavior. Most often it has been taken to imply a mix of both behaviour and attitude. Ajzen and Fishbein, provided a model of attitude comprising three elements: affect, cognitive and behavioural. According to Piron quoting from the work by Lewison, all these three components of attitude contribute to Loyalty. A model by Dick and Basu ,conceptualized loyalty as the relationship between relative attitude and patronage behaviour. Studies by Cunningham, Ennis and Gordon, Reynolds et al., found that it is beneficial for a store to identify and retain its loyal customers. Enis and Gordon found that store loyal consumers spent a larger portion of their total expenditure at the store. Tate, as stated in the paper by Reynolds, Darden and
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Martin, 1974, found that loyalty implies an increased number of shopping trips as compared to other stores. Studies into demographic and socio-economics found that they explain very little of the loyalty and patronage behaviour and neither are they a useful basis for segmentation. Store Image has found significant attention. It has been the focus of much research. According to Korgaonkar, Lund and Price-1985 A consumer could display patronage behavior and yet not be loyal. This spurious loyalty is indistinguishable from intended loyalty in the short term and occurs due to price offers and heavy promotions. Deal prone consumers would shift to a store that offers the best price/discounts though over a short period of time they may have the same shopping patterns as loyal customers. Loyalty (henceforth used to mean intended loyalty) is the prime attitudinal objective that every marketer/retailer aims for with his marketing/retail mix elements. Loyalty assures a retailer of patronage, of not just constancy and longevity of his business but creates an effective competitive advantage and an entry barrier which is difficult to erode.

Mathew Joseph and Manisha Gupta_September 2008: The Indian retail sector is booming and modernizing rapidly in line with Indias economic growth. In this review the author talked about the impact of organized retailing on traditional retailing. With the increase in number of various formats for shopping like malls, departmental stores, hypermarkets etc the Indian consumers preferences are changing towards and thats the reason foreign investors like the king of retail Wal-Mart also came into the Indian retail ground in collaboration with Bharti. There is a huge untapped market is present in India right now which contains a number of opportunities for retailers.

Sen-2000: Store Image and Consumer Shopping Habits: Indian Context: In India, some empirical studies provide important information about consumer behavior and its responses to the development of organized retail. Economical and social changes are major contributors for a growing fragmentation of consumers into multiple segments with different values and buying priorities. Consumers have become more pragmatic, educated and demanding, learning how to manage money and time more efficiently. The focus on low prices was gradually replaced by a value for money perspective. The study developed by ETIG (Economic Times Intelligence Group, 2002) confirms these tendencies. Concerning food, the most important attribute mentioned was quality,
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followed by price. Indian consumer has different reasons for preferring different store formats, either modern or traditional; Sen (2000) confirms this in the study undertaken in Indian context. He confirms that in the case of hypermarkets, the main motives for preferences, in decreasing order are low prices, the possibility of buying everything in the same place and the general appearance of the store. Several investigations emphasize the possible coexistence of different store formats (Chandrasekhar, 2001) and others point out the relationship between the type of store and the type of products. These studies show that, while specialized and traditional stores are preferred for fresh products, hypermarkets are preferred for shopping in general, and also for frozen food, groceries and beverages. The purchase of perishables in hypermarkets is reduced.

Radhakrishnan, 2003: Traditional Retailers Perceptions about Organized Retail As already mentioned, organized retail has deeply changed the Indian commercial structure. However, it is not exclusively responsible, as other changes (economical, social and cultural ones) have occurred simultaneously. Concerning the more direct effects of organized retail on different types of commerce, it is possible to verify that the major impact is felt on traditional retail and, in particular, on the food sector. The impact of organized retail is also significant on other types of retail, namely toys, stationery goods and household appliances; moreover, it is probable that competition gets more intense in other sectors, such as clothing and furniture.

RNCOS (March 15, 2009/24-7 press releases): Increasing trend of organized retailing will drive the growth of convenience-store industry in the world. By 2011, Asia remains the fastest growing convenience store market in the world as the major Asian retail markets registered explosive growth in opening up of new convenience store. Changing consumer preferences, lifestyle and rising income level, which is heavily influenced by economic growth, remains the major driving force for c-store industry in the Asian region. as per "Global Convenience Store Market Analysis".

Researchers have looked into the importance of customer satisfaction (Kotler, 2000) defined satisfaction as persons feelings of pleasure or disappointment results from comparing a products perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her

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expectations. The key of achieving organizational goals consists in determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfaction more effectively and efficiently than competitors (Kotler, 1991,p.10) Muhammad Ali Tirmizi, Kashif-ul-Rehman, M.Iqbal saif (2009), in their study on An Empirical Study of Consumer Impulse Buying Behavior in Local Markets have clearly indicated that there exists a weak association between consumer lifestyle, fashion involvement and post decision stage of customer purchasing behaviour with the impulsive buying behaviour. Johan Anselmsson (2006) on sources of customer satisfaction with shopping malls, a comparative study of different customers segments, a study mainly focused on customer satisfaction and visit frequency at shopping malls among customer segments based on age and gender. It was found eight underlying factors are important to customer satisfaction. Those are selection, atmosphere, convenience, sales people, refreshments, location, and promotional activities and merchanding policy. Graeme D.Hutcheson and Luiz Moutinho (1988) study on measuring preferred store satisfaction using consumer choice criteria as mediating factors attempts to model causal effect that consumers perception of choice criteria used to determine supermarket patronage has on the levels of perceived satisfaction with a preferred store. The likely importance of quality and value for money as choice criteria was reinforced by strength of their relationship with satisfaction, a variable generally believed to be one of the most important in determining store patronization and repatronization. Robert A. Westbrook, (1981) study on sources of consumer satisfaction for a large conventional department store has found that satisfaction from multiple sources serves to raise overall satisfaction while dissatisfaction from multiple sources corresponding lowers it.

Peter Kennings (2007) study found that an overall positive effect of trust buying behaviour in food retailing. It is also found that general trust has no influence on specific trust and the meaning of specific trust for buying increases when general trust is low.
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Rajagopal (2008) in his Study on point of sales promotions and buying stimulation in retail stores analyses buying behaviour in reference to the point of sales promotion offered by retailing firm and the determinants of sensitivity towards stimulating shopping arousal and satisfaction customer in order to build store loyalty have been discussed in this paper. It is found that loyal customers are attracted to the store brands. Lutz (1981) in his study has concluded that A perspective into consumer behaviour is motivated by a desire to understand the relationship between attitude and behaviour psychologists have sought to constant models to capture the underlying dimensions of an attitude.

Eldon M. Kenneth E. Miller (1977) in their study related to the post purchase communication found that it results in increased satisfaction with the purchase letter communication.

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OBJECTIVES OF STUDY1. To identify factors affecting consumer preference related to shopping at organized retail store. 2. To find out ways to leverage these factors so that there is an increased flow of walk ins into these organized retail stores. 3. To investigate the relationship between demographic & buying behavior inside organized retail store. 4. To study the loyality schemes run by organized retail stores.

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This chapter describes the methodology of the study. This project is based on information collected from primary sources. After the detailed study, an attempt has been made to present comprehensive analysis of organized retail stores. The data had been used to cover various aspects like inter-departmental customer flows, revenue per customer and value of the stock in the various departments. Sample and data collection This survey was conducted in the context of organized retail stores. The data was collected in face-to-face interviews of customers. In order to reckon with possible multi-loyalty, questions related to satisfaction, loyalty and behavior were asked for the regular main store visited. The data would be collected from primary source through questionnaires, interviews, observations etc. The sample would be surveyed on the basis of questionnaire and data would be quantified for further analysis. Sample size A sample of was taken on the basis of convenience. A sample of 98 respondents would be used in the research.

Data Sources Both Secondary and Primary Sources of data will be used. The major type of information used is primary data. This is done through primary survey. The literature review is a secondary data type. The sources include books, periodicals, websites, printed literature etc. Research design: The study is based on descriptive research design because the data were collected to reveal accurate descriptions of variables related to the decisions being faced, without

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demonstrating that some relationship exists between variables. For the purpose of present study a related samples were selected on the basis of convenience.

Research Period: Research work is only carried for 1 week.

Research Instrument: This work is carried out through self-administered questionnaires.

Data Collection: The data, which is collected for the purpose of study, is divided into 2 bases: Primary Source: The primary data comprises information survey of Consumers preference about the organized retail sector. The data has been collected directly from respondent with the help of structured questionnaires. Secondary Source: The secondary data was collected from internet and references from Library and various journals on organized retail industry.

Data Analysis: The data is analyzed on the basis of suitable tables by using mathematical techniques. The technique that we have used is bar graphs, pie charts, with MS-EXCEL.

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1. Age of the respondents-

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0


16 8



35 and above

18-25 years 25-35 years 35 and above

76 people 16 people 8 people

Most of the people in the survey were young people from the age group of 1825 years i.e 76 people, from 25-35 years there were 16 people & from 35 and above age group there were only 8 people.

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2. Gender-

48 52 Male female

Male Female

48 52

In my survey there were total 100 people, in which 52 were female and 48 were male.

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3. Marital Status-

Married Unmarried

Married Unmarried

21 people 79 people

According to my survey, in 100 people, most of people were married i.e. 79 out of 100 and the no. of people which were unmarried was 21. So most of the respondents were unmarried.

4. Educational Qualification-

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50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Matric & below Under Graduate Graduate Post-Garduate 7 8 44 41

Matric & below Under-Graduate Graduate Post Graduate

7 8 42 44

In my survey, most of the people were post graduate i.e. 44 people out of 100 and after that most of people were graduate whose no. was 42 and the least no. was of 7 people who were matric & below.

5. OccupationPage | 35

80 71 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Student Business Service Professional Housewife Any other

71 6 4 9 5 5

Most of people in my survey were students having share of 71% .

6. From where would you prefer to buy products? Page | 36


1 20

7 Single Brand Store Multi Brand Store Factory Outlets Local Big Retail Stores Both a & d 48

Single Brand Store Multi Brand Store Factory Outlets Local Big Retail Outlets Both a & b

20 48 7 22 1

People mostly prefer to buy from Multi Brand Store.

7. What influences your buying selections?

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35 30 25 20 15 10

31 28 25

5 5 0

4 1 1 1 2

Availability Of Range Reasonable Prices Availability Of Size Customer Service Brand Name Both a & c Both a & e Both b & e All of the above

31 28 5 4 25 1 1 1 2

Availability of Range, Reasonable prices & Brand name mostly influences the consumer buying behavior at an organized retail store.

8. When do you prefer to shop Most in Store?

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50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 During Sale During fresh season stock During Discount when required both b & c c, b & d

During Sale During fresh season stock During discount When required Both b & c b, c & d

7 16 26 47 1 1

Most of people prefer to shop when they required.

9. How frequently you visit organized retail store?

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Less than 1 month 1-3 months 1-6 months 1 year or above

Less than 1 month 1-3 months 1-6 months 1 year or more

32 48 17 1

Most of the people preferred to visit the organized retail store between 1 to 3 months.

10. Which days in a week normally do you prefer going to an organized retail


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40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Both Friday & Saturday Both Sunday & Friday Both Sunday & Saturday No Specific Day

36 0 2 7 0 7 40 1 1 1 3

Most of the people prefer to visit an organized retail store on Saturday & Sunday i.e Weekends.

11. What more fascinates you at shopping at organized retail stores?

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Membership Card Discount Mailer Parking Facility Lucky Draw Offer Both b & c

Membership Card Discount mailer Parking facility Lucky draw offers Both b & c

16 47 18 19 1

Discount more fascinates people at organized retail store.

12. When you visit an organized retail store, you go-

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60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Alone With family With friends Both b & c

Alone With family With friends Both c & b

10 33 54 1

Most of people visit the organized retail store with their friends.

13. What are the timings during which you usually make these visits?

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0 Between 10 am-12 pm 12 pm-3 pm 3 pm-6 pm 6 pm-10 pm No hard & past preference

Between 10 am-12 pm 12 pm-3 pm 3 pm-6 pm 6 pm- 10 pm No hard & fast preference

3 13 23 35 24

The timings during which most people usually make visits to organized retail stores are between 6 pm-10 pm i.e evening time.

14. What one product you mostly purchase from organized retail store?

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Apparel Accessories Utility Shoes Jewellery Grocery Cosmetics Books Others Both b & d

28 21 9 13 6 6 5 1 8 1

Apparel & Accessories products are mostly purchased by people from the organized retail store.

15. Which of the following brands do you prefer to buy?

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0 Indian Brand International Brand No Particular Brand

Indian Brand International Brand No Particular Brand Preference

17 28 53

Mostly people when visit an organized retail store, they do not give much preference to brands.

16. Please tick the average amount (in Rs.) spent by you per trip for shopping:

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40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Less than Rs 500 Between Rs 500-Rs 1000 Between Rs 1000-Rs 2500 Rs 2500-Rs 10,000 Rs 10,000 and above

Less than Rs 500 Between Rs 500-Rs 1000 Between Rs 1000-Rs 2500 Rs 2500-Rs 10,000 Rs 10,000 & above

4 31 40 22 1

Most of the people spend between Rs 1000-Rs 2500 per trip to the organized retail store.

17. Nature of Purchase-

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Cash Credit Both

Cash Credit Both

74 5 19

Most of people preferred Cash to purchase at organized retail store.

18. From where did you get the information about the organized retail outlets:

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35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Newspaper Tv/Radio Friends/Family Hoardings Internet Advertisments Newspaper, Tv/Radio Newspaper, Hoardings, Internet Newspaper, Hoardings Newspaper, Friends/Family, Hoardings Friends/Family, Internet Newspaper, Advertisments

9 7 32 10 14 19 1 1 1 1 2 1

Most of the people get information from their Friends/Family about the organized retail store.

19. Have you faced any problem with organized retail store?

If yes, what type of problem you faced-

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Quality of products After sales services Assortment Size Employee behaviour No problem faced Quality of products, Assortment Size

Quality of products After sales services Assortment size Employee behaviour No problem faced Quality of products, Assortment size

29 17 4 18 29 1

Mostly people faced problems in Quality of products at organized retail store.

1. Most people prefer to buy from multi brand stores. 2. Availability of Range, Reasonable Prices influences consumer selections at organized retail store.

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3. Consumer preferred to buy from organized retail store when required by them. 4. Mostly consumers visit an organized retail store between 1 to 3 months. 5. Mostly consumer prefer going to organized retail store on Saturday and Sunday. 6. Most consumers are fascinated with discount at shopping in organized retail store. 7. Most people visit organized retail store with their friends. 8. The timings during which most people make visit to organized retail store are between 6 pm-10 pm. 9. The one product which people mostly purchase from organized retail store is Apparel. 10. Most people have no particular brand preference. 11. Most of people spent Between Rs 1000 to Rs 2000 per trip for shopping at organized retail store. 12. The nature of purchase is mainly cash. 13. Most of people got information about the organized retail store from friends & family. 14. People faced most problems at organized retail store in terms of Quality of Products. 15. Discount, Display, Location, Food Joints, Service, Personnel, Variety & Movie theatre mostly influence people to visit an organized retail store. 16. All things under one roof, Latest products available, Near to home, Outing, Only option in the locality, Less crowdie, Easy to shop, Low prices, Parking facility and Good customer assistance are the important factors for people when choosing to visit an organized retail store.


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In attempt to make this project authentic and reliable, every possible aspect of the topic was kept in mind. Nevertheless, despite of fact constraints were at play during the formulation of this project. The main limitations are as follows:

a) The main source of data for the study was primary data with the help of selfadministered questionnaires. Hence, the chances of unbiased information are less. b) The chance of biased response cant be eliminated though all necessary steps were taken to avoid the same.

c) Sample size restricted to 98 only which was very less according total population.

d) The responses given by respondents were not always accurate because the respondents gave the response according to their understanding.

e) Survey is a time consuming process but the time to collect the data for research was very less.

f) Sometimes the respondents are not willing to fill the questionnaire and hence the resultant may not be correct.


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The past 4-5 years have seen increasing activity in retailing. And, various business houses have already planned for few investments in the coming 2-3 years. And though the retailers will have to face increasingly demanding customers, and intensely competitive rivals, more investments will keep flow in. And the share of organized retail sector will grow rapidly. Organized retailing in India is surely poised for a takeoff and will provide many opportunities both to existing players as well as new entrants. The country is witnessing a period of boom in organized retail trade, mainly on account of a gradual increase in the disposable incomes of the middle and upper-middle class households. More and more corporate houses including large real estate companies are coming into the retail business, directly or indirectly, in the form of mall and shopping center builders and managers.

New formats like super markets and large discount and department stores have started influencing the traditional looks of bookstores, furnishing stores and chemist shops. The organized retail revolution, apart from bringing in sweeping, positive changes in the quality of life in the metros and bigger towns, is also bringing in slow changes in lifestyle in the smaller towns of India. Increase in literacy, exposure to media, greater availability and penetration of a variety of consumer goods into the interiors of the country, have all resulted in narrowing down the spending differences between the consumers of larger metros and those of smaller towns. Lastly I want to conclude my project in some points The customers are attracting towards organized retail outlets. The organized retail outlets are targeting middle class customers because the purchasing power of this class is rapidly growing as well as the class is also growing. The young generation is fashion & show-off conscious so organized retail outlets are mainly focusing on them. Most of the family wants to purchase from big showrooms and malls because there are no bargaining system so they have a trust that there is no cheating. The main strength of most of the retail outlets are providing attractive offers to attract customers.

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Big retail stores are running customer loyalty programmes which has increased profits and no. of customers.


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Newman J. Andrew & Cullen Peter, Retailing- Environment & Operations

Thomson Asia Pte. Ltd, Singapore.

Vedamani G. Gibson, Retail Management- Functional Principles & Practices,

Jaico Publishing House.

Pradhan Swapna, Retail Management- Text & Case Tata McGraw Hill
Publishing Co. Ltd.

Kotler Philip, Lane Kevin, Koshy Abraham, Jha Mithileshwar, Marketing

Management- A South Asian Perspective, Dorling Kindersley{India}Pvt. Ltd.


Questionnaire on Consumers preference towards organized retail sector.
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I am a student of MBA from SMS, Punjabi University, Patiala and I am working on a project Study on consumer preferences towards Organized retail sector. I request you to spare a while to help fill, this questionnaire, needed for the project assigned to me as a part of my curriculum. 1. Name 2. Age 3. Gender 4. Marital Status 5.Educational Qualification: a) Matric & below 6.Occupation: a) Student other 7.From where would you prefer to buy products? a) Single brand store Store 8.What influences your buying selections? a) Availability of range service f) Brand name 9.When do you prefer to shop Most in Store? a) During Sale required 10.How frequently you visit organized retail store? a) Less Than 1 month b) 1-3 months c) 1-6 months d) 1 year or more b) During Fresh season stock c) During Discount d) When b) Reasonable price c) Availability of size e) Customer b) Multi brand store c) Factory outlets d) Local Big Retail b) Business c) Service d) Professional e) House wife f) Any b) Under-Graduate c) Graduate d) Post-Graduate : :..years : Male / Female : Married / Unmarried

11.Which days in a week normally do you prefer going to an organized retail store? a) Sunday Saturday b) Monday c) Tuesday d) Wednesday e) Thursday f) Friday g)

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12.What more fascinates you at shopping at organized retail stores? a) Membership Card offer 13.When you visit an organized retail store, you goa) Alone b) With family c) With friends b) Discount Mailers c) Parking Facility d) Lucky draw

14.What are the timings during which you usually make these visits? a) Between 10am-12pm d) 6pm-10pm b) 12pm-3pm c) 3pm-6pm

e) No hard and fast preference

15.What one product you mostly purchase from organized retail store? a) Apparel Cosmetics b) Accessories c) Utility d) Shoes e) Jewellery f) Grocery g)

h) Books i) Others

16.Which of the following brands do you prefer to buy? a) Indian Brands b) International Brands c) No particular brand preference

17. Please tick the average amount (in Rs.) spent by you per trip for shopping: a) Less than Rs. 500 2000 d) More than Rs. 2500 above 18. Nature of Purchasea) Cash b) Credit c) Both e) Rs. 1000 - Rs. 2500 f) 2500-10,000 g) 10,000 and b) Between Rs. 500 - Rs. 1000 c) Between Rs. 1000 - Rs.

19. From where did you get the information about the retail outlets: a) Newspaper Advertisement 20. Have you faced any problem with organized retail store? If yes, what type of problem you faceda) Quality of products b) After sales service c) Assortment size d) Employee behavior Any Other (Specify) ___________________________________________ b) TV/Radio c) Friends/Family d) Hoardings e) Internet f)

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