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Doc 9828, AN-Conf/11

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION

ELEVENTH AIR NAVIGATION CONFERENCE


Montral, 22 September 3 October 2003

REPORT

Approved by the Conference and published by authority of the Secretary General

MONTRAL

2003

Supplement No. 1

Doc 9828, AN-Conf/11

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION ELEVENTH AIR NAVIGATION CONFERENCE (2003) Montreal, 22 September to 3 October 2003

SUPPLEMENT NO. 1 1. The Council, at the eleventh meeting of its 171st Session on 10 March 2004, and the Air Navigation Commission at the first and second meetings of its 165th Session on 13 and 15 January 2004, under authority delegated by the Council, took action as indicated hereunder on the recommendations of the Eleventh Air Navigation Conference (2003).

2.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AMENDMENT OF STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES (RSPP)

2.1 The Air Navigation Commission made a preliminary review of Recommendation 6/10, and agreed that it should be transmitted to Contracting States and interested international organizations for comments, together with the Commissions comments and proposals thereon. Following receipt of these comments, a further review will be conducted by the Commission, which will then present its final proposals to the Council for approval of the amendments to Annex 10, Volume I.

3.

RECOMMENDATIONS OTHER THAN FOR STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES

3.1 The Council noted that the following will be the allocation of follow-up responsibility for non-RSPP recommendations made under Agenda Items 1 to 7:

Report Reference Action by Council (C) or Air Navigation Rec. No. Page No. Commission (ANC) 1/1 1-3 C

Recommendation Title and Action Taken Endorsement of the global ATM operational concept Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action.

1/2

1-4

ANC

Coordination with military authorities Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States.

-2-

Doc 9828, AN-Conf/11 Report Reference Action by Council (C) or Air Navigation Rec. No. Page No. Commission (ANC) 1/3 1-6 ANC

Supplement No. 1 Recommendation Title and Action Taken Development of ATM requirements Approved the recommendation and requested the Air Traffic Management Operational Concept Panel (ATMCP) to develop relevant proposals before the end of 2005.

1/4

1-7

ANC

Development of Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) from the global ATM operational concept Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of relevant panels, noting its relationship to Recommendation 1/3.

1/5

1-8

ANC

Interoperability and seamlessness Approved the recommendation and requested the ATMCP to develop relevant proposals before the end of 2005.

1/6

1-9

ANC

Endorsement of the automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) concept of use and recommendations for further work Approved parts a) c) and d) of the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action; and Noted the intent of part b) of the recommendation and requested Operational Data Link Panel (OPLINKP) to consider it in its further work to the extent possible.

1/7

1-10

ANC

Ground and airborne automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) applications for global interoperability Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States and relevant international organizations.

-3-

Supplement No. 1 Report Reference Action by Council (C) or Air Navigation Rec. No. Page No. Commission (ANC) 1/8 1-13 ANC

Doc 9828, AN-Conf/11 Recommendation Title and Action Taken Global aeronautical information management and data exchange model Approved part a) of the recommendation and requested the ATMCP to develop relevant proposals by the end of 2005; Approved the intent of part b) of the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action; and Approved part c) of the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to progress the work.

1/9

1-14

Raising the status of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750) Noted the intent of the recommendation and requested the Air Navigation Commission to develop relevant proposals.

1/10

1-15

ANC

Status of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750) Noted the intent of the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States and ICAO Regional Offices.

1/11

1-15

ANC

Publication of the Global ATM Operational Concept Noted the intent of the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to develop relevant proposals for an appropriate approval and publication process.

1/12

1-15

ANC

Amendment of Chapter 4 of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750) Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take it into account when developing the next amendment to Doc 9750.

-4-

Doc 9828, AN-Conf/11 Report Reference Action by Council (C) or Air Navigation Rec. No. Page No. Commission (ANC) 1/13 1-16 ANC

Supplement No. 1 Recommendation Title and Action Taken Harmonization of air navigation systems Noted the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action, noting that work was already in progress.

1/14

1-17

ANC

Development of an ICAO air navigation plan database and associated Web-based information and charting service Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General take appropriate action, noting that work was already in progress.

1/15

1-18

ANC

Implementation of airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) provisions Noted the recommendation, expressed its safety concern, and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States.

1/16

1-20

ANC

Provisions related to airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS) Noted parts a) b) c) and e) of the recommendation and that work is already in progress; and Approved part d) of the recommendation and requested that Surveillance and Conflict Resolution Systems Panel (SCRSP) develop relevant proposals for review by the ANC.

2/1

2-3

ANC

A framework for system safety Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action.

-5-

Supplement No. 1 Report Reference Action by Council (C) or Air Navigation Rec. No. Page No. Commission (ANC) 2/2 2-5 ANC

Doc 9828, AN-Conf/11 Recommendation Title and Action Taken Implementation of ATS safety management programmes and establishment of acceptable levels of safety Noted the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States.

2/3

2-6

ANC

Sharing of ATM accident and incident data Approved part a) of the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to develop the relevant guidance material; and Approved part b) of the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States.

2/4

2-8

The protection of sources of safety information Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action.

2/5

2-8

ANC

Monitoring of safety during normal operations Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to develop the relevant guidance material.

2/6

2-11

ANC

Safety certification of ATM systems Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action.

2/7

2-12

ANC

Safety oversight capabilities and procedures Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States.

-6-

Doc 9828, AN-Conf/11 Report Reference Action by Council (C) or Air Navigation Rec. No. Page No. Commission (ANC) 2/8 2-14 C

Supplement No. 1 Recommendation Title and Action Taken Harmonization of aviation safety and aviation security Noted part a) of the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take action as necessary; and Approved part b) of the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States.

2/9

2-15

ANC

In-flight emergency response procedures for air traffic controllers Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action.

3/1

3-2

ANC

Required communication performance (RCP) Noted part a) of the recommendation; and Approved part b) of the recommendation and requested OPLINKP to progress the work accordingly.

3/2

3-3

Standardization of minimum reporting requirements Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action.

3/3

3-7

ANC

Performance framework Approved part a) and b) of the recommendation and requested the ATMCP to develop relevant proposals for review by the ANC; and Approved part c) of the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action.

-7-

Supplement No. 1 Report Reference Action by Council (C) or Air Navigation Rec. No. Page No. Commission (ANC) 4/1 4-2 ANC

Doc 9828, AN-Conf/11 Recommendation Title and Action Taken Harmonization of air navigation systems between regions Approved parts a) and b) of the recommendation, noting its relationship to Recommendation 1/13, and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action; and Approved part c) of the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States.

4/2

4-4

ANC

Investigation of performance-driven planning and implementation methods Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General bring it to the attention of States.

4/3

4-4

ANC

Collaborative decision-making and global demand/capacity balancing Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action.

4/4

4-5

ANC

Investigation and analysis of the Single European Sky approach to global harmonization Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take action as necessary.

4/5

4-7

ANC

Runway safety programmes Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States.

4/6

4-8

ANC

Capacity-enhancing procedures Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States.

-8-

Doc 9828, AN-Conf/11 Report Reference Action by Council (C) or Air Navigation Rec. No. Page No. Commission (ANC) 4/7 4-8 ANC

Supplement No. 1 Recommendation Title and Action Taken Global runway incursion risk management Noted part a) of the recommendation and that the work was already being progressed and under active consideration by the Commission; and Approved part b) of the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action, noting that work was already being progressed.

4/8

4-9

ANC

Rectification of air navigation deficiencies Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take action as appropriate, noting that work was already being progressed.

4/9

4-10

ANC

Harmonization of flight level assignment methodology across flight information region boundaries Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to urge relevant States to apply a common cruising levels structure in accordance with the tables of cruising levels expressed in metres or feet, as outlined in Annex 2 Rules of the Air, Appendix 3.

4/10

4-10

ANC

Tables of cruising levels Noted the recommendation and its relation to Recommendation 4/9, and agreed that no action was required.

5/1

5-3

ANC

Preparation for WRC-2007 Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action.

-9-

Supplement No. 1 Report Reference Action by Council (C) or Air Navigation Rec. No. Page No. Commission (ANC) 5/2 5-6 ANC

Doc 9828, AN-Conf/11 Recommendation Title and Action Taken ICAO activities on interference Noted the recommendation and requested: a) the Secretary General to take appropriate action; and b) the Aeronautical Communications Panel (ACP) in coordination with the Navigation Systems Panel (NSP) as required, to develop the necessary guidance material.

6/1

6-8

ANC

Transition to satellite-based air navigation Approved the recommendation and: a) agreed that the relevant panels continue the development of SARPs, procedures and guidance material in line with part a) of the recommendation; and b) requested the Secretary General to bring parts b) and c) of the recommendation to the attention of States and appropriate international organizations.

6/2

6-10

ANC

Guidelines on mitigation of GNSS vulnerabilities Noted the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to: a) bring the recommendation to the attention of States and appropriate international organizations; and b) incorporate the guidelines referred to in part a) of the recommendation in the first edition of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Manual.

6/3

6-11

ANC

Assessment of atmospheric effects on SBAS performance in equatorial regions Noted the recommendation and requested the Navigation Systems Panel (NSP) to give priority to the development of suitable guidance material.

- 10 -

Doc 9828, AN-Conf/11 Report Reference Action by Council (C) or Air Navigation Rec. No. Page No. Commission (ANC) 6/4 6-11 ANC

Supplement No. 1 Recommendation Title and Action Taken Automated means for reporting and assessing the effects of outages on GNSS operations Noted the recommendation and requested the Navigation Systems Panel (NSP) to consider the development of the relevant provisions.

6/5

6-12

ANC

Early resolution of issues arising from implementation of RNAV and RNP Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to progress the necessary work as a matter of urgency with the assistance of the Required Navigation Performance and Special Operational Requirements Study Group (RNPSORSG).

6/6

6-13

ANC

Advanced GNSS RNAV procedure design Approved the recommendation and requested the Navigation Systems Panel (NSP) and Obstacle Clearance Panel (OCP) to develop relevant proposals for consideration by the ANC.

6/7

6-13

ANC

Curved GNSS RNAV procedures Approved the recommendation and requested the Navigation Systems Panel (NSP) and Obstacle Clearance Panel (OCP) to develop relevant proposals for consideration by the ANC.

6/8

6-13

ANC

GNSS/INS integration Approved the recommendation and requested the Navigation Systems Panel (NSP) to develop relevant proposals for consideration by the ANC.

- 11 -

Supplement No. 1 Report Reference Action by Council (C) or Air Navigation Rec. No. Page No. Commission (ANC) 6/9 6-15 C

Doc 9828, AN-Conf/11 Recommendation Title and Action Taken Support of and participation in SBAS pre-operational implementation activities Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States and appropriate international organizations.

6/11

6-19

Amendment to the Global Plan Navigation Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to take appropriate action.

6/12

6-20

ANC

Development of guidance material on applications of new GNSS elements and their combinations Noted the recommendation and requested the Navigation Systems Panel (NSP) to develop the required guidance material.

6/13

6-20

Potential constraints on using multiple GNSS signals Noted the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States and appropriate international organizations.

6/14

6-21

ANC

GNSS services in the 960 1 215 MHz band Approved the recommendation and: a) requested the Secretary General to bring part a) of the recommendation to the attention of States and appropriate international organizations; b) requested the Navigation Systems Panel (NSP) to develop proposals for consideration by the ANC.

6/15

6-22

ANC

Updating of SARPs for radio navigation aids in Annex 10, Volume I Approved the recommendation and requested the Navigation Systems Panel (NSP) to develop relevant proposals for consideration by the ANC.

- 12 -

Doc 9828, AN-Conf/11 Report Reference Action by Council (C) or Air Navigation Rec. No. Page No. Commission (ANC) 6/16 6-23 ANC

Supplement No. 1 Recommendation Title and Action Taken Completion of guidance material on application of data quality SARPs in Annex 15 Noted the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to expedite publication of the Quality Management System Manual for AIS/MAP Services.

7/1

7-11

ANC

Strategy for the near-term introduction of ADS-B Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States and appropriate international organizations.

7/2

7-11

ANC

Support of longer term ADS-B requirements Approved the recommendation, and a) requested the Secretary General to bring part a) of the recommendation to the attention of States and appropriate international organizations; b) requested the ACP and the SCRSP, in coordination with other appropriate panels, to continue the development of provisions for ADS-B technologies as required.

7/3

7-16

ANC

Evolutionary approach for global interoperability of air-ground communications Approved the recommendation and requested the Secretary General to bring it to the attention of States and appropriate international organizations.

7/4

7-17

ANC

Investigation of future technology alternatives for air-ground communications Approved the recommendation and requested the ACP to carry out the relevant activities.

- 13 -

Supplement No. 1 Report Reference Action by Council (C) or Air Navigation Rec. No. Page No. Commission (ANC) 7/5 7-18 ANC

Doc 9828, AN-Conf/11 Recommendation Title and Action Taken Standardization of aeronautical communication systems Approved the recommendation and requested all ICAO bodies involved in the standardization of aeronautical communication systems to apply it in their work.

END

REPORT OF THE ELEVENTH AIR NAVIGATION CONFERENCE

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

To:

President, Air Navigation Commission

From: Chairman, Eleventh Air Navigation Conference

I have the honour to submit the report of the Eleventh Air Navigation Conference which was held in Montreal from 22 September to 3 October 2003.

Albert Lam Chairman

Montreal, 3 October 2003

ii - Table of Contents

ii-1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page LIST OF RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HISTORY OF THE CONFERENCE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Secretariat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adoption of the agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opening remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 President of the Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 President of the Air Navigation Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. Status reports on GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO and MTSAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. Joint meeting of Committees A and B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv-1 iv-1 iv-1 iv-1 iv-2 iv-2 iv-2 iv-2 iv-5 iv-9 iv-14 iii-1

LIST OF PARTICIPANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AGENDA OF THE CONFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY OF TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE Agenda Item 1: Introduction and assessment of a global air traffic management (ATM) operational concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety and security in air traffic management (ATM) . . . . . . . . . . . . Air traffic management (ATM) performance targets for safety, efficiency and regularity and the role of required total system performance (RTSP) in this respect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacity-enhancement measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review of the outcome of the ITU World Radio Conference (2003) (WRC-2003) and its impact on aeronautical electromagnetic spectrum utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aeronautical navigation issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aeronautical air-ground and air-to-air communications . . . . . . . . . .

v-1 vi-1 vii-1

1-1 2-1

Agenda Item 2: Agenda Item 3:

3-1 4-1

Agenda Item 4: Agenda Item 5:

5-1 6-1 7-1

Agenda Item 6: Agenda Item 7:

iii-1

iii - List of Recommendations LIST OF RECOMMENDATIONS* Page 1/1 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9 1/10 1/11 1/12 1/13 1/14 1/15 1/16 2/1 2/2 2/3 2/4 2/5 2/6 2/7 2/8 2/9 3/1 3/2 3/3 Endorsement of the global ATM operational concept . . . . . . . . . . . . Coordination with military authorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development of ATM requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development of Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) from the global ATM operational concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interoperability and seamlessness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Endorsement of the automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) concept of use and recommendations for further work . . . Ground and airborne automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) applications for global interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Global aeronautical information management and data exchange model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raising the status of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Status of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Publication of the Global ATM Operational Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . Amendment of Chapter 4 of the Global Air Navigation Plan . . . . . . for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harmonization of air navigation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development of an ICAO air navigation plan database and associated Web-based information and charting service . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Provisions related to airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS) A framework for system safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of ATS safety management programmes and establishment of acceptable levels of safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sharing of ATM accident and incident data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The protection of sources of safety information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring of safety during normal operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety certification of ATM systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety oversight capabilities and procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harmonization of aviation safety and aviation security . . . . . . . . . . . In-flight emergency response procedures for air traffic controllers . . Required communication performance (RCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standardization of minimum reporting requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . Performance framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 1-4 1-6 1-7 1-8 1-9 1-10 1-13 1-14 1-15 1-15 1-15 1-16 1-17 1-18 1-20 2-3 2-5 2-6 2-8 2-8 2-11 2-12 2-14 2-15 3-2 3-3 3-7

Recommendations annotated RSPP relate to proposals for amendment of Standards, Recommended Practices, Procedures for Air Navigation Services or guidance material in an Annex.

iii - List of Recommendations

iii-2 Page

4/1 4/2 4/3 4/4 4/5 4/6 4/7 4/8 4/9 4/10 5/1 5/2 6/1 6/2 6/3 6/4 6/5 6/6 6/7 6/8 6/9 RSPP 6/10

Harmonization of air navigation systems between regions . . . . . . . . Investigation of performance-driven planning and implementation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collaborative decision-making and global demand/capacity balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Investigation and analysis of the Single European Sky approach to global harmonization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Runway safety programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacity-enhancing procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Global runway incursion risk management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectification of air navigation deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harmonization of flight level assignment methodology across flight information region boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables of cruising levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation for WRC-2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ICAO activities on interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transition to satellite-based air navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guidelines on mitigation of GNSS vulnerabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assessment of atmospheric effects on SBAS performance in equatorial regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automated means for reporting and assessing the effects of outages on GNSS operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Early resolution of issues arising from implementation of RNAV and RNP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advanced GNSS/RNAV procedure design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curved GNSS/RNAV procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GNSS/INS integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Support of and participation in SBAS pre-operational implementation activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amendment to Annex 10, Volume I, Attachment B Updating the strategy for introduction and application of non-visual aids to approach and landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amendment to the Global Plan Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development of guidance material on applications of new GNSS elements and their combinations Potential constraints on using multiple GNSS signals . . . . . . . . . . . . GNSS services in the 960 - 1 215 MHz band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Updating of SARPs for radio navigation aids in Annex 10, Volume I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Completion of guidance material on application of data quality SARPs in Annex 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strategy for the near-term introduction of ADS-B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Support of longer term ADS-B requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evolutionary approach for global interoperability of air-ground communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-2 4-4 4-4 4-5 4-7 4-8 4-8 4-9 4-10 4-10 5-4 5-6 6-9 6-10 6-11 6-12 6-13 6-13 6-13 6-14 6-15

6/11 6/12 6/13 6/14 6/15 6/16

6-17 6-19 6-20 6-20 6-21 6-22 6-23 7-11 7-12 7-17

7/1 7/2 7/3

iii-3

iii - List of Recommendations Page 7/4 7/5 Investigation of future technology alternatives for air-ground communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standardization of aeronautical communication systems . . . . . . . . .

7-18 7-18

iv - History of the Conference

iv-1

REPORT OF THE ELEVENTH AIR NAVIGATION CONFERENCE Montreal, 22 September to 3 October 2003

HISTORY OF THE CONFERENCE

1.

DURATION

1.1 The Eleventh Air Navigation Conference (AN-Conf/11) was opened by the President of the Council, Dr. A. Kotaite, at 1515 hours on 22 September 2003 in the Assembly Hall of the Headquarters of the Organization in Montreal. The President of the Air Navigation Commission, Mr. D. Galibert, attended and addressed the conference. The closing Plenary was held on 3 October 2003.

2.

REPRESENTATION

2.1 The Eleventh Air Navigation Conference was attended by 686 participants from 122 Contracting States and 24 observer delegations. A list of participants may be found on pages v-1 to v-19.

3. 3.1

OFFICERS The following officers were elected at the first Plenary meeting: Chairman: First Vice-Chairman: Second Vice-Chairman: Mr. A. Lam (Hong Kong, China) Mr. V. Kuranov (Russian Federation) Ms. J. Taylor (Canada)

4.

SECRETARIAT

4.1 The Secretary of the conference was Mr. J. Howell, Director, Air Navigation Bureau who was assisted by Mr. M. C. F. Heijl, Deputy Director, Air Navigation Bureau. He was also assisted by officers of the Air Navigation Bureau of ICAO as indicated in paragraph 6 below and by officers of other bureaux and offices of the Organization as necessary. 4.2 General administrative arrangements for the conference were made under the direction of Mr. A.P. Singh, Director, Bureau of Administration and Services. Language services were provided under the direction of Mr. Y.N. Beliaev, Chief, Language and Publications Branch, assisted by Mrs. R.J. Ezrati, Chief, Interpretation Section, Mr. S.M. Mostafa (Arabic Section), Mr. Li Keli (Chinese Section), Mr. D. Wilson (English and Publications Section), Mr. P. Butler (French Section), Mr. V. Gapakov (Russian Section) and Mr. H. Scarone (Spanish Section). 4.3 The physical arrangements for the conference were made by Mr. M. Blanch, Chief, Conference and Office Services Section, Ms. A. Craig, Document Control Officer and Mr. J.D. Daoust, Chief,

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Printing Section. Other specialist officers of the ICAO Secretariat provided advice to the conference as required.

5.

ADOPTION OF THE AGENDA

5.1 The agenda transmitted to the conference by the Air Navigation Commission was adopted at the first Plenary meeting.

6.

WORKING ARRANGEMENTS

6.1 The organization plan submitted to States in advance of the conference was approved without change at the opening Plenary. The plan called for the establishment of two committees. The two committees were constituted as shown below: Committee A (to consider Agenda Items 1, 2, 3 and 4) Chairman Mr. K. Theil (Denmark) Vice-Chairman Mr. K. Chamieh (Lebanon) Secretary Mr. V. Galotti, assisted by Messrs. C. Dalton, B. Day, G. De Len, G. Emausson and N. Karppinen Committee B (to consider Agenda Items 5, 6 and 7) Chairman Mr. P.C. Marais (South Africa) Vice-Chairman Mr. N. Arajo de Medeiros (Brazil) Secretary Mr. J. Chagas, assisted by Messrs. A. Capretti , V. Iatsouk, M. Paydar, A. Rizvi and R. Witzen

7. 7.1

OPENING REMARKS President of the Council, Dr. Assad Kotaite

On behalf of the Council and Secretary General of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), I would like to welcome all of you to the Eleventh ICAO Air Navigation Conference. And on this occasion, it also gives me great pleasure to introduce to you Dr. Taeb Chrif, our newly-appointed Secretary General. Dr. Chrif has served on the Council of ICAO since 1998 and brings to his new position a great deal of knowledge and experience from the world of international civil aviation. Over the next 12 days, you will define and agree on the next steps towards fulfilling our vision of an interoperable, seamless and global air traffic management system for international civil aviation in the 21st century. Those of you who attended the Tenth Air Navigation Conference in 1991, or are familiar with its outcome, will remember it as a pivotal event in the evolutionary process toward an improved air navigation system. We decided then to move from a ground-based to a largely satellite-based air navigation system that also relied on digital communications technologies. At that same time, we endorsed a new concept to meet the future needs of international air transport. Originally known as the Future Air Navigation System or

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FANS, it is now known as communications, navigation and surveillance and air traffic management (CNS/ATM) systems. Since then, we have all together made considerable progress in many aspects of implementation of CNS/ATM systems, diligently addressing various technical, operational and institutional issues. ICAO has developed and adopted the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) required for enabling the communications, navigation and surveillance technologies to be implemented. ICAO has also enhanced the effectiveness of mechanisms for the ICAO Planning and Implementation Regional Groups to foster the introduction of CNS/ATM systems in an orderly and cost-beneficial manner. These regional planning groups have brought uniformity and consistency to the exercise. ICAO has developed a Global Plan to align and harmonize the systems planning and implementation process to provide high-level guidance to States, regions, service providers, users and manufacturers on how to realize benefits from the new technologies. And all of us as aviation community partners have been making progress in many other areas, often incrementally, and I take this opportunity to express my most sincere appreciation for your excellent contribution. Now, the time has come to fine-tune our strategy and to embark upon the next phase in establishing the air navigation infrastructure of the future. New technologies necessary for the modernization of the air navigation infrastructure are available, and ICAO has developed the relevant global Standards and Recommended Practices that will help States to implement those new technologies in an orderly and cost-effective manner. During this conference, we will turn our attention to specific elements of a rejuvenated approach to the air traffic management component of the equation and also address the CNS technologies. This conference will review a proposed global air traffic management operational concept. This global concept is visionary in its description of the services that will be required to operate the global air traffic management system up to and beyond 2025, while outlining a range of changes that can be expected throughout the planning horizon. An important premise of the operational concept is the idea that timely, accurate and quality-assured information will be available and shared on a system-wide basis. The extensive sharing of information encourages collaborative decision-making, thereby allowing air traffic management to optimize efficiency in the conduct of its operations. A critical feature of the air traffic management operational concept is its performance orientation. This responds to the need for ensuring that we meet the expectations of various stakeholders for the best possible outcome in terms of safety, efficiency and economics. Central to the issue of meeting expectations is the type of technologies and systems that will allow us to meet the various performance requirements of the new air traffic management operational concept. We must define what facilities, services and systems are needed to move a set number of aircraft through specific airspaces and airports, in the safest and most efficient manner possible, and based on performance requirements.

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These issues will be discussed within the context of the relationship between technological developments and operational requirements. In the past, technological developments were driving operations. We must now shift our approach towards operational needs driving technological developments. Eventually, we must aim for a more symbiotic relationship between the two streams technology and operations so that we make optimum use of human and financial resources in developing an operationally sound and productive air navigation system for the 21st century. Harmonization is another vital factor in providing transparent air traffic services. The ultimate goal of integration and harmonization is to provide transparent services so that users can operate seamlessly across different systems, with a consistent level of safety and with minimum requirements for equipment carriage. We will look at ways to reconcile the differences both within regions and between neighbouring regions by adopting an approach based on cooperation and consensus building. As you know, the foundation of the global communications, navigation and surveillance infrastructure is the availability of the required radio frequency spectrum that enables the safe operation of all aviation radio systems, be they ground- or satellite-based. In this connection, we will assess the results of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) World Radio Conference, held earlier this year. The conference was very successful for civil aviation and secured continued availability to aviation of the spectrum. But we cannot rest on our laurels; the next ITU conference will be held in 2007 and we will be starting our preparation here, at our conference. We will discuss varied and wide-ranging issues related to aeronautical navigation including those surrounding the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). In a few moments, the GNSS service providers will inform the conference of the status of the systems developments and its evolution. This information will aid discussions on a number of concerns over the role of satellite-based navigation in the provision of aeronautical navigation services, today and in the future. Of particular importance are the issues of GNSS vulnerability to interference and its capabilities to support low minima operations. Subsequently, ICAOs policy for transition to satellite-based navigation will be updated in light of these discussions and conference recommendations which are expected to guide the development of aeronautical navigation services for years to come. At this conference, we will also review the developments on aeronautical mobile communications since the Tenth Air Navigation Conference and, in particular, consider the planned evolution of existing communication systems and the potential development of future ones in the framework of the global air traffic management operational concept. As always, safety remains key to all of these considerations. A highly integrated air traffic management system must be built upon the highest of safety standards. To accomplish this, we need to review the ways that we address safety. The ICAO Council has adopted Standards that require States to implement systematic and appropriate air traffic services safety management programmes to ensure that safety is maintained in the provision of air traffic services. I am pleased that you will be presented at this conference with the new ICAO Manual on Safety Management for Air Traffic Services and that you will address all aspects of safety, including the work of the Air Navigation Commission on its Global Aviation Safety Plan, the expansion of the ICAO Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme to air traffic management and the idea of a systems approach to safety. We need to gain a total understanding of the safety implications of the new systems and to identify the measures we must take to maintain and improve upon the excellent safety record of civil aviation. In light of the events of 11 September 2001, we must also address security. We need to understand the vulnerabilities of air traffic management and of communications, navigation and surveillance

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infrastructure and to identify practical measures to eradicate or lessen their impact. Indeed, while we forge ahead in the design of our global air navigation system of the future, the fundamentals of both safety and security must be our central focus. Throughout your deliberations, I am sure you will remain conscious of the vulnerable state of the air transport industry. For the past two years, global air transport has experienced more adversity than in any other period in its history. In 2001, world passenger traffic fell by 3 per cent as a result of a slowing world economy and the events of 11 September. These effects continued into 2002 and were intensified by the build up to war in Iraq. Traffic fell in the first part of 2003 because of the war and particularly the impact of concerns regarding Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). In many parts of the world, airlines are now in crisis, characterized by bankruptcies, unprecedented losses, massive layoffs and radically shifting schedules. As a consequence, many airports have suffered sharp declines in revenues. States have also experienced financial difficulties regardless of whether they are developed or developing countries. But, recovery is now under way and traffic for 2003 is expected to be about the same as in 2002 on year-on-year basis. We then expect traffic to rebound, with over 4 per cent growth in 2004 and over 6 per cent in 2005. Our forecasts assume gradual restoration of passenger confidence in international travel, improved application and facilitation of aviation security measures, an improving world economy and a stable operating environment. In the longer term, global scheduled passenger traffic growth can be expected to proceed at an average annual rate of around 4 per cent. This should motivate us in our drive to develop a work plan that will ensure greater efficiency of the global air navigation infrastructure. ICAO itself was born in a period of great chaos near the end of the Second World War, and it has blossomed into one of the most enduring institutions of the 20th century, and now the 21st century. We must press on with our vision, because the progressive realization of a sound, flexible and performance-based air navigation system will ultimately be of immense benefit to all sectors of the industry. It is now an honour for me to declare open the Eleventh ICAO Air Navigation Conference and to invite the President of the Air Navigation Commission, Mr. Daniel Galibert, to address the conference and elaborate on its agenda. I wish you very successful deliberations. 7.2 President of the Air Navigation Commission, Mr. D. Galibert

Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen, I am sure you will agree that it is difficult to find something intelligent to say when one intervenes after such a brilliant speaker. So, in order to make sure that I will get your attention, at least for a moment, I will start by telling you something in confidence when the President of the Council, in late 2000, launched the idea of a worldwide air navigation meeting, this did not initially trigger very much enthusiasm within the Air Navigation Commission. The Rio Conference on CNS/ATM systems was still fairly recent, amendments to Annex 10 on the CNS side, and to Annex 11 and the PANS-ATM on the ATM side, were well on their way in order to accommodate, on the one hand, the rapid technological evolutions and, on the other hand, the necessary improvements to aviation safety. There were even experiments and implementation projects going on at the regional level. So why hold a Conference? When I see the numerous attendance of today and the amount of working papers which are to be presented and the enthusiasm which has been so evident, I realize that Doctor Kotaite has shown, once more, his visionary perception and wisdom in foreseeing a need for this gathering to address the key subjects

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of CNS and ATM. We have indeed many reasons to discuss the subjects at hand and, if I may name a few, I would like to consider the following: the economic situation of the airlines, of our customers, which is a very difficult one and imposes upon us an overwhelming call for efficiency, quality of service and productivity. the need to remove capacity constraints wherever possible in order to improve the efficiency of air traffic services and to prepare for the air traffic growth which will, hopefully, soon come back. the technological advances that are so evident. Without quoting all the acronyms that can be found in the documentation, I would like to recall that we see new satellite constellations coming, new augmentation systems, new data links in both fields of communication and surveillance and all this will certainly give us the means to achieve the safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly system we are dreaming of. But at the same time, I cannot help but think that, probably for the first time in aviations history, we might have at our disposal more solutions than we have problems and, in some cases, more possibilities than our users can realistically afford to investigate. I am sure that you will have these considerations in mind when going through your agenda and that you will provide us with sound advice and sensible recommendations to consider. Speaking of your agenda, I note that two committees will be established to work in parallel on operational and technical aspects of the conference. Committee A will address operational issues and the core of this work will take place under Agenda Item 1 where you will review an ATM operational concept and several concepts of use and enabling technologies. You will discuss the need to develop ATM requirements, as well as review other planning activities. The ATM operational concept that you will review describes what is envisaged in the future ATM system and was developed on the basis of services to be delivered. You will identify the benefits that can be obtained and to what extent they meet the expectations of the aviation community. Under Agenda Item 2, the conference will address safety. Since the ATM system is evolving, the conference will need to re-examine the methods that are used to ensure that safety is achieved and maintained. It is no longer acceptable to examine systems, people and procedures and all of the elements of the future ATM system as separate entities, but rather as integrated elements of a much larger system. Addressing safety in this way requires a systems approach. New separation minima and sharing of responsibility between pilots and controllers for some ATM services will also require careful safety studies and new methods for assessing and ensuring that acceptable and agreed to safety levels can be met. The conference will also review several related safety activities under way in ICAO, including the expansion of the universal safety oversight audit programme to ATM, the Organizations Global Aviation Safety Plan, certification and regulation issues, and you will be presented with ICAOs new Manual on Safety Management for Air Traffic Services. This work will lead to a clear safety framework to go along with our operational concept work under Agenda Item 1. Security issues will also be addressed under this item and I hope that the conference will reach agreement on practical measures to eradicate or to lessen the impact of vulnerabilities. As I said, the operational concept has been developed on the basis of users expectations and has, therefore, a strong performance orientation. Performance must ultimately be measured this is the new

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business reality. The future ATM system must be equitable and accessible; targets for safety and efficiency must be met and it is necessary to measure all of the various technical and operational aspects of the system. Under Agenda Item 3, you will review the latest work of ICAO on performance, which includes the new concept of required total system performance. There is a great deal of work that remains with respect to measuring performance and the methods that are used to do this, but this work must begin now and our discussions at this conference will help set the agenda for accomplishing that work. Finally, Committee A will address capacity enhancement under Agenda Item 4. This is both an economic and a safety issue. As demand increases in the global ATM system, it is necessary to find the proper solutions to accommodate it and also to ensure that safety margins will not be eroded. This will require a review of ICAO provisions and how they interrelate with each other. You will also be presented with advanced concepts such as collaborative decison-making (CDM) in air traffic flow management or, should I say, in capacity management. Advanced surface movement guidance and control systems will be another subject and ICAO will disclose on this occasion its freshly-produced Manual on A-SMGCS. Not to forget the closely-related subject of runway safety. This area is of concern right now, especially at busy airports, and you will be presented with work being done to implement runway safety programmes, including ICAOs work in this regard. Lastly, I would like to mention another first: ICAO, under that agenda item, will release an advance copy of its Manual on Simultaneous Operations on Parallel or Near-parallel Instrument Runways. Ladies and Gentlemen, let me turn now to the technical issues contained in the agenda of this conference which will be addressed by the Committee B. Under Agenda Item 5, the conference will consider the results of the ITU World Radiocommunication Conference 2003, which were very favourable for aviation. The continued availability of adequate spectrum to communications, navigation and surveillance systems, and the protection of those systems from harmful interference are vital to the provision of safe and efficient air navigation services. In that regard, efforts are under way in ICAO to identify spectrum requirements for new or emerging systems and to prevent incursion in our spectrum from non-aeronautical systems. This will form part of the preparation for the next WRC which is currently expected to be held in 2007. I also wish to advise that the Commission has been concerned with the increasing number of reported cases of interference to radio aeronautical systems and would welcome discussion on this subject that could lead to practical ways to eliminate or minimize such occurrences. Since 1995 when the SP COM/OPS/95 meeting promoted global navigation satellite system (GNSS) as an ICAO standard navigation aid for all phases of flight, ICAO has developed a body of Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs), Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) and related guidance to support introduction of satellite-based navigation. One clear indication of the amount of work undertaken in this context is the fact that Annex 10 has been amended every year since 1995 and will again be amended at the end of this year and, in 2004, many of those amendments are pertaining to GNSS.

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It is widely recognized by now that transition to satellite-based navigation is a long-term commitment, and working papers developed at the request of the Air Navigation Commission for Agenda Item 6 address basic issues associated with further introduction of satellite-based navigation for all phases of flight and development of the GNSS new elements. These papers also suggest updates to the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750). When reviewing those papers, it must be kept in mind that we have to ensure a progressive integration of GNSS elements with the existing ground-based navigation infrastructure supporting area navigation (RNAV) and required navigation performance (RNP) operations. This vision was embraced by the Commission when it agreed recently to re-organize the GNSS Panel in order to accommodate the work on both satellite-based and conventional navaids and renamed the panel as the Navigation Systems Panel (NSP). The Commission is also aware of difficulties observed in the introduction of differing RNP types; it recently agreed to establish the RNP Study Group which is expected to address related issues and to develop proposals for harmonization of work in this area. Lastly, as regards guidance material, you will recall that the SP COM/OPS/95 meeting had called for some assistance from ICAO for the introduction of GNSS and this role had been devoted to Circular 267 published in 1996 but, this time, you will be presented under this agenda item with the just-printed and most-awaited draft ICAO Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Manual. Under Agenda Item 7, we expect that the conference will recognize the need to overcome the saturation of the VHF band, at least in the busiest parts of the airspace, and will recommend solutions for the evolution of the communications infrastructure within the framework of the global ATM operational concept and on the basis of available and emerging technologies. In so doing, the conference will be able to build on the preliminary work conducted within ICAO on the development of communication scenarios as a common basis for discussion and assessment of the most likely evolution paths. You will note that those scenarios include potential development of a next generation of terrestrial and satellite systems. Our discussion on the matter has resulted in a set of guidelines which will be brought to the attention of the conference; in a nutshell, we acknowledged the fact that, as I said before, Annex 10 was getting thicker every year and we felt that this Organization should not invest its scarce resources in standardizing any new system without sufficient guarantee that it is technically proven and will provide operational or financial benefits. Having heard that long description, you will not be surprised to learn that, after the first moment of surprise and hesitation, the Air Navigation Commission strongly supported the convening of this conference and became heavily involved in its preparation. Your deliberations will now take place and they are expected to result in the formulation of a number of recommendations for guiding the future work of the Organization in the field of air navigation. ICAO will do its best to follow up on those recommendations in the most timely manner. However, the overall slowing down of the economy that was mentioned by Dr. Kotaite in his opening remarks might also affect the Organization and, in particular, its budget for the next triennium. I would, therefore, recommend that you adopt a prudent and realistic approach when devising your recommendations and bear in mind that it might become difficult to produce always more within a limited budget. I wish you all, on behalf of the Air Navigation Commission, every success in your deliberations.

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8.

STATUS REPORTS ON GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO AND MTSAT Status report on GPS Ms. M. Blakey, United States

8.1

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. On behalf of the Federal Aviation Administration, I want to thank you for this opportunity to speak at the Air Navigation Conference. Also, I would like to welcome Secretary General Chrif to his first major ICAO global conference as Secretary General. It is also mine, and its a real pleasure to join you on this occasion. I would also like to note that the United States is pleased to be the thirtieth Contracting State to ratify the Montreal Convention of 1999 that will modernize the seventy-five year old Warsaw Convention which provides compensation in cases of international air accidents. This is an important effort, and I am proud the United States is supporting this initiative. Its a privilege to take part in a meeting that means so much for the future of our global air navigation system. This conference will address a wide range of technologies and procedures many of which hold tremendous potential for improving safety and taking us closer to a truly seamless global aviation system. Of the topics on the ANC agenda, there is none more important than how we, as a global community, decide to proceed with the implementation of the global navigation satellite system, or GNSS. As a major stakeholder in this system, the FAA is grateful for the opportunity to comment on the potential for satellite-based navigation. The development of satellite-based air navigation has come a long way since the last Air Navigation Conference in 1991. Thats when the United States, as the provider of GPS, and the Russians, as the provider of GLONASS, offered free satellite navigation services to civil aviation for the foreseeable future. Since our initial offering, GPS has become a major component of global air navigation operations. We have taken many satellite navigation technologies and procedures from the conceptual phase, through a rigorous testing phase, and to the operational phase. There is no question that GPS works and it works well. In May 2000, the United States further improved the GPS accuracy available to the global civil aviation community by removing Selective Availability, which intentionally degraded the GPS signal. Selective Availability, under current U.S. policy, has not and will not be re-instituted. As you know, GPS has been under joint civil-military management since 1996. Both our executive and legislative branches of government have a consistent dual use policy in place. GPS reached an important milestone this past July when we commissioned the wide area augmentation system known as WAAS for operational use in U.S. airspace. WAAS is the first satellite-based augmentation system that has been certified for public use, and it is an important step in supporting ICAOs vision of a seamless global navigation satellite system. WAAS provides such a high level of accuracy, integrity, and availability that it permits properly equipped aircraft to conduct near-precision approach and landing operations over most of the

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contiguous United States. WAAS will also enable the development of required navigation performance, or RNP, operations. We believe that RNP will facilitate more efficient airspace and procedure design. Simply put, it will allow us to fly more planes, closer together, and more safely than ever before. On a global basis, we will continue to work with other service providers to ensure all future satellite systems are capable of providing interoperable service to all users. The transition to satellite navigation will advance further with the planned implementation of GALILEO. We are pleased with our working relationship with our European counterparts and we look forward to developing bilaterally standards for this new system. We hope that our cooperative efforts will result in a robust GNSS that will provide increased safety and efficiency for users and service providers. The United States will continue to modernize GPS and provide increased service capabilities for all civil users worldwide. We will also continue to provide these enhancements free of direct user fees. The ability of aircraft to utilize GALILEO, along with a modernized GPS and Russian GLONASS, will provide increased GNSS capabilities and overall system availability. We will continue our current efforts, both bilateral and multilateral, to ensure global interoperability of all satellite navigation constellations and related augmentations. GNSS provides the most effective and economic means to implement a modern navigation system suitable for aviation commerce in the 21st century. The future of GNSS looks even more promising, not only in aviation, but also in other modes of transportation. As we look to the future, GNSS providers should consider the needs and limitations of smaller, less developed States that have the need for modern air navigation systems. Current GNSS constellations, including satellite-based augmentation systems, provide service without direct user fees. To assure the maximum benefit to the entire civil aviation community, we strongly believe that all future evolutions of GNSS, including augmentations and safety of life navigation signals, must remain free of direct user charges. GNSS is not a business proposition its a safety proposition. Through your participation in the Air Navigation Conference, we can chart our global action plan for the future. What we accomplish here in Montreal during the next two weeks will affect the direction of ATC modernization for many years to come. When the 12th Air Navigation Conference looks back at recommendations made by this conference, I hope they will see that we have set the right course for the future of our global air navigation system. I ask that you all join me in making a commitment to work through ICAO in developing a truly seamless and interoperable global system. As ICAO members, we are obligated to look beyond our own borders, and our own airspace, for ways to improve our global system. Always remember that we share one world. . .we share one sky. . . and we share one critical mission SAFETY! Thank you. 8.2 Status report on GLONASS Mr. A. Neradko, Russian Federation

Mr. Chairman, Conference participants, Ladies and Gentlemen, I wish to thank you for the opportunity to inform the conference about the state of affairs in Russia with regard to implementation of the CNS/ATM concept. The Russian Federation is still in the position of implementing and making widespread use of CNS/ATM in civil aviation. In recent years, Russia has taken specific steps in this area. One of the major contributions by Russia to the transition to the use of the CNS/ATM concept by the world aviation community is the possibility for aviation users to use the GLONASS satellite navigation system.

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The GLONASS global navigation satellite system was developed in the Russian Federation and it was offered in 1996 for use by aviation civil users without any restrictions for 15 years on a cost-free basis. The Council of ICAO accepted this offer. The orbital segment of the GLONASS system is incomplete at the present time. In August 2001 the Government of the Russian Federation adopted a long-term federal special programme Global Navigation System which is designed for ten years. The main objectives of the programme are: to restore the orbital segment of the GLONASS system to 24 satellites by 2007 to 2008; to modernize the navigation satellites, starting with second-generation GLONASS-M satellites which have improved performance and a lifetime increased to seven years, and after 2007 to gradually replace satellites with third-generation GLONASS-K satellites which, together with improved performance and a lifetime of up to 10 to 12 years, will have the possibility to radiate the navigation signal on the L3 frequency in the aeronautical radio navigation band. The budget of the Russian Federation has made provision for allocating resources to restore the orbital segment and to create a new generation of satellites. It is intended for a second-generation GLONASS-M satellite to be launched into orbit at the end of 2003 together with two older-generation GLONASS satellites by the Proton launch vehicle from Baikonur Cosmodrome. Besides better performance than that of satellites of previous generations and the introduction of the third frequency in the aeronautical radio navigation band, the third-generation GLONASS-K satellite will have significantly better size and mass parameters. Its mass will not exceed 700 kg. This will make it possible to launch these satellites using the Proton launch vehicle with six satellites in one launch, which will make it possible to restore the orbital segment in a short period of time, and the Soyuz launch vehicle with two satellites in one launch, which will make it possible to effectively maintain the orbital segment in the future. These capabilities will make it possible to reduce by several times the costs of deploying and maintaining the orbital segment of the GLONASS system. The programme also provides for undertaking scientific research and experimental design work for the development of the new generation of satellites, for modernizing the ground GLONASS system control complex and for deploying the production of user equipment, augmentations and an orbital segment status monitoring system. In accordance with existing international agreements on ensuring the electromagnetic compatibility of the GLONASS system with radioastronomy facilities and mobile satellite services, the Russian Federation will implement the decisions of the International Telecommunication Union on the transition of the satellite radiation to the lower part of the occupied frequency sub-bands L1 and L2. Using the GLONASS system with other navigation satellite systems will make it possible to increase GNSS performance considerably: the accuracy, accessibility, integrity and continuity of navigation services to aviation users. Thank you for your attention.

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8.3

Status report on GALILEO Mr. M. Ayral, European Community

Ladies and Gentlemen, It is a pleasure for me to speak here at the Eleventh ICAO Air Navigation Conference about the European initiatives on satellite navigation. Europe follows a two-step approach in its endeavour to enter into satellite navigation. The first step is a space-based augmentation system called EGNOS augmenting GPS and GLONASS and will go into operation in 2004. After a validation and certification phase, EGNOS will provide APV-I and APV-II capabilities, compliant with the ICAO regulations, over ECAC landmasses. The second step in our venture is GALILEO, a civil, independent but complementary European satellite navigation system. At a later stage, EGNOS will be integrated into GALILEO. 2003 was an important year for GALILEO The European Member States decided to go ahead with GALILEO and initiated the development phase. The GALILEO joint undertaking, which will manage this phase, is operational since 1 September. The frequencies for GALILEO have been secured at the World Radio Conference in Geneva. The contracts for the first two GALILEO satellites have been signed in July to occupy those frequencies. GALILEO is on the right track and we are confident that it will become reality in 2008. What will GALILEO offer to the User Community? GALILEO will be a global system for multi modal users. To meet all the different requirements GALILEO will provide five services: a) the free to air Open Access Service; b) the Commercial Service; c) the Safety of Life Service; d) the Search and Rescue Service; and e) the Public Regulated service. The Safety of Life Service will especially meet the requirements of the aviation community. This service is designed to meet APV-II requirements worldwide and will provide integrity information along with service guarantees.

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GALILEO as distinct to the currently available systems will provide integrity information worldwide and service guarantees. GALILEO is a civil system and will be developed and operated in a transparent way allowing for full service certification. This feature is important for all safety of life applications but especially for aviation with its strict safety regulations. The need for service guarantees for safety of life applications has been taken into account already in the design of the system. Legal implications of service level commitments are driving the GALILEO system implementation. The aviation community will especially profit from this thorough and clear process as it supports the strict safety and performance regulations of ICAO and allows establishing clear responsibilities and liabilities for service provision later on. GALILEO will be operated by a private concessionaire in a public private partnership to guarantee long-term viability. The process to select this concessionaire has already started. It will support the implementation of the Single European Sky that will benefit from a significant technological change and an investment in the modernization and consolidation of the air traffic management infrastructure and related services. This global satellite navigation infrastructure will provide services to all modes of transport as well as to the widest range of applications; additionally GALILEO will indeed represent a fundamental tool for the aviation and in particular for the implementation of the Single European Sky. The way forward sees the provision of EGNOS next year and the implementation of GALILEO services by 2008. With GALILEO, along with the other satellite systems, the transition to a global satellite navigation infrastructure for aviation becomes feasible. Therefore, we ask ICAO to standardise GALILEO and to consider the European Satellite Navigation Systems in its future strategy. 8.4 Status report on MTSAT Mr. T. Iwasaki, Japan

Dr. Assad Kotaite, the President of the Council of ICAO, Dr. Taieb Chrif, the Secretary General of ICAO Secretariat, distinguished Delegates from States, representatives of international organizations, ladies and gentlemen. On behalf of the Government of Japan, it is my honour and privilege to report to you on the current status of the MTSAT programme in Japan and also to present how MTSAT has been designed in order to implement global air navigation services, which will be the main focus of this conference. As you recall, the Tenth Air Navigation Conference (AN-Conf/10) endorsed the Future Air Navigation Systems or FANS Concept. The fundamental idea behind the FANS concept was to adopt new CNS/ATM systems by utilizing satellite-based technologies to overcome the limitation of the current ground-based systems. Taking this concept into full consideration, Japan has decided to develop and implement Multi-functional Transport Satellite or MTSAT. The MTSAT is designed to accommodate a continuous increase of air traffic as well as improve aviation safety. It will not only provide aeronautical mobile satellite services (AMSS) but also provide augmentation of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). The first MTSAT is scheduled to launch in 2004 and will be stationed on a geostationary orbit of 140 degrees east longitude covering areas throughout the Asia/Pacific Region. The second MTSAT will follow in 2005. In designing the MTSAT, two aspects were considered as the utmost importance, that is, high redundancy and full interoperability.

iv-14

iv - History of the Conference

In order to ensure the high redundancy, Japan has established a system composing of two MTSAT and two dedicated aeronautical satellite centres on the ground. This system architecture will ensure that AMSS and GNSS services will be maintained continuously, even in failure of some components or in the event of natural disasters. This is the essential feature for the reduction of the longitudinal aircraft separation that is less than half of the current separation minimum to increase the air traffic capacity over the North Pacific. The second aspect is the full interoperability among the systems, one of the issues to be discussed at this conference. While MTSAT is covering areas throughout the Asia/Pacific Region, we clearly understand that the satellite would not be used unless it offers global and seamless services. Therefore, we have made various efforts to establish and assure full interoperability with other systems. As to AMSS, MTSAT is fully in compliance with the ICAO SARPs. In order to achieve this, Japan has made an agreement with Inmarsat to ensure the interoperability with their AMSS network. In addition, Japan has selected a data link service provider for delivering messages internationally with the use of their ground network. These measures will ensure that anyone utilizing MTSAT will enjoy global and seamless AMSS all over the world. As to the augmentation of GNSS, MTSAT is again fully in compliance with the ICAO SARPs. Japan has tried to assure the full interoperability among the SBAS service providers, that is, the U.S. WAAS, European EGNOS and our MSAS through coordination at the Interoperability Working Group (IWG). Several new States, which have recently announced to develop SBAS, have also joined the IWG to ensure the full interoperability with each other. In conclusion, the Government of Japan would like to ensure that the MTSAT will provide a global and seamless AMSS as well as GNSS network maintaining interoperability with other systems. Japan strongly believes that MTSAT will play a significant role in the capacity and safety enhancement in the Asia/Pacific Region. Japan hopes that MTSAT will be utilized as a common aeronautical infrastructure in the region. Japan is fully committed to make continuous efforts to contribute to the development of international air transport and aviation safety. Thank you very much for your attention.

9.

JOINT MEETING OF COMMITTEES A AND B

On 2 October 2003, at a joint meeting of Committees A and B, highlights of the results of the committees were presented and the following topics of common interest were discussed: security of aviation infrastructure; data quality (including integrity); status of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750); performance objectives; and aviation frequency spectrum.

v - List of Participants LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

v-1

CD ACD D ALT

Chief Delegate Alternate Chief Delegate Delegate Alternate

ADV COBS OBS

Adviser Chief Observer Observer

State/Territory/International Organization Afghanistan Algeria Mir, Y.

Name

Designation

CD CD D D D CD ACD ACD D D D D D CD ACD CD ACD ACD D D D D ADV CD CD D ALT CD CD D

Yousfi, Y. Arroudj, S. Hamed Abdelouahab, F. Larfaoui, H. Alvarez, J. Fraga, C. Trisano, H. Cimbaro, R. Cocchi, G. Gouarnalusse, O. Rodino, E. Snchez Ara, E. Zadoyan, K. Musoyan, E. Clegg, S. Kuchel, C. Mallett, I. Graff, R. Peake, R. Shirley, J. Woods, J. Dollman, W. Frst, M. Juman, M. Mubarak, S. Hassan, A. Khan, M. Archer, E. Beckles, M.

Argentina

Armenia

Australia

Austria Bahrain

Bangladesh Barbados

v-2 State/Territory/International Organization Belarus Belgium

v - List of Participants Name Designation

Maza, N. Cottyn, J. Callebaut, H. Akobi, A. Gasseto, J. Adjakpa, B. Soumaila, A. Melean Eterovic, E. Quiroga, C. Fortun Landivar, J. Villar Rojas, J. Borda, M. Mosupukwa, K. Maroba, O. De Oliveira Lencastre, F. Arajo de Medeiros, N. Borges Cardoso, R. Dos Santos Pohlmann, A. Baslo Dias, J. Hoyer, F. Mahler, M. Ramos Jnior, C. Ribeiro Da Silva, L. Rodrigues Filho, R. Rodrigues Patrcio, E. Rolim, H. Siewerdt, E. Zamprogno, E.R. Latip, K. Salleh, M. Hajayandi, J. Ndeh, J. Manga Fouda, F. Ndeh, C. Sama Juma, I. Tekou, T. Zoa Etundi, E.

CD CD D CD ACD D D CD ACD D D ADV CD ACD CD ACD ACD ACD D D D D D D D D D D CD ACD D CD ACD D D D D

Benin

Bolivia

Botswana

Brazil

Brunei Darussalam

Burundi Cameroon

v - List of Participants State/Territory/International Organization Canada Name Designation

v-3

Preuss, M. Mein, D. Taylor, J. Bourgeois, G. Chambers, S. Fudakowski, T. Hohm, M. MacDonald, J. Taylor, J. Bellingham, S. Bowie, R. Traoguingue, S. Meirelles, M. Romero, P. Abatte, H. Fernndez, A. Retamal, D. Dueas, D. Rossi Jofr, L. Liu, S. Lam, A. Zhang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, E. Zhang, J. Leung, W. Gao, Y. Li, R. Li, X. Lo, S.M.N. So, K. Wen, L. Wong, D.F. Yeung, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Tam, A. Ramrez Mejia, J.C. Muoz, A. Ortiz Cuenca, J. Delgado, G. Riveros-Gutirrez, J.

CD ACD ACD D D D D D D ADV ADV CD CD ACD D D D ADV ADV CD ACD ACD D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D CD ACD ACD D D

Chad Chile

China

Colombia

v-4 State/Territory/International Organization Costa Rica

v - List of Participants Name Designation

Ramos, M. Fernandez, J. Ramirez, L. Elefteriou, G. Ojeda Vives, A. Ara Cruz, F. Ayn Alfonso, J. Cid Jimnez, G. Fabelo Corzo, O. Ibez Cruz, L.I. Morales Lorenzo, P. Madrigal Muoz, R. Sandoval Morera, J. Mika, L. Gorgol, O. Hubert, I. Materna, P. Kim H. Chol, R. Kang Ki, K. Ri, H. Ri, K. So Won Ho, S. Tabora Afata, G. Marie Omanga, O. Milinganyo, M. Theil, K. Jensen, L. Andresen, S. Halskov-Jensen, S. Reyes Rodriguez, R. Farah, I. Arellano, I. Bonilla, R. Salas, I.

CD D D D CD D D D D D D ALT ADV CD ACD D D CD D D D D D CD ACD D CD ACD D D CD D CD D ADV

Cte dIvoire Cuba

Czech Republic

Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Denmark

Dominican Republic Djibouti Ecuador

v - List of Participants State/Territory/International Organization Egypt Name Designation

v-5

El Bagoury, M. El Azab, S. El Shanabary, M. Ragheb, M. Sadek, H. Ryad, M. El Kady, M. Zaghini, R. Rodas, M. Belayneh, M. Hunde, G. Mekonnen, T. Yee, N. Baba, O. Vave, J. Talvitie, M. Jaakkola, H. Nyberg, M. Salonen, K. Lampi, M. Solatie, T. Tupamaki, M. Guyard, M. Dobelle, J.-F Morisseau, F. Andriamonje, M. Bousquet, C. Calvet, M. Chevallier, J. Colin de Verdiere, D. Coulardot, F. Delhaye, J. Lacaze, E. Rosso, R. Anton, R. Aqallal, A. Dabin, M. Dedryvere, A. Dumas, C. Fischer, S. Lagarrigue, G. Wonneberger, L.

CD ACD ACD D D ALT ADV CD D D D D ACD D ALT CD ACD D D D D D CD ACD ACD D D D D D D D D D ADV ADV ADV ADV ADV ADV ADV ADV

El Salvador

Ethiopia

Fiji

Finland

France

v-6 State/Territory/International Organization Gabon

v - List of Participants Name Obiang Zue Beyeme, J. Ndoutoumou, C. Mfoubou-Moudhouma, D. Cham, M. Saine, P. Frobse, H. Mrl, H. Mickler, T. Nitschke, D. Radusch, M. Hoebel, A. Boachie, J.A. Addo, E. Boateng, P. Konstantinidis, S. Kyriakakis, K. Koukoulas, P. Malikoutis, E. Neonakis, E. Passas, T. Keita, E. Bah, E. Diallo, T. Kaba, M. St. Juste, F. Legagneur, M. Kiss, L. Szekely, Z. Kiss, A. Kovcs, A. Mudra, I. Sipos, Z. Bakos, J. Plsson, T. Hauksson, H. Plsson, A. Gudmundsson, B. ACD D ALT CD ADV CD CD ACD ACD ACD ADV CD D D CD ACD D D D D CD D D D CD D CD ACD D D D D A CD ACD ACD D Designation

Gambia

Germany

Ghana

Greece

Guinea

Haiti

Hungary

Iceland

v - List of Participants State/Territory/International Organization India Name Roy Paul, K. Zaidi, N. Gohain, K. Kaul, S. Khurana, R. Ramalingam, K. Suprojo, C. Syachrudin, E. Sjioen, J. Ichwanul, I. Abubakar, R. Darsosuwignyo, M. Dima, W. Idrus, I. Loftus, A. Mala, A. Pangastuti, N. Setiawan, A. Silooy, E. Sitompul, Y. Taruf, N. Mahdavi, G. Polis, B. Mohammed, F. Doyle, K. Brennan, E. McGinley, A. Ryan, P. Attali, M. Sciacchitano, S. Cecchi, R. DAloia, P. Pilotto, A. Ciancaglioni, P. Del Duca, G. Falessi, L. Ferraro, E. Ferri, P. Kalpakjian, K. Podiani, F. Scazzola, G. Sparpaglia, F. Adami, S. CD ACD D D D D CD ACD ACD D D D D D D D D D D D D CD CD ACD CD D D D CD CD ACD ACD ACD D D D D D D D D D ADV Designation

v-7

Indonesia

Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq

Ireland

Israel Italy

v-8 State/Territory/International Organization Jamaica

v - List of Participants Name Baker, J. Stern, P. Iwasaki, T. Takeda, H. Kono, H. Kosaka, S. Kudo, M. Udaka, K. Suzuki, Y. Kawakami, M. Yamaguchi, S. Yamaguchi, S. Morishima, T. Imamura, J. Oshimo, H. Shirakawa, M. Kuto, C. Amukowa, B. Nyikuli, S. Otiende, P. Yagomba, W. Alfozan, F. Al-Adwani, A. Al-Jenaee, Y. Khankhaldov, S. Chamieh, K. Yehia, H. Shaaban, F. Abughres, M. Danilevicius, V. Chadasevicius, J. Jakas, K. Matulaitis, G. Robinson, A. Matiya, A. Matemba, J. Zolfakar, A. Ismail, K. Lim, Y. Nathan, V. CD ACD CD ACD ACD ACD ACD ACD ACD D D D D D ADV ADV CD D D D D CD D D A CD ACD D CD CD D D D CD ACD D CD D D D Designation

Japan

Kenya

Kuwait

Latvia Lebanon

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Lithuania

Madagascar Malawi

Malaysia

v - List of Participants State/Territory/International Organization Mali Mauritius Mexico Tradore, C. Gungah, A. Kobeth Gonzalez, R. Arellano Rodrguez, C. Hernandez Sandoval, V. Labastida Ponce, A. Mendez Mayora, D. Pelaez Lira, M. Silva, M. Gombosuren, D. Mendbayar, C. Yaalaoui, A. Bousfiha, A. Moumni, H. Alaoui, A. Fahim, S. Gnzel, T. Dhital, U. Adhikari, M. Sakya, L. Kneepkens, J. Zandstra, M.J. De Jong, M. Kraan, B. Taylor, C. McConway, J. Jamieson, A. Halidou, M. Mayaki, R. Adamou, A. Oyelade, T. Oyudo, C. Eniojukan, D. Gowon, M. Inyamkume, B. Modu, A. Onasanya, E. Oteghile, K. Oti, I. Name Designation

v-9

ACD CD CD D D D D D ADV CD D CD ACD D ADV ADV CD CD D D CD ACD D ADV CD ALT ADV CD ACD ACD CD ACD D D D D D D D

Mongolia

Morocco

Namibia Nepal

Netherlands, Kingdom of the

New Zealand

Niger

Nigeria

v-10 State/Territory/International Organization Norway

v - List of Participants Name Designation

Skaar, K. Hernaes, H. Mo, F. Al-Adawy, A. Alharithy, A. Boudo, P. Nawaz, A. Awan, M. Khan, J. Chavarria Castillo, H. Barahona, A. Dutary, C. Garcia de Paderes, R. Farias Servin, C. Hurtado, R. Muoz, J. Nunez, F. Avila, P. Gamara Malca, M. Munete Lozano, J. Germino, C. Santos, R. Mikrut, C. Nawroki, B. Jesionowski, R. Lisowski, J. Zanienski, A. Monteiro, C. Oliviera, A. Paraiba, A. Ventura, A. Kim, C. Park, M. Chang, M. Kim, G. Nam, G. Han, D. Buinitki, V. Vartik, V.

CD ACD ALT CD ADV ADV CD D ADV CD D D ADV CD CD CD ACD D D ALT D ADV CD ACD D D D D D D D CD ACD D D D ADV CD D

Oman

Pakistan

Panama

Paraguay Peru

Philippines Poland

Portugal

Republic of Korea

Republic of Moldova

v - List of Participants State/Territory/International Organization Romania Name Ionescu, M. Leu, V. Kramer, R. Nita, S. Neradko, A. Romanenko, Y. Meleshko, Y. Ampilogov, V. Falkov, E. Korovkin, V. Kozlov, V. Laletin, S. Levshunova, N. Lobachev, E. Lysenko, I. Mikhaylov, B. Rudakov, V. Saleyev, V. Shavlyugin, V. Shcherbakov, L. Talalai, M. Burykin, I. Chesnokov, V. Klimov, V. Kuranov, V. Lebedev, B. Mednikov, A. Nartov, V. Oleynik, V. Shilov, A. Wilson, H. Al-Salmi, M. Al-Alawi, M. Al-Ghamdi, A. Abu-Dawood, H. Jahdli, S. Al-Aufi, H. Al-Jabri, I. Mannan, A. Fairaq, T. Al-Motirey, S. Al-Ghorabi, H. Gueye, B. Bessane, M. Sall, A. CD D ADV ADV CD ACD ACD D D D D D D D D D D D D D D ADV ADV ADV ADV ADV ADV ADV ADV ADV CD CD ACD D D D D D D D D ADV CD D ALT Designation

v-11

Russian Federation

Saint Lucia Saudi Arabia

Senegal

v-12 State/Territory/International Organization Serbia and Montenegro Singapore

v - List of Participants Name Radosavljevic, Z. Wong, W. Bong, K. Cheng, H. Fernando, M. Tan, V. Tay, T. Yap, P. Hong, L. Lim, S. Oh, A. Mihalus, M. Jansa, S. Peege, T. Bradshaw, A. Machobane, S. Marais, P. Mabaso, L. Mamabolo-Chueu, M. Mothusi, T. Perez Blanco, J. Arias Serrano, A. Calvo Fresno, J. Galan, C. Gonzalez Diez, E. Quereda Rubio, F. Rivero Hidalgo, C. Rodriguez Gil, L. Seco Dominguez, J. Adrover, L. Hernandez Fernandez, M. Herrero, J. Morales Lopez, J. Negrete, L. Rajapakse, H. Silva, R. Wimalshanthi, W. Abd El Karim, A. Abdella, I. Mohamed, H. Martin, D. Dube, S. CD CD ACD D D D D D ADV ADV ADV CD CD CD ACD ACD ACD D D D CD D D D D D D D D ADV ADV ADV ADV ADV CD ADV ADV CD ACD D ADV D Designation

Slovakia Slovenia South Africa

Spain

Sri Lanka

Sudan

Swaziland

v - List of Participants State/Territory/International Organization Sweden Name Designation

v-13

Hietala, A. Danielsson, J. Standar, M. Redeborn, B. Stucki, P. Vonlanthen, L. Bertz, G. Schubert, F. Alkhatib, N. Dib, A. Hetrakul, P. Kalayanajati, R. Rongthong, S. Sang-Ngurn, N. Wongsongsarn, S. Hamidi, F.

CD ACD D ADV D ALT ADV ADV ACD D CD D D D D CD

Switzerland

Syrian Arab Republic

Thailand

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Togo

Amelete, B. Latta, D. Dobou, K. Faletau, A. Maake, V. Berrajah, A. Chettaoui, N. Benkhelifa, H. Cherif, M. Dridi, R. Hedfi, A. Becheikh, M. Calisar, S. Enc, F. Cendek, U. Birdal, O. Kilic, M. Ergin, A. Sarigul, G. Aygun, C. Zeren, A.

CD CD D CD D CD ACD D D D D ADV CD D D D D D D D D

Tonga

Tunisia

Turkey

v-14 State/Territory/International Organization Uganda

v - List of Participants Name Designation

Akandonda, A. Kagoro, J. Musoke, A. Petriv, L. Afanasiev, V. Avramenko, O. Babeychuk, D. Bezmal, V. Cherednichenko, Y. Melnyk, O. Nastasiyenko, V. Prystaiko, V. Al Amoudi, A. Roberts, P. Elder, R. Evans, D. Coombs, B. Daly, H. Jackson, J. Knill, A. Lawson, J. Roberts, P. Sayce, A. Ashton, K. Alloo, M. Nundu, O. Makoroma, G. Mpinga Mgana, C. Paul, L. Sajan, I. Blakey, M. Keegan, C. Salvano, D. Aguilera, F. Carmody, J. Chew, R. Cirillo, M. Coulson, R. Eck, J. Fagan, C. Howell, T.

CD D D CD ACD D D D D D D D D D ACD ACD D D D D D D D ADV CD ACD D D D D CD ACD ACD D D D D D D D D

Ukraine

United Arab Emirates

United Kingdom

United Republic of Tanzania

United States

v - List of Participants State/Territory/International Organization Name Jennison, M. Lavin, D. Levine, G. MacKenzie, W. Mandel, D. McGraw, J. Phillips, B. Price, F. Scardina, J. Serwer, C. Stimpson, E. Storm, A. Voss, W. Westover, M. Williams, J. Schanne, J. Brown, J. Decleenes, B. Fee, J. Herishen-Smith, S. Orlando, J. Pozesky, M. Valentine, B. Olmedo, D. Tardaguila, A. Tissoni, A. Paz Fleitas, F. Blanco, R. Guerra Pinto, F. Velasquez Leon, L. Bui Van, V. Le Quoc, K. Nguyen, H. Abdulkader, M. Bafaqih, A. Jawlah, A. D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D ALT ADV ADV ADV ADV ADV ADV ADV CD D D CD D D D CD D D CD ACD D Designation

v-15

United States (continued)

Uruguay

Venezuela

Viet Nam

Yemen

v-16 State/Territory/International Organization Zambia

v - List of Participants Name Kabalika, C. Chishala, H. Kapwepwe, C. Mambwe, E. Sinjwala, P. Mwanza, P. CD D D D D ALT Designation

OBSERVERS

Palestine

Abu Halib, S. Abu-Halim, S. Salman, M. Glennon, R. Belcher, J. Hutchinson, K. Jeffers, B. Montgomery, E. Nagowski, V. Oischi, R. Heshmat, M.

OBS OBS OBS COBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS

Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC)

African Civil Aviation Commission (AFCAC) Agency for Air Navigation Safety in Africa and Madagascar (ASECNA)

Fokoua, T. Guitteye, A. Jaquard, P. Ndiaye, M. Gamper, D. Heitmeyer, R. Daoudi, A. Lahboubi, A. Oyuela Martine, J. Mendoza, G. Urbizo Fley, U. Ter Kuile, T.A.

OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS COBS OBS COBS OBS OBS OBS

Airports Council International (ACI) Arab Civil Aviation Commission (ACAC) Central American Corporation for Air Navigation Services (COCESNA) Civil Air Navigation Services Organization (CANSO) Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)

Van Der Westhuizen, V.

OBS

v - List of Participants State/Territory/International Organization European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) Name Designation

v-17

Benjamin, R. Mariadassou, J. Stastny, P. Ayral, M. Bernabei, C. Chatre, E. Ureher, J. Van Houtte Aguado, V. Bauchet, J. Bozsa, I. Cerasi, E. Hendriks, A. Miaillier, B. Philipp, W. Rees, M. Sauvage, J. Stastny, P. Van Dam, R. Matschnigg, G. Comber, M. Davies, J. Dumsa, A. Heighes, R. Kneeland, A. Kritter, E. Lay, P. Rochat, P. Shand, A. Thompson, R. Van den Boogaard, K. Wilson, G. Carel, O.

COBS OBS OBS COBS OBS OBS OBS OBS COBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS COBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS

European Community (EC)

European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (Eurocontrol)

International Air Transport Association (IATA)

International Association of Institutes of Navigation (IAIN) International Business Aviation Council (IBAC)

Spruston, D. Ingleton, P. Longmuir, S. Paine, T. Stine, B.

COBS OBS OBS OBS OBS

v-18 State/Territory/International Organization International Coordinating Council of Aerospace Industries Associations (ICCAIA) International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations (IAOPA) International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers Associations (IFATCA)

v - List of Participants Name Camus, P. Murphy, T. Potocki, P. Sheehan, J. Hofmann, F. OBS OBS OBS COBS OBS Designation

Ruitenberg, B. Baumgartener, M. Beadle, A. Churchill, D. Iavorskaia, T. McCarthy, P. Denke, C. Frhwirth, H. Marin, M. Meyer, H. Newman, L. Torn, R. Dillman, A. Ouellette, Y. Efford, C. Norrish, L.

COBS OBS OBS OBS OBS COBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS ADV OBS

International Federation of Air Line Pilots Associations (IFALPA)

International Federation of Air Traffic Safety Electric Association (IFATSEA) International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO) International Transport Workers Federation (ITF)

Enright, S. Magee, J. Marlin, R. Myles, G. Weiland, R. Ermolov, O. Filatov, A. Rukhlinskiy, V. Clinch, P. Charlton, A. Mattos, A. Sharma, A.

COBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS OBS COBS OBS OBS OBS

Inter-State Aviation Committee (IAC)

Socit internationale de tlcommunications aronautiques (SITA)

v - List of Participants

v-19

vi - Agenda of the Conference AGENDA OF THE CONFERENCE

vi-1

Agenda Item 1:

Introduction and assessment of a global air traffic management (ATM) operational concept 1.1: The global ATM operational concept 1.2: Enabling concepts in support of the global ATM operational concept 1.3: The need for a global air navigation plan 1.4: The role of airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS) technologies

Agenda Item 2: Safety and security in air traffic management (ATM) 2.1: Safety management systems and programmes 2.2: Safety certification of ATM systems 2.3: Safety regulation 2.4: Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP) 2.5: Safety and security of the ATM infrastructure Agenda Item 3: Air traffic management (ATM) performance targets for safety, efficiency and regularity and the role of required total system performance (RTSP) in this respect 3.1: Performance targets for ATM 3.2: The concept of RTSP

Agenda Item 4: Capacity-enhancement measures 4.1: Global measures 4.2: Regional measures Agenda Item 5: Review of the outcome of the ITU World Radio Conference (2003) (WRC-2003) and its impact on aeronautical electromagnetic spectrum utilization

Agenda Item 6: Aeronautical navigation issues 6.1: Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) development status based on reports from States, service providers and industry organizations 6.2: Navigation policy issues in the light of present and envisaged GNSS services and architectures, integration and back-up options 6.3: Amendments on aeronautical navigation subjects in relevant ICAO documents including the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750), Annex 10 Aeronautical Telecommunications and other documents as necessary 6.4: Directions for future development of aeronautical navigation services Agenda Item 7: Aeronautical air-ground and air-to-air communications

vii - Glossary of Terms

vii-1

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

AAC AAI AAIM ABAS ACARS ACAS ACP ADP ADREP ADS ADS-B ADS-C ADSP AEEC AES AGAS AICM AIXM AIM AIP AIS AMSS AOA AOC APANPIRG APC APT

aeronautical administrative communication Airports Authority of India aircraft autonomous integrity monitoring aircraft-based augmentation system aircraft communications addressing and reporting system airborne collision avoidance system Aeronautical Communications Panel aeronautical data package Accident/Incident Data Reporting automatic dependent surveillance automatic dependent surveillance broadcast ADS contract Automatic Dependent Surveillance Panel Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee aircraft earth station Action Group on ATM Safety Aeronautical Information Conceptual Model Aeronautical Information Exchange Model aeronautical information management aeronautical information publication aeronautical information services aeronautical mobile-satellite service ACARS over aviation aeronautical operational control ASIA/PAC Air Navigation Planning and Implementation Regional Group aeronautical public communications Asia Pacific Telecommunity

vii-2 ARINC ARTCC ASAS ASECNA ASMG ATC ATM ATMCP ATN ATS ATU AW C/A code CAIS CAR/SAM CC CENPAC CEPT CIS CITEL CNS/ATM CNS COTS CPDLC CS CSA D-ATIS D-VOLMET

vii - Glossary of Terms Aeronautical Radio, Inc. air route traffic control centre airborne separation assistance system Agence pour la Scurit de la Navigation Arienne en Afrique et Madagascar (ASECNA) Arab Spectrum Management Group air traffic control air traffic management Air Traffic Management Operational Concept Panel aeronautical telecommunication network air traffic services African Telecommunication Union aerial work coarse acquisition code computerized aeronautical information services Caribbean/South American compliance checklist Central Pacific European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations Commonwealth of Independent States Commisin Interamericana de Telecommunicaciones communications, navigation, and surveillance/air traffic management communications, navigation, and surveillance commercial off-the-shelf controller-pilot data link communications commercial service channel of standard accuracy (GLONASS) data link-automatic terminal information service VOLMET data link service

vii - Glossary of Terms DFIS DME DOP EAD ECAC ECIP EGNOS ENRI ESA ETG EUROCAE Eurocontrol FAA FANS FASID FIR FIS-B FL FOC GA GAGAN GASP GBAS GEO GIS GLONASS GNSS GNSSP GPS data link flight information services distance measuring equipment dilution of precision European AIS database European Civil Aviation Conference European Convergence and Implementation Plan European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service Electronic Navigation Research Institute European Space Agency European Tripartite Group European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation Federal Aviation Administration future air navigation systems Facilities and Services Implementation Document flight information region flight information services broadcast flight level final operating capability general aviation GEO augmented navigation Global Aviation Safety Plan ground-based augmentation system geostationary earth orbit geographic information system GLObal NAvigation Satellite System global navigation satellite system Global Navigation Satellite System Panel Global Positioning System (GPS)

vii-3

vii-4 GRAS GREPECAS HF IAOPA IATA IBAC ICCAIA IFALPA IFATCA ILS IMO INS IRS ISRO ITU IWG JAA JCAB JTSO LEO LNAV LOSA MASPS MCS MDR MEL MEO MET MLS

vii - Glossary of Terms ground-based regional augmentation system CAR/SAM Regional Planning and Implementation Group high frequency International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations International Air Transport Association International Business Aviation Council International Co-ordinating Council of Aerospace Industries Associations International Federation of Airline Pilots Associations International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers Associations instrument landing system International Maritime Organization inertial navigation system inertial reference system Indian Space Research Organisation International Telecommunication Union Interoperability Working Group Joint aviation authorities Japan Civil Aviation Bureau JAA technical standing order low earth orbit(ing satellite) lateral navigation line operations safety audit minimum aviation system performance standards master control station multimode digital radio minimum equipment list medium earth orbit meteorology microwave landing system

vii - Glossary of Terms MMR MNPS MRS MSAS MTSAT NAS NEXCOM NOPAC NOSS NSE OCP OPLINKP OS P-code PA PANS-OPS PANS PANS-ATM PDC PIRG PPS PZ-90 R&D RAIM RASP RCC RCP RF multi-mode receiver minimum navigation performance specification monitor and ranging station MTSAT satellite-based augmentation system multi-functional transport satellite national airspace system next generation air/ground communications North Pacific normal operations safety survey navigation system error Obstacle Clearance Panel Operational Data Link Panel open service (GPS/GLONASS) precision code precision approach Procedures for Air Navigation Services Aircraft Operations (Doc 8168) Procedures for Air Navigation Services Procedures for Air Navigation Services Air Traffic Management (Doc 4444) pre-departure clearance planning and implementation regional group precise positioning service (GPS) parameters of the Earth 1990 co-ordinate system research and development receiver autonomous integrity monitoring required ATM system performance rescue coordination centre required communication performance radio frequency

vii-5

vii-6 RMP RMS RMS RNAV RNP RNSS ROIs RPP RSP RTSP RVSM SA SAAQ SAR SARPs SATCOM SBAS SCAT-I SCRSP SDU SID SITA SoL SPS SSR STAR STDMA SV TACAN

vii - Glossary of Terms required monitoring performance root mean square remote monitoring station area navigation required navigation performance radionavigation satellite service Roadmap of Operational Improvements required planning performance required surveillance performance required total system performance reduced vertical separation minimum selective availability (GPS) State Aviation Activity Questionnaire search and rescue Standards and Recommended Practices satellite communication satellite-based augmentation system Special Category I (approach system) Surveillance and Conflict Resolution Systems Panel satellite data unit standard instrument departure Airline Telecommunications and Information Services safety of life standard positioning service (GPS) secondary surveillance radar standard instrument arrival self-organizing time-division multiple access space vehicle tactical air navigation

vii - Glossary of Terms TDMA TEM TIS-B TLAT TSE TSO UACC UAT UHF USOAP UTC VDL VHF VNAV VOR WAAS WGS-84 WRC-2003 XML time division multiple access threat and error management traffic information service broadcast Technical Link Assessment Team total system error (FAA) technical standard order upper area control center universal access transceiver ultra-high frequency universal safety oversight audit programme Co-ordinated Universal Time VHF digital link very high frequency vertical navigation VHF omnidirectional range radio wide area augmentation system world geodetic system-1984 World Radiocommunication Conference (2003) extensible mark-up language

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Report on Agenda Item 1 Agenda Item 1: Introduction and assessment of a global air traffic management (ATM) operational concept

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1.1

INTRODUCTION

1.1.1 Under this agenda item, the conference reviewed and assessed a global air traffic management (ATM) operational concept and several enabling concepts. Other issues related to the future ATM system such as the need to develop ATM requirements, the role and function of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Global Plan, Doc 9750), the role of airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS) and the planning mechanisms necessary to progress toward implementation of a future ATM system based on the ATM operational concept were discussed.

1.2

THE GLOBAL ATM OPERATIONAL CONCEPT

1.2.1 The conference reviewed the global ATM operational concept (operational concept) as developed by the Air Traffic Management Operational Concept Panel (ATMCP) under the guidance of the Air Navigation Commission. The conference recalled that, in follow-up to the Tenth Air Navigation Conference (Montreal, 5 to 20 September 1991), States, international organizations and ICAO, at the global level and regional level through planning and implementation regional groups (PIRGs), had embarked on communications, navigation, and surveillance/air traffic management (CNS/ATM) systems planning and implementation programmes intended to improve aviation operations by making use of CNS/ATM technologies. Although good progress had been made, it was later recognized that a comprehensive concept of an integrated and global ATM system, based on clearly-established requirements, would facilitate the implementation programmes. This concept, in turn, would form the basis for the coordinated implementation of CNS/ATM technologies and progression to a more global and interoperable ATM system. 1.2.1.1 The conference was informed that the operational concept presented to the conference had been initially reviewed by the Air Navigation Commission in follow-up of the first full panel meeting of the ATMCP (18 to 28 March 2002). After the Commissions review, the operational concept had been circulated to States and international organizations for assessment and to make recommendations for improvement. The comments received had been reviewed by the ATMCP in accordance with the instructions of the Air Navigation Commission which led to several changes. The Air Navigation Commission then had reviewed the revised operational concept and had agreed that it should be presented to the conference for assessment. The Commission had agreed to take further action on the operational concept on the basis of the recommendations of the conference. 1.2.1.2 The conference was informed that the issue of sovereignty was an important cornerstone of the operational concept, recognizing that the operational concept should neither infringe upon nor impose restrictions on States sovereignty, authority or responsibility for the control of air navigation. 1.2.1.3 The conference noted that the planning horizon used for the development of the operational concept was up to and beyond the year 2025 and that the operational concept outlined a range of conceptual changes that would evolve through the planning horizon. Key to the philosophy adopted within the operational concept was the notion of global information utilization, management and interchange. This was seen as the enabler of significant change in the roles of all participants within the ATM system, which would facilitate enhancements in safety, economy and efficiency across the ATM system. The goal, therefore, was an evolution to a holistic, cooperative and collaborative decision-making environment, where the expectations of the members of the ATM community would be balanced to achieve the best outcome based on equity and

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access. It was noted that this was in contrast to the present day principle of first-come, first-served and would better achieve an incentive-based approach to investments for the improvement of ATM. 1.2.1.4 The benefits which could be expected from implementation of an ATM system based on the operational concept were recognized by the conference. From an airspace user perspective, greater equity in airspace access, greater access to timely and meaningful information for decision support and more autonomy in decision-making including conflict management, would result in optimum system outcomes with minimum deviation from user-requested flight trajectories. From a service provider perspective, including that of airport operators, the ability to operate within an information-rich environment, with real-time data, as well as system trend and predictive data, fused with a range of automated decision-support or decision-making tools, would enable optimization of services to airspace users. From a regulator perspective, safety systems were envisaged to be robust and open, allowing safety not only to be more easily measured and monitored, but also compared and integrated on a global basis. 1.2.1.5 The conference agreed that the operational concept provided a vision that would allow States and regions to align their planning processes, allow system solution engineering to be directed toward a harmonized and interoperable outcome, allow airspace users and service providers to share data and information to best mutual outcome, and enhance levels of safety, economy and efficiency, for the good of all members of the ATM community. The need for social dialogue as the future ATM system was designed and implemented was stressed, as was the need for ATS personnel to be involved in all stages of the development process. 1.2.1.6 The conference recognized that the section of the operational concept dealing with conflict management would lead to the most significant changes in the future ATM system and that much more work had to be accomplished and consensus reached in order to safely implement the techniques envisaged. Also, evolution to the concept component of conflict management should occur in a careful, considered and evolutionary fashion, with full participation of the ATM community. Among several issues raised was the need to ensure that the ATM system needed to respect the different nature of the three layers of conflict management identified in the operational concept (i.e. strategic conflict management, tactical conflict management and collision avoidance) and that they must be incorporated appropriately into the ATM system design. It was agreed that clearly-established principles of operation had to be developed that did not lead to system users having to respond to conflicting and contrary demands. 1.2.1.7 The conference agreed that the conflict management process, as described in the operational concept, would enable the ATM users to collaboratively interact to achieve the best overall outcome for ATM as a whole, and that this attribute of collaboration would bring with it a responsibility on each user that should be characterized by cooperation and trust. It was agreed that the above issues, and others raised, should be forwarded to the bodies that would be involved in the continuing work on conflict management. 1.2.1.8 The conference was presented with the activities of several States, regions and sub-regions toward improving ATM systems and procedures, which included collaborative efforts across regions. This included a report on the significant efforts under way in Europe to implement a fully harmonized, highly interoperable and seamless European ATM system and, in particular, toward establishment of the European Upper Flight Information Region as part of the implementation of the single European sky, which, it was noted, was aimed at eliminating the fragmentation of airspace in Europe. The conference was also presented with a significant effort under way in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) to ensure the realization of the main benefits of the operational concept through regional and sub-regional harmonization of air navigation systems and eventual integration into the global ATM system.

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1.2.1.9 During the discussions, the conference was made aware that such regional solutions could cause difficulties to neighbouring regions if coordination with, and participation of, all affected States and regions was not thorough. The need for adequate inter-regional planning and coordination was therefore stressed. 1.2.1.10 In addition to the above, the conference agreed that the global ATM system must meet the differing requirements of the various regions and States. Scalability and adaptability would have to be taken into account in future work on scenarios, transition strategies and planning for implementation. In the same context, it was recognized that States with less developed aviation or ATM systems would also play an important role in the development of an integrated global ATM system and that such States could benefit significantly from full integration into a global ATM system. Therefore, these States should be afforded full participation in development of regional and global ATM systems. Due importance must therefore be attached to the development of ATM systems in such States through the provision of technical support and financial and funding mechanisms to address imbalances in economic development. 1.2.1.11 The conference agreed that it would be essential that transition strategies based on a roadmap detailing the migratory path necessary for all members of the ATM community to manage their activities in parallel would be useful. In this context, the conference was informed that the ATMCP already had this item in its work programme and that the panel would likely resume its work in April of 2004 in follow-up to the conference. A roadmap offered by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the roadmap of the European ATM Strategy 2000+ would therefore be forwarded to the ATMCP for use in its further work. 1.2.1.12 Based on the discussions on the operational concept, the conference expressed its full support for the operational concept and agreed that there was a need for all CNS/ATM partners to rally around one global ATM operational concept. In consideration of the above, the conference endorsed the global ATM operational concept and agreed on the following recommendation. Recommendation 1/1 Endorsement of the global ATM operational concept

That: a) ICAO, States and planning and implementation regional groups (PIRGs), consider the global ATM operational concept as the common global framework to guide planning for implementation of ATM systems and to focus all ATM development work; the global ATM operational concept be used as guidance for development of ICAO CNS/ATM related provisions; States with the support of the other members of the ATM community undertake work to validate the seven components in the global ATM operational concept; ICAO, States and PIRGs develop transition strategies for implementation of ATM systems based on the global ATM operational concept; and ICAO align its technical work programme to facilitate future work

b)

c)

d)

e)

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Report on Agenda Item 1 related to the global ATM operational concept.

1.2.1.13 The conference considered the effect of military activity on the ATM system and expressed its view that processes of close coordination should be put in place in order to satisfy the needs of all airspace users and to assure overall safety. The conference agreed that the issue of discretionary military activity and its effect on civil aviation would be best addressed at the national and regional levels through the normal planning and coordination processes. However, it would be in the best interest of international civil aviation if military authorities were fully briefed on activities related to planning and implementation of the operational concept and were involved and integrated into long-term planning and implementation efforts. The conference therefore agreed on the following recommendation. Recommendation 1/2 Coordination with military authorities

That States take appropriate action to coordinate the global ATM operational concept with their military authorities with a view to achieving maximum cooperation and integration in an effort to implement a flexible and cooperative approach to airspace organization and management. 1.2.1.14 The conference was reminded that CNS/ATM systems were intended to accommodate the needs of all airspace users, including general aviation (GA) and aerial work (AW) operations and that often, airspace design, aircraft equipment requirements and operational procedures did not address the needs of GA/AW operators. The conference agreed that while CNS/ATM systems must be designed to provide services to commercial air transport, user provisions must also be made to accommodate the needs of GA/AW operators as well. It was noted that this could be accomplished by instituting procedures and employing technology that would permit access to valuable airspace segments without either unnecessarily excluding GA/AW operations or requiring on-board equipment effectively excluding them. In this context, the vision statement in the operational concept was recalled which made reference to all users, as well as the operational concept expectation of access and equity which also addressed this issue. However, it was agreed by the conference that, as work toward planning for implementation of an ATM system based on the operational concept, or any future work emanating from the concept or the conference, progressed, the needs of the GA/AW community should be fully considered. 1.2.1.15 Several additional issues were discussed and the conference agreed that although there was strong support for the operational concept, it was understood that these issues, which were not addressed in great depth in the operational concept, would have to be more fully dealt with in the ensuing work emanating from the conference. These included legal, financial, environmental, human factors and security issues. Additionally, the conference agreed that there was a need to stress the criticality of frequency spectrum to the successful implementation of the future ATM system and that this requirement should be raised in appropriate fora. 1.2.1.16 In concluding its discussions on this item, the conference agreed that the operational concept should be considered as a living document that would have to be revisited from time to time to take into account the changing nature of technology, the results of validation, as well as other factors; however, it was also necessary to consider the operational concept as a completed body of work at this point, in order to have a common basis to continue work toward a global ATM system.

Report on Agenda Item 1 ATM requirements

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1.2.1.17 The conference was presented with a framework in which a future ATM system based on the operational concept could develop, which included the interrelationships and dependencies of the various activities involved. The conference noted that the framework used by the ATMCP for the development and evolution of the global ATM system stipulated the development dependencies as follows: a) ATM community expectations. The needs and expectations of the ATM community would guide operational concept development. b) ATM operational concept. The operational concept would provide the vision to direct the development of the global ATM system. c) ATM requirements. The ATM requirements would specify the scope, characteristics and attributes forming the ATM system. The ATM requirements collectively would provide for the development of a functional architecture and system specifications. d) Global ATM system design. The global ATM system design would be driven by ATM requirements, taking into account external factors identified in the Global Plan. The design would include the functional architecture needed to achieve the required system performance (performance is addressed under Agenda Item 3). The system design would provide the basis for a scalable response to achieve explicit expectation outcomes (expectations were contained in the operational concept). The review and development of necessary Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) and Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) would complete the design process. It was important that SARPs and PANS were traceable to the ATM requirements which originated from the operational concept. e) Balancing requirements. The operational concept would envisage the balancing of the concept components which were integrated to achieve different expectation outcomes. From the guidance and planning criteria, specific technological solutions could be selected for implementation. f) Implementation. The implementation of facilities and services would be based on guidance and transition strategies that identified all requirements. The regional air navigation plans would then provide the transition blueprint for implementation of system changes that must occur on a region-wide basis. g) ATM community operations. The implementation of facilities and services would allow for operations that met the expectations of the ATM community. 1.2.1.18 The conference was made aware that the dependencies identified above would allow a coordinated framework for the work that must be done. Furthermore, a structured framework would provide the means to ensure that the development of ATM requirements, SARPs and procedures, would proceed in a thorough and well-documented manner. 1.2.1.19 The conference noted that the process of developing ATM requirements would be accomplished through the derivation of the functions that the operational concept envisioned that the ATM system would provide, followed by specification of the ATM requirements for those functions. It was noted that a concept component function was a characteristic action or activity that must be performed in order to

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Report on Agenda Item 1

achieve a desired ATM community expectation or objective. The identification of the concept component functions was an iterative process and would continue until all functions and sub-functions necessary to describe the expected performance of the concept component had been derived. 1.2.1.20 It was further noted that the operational concept component functional requirements did not describe the full set of ATM requirements. Operating requirements must also be derived to describe the ATM system operating elements and the performance it must meet to achieve the functional interactions described in the scenarios. It was stressed that aeronautical information services (AIS) and meteorological services (MET) were subsets of the ATM information requirements and therefore, would need to be fully addressed when developing ATM requirements. 1.2.1.21 The conference recognized that a balance was required between the need for global safety and interoperability requirements and that safety should be considered as paramount when developing ATM requirements. Additionally, it was considered that interoperability requirements should not be exclusively considered only as an issue of requirements between facilities, States or regions, but should also be considered on a smaller scale, for example, between air traffic control units in a single State. 1.2.1.22 The conference considered that in order to progress toward implementation of a global ATM system as envisaged in the operational concept, several follow-up activities must take place. These included specification, design and planning of the ATM system as well as development of SARPs, procedures and guidance material necessary for implementation. The next step in the development process should therefore be the development of a clear set of ATM requirements. Based on this, the conference endorsed the following recommendation. Recommendation 1/3 Development of ATM requirements

That ICAO as a high priority develop a set of ATM functional and operating requirements for a global ATM system on the basis of the global ATM operational concept. Development of SARPs from the operational concept 1.2.1.23 In follow-up to the above discussion on ATM requirements and the review of the ATM development process, the conference was presented with a framework for the review and development of SARPs in relation to the operational concept. It was noted that the framework was developed by the ATMCP to facilitate the complete development process of a global ATM system. The conference agreed that SARPs development would be a critical element when considering progression to implementation of a global ATM system. It was agreed that as part of the planning activities necessary to implement facilities and services that would meet ATM requirements, the need for relevant SARPs must be identified and the nature and objective of the SARPs described and that, ultimately, CNS/ATM related SARPs should be traceable to ATM requirements. The conference recognized that such a process would be progressively implemented on an evolutionary basis. In order to ensure a thorough and traceable ATM development process, the conference agreed on the following recommendation.

Report on Agenda Item 1 Recommendation 1/4

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Development of Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) from the global ATM operational concept

That ICAO, when developing CNS/ATM-related SARPs, ensure that such SARPs are traceable to ATM requirements. Interoperability and seamlessness 1.2.1.24 The conference was presented with a paper which identified the need to come to a clear understanding of the terms interoperable and seamless, noting that the two terms were often used when referring to the future ATM system and, in particular, when attempting to convey the expectations of that system. It was agreed that because interoperability was such an important factor when considering the future ATM system, and due to the need to ensure interoperability and seamlessness in that system, common understandings of these notions were necessary. Therefore, there was a need to develop these notions within the context of an ATM system, which included operators, pilots, air traffic controllers and procedures, as well as systems and other agents. 1.2.1.25 The conference was made aware of the explanation of the terms intended to assist in the development of the operational concept as follows: a) Interoperability within the ATM system might be described as the ability to transfer information, or effect functionality, across any discontinuity, in order to enable operations; and b) Seamless within the ATM system might be described as the property that would allow a transition across any discontinuity which, from the perspective of the transiting agent, did not require a considered action to facilitate the transition. It should be noted that, in this context, seamless did not imply ATM systems convergence into singleness. 1.2.1.26 It was recognized that interoperability was primarily associated with the need for systems, people and procedures, among other things, to operate effectively across disparate systems, whereas seamless was primarily associated with the needs of the users or operators of a system. An important objective of a seamless ATM system was therefore to ensure that, as aircraft operated across different regions where various levels of service existed, those services would be delivered in a manner that allowed the aircraft to operate seamlessly, with a consistent level of safety being provided. 1.2.1.27 On the basis of the above, the conference agreed that when developing ATM requirements, it would also be essential that corresponding requirements for interoperability and seamlessness be defined. 1.2.1.28 It was cautioned however, that there must be an effort to avoid prescribing excessively prescriptive requirements with respect to interoperability and seamlessness and that the goal should be toward achieving a transparency of functions, procedures and operations. Thus a balance was needed which would also ensure accommodation of existing systems while allowing emerging systems and new technological solutions to be integrated in the air navigation infrastructure. The conference stressed that the goal should not be to develop a single system, but to develop a global ATM system that accommodated and seamlessly integrated many interoperable systems.

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Report on Agenda Item 1

1.2.1.29 On the basis of the discussions and considering the importance of interoperability and seamlessness with respect to the future ATM system based on the ATM operational concept, the conference agreed on the following recommendation: Recommendation 1/5 Interoperability and seamlessness

That ICAO, when developing ATM requirements, define a corresponding minimum set of requirements for interoperability and seamlessness. 1.2.2 Enabling concepts in support of the global ATM operational concept

Automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) concept of use 1.2.2.1 The most recent work of the Operational Data Link Panel (OPLINKP) concerning development of a concept of use for automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) was presented. In this context, the conference was informed that the fifth meeting of the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Panel (ADSP/5, October 1999) had reported to the Air Navigation Commission on the progress of States and had provided information on the potential for ADS-B to satisfy identified requirements, as well as a detailed breakdown of the outstanding issues before such an application could be implemented. The Commission had amended the panels work programme to include the development of operational requirements for the use of a system to increase traffic situational awareness, the development of a concept of use and operational requirements for the application of ADS-B, and a monitoring role in the development of the use of systems providing airborne separation assistance in order to develop a concept of use. The first step in this work programme therefore involved the development of an ADS-B concept of use. 1.2.2.2 The conference noted that an ADS-B concept of use, defined as a detailed description of how a particular functionality or technology could be used, was completed during the first quarter of 2003 by the OPLINKP. ADS-B was seen by OPLINKP as a potential key data link application in a future ATM environment, providing new surveillance capabilities to both aircrew and air traffic services. It was noted that several entities within the aviation community were investigating this technology with a view to providing a cost-effective replacement of current systems and technology. 1.2.2.3 It was further noted that ADS-B was seen in many quarters as a potential application to address the need for increased airborne traffic situational awareness and to provide for airborne separation assistance. However, it had also been recognized that, within the wider context of its potential, including a new sharing of tasks between the flight crew and controller, the application of ADS-B-related procedures was indeed complex. 1.2.2.4 The conference recognized that the material presented in the ADS-B concept of use was not a final product, but rather, a compendium of matters that were being considered and reflected upon to a large extent within the aviation community. In addition, it was noted that as the ATM operational concept matured and a set of ATM requirements were developed, the role of ADS-B as an important data link application and concept element in the future system would become clearer. 1.2.2.5 It was agreed that ADS-B would serve as an important enabler of several of the ATM operational concept components including traffic synchronization and conflict management, and that work on the ADS-B concept of use should be continued. It was also stressed that any existing concepts of use as

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well as any new ones, needed to be aligned with the ATM operational concept and meet the ATM requirements emanating therefrom. Therefore, the conference agreed to endorse the ADS-B concept of use and formulated the following recommendation aimed at encouraging and guiding further work. Recommendation 1/6 Endorsement of the automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) concept of use and recommendations for further work

That ICAO: a) follow research and development work in the area of ADS-B applications, and update/maintain the ADS-B concept of use as necessary; work cooperatively with other international bodies to ensure that the ADS-B concept of use is properly aligned with existing operational and technical documents; utilize the ADS-B concept of use, in its current form and as it matures, as a basis for development of SARPs and guidance material for air-to-air and air-to-ground surveillance applications; and ensure that all future work on the ADS-B concept of use is aligned with the ATM operational concept and meets the emerging ATM requirements that emanate therefrom.

b)

c)

d)

1.2.2.6 The conference was presented with work being accomplished by several States to take advantage of the opportunities afforded by ADS-B. It was agreed that this rapidly developing technology would be critical to the success in implementing a more advanced and global ATM system and that States which did not have comprehensive radar surveillance coverage should recognize the potential for early benefits from using ADS-B as an alternative to radar to support en route and approach traffic control, using existing avionics packages. Early adoption of this technology would particularly assist in improving air traffic services in areas where a cost/benefit analysis could not justify an expensive radar infrastructure. Furthermore, it was agreed that ADS-B could provide significant safety benefits when used for air-to-ground surveillance, compared to procedural air traffic control without radar surveillance and that ADS-B data could support automated safety tools such as short-term conflict alert, level and route adherence warnings, and danger area infringement warnings, which would improve safety and security. 1.2.2.7 The conference was presented with a plan for implementing an initial package of ADS-B services in the United States which consisted of two phases. It was noted that the first phase concentrated on developing ADS-B applications and establishing pockets of implementation to enable initial operational use of ADS-B and stimulate user equipage, while the second phase would focus on the development and deployment of ADS-B ground infrastructure nationwide. 1.2.2.8 The Roadmap of Operational Improvements (ROIs) to be implemented as part of the overall European ATM system enhancement up to the year 2020 which described the contribution of the envisaged ADS-B related applications was introduced. The conference noted that the European approach would consist of applications which had been organized into three packages and that each package consisted of a number of ground and airborne ADS-B applications. The conference was informed that for each subsequent package

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the airborne ADS-B applications would permit an increased level of transfer of aircraft separation responsibility to the cockpit. 1.2.2.9 In the context of the above, the conference was informed that the United States and Europe were collaborating on a joint European/United States development and implementation package. Further discussions to achieve maximum cooperation and alignment were ongoing. 1.2.2.10 The conference was informed that Australia was in the process of conducting an operational trial using ADS-B for ATC surveillance whereby a single ADS-B ground station had been installed, a number of aircraft had been equipped with ADS-B avionics, and Australias operational ATM system had been upgraded to process and display ADS-B tracks. A safety case supporting the use of a radar-like 5 NM minimum separation had been prepared. It was noted that the performance being achieved by the ADS-B system in the Australian environment had exceeded expectations, that coverage was excellent and exceeded the performance that would be expected from a secondary radar installed at the same site. Manoeuvre performance was better than from radar, the update rate was higher, and identity data were reliably received. 1.2.2.11 Encouraged by the performance of the trial system, Australia planned to install a network of approximately twenty ADS-B ground stations across its non-radar areas to provide nationwide coverage at and above flight level 300. 1.2.2.12 The conference was informed of ongoing work in ICAOs Asia/Pacific Air Navigation Planning and Implementation Regional Group (APANPIRG) which had established an ADS-B Implementation Task Force to plan the implementation of ADS-B in the Asia/Pacific Regions. In this regard, it was noted that the ADS-B concept of use recommended that any decision to implement ADS-B by a State should be based on consultation with the wider ATM community. Moreover, the implementation should also be coordinated between States and Regions, in order to achieve maximum benefits for airspace users and service providers. 1.2.2.13 Mongolia, the Russian Federation and the Commonwealth of Independent States all reported on the significant activities under way in their States or regions with respect to trials and implementation of ADS-B to improve their ATS systems. 1.2.2.14 Based on this progress, the conference agreed that maximum use should be made of global developments and, therefore, endorsed the following recommendation. Recommendation 1/7 Ground and airborne automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) applications for global interoperability

That ICAO and States: a) recognize ADS-B as an enabler of the global ATM operational concept bringing substantial safety and capacity benefits; support the cost-effective early implementation of packages of ground and airborne ADS-B applications, noting the early achievable benefits from new ATM applications; and ensure that implementation of ADS-B is harmonized, compatible and interoperable with respect to operational procedures, supporting data link and ATM applications.

b)

c)

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Airborne separation assistance system (ASAS) 1.2.2.15 An update of progress achieved by the Surveillance and Conflict Resolution Systems Panel (SCRSP) with development of an airborne separation assistance system (ASAS) was presented. It was noted that ASAS had been defined by SCRSP as an aircraft system based on airborne surveillance that provided assistance to the flight crew supporting the separation of their aircraft from other aircraft. It was further noted that ASAS might support a part of the conflict management and traffic synchronization functions of the operational concept. 1.2.2.16 It was noted that a range of ASAS applications had been envisaged which encompassed increasing flight crews situational awareness relating to traffic, and assisting the flight crews in maintaining separation from other aircraft. The conference was made aware that ASAS applications would require a surveillance capability based largely on ADS-B and traffic information service broadcast (TIS-B). 1.2.2.17 Four categories of candidate ASAS applications had been identified by the SCRSP as traffic situational awareness applications; airborne spacing applications; airborne separation applications; and airborne self-separation applications. 1.2.2.18 In concluding its discussions on this item, the conference was reminded that significant work was under way within several ICAO panels of the Air Navigation Commission to enable implementation of ADS-B and ASAS applications. This work consisted, inter alia, of development of operational requirements and separation minima for ADS-B. Additionally, the conference recalled the work that would be undertaken in follow-up to the recommendations of the conference with respect to the ATM requirements which would further support and guide implementation of ADS-B, including airborne separation applications. Therefore, it was agreed that the papers presented under this item, as well as the report and recommendations of the conference with respect to this agenda item, should be forwarded to the relevant ICAO panels to guide their further work. This structured and step-wise approach was a necessary part of consensus-building. Aeronautical information management 1.2.2.19 The conference was presented with an envisioned computerized aeronautical information services (CAIS) system concept that was developed with the aim of supporting the global ATM system by establishing conditions for the provision, in real-time, of high quality aeronautical information (in a common exchange format) to any airspace user, any time, anywhere. The conference noted that the system concept envisioned a system consisting of: a database, servers and clients; a publisher-subscriber type system; the capability to maintain aeronautical information publication (AIP) information of all States in an electronic format, referred to as an aeronautical data package (ADP); and the promulgation of changes to the ADP to States and other subscribers in an electronic format. 1.2.2.20 The conference was informed that several fundamental principles had been taken into account when developing the CAIS system concept, e.g. existing Annex 15 Aeronautical Information Services provisions concerning the autonomy and responsibility of States for the provision of quality aeronautical information. The concept was based on data exchange while ensuring that network traffic was minimal, and the system was expandable and modular. By focussing on the exchange process, Annex 15 and the Aeronautical Information Services Manual (Doc 8126) would be used to develop an extensible mark-up language (XML) -based exchange format. The conference noted that a prototype had demonstrated that currently available technology could be used to exchange electronically aeronautical information. 1.2.2.21 The conference was also presented with the developments and activities within Eurocontrol in the area of aeronautical information which demonstrated that there was a clear need to migrate to a digital

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environment and which called for the adoption of a platform-independent common data exchange model to enable interoperability at the system level. It was noted that, to be effective, aeronautical information management (AIM) must incorporate, at a high level, the structure, delivery and critical nature of all information relevant to ATM, such as aeronautical and meteorological information, flight planning, planned and real-time status of ATM and CNS systems and airspace configurations. Specifically, the decisions taken by controllers, pilots, dispatchers, flight planners, weather forecasters, etc. represented information that were used by others as inputs to their own planning and decision-making processes. Therefore, the full benefit of information management would only accrue if pertinent information were made available to all appropriate participants when and where needed. 1.2.2.22 Furthermore, it was noted that the quality of aeronautical information such as availability, relevancy, accuracy, integrity, timeliness, security and confidentiality was important, and might well be flight critical. Consequently, the processing of aeronautical information from origination, through publication to incorporation into an end-user system must be managed throughout the whole process under strict quality management procedures. Eurocontrol studies had shown that integrity requirements specified in Annex 15 could significantly be improved by automating end-to-end processing of aeronautical information. 1.2.2.23 The conference also noted that the development of an electronic AIP (eAIP), a fully digital version of the paper document, was well under way by Eurocontrol and that the European AIS database (EAD) had became operational in June 2003, which were both essential milestones in the realization of the digital environment. The EAD had been developed using the Aeronautical Information Conceptual Model (AICM) and Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AIXM). It was noted that the AIXM was the only exchange model currently in operational use. 1.2.2.24 The conference recognized that in the global ATM system environment envisioned by the operational concept, aeronautical information service (AIS) would become one of the most valuable and important enabling services. As the global ATM system foreseen in the operational concept was based on a collaborative decision-making (CDM) environment, the timely availability from authorized sources of high quality electronic aeronautical, meteorological, airspace and flow management information would be necessary. 1.2.2.25 To achieve the future ATM objective of making informed collaborative decisions for the most efficient operations and business practices, aeronautical information must be managed efficiently and shared on a system-wide basis by making it available for access by any participant in the ATM environment when and where required. It was therefore agreed that quality-assured aeronautical information should ultimately be available in real-time, through the seamless interchange of relevant aeronautical information between parties in an interoperable, flexible, adaptable and scalable manner. To ensure the cohesion and linkages between different components of the operational concept and to accomplish the role of AIS, consideration must also be given by AIS to the interchange and management of aeronautical information to be used by different services and users, while taking into account interoperability of existing and future systems. It was stated by IATA that the provision of basic AIS services in accordance with Annex 15, both present and into the future, regardless of the format and distribution process, should be in accordance with ICAO policy on charges for air navigation services. 1.2.2.26 The conference recognized that there were issues that had to be considered as the aviation community moved to a digital environment. Among these was the need to ensure that as more and more data became available through electronic means, obtaining such data should remain affordable. Additionally, it was recalled that a large portion of the aviation community continued to use paper products and that not all would immediately embrace the digital age. Therefore, it was necessary to ensure that this portion of the aviation community continued to have access to necessary data and that their needs were considered. Finally,

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it was pointed out that developing States had particular needs as they would not always be in a position to move quickly to a digital environment and this had to be considered from a global perspective. Recommendation 1/8 Global aeronautical information management and data exchange model

That ICAO: a) when developing ATM requirements, define corresponding requirements for safe and efficient global aeronautical information management that would support a digital, real-time, accredited and secure aeronautical information environment; urgently adopt a common aeronautical information exchange model, taking into account operational systems or concepts of data interchange, including specifically, the Aeronautical Information Conceptual Model/Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AICM/AIXM), and their mutual interoperabilities; and develop, as a matter of urgency, new specifications for Annex 4 Aeronautical Charts and Annex 15 Aeronautical Information Services that would govern provision, electronic storage, on-line access to, and maintenance of, aeronautical information and charts.

b)

c)

1.2.3

The role and function of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems

1.2.3.1 Under this agenda item, the conference discussed the role and function of the Global Plan in the overall planning process. In this context, it was recalled that in order to progress implementation of CNS/ATM systems, a plan of action was needed. The first such effort towards developing a plan was the Global Coordinated Plan for Transition to ICAO CNS/ATM Systems (Global Coordinated Plan) which was included as an appendix in the Report of the Fourth Meeting of the Special Committee for the Monitoring and Coordination of Development and Transition Planning for the Future Air Navigation System (FANS Phase II) (Doc 9623). The objective of the Global Coordinated Plan was to provide a progressive and coordinated worldwide implementation of the elements of the future air navigation system in a timely and beneficial manner. 1.2.3.2 The conference was informed that in 1996, the ICAO Council determined that a more concrete plan which would include all developments, while placing the focus on regional implementation, was required. The Council directed the ICAO Secretariat to revise the Global Coordinated Plan as a living document comprising technical, operational, economic, financial, legal, human resource development needs and institutional elements, offering practical advice and guidance to PIRGs and States on implementation and funding strategies, which should include technical cooperation aspects. 1.2.3.3 On 13 March 1998, the Council reviewed and accepted the revised Global Coordinated Plan, which was re-titled the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Global Plan, Doc 9750). The Council also agreed at the time, that future updates of the Global Plan should be carried out by the ICAO Secretariat based on ongoing work of ICAO at both the global and regional levels.

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1.2.3.4 Since the acceptance of the first edition of the newly-revised Global Plan by the Council in 1998, the Secretariat, the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP), several panels of the Air Navigation Commission, and the PIRGs had recognized the increasing utility of the Global Plan in relation to their work, and its relevance in the overall ICAO CNS/ATM documentation structure. The need to update the document was subsequently recognized. Based on the above, the Secretariat conducted a review of the Global Plan and a comprehensive proposal for amendment to several parts of the document was developed. In June 2001, the Council accepted the first amendment to the Global Plan and, subsequently, the second edition was published in 2002. 1.2.3.5 The conference focussed on the future role of the Global Plan and discussed the relationship between the Global Plan and the operational concept and, in particular, their respective roles in planning for implementation of a future ATM system. In this respect, it was agreed that planning for implementation of ATM systems based on the operational concept would be facilitated through the Global Plan, regional plans and State implementation plans, which would describe the progressive intermediate steps toward the end result. The conference agreed, therefore, that the plans of all States and regions needed to be aligned to ensure, to the greatest extent possible, that solutions were internationally harmonized and integrated. 1.2.3.6 In the context of the above, a proposal was made to elevate the status of the Global Plan to a level that would require review and agreement by States. This was based on the premise that the Global Plan was a significant component in the development of regional and national plans and that together with the operational concept, the Global Plan could provide an effective architecture or roadmap for the future ATM system and that ICAO provisions were more effective when there was a formal review process. The conference was informed, however, that raising the status of the Global Plan would not be an easy process as it was neither a procedural document, nor did it contain requirements for facilities and services. Furthermore, even if agreed to within the ICAO process, the Global Plan contained many subject areas covering a broad spectrum of aviation issues and the circulation and amendment process could be cumbersome and difficult to manage. Also, it was noted that this could go against the philosophy of maintaining the Global Plan as a living and dynamic document. In any case, the conference agreed that the issue should be given further consideration and therefore agreed to the following recommendation: Recommendation 1/9 Raising the status of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750)

That ICAO develop a formal review and agreement process for the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750). 1.2.3.7 The conference recognized that, as technologies proliferated and more options became available, it might serve the planning purposes of the international civil aviation community if the Global Plan was used as the basis for considering options within a global safety and interoperability framework. In this way, States and PIRGs would consult the Global Plan and use the ATM operational concept as the basic planning premise. ATM requirements established in the further development of the ATM operational concept will guide the choice of technologies, models or systems. Implementation decisions of States and PIRGs will ultimately be based on business cases corresponding to their regional needs as foreseen by the scalable response found in the ATM operational concept. At the same time, ATM requirements would also have to provide for an ATM system design that takes into account external constraints (e.g. security features, environmental issues, training needs, legal, financial and organizational aspects). 1.2.3.8 The regional air navigation plans (ANPs) would then additionally be used as transition plans for implementation of system changes that must occur on a region-wide basis as well as contain a listing of

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the facilities, services, procedures, and technologies, including human factors considerations, based on the guidance provided in the Global Plan. On this basis the conference agreed that the Global Plan could play an important role as a catalyst for change by its mere existence and would not be seen as a tool to discipline, manage or control the evolutionary process. The regional plans would continue to maintain the independence necessary to meet the specific and unique needs of the various regions. Based on the above, the conference agreed to the following recommendation: Recommendation 1/10 Status of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750) That States and planning and implementation regional groups (PIRGs) consider the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750) as a catalyst for change, providing a global safety and interoperability framework while allowing regional or local adaptation to efficiently meet regional and local needs. 1.2.3.9 A proposal was made to include the core portion of the operational concept in Chapter 4 of the Global Plan and replace the material that was currently contained therein. However, the conference felt that as the material contained in the operational concept document was created as a single and complete package, it was important that the material contained in the operational concept document should be maintained as a single entity and not be divided and placed in separate documents. Therefore, it was agreed that the format of an ICAO manual would serve as the most suitable location for the operational concept within the ICAO documentation structure. On this basis, the conference agreed on the following recommendation: Recommendation 1/11 Publication of the Global ATM Operational Concept That ICAO publish the global ATM operational concept as a new ICAO manual. 1.2.3.10 The conference then considered that Chapter 4 of the Global Plan was in need of an update and that it was necessary to establish the linkage between the Global Plan and the operational concept. In this context, the conference agreed to the following recommendation: Recommendation 1/12 Amendment of Chapter 4 of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750) That ICAO take action to amend Chapter 4 of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750), clearly establishing the linkage to the Global ATM Operational Concept. A regional framework for the implementation of a global ATM system 1.2.3.11 The conference recalled previous discussions related to the need to address several activities, primarily at the global level, in follow-up to endorsement of the operational concept, in order to progress to a global ATM system in a progressive, cost-effective and cooperative manner. However, it was also observed

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that new regional initiatives, if pursued, could augment the considerable efforts already made by the regional planning groups and ICAO Contracting States toward implementation of CNS/ATM systems. In this context, the conference was informed that a number of States were coming together to forge joint ventures on a subregional basis, to implement air navigation systems. 1.2.3.12 The conference was unanimous that harmonized implementation of air navigation systems would enhance airspace capacity while producing additional benefits in the way of more efficient flight profiles and increased levels of safety. Therefore, it was agreed that States should implement the regional air navigation plans, recognizing the longer-term vision of the operational concept and the Global Plan to secure convergence towards a uniform gate-to-gate ATM system and that any implementation plans should fully consider the needs of the airspace users. 1.2.3.13 In addition to the above, the conference considered that in light of the new impetus which would likely be gained from the recommendations of the conference and the endorsement of the operational concept, it would become necessary to reconcile the differences both within regions and between neighbouring regions. It was agreed that greater efforts should therefore be made toward cooperation and consensus-building, as well toward utilizing harmonization tools and techniques. 1.2.3.14 Based on the above, the conference agreed on the need to explore putting into place a mechanism which would consist of the process and tools for harmonization and integration of air navigation systems resulting in a global continuum of airspace that would allow implementation of the operational concept and the fulfilment of the benefits expected therefrom. Such a mechanism, if pursued, should consist of an implementation strategy guided by the operational concept and the expectations of the ATM community; an implementation process which would be based on groupings of States and service providers based on homogeneous ATM areas and major traffic flows, and an implementation mechanism to support the ICAO planning processes. Based on the above, and in order to ensure that an effective planning mechanism was established to facilitate implementation of the operational concept, the conference agreed on the following recommendation. Recommendation 1/13 Harmonization of air navigation systems That ICAO and the ATM community explore the possibility of developing a mechanism for implementing the interregional interface applications with a view to facilitating the harmonized implementation of air navigation systems giving rise to a global ATM system in an evolutionary fashion. ICAO air navigation plan database 1.2.3.15 In the context of planning for implementation of the future ATM system based on the operational concept, the conference noted that there was already a well-established interrelationship between the regional ANPs and the Global Plan. However, there was a pressing requirement to make up-to-date air navigation planning information more available and functional for all those involved in the planning process. It was noted that ICAO had already developed air navigation planning databases and related publication and charting systems that supported CD-ROM and hard copy ANP publication formats, and which were extensible to take advantage of recent Internet database and mapping technologies. Furthermore, recent technology advances allowed not only for the timely dissemination of ANP information through a central Web server, but also for efficiencies in maintaining an up-to-date ANP database that could be extended to include interregional and global planning information. The functionality of this information could be

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significantly increased through an associated Web-based charting/geographic information system (GIS) system. 1.2.3.16 The conference agreed that electronic access to the ANP material and related planning and implementation data of the CNS/ATM partners would constitute an invaluable analytical planning tool. Therefore, steps should be taken so that electronic versions of the tabular material from all ANPs were accessible to States in order to allow for updates to be made in real time. 1.2.3.17 The conference therefore agreed that an air navigation plan database and associated Web-based information and charting service would provide several benefits including improved access by States, PIRGs, participating CNS/ATM partners, regional offices and Headquarters to ANPs and the data upon which they are based. The development of the Global Plan and ATM system planning through enhanced information availability and charting, with particular regard to interregional homogeneous ATM areas and major traffic flows and the charting of data and forecasts, would also be facilitated. 1.2.3.18 In order to provide an ICAO air navigation plan database and associated Web-based information and charting service, it was considered that a central Web server should be developed under ICAO auspices and thus have proximity to current ANP databases, production resources, and information technology support. 1.2.3.19 The conference was informed that, for ANP material, the currency of the Web site would be maintained by authorized ICAO regional office and Headquarters staff who would input most amendments through standardized tables and text formats which would include database filters to limit erroneous entries. A technical review of submitted ANP material and verification of formal approval would take place at ICAO Headquarters before the material was posted as an ANP amendment. This would essentially follow the same paper/e-mail based process that now occurs when amendments were submitted for inclusion in the hard copy ANP publication. For other material that may be entered in the database, such as ANP-related implementation information and traffic flow forecasts, it was agreed that this material could be evaluated by authorized regional office staff for their direct entry. 1.2.3.20 The conference proposed that ICAO develop a suitable name for the ICAO air navigation plan database which conveyed its true purpose and objectives which were to facilitate planning at the global and regional levels and that took into account the fact that it would be comprised of a conglomeration of regional plans. Finally, it was agreed that the Web-based information and charting service would directly support the regional, interregional and global planning elements in support of the operational concept and therefore the conference agreed upon the following recommendation. Recommendation 1/14 Development of an ICAO air navigation plan database and associated Web-based information and charting service That ICAO develop and maintain a database containing all tabular material from all the regional air navigation plans, both Basic Operational Requirements and Planning Criteria (BORPC) and the Facilities and Services Implementation Document (FASID), together with the major traffic flows and other regional data from Part II of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750), and make this database and associated charts available through the Web.

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Report on Agenda Item 1 The role of airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS) technologies

1.2.4.1 Under this agenda item the conference reviewed ICAO provisions relating to the operation of airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) and discussed the role of ACAS in the future ATM system. 1.2.4.2 The conference was informed that, following the publication of an accident investigation report dated 12 July 2002 concerning a near mid-air collision over Japan on 31 January 2001, the Air Navigation Commission reviewed ICAO provisions relating to the operation of ACAS. This accident involved two wide-bodied aircraft equipped with ACAS and resulted in injuries to passengers and crew. It was also noted that there was an ongoing accident investigation of a mid-air collision over Germany on 1 July 2002 which involved two aircraft equipped with ACAS. Factors common to both accidents were identified. 1.2.4.3 The conference noted that in follow-up to the Air Navigation Commissions review, amendment proposals to ICAO provisions had been developed, which were widely supported by States. The amendments to the ICAO documentation had been adopted by the Council in March 2003 and were to become applicable on 27 November 2003. The conference was presented with an outline of the steps taken by ICAO to strengthen and clarify provisions in ICAO documentation concerning the operation of ACAS II, particularly provisions on pilot responses to resolution advisories, in light of the safety recommendations of the investigation report of the near mid-air collision over Japan on 31 January 2001. 1.2.4.4 The conference was unanimous that ACAS played an important role in the resolution of encounters between aircraft where there was a risk of collision and agreed that safety studies and operational experience had confirmed the significant safety benefit provided by ACAS. However, it was also recognized that the safety benefits were seriously degraded by an incorrect response to resolution advisories or when there was confusion by the flight crew as to what action to take. Considering the importance of the new ICAO provisions in this respect, the conference agreed on the following recommendation. Recommendation 1/15 Implementation of airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) provisions That States take immediate action to implement, in appropriate national documentation, the ACAS provisions contained in Amendment 28 to ICAO Annex 6 Operation of Aircraft, Part I International Commercial Air Transport Aeroplanes, and in Amendment 12 to the Procedures for Air Navigation Services Operations (PANS-OPS, Doc 8168), Volume I. 1.2.4.5 During the discussions, the conference was reminded of the roles of ACAS and ADS-B and the differences between them, noting that ACAS provided a collision avoidance function that must remain independently available in case separation assurance was lost. It was further agreed that: a) ACAS should be kept as a last resort, collision avoidance safety-net; b) the availability of ADS-B data on cockpit displays would increase the pilot situational awareness, thus improving the surveillance function in a way that is expected to reduce the probability that collision avoidance systems will be activated; and c) ICAO provisions should ensure that ACAS retains independence so as not to compromise the safety-net function of the collision avoidance system;

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1.2.4.6 In the context of the above, the conference agreed that it was important that collision avoidance remain independent from separation provision and that in the selection of surveillance technologies, the consequences of the selection of collision avoidance systems should be taken into account through appropriate safety assessments. 1.2.4.7 The conference discussed the possibility of making available to the air traffic controller, a display of the aircraft resolution advisory status as it was considered that this might enhance the awareness of ground personnel that aircraft under their control may deviate from a cleared flight profile in response to an ACAS command. Several technical considerations were noted in this respect. During the discussions it was noted that there may be significant human factors considerations involved with implementation of such technology and these should be thoroughly investigated and taken into account prior to a decision as to whether or not to implement. 1.2.4.8 In view of the need to reduce the delay between the occurrence of a resolution advisory and its ensuing notification to a ground station, it was agreed that if such technology were to be used, an increase of the report rate to a technically feasible value in the order of not less than one report per second should be considered. 1.2.4.9 In addressing the problem of receiving conflicting instructions from ACAS and ATC, the conference also recognized that with respect to certain ATC techniques, such as approaches to closely-spaced parallel instrument runways where a precision runway monitor was used, training of both air traffic controllers and pilots would be necessary. In the same way, it was stressed that account should also be taken of the possibility of spurious actuation of ACAS under which the flight crew would also react. 1.2.4.10 In view of the above, and considering that new technologies such as ADS-B would improve situational awareness and could have an effect on collision avoidance, the conference agreed that studies should address the place and role of each safety and situational awareness system, as well as the principles for their integrated interoperability. It was agreed that training of air traffic controllers with respect to ACAS and the development of suitable training material were important aspects of the successful utilization of ACAS. The conference was informed that ICAO was currently addressing several issues aimed at enhancing ACAS. In particular, it was noted that SCRSP was addressing the following: a) the feasibility of downlinking resolution advisories to air traffic control, using such technologies as secondary surveillance radar (SSR) Mode S and ADS-B; and b) the feasibility of an automatic indication to air traffic control that an aircraft has received a resolution advisory, using conventional radar (SSR Mode A). 1.2.4.11 While it was recognized that the Technical Work Programme (TWP) of the Organization in the Air Navigation Field was sufficiently broad to cover matters discussed, the conference requested that ICAO pay specific attention to the following items: a) the relevant legal issues associated with the operational and technical procedures for collision avoidance systems; b) current ACAS II performance and, in particular, nuisance alerts and resolution advisory sense reversal logic, and take action as necessary; c) ongoing work to improve the performance of the ACAS II collision avoidance system logic;

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Report on Agenda Item 1 d) areas where resolution advisories regularly occur (i.e. hot spots) and associated airspace organization and procedures; and e) the possibility of establishing regional focal points to collect and analyse data obtained concerning resolution advisories.

1.2.4.12 The view was also expressed that the establishment of regional units might be beneficial to monitor the performance of ACAS II in the ATC environment, to ensure that trends in ACAS encounters could be identified and appropriate action taken, as necessary. 1.2.4.13 Finalizing the discussions on this issue, the conference agreed on the following recommendation: Recommendation 1/16 Provisions related to airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS) That ICAO review current provisions and investigate the need to develop new provisions to enhance the effectiveness of ACAS as follows: a) provisions in Annex 6 Operation of Aircraft, Part II International General Aviation Aeroplanes, concerning training of general aviation pilots in the operation of ACAS; provisions in Annex 10 Aeronautical Telecommunications, Volume IV Surveillance Radar and Collision Avoidance Systems, concerning performance of the ACAS II collision avoidance logic; provisions concerning the training of air traffic control personnel; the registering by the parametric flight recorder of resolution advisory commands; and air traffic control provisions in ICAO Annex 2 Rules of the Air and Annex 11 Air Traffic Services and the PANS-ATM (Doc 4444), Procedures for Air Navigation Services Air Traffic Management.

b)

c) d)

e)

1.2.4.14 The conference was presented with a paper which was prepared as additional supporting material to assist in the discussions on the role of collision avoidance in the future ATM system. It was recalled that the role of collision avoidance as defined in the operational concept was described under the concept component of conflict management, wherein three layers of conflict management were defined. These were: strategic conflict management, separation provision and collision avoidance and were stated in the operational concept as follows: Collision avoidance is the third layer of conflict management, and must activate when the separation mode has been compromised. Collision avoidance is not part of separation provision, and collision avoidance systems are not included in determining the calculated level of safety required for separation provision. Collision avoidance systems will, however, be considered part of the ATM safety management. The collision avoidance functions and the applicable separation mode, although independent, must be compatible.

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1.2.4.15 The conference was made aware that in the context of the above, collision avoidance was seen as the last layer of conflict management and was activated in order to avoid disaster. It was stressed that separation provision and collision avoidance were not the same, that there was a functional difference and that the operational concept definition of a third layer was deliberate. 1.2.4.16 Most importantly, the conference agreed with the notion that collision avoidance systems should be considered part of overall ATM safety management. However, it was further recognized that in line with todays understanding, collision avoidance systems should not be mixed with separation provision, nor be included in determining the calculated level of safety required for separation provision. 1.2.4.17 The conference recognized that the subject of how the ATM system was ultimately designed to meet all of the requirements of the conflict management functions would take a great deal of work. However, work on the ATM requirements could begin to address the functional and operating requirements of such a system.

Report on Agenda Item 2 Agenda Item 2: Safety and security in air traffic management (ATM)

2-1

2.1

INTRODUCTION

2.1.1 Under this agenda item, the conference addressed the issues identified in the air traffic management (ATM) operational concept relating to safety management, the existing ICAO provisions for safety management in air traffic services (ATS), certification of ATS service providers, safety regulation, the ICAO Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP) and safety and security of the ATS infrastructure.

2.2

SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND PROGRAMMES

A global framework for safety 2.2.1 The ATM operational concept presented under Agenda Item 1 established a strong link between the key concepts of performance and safety, and identified safety performance as the most important performance indicator for the ATM system. The operational concept also identified the need for a system safety approach, i.e. an integrated, system-wide approach to safety. 2.2.2 Noting that there was already a significant degree of interdependence between ground-based and airborne components in current air traffic management systems, and that it was expected that this interdependence would become even more significant in future systems, the conference agreed that the adoption of a uniform approach to safety management, as proposed in the operational concept, would be beneficial, and should be studied further. 2.2.3 The conference recalled that safety management provisions for aerodromes had already been introduced in Annex 14 Aerodromes, and was advised that harmonization of the guidance material on safety management for air traffic services and aerodromes was envisaged. 2.2.4 The adoption of a system safety approach would require that each element of the system be the subject of a safety analysis as an individual element, and as a component which interacts with others as part of a larger system. The conference noted that the operational concept provided the following definition: System safety approach. A systematic and explicit approach defining all activities and resources (people, organizations, policies, procedures, time spans, milestones, etc.) devoted to the management of safety. This approach starts before the fact, is documented, planned and explicitly supported by documented organizational policies and procedures endorsed by the highest executive levels. The system safety approach uses systems theory, systems engineering and management tools to manage risk formally, in an integrated manner across all organizational levels, across all disciplines and all system life cycle phases. 2.2.5 The conference was advised that ICAO had established GASP as a means of coordinating the many safety initiatives under way worldwide, and that this was not a separate activity in its own right; rather, it was a mechanism which allowed consolidated reporting on safety-related activities, and presented an overview of all safety-related activities in one document. Further information on GASP would be provided under Agenda Item 2.4.

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2.2.6 The conference noted that, while existing mechanisms within ICAO provided for consolidated reporting of safety-related activities, there were, as yet, no provisions requiring a uniform approach to the management of safety. In order to achieve a uniform approach, the operational concept had proposed the establishment of a global framework for the assessment and management of safety. The conference noted that this was in accordance with the objectives of Assembly Resolution A33-16: ICAO Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP) and supported the need for such a framework. 2.2.7 The operational concept indicated that the global framework for safety management should address issues such as: a) harmonization of safety indicators to be used across the aviation system, with particular emphasis on the development of predictive or leading indicators in addition to those which express the achieved level of safety; b) the setting of safety targets for the system as a whole; c) guidelines for determining the acceptable level of safety for system components and appropriate metrics for expressing this; d) guidelines concerning the way in which accountability for safety should be addressed within an organization and the need for documentation of safety-related decisions; e) suitable mechanisms for monitoring of safety indicators and ensuring that there are formal feedback learning/control loops, such as the universal safety oversight audit programme (USOAP), to ensure that mitigation measures are implemented in areas where safety concerns are identified; and f) the importance of all organizations developing a positive safety culture, recognizing that accidents result not just from the mere coincidental occurrence of multiple undefended failures, but also from the migration of organizations toward unsafe behaviour. 2.2.8 The conference recalled that the operational concept had proposed the adoption of a holistic approach (i.e. an approach which considered the whole made of interacting parts) which, it stated, was considered by many safety authorities to be the most effective and efficient approach to the management of safety. The conference agreed that the adoption by ICAO of a uniform safety framework, as proposed in the system safety approach, would significantly enhance the effectiveness of the safety management process. 2.2.9 It was noted that a system, under this concept, was composed of people, procedures, technologies and information interacting to perform a task. The elements of the total system extended beyond the scope of any one Annex. Factors related to, inter alia, meteorology, aeronautical charts, aircraft operations, airworthiness, aeronautical information and the transport of dangerous goods could have an impact on total system safety. It was recognized that it may therefore be necessary to broaden the current ICAO requirement for safety management to additional Annexes. 2.2.10 The conference expressed strong support for the system safety approach, and the need to ensure a harmonized approach to safety management across the whole aviation system. It also emphasized the importance of ensuring that the safety management principles and practices embodied in this approach were actually adopted, and became an integral part of the ongoing operations of the organizations concerned, since a safety management system which existed only on paper would do nothing to enhance safety.

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After consideration of the foregoing, the conference agreed to the following recommendation: Recommendation 2/1 A framework for system safety

That ICAO investigate appropriate mechanisms for the development and implementation of a framework for a uniform and system-wide approach to safety, and the application of this framework to: a) the harmonization of provisions relating to safety assessment and safety management in relevant Annexes and Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS); and the harmonization of the approaches to safety assessment in the development of safety-related Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs).

b)

Requirements for ATS safety management 2.2.12 The conference recalled that provisions for ATS safety management had already been introduced in amendments to Annex 11 Air Traffic Services and the Procedures for Air Navigation Services ATM (PANS-ATM, Doc 4444), both of which had become applicable on 1 November 2001, and that these provisions required States to implement systematic and appropriate safety management programmes to ensure that their ATS systems achieved an acceptable level of safety, and to establish such levels of safety and safety objectives for their air traffic services by 27 November 2003. 2.2.13 The conference noted that the PANS-ATM expressed the objectives of safety management as being to ensure that the established level of safety applicable to the provision of ATS within an airspace or at an aerodrome was met, and that safety-related enhancements were implemented wherever necessary. The provisions of the PANS-ATM required that an ATS safety management programme should include, inter alia: a) monitoring of overall safety levels and detection of any adverse trend; b) safety reviews of ATS units; c) safety assessments in respect of planned implementation of airspace re-organizations, the introduction of new equipment, systems or facilities, and new or changed ATS procedures; and d) a mechanism for identifying the need for safety enhancing measures. 2.2.14 The conference was advised that, as it had been recognized that many States would require further assistance in the implementation of safety management, ICAO had developed further guidance material, to be published as the Manual on Safety Management for Air Traffic Services. The manual addressed the basic principles of safety management including, inter alia:

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Report on Agenda Item 2 a) factors affecting system safety, with a particular emphasis on human error; b) the importance of organizational issues, including responsibility and accountability for safety performance, and the need for a positive safety culture; c) the responsibilities of the State regulatory authority, and the need for separation of the safety responsibilities associated with the regulatory function, and the ATS service provision function; d) safety assessment procedures; and e) assuring the ongoing safety of the system through audits and monitoring.

2.2.15 While the document had yet to undergo final editing, the latest draft version was presented to the conference. It was agreed that States should be encouraged to make use of this as preliminary guidance, pending publication of the document. The conference expressed its satisfaction with the new manual, and urged ICAO to facilitate its translation in as short a time as possible. 2.2.16 The conference was presented with an overview of the principles of safety management. The conference noted that implementation of a safety management system would not eliminate all risk. However, it would enable risk to be controlled and reduced to a level as low as reasonably practicable. The purpose of a safety management system was stated to be: to provide an ATM service-provider with a management tool which would ensure a systematic and proactive approach to safety throughout the whole ATM organization. 2.2.17 A view was expressed that over-reliance on mitigating arguments, particularly those involving air traffic controllers, could have a detrimental effect on the risk management process. The conference was advised that the procedures for the conduct of safety assessment described in the manual should ensure that this would not happen, since they required that, when mitigation measures were proposed, a further hazard analysis of the system be conducted, to assess both the effectiveness of the mitigation measures, and to ensure that any new hazards associated with the mitigation measures were identified, and the mitigation methods modified if necessary. 2.2.18 Noting the lack of knowledge on the part of many States concerning safety assessments and the setting of acceptable levels of safety, it was suggested that there would be a need to support training to enable States to introduce effective safety management systems. 2.2.19 The conference was advised that ICAO was planning to conduct two seminars, which would address ATS safety management, in December 2003. These were to be held in Singapore and Cairo. While the main topic was to be runway safety, it had been considered this would be a good opportunity to introduce some information on general safety management issues as well. It was emphasized that these would not, however, be comprehensive seminars on safety management principles and techniques.

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2.2.20 The conference supported the need for the introduction of effective safety management programmes by all States, and agreed to the following recommendation: Recommendation 2/2 Implementation of ATS safety management programmes and establishment of acceptable levels of safety

That States which have not already done so, take action in accordance with Annex 11 Air Traffic Services, 2.26 to: a) implement systematic and appropriate ATS safety management programmes to ensure that safety is maintained in the provision of ATS within airspaces and at aerodromes; and establish the acceptable levels of safety and safety objectives applicable to the provision of ATS within airspaces and at aerodromes.

b)

2.2.21 The conference was then presented with an overview of the European strategy for implementation of safety management by air navigation service providers. It was noted that a method for the elaboration of safety cases had already been applied to a number of projects in Europe, including the introduction of the reduced vertical separation minimum above FL 290 (RVSM), and 8.33 kHz channel spacing. The presentation stressed the importance of the sharing of safety-related data and, in particular, information concerning the lessons learned from the analysis and investigation of safety occurrences among all relevant organizations. This would include regulators, air navigation service providers, and where appropriate, aircraft operators and aerodrome operators. The conference agreed that the sharing of safety data should be encouraged at both the regional and global levels. 2.2.22 The conference was also presented with information on the work of the European high-level Action Group on ATM safety (AGAS), and the action plan which they had developed, entitled One safe sky for Europe A strategic action plan for enhanced ATM safety in a single pan-European sky. AGAS had concluded that, if forecasts were correct and European traffic doubled by 2020, a sustainable delivery of capacity would be reliant on a sustainable investment in safety. The action plan which they developed had presented a detailed assessment of what needed to be done to improve European ATM safety in the short to medium term, and set out indicative timescales for successful completion of each action. 2.2.23 One of the issues identified by AGAS was the need for provisions and guidance for the sharing of ATM incident and accident data between States. The conference agreed that this was a necessary activity, in order to ensure that lessons learned from the investigation of safety occurrences were made available as widely as possible. The conference was advised that the enhanced ICAO accident and incident reporting data base (ADREP 2000) could provide one mechanism for the sharing of safety-related data; it incorporated an enhanced taxonomy for the classification of incidents, with more categories relevant to ATS-related occurrences than had been contained in the original ADREP taxonomy. The conference noted that, in Europe, a directive had already been implemented to share the data on accidents and incidents.

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Report on Agenda Item 2 Recommendation 2/3 That ICAO: a) b) develop guidance material on the use of the ADREP 2000 data base; and encourage States to share information on ATM accidents and incidents. Sharing of ATM accident and incident data

2.2.24 The proposals from AGAS also included a suggestion that there was a need to consider the applicability of the minimum equipment lists (MEL) concept for ATM systems and CNS infrastructure. The conference noted that the MEL concept was applied in the determination of the airworthiness of aircraft to manage aircraft operation under technical outages and system degradation. It was proposed that the principles used in determining aircraft MELs could also be applied to managing technical outages and system degradation in ATM ground systems. 2.2.25 The conference was advised that the draft Manual on Safety Management for Air Traffic Services had addressed certain aspects of this issue. The safety assessment process described in the manual included provisions requiring that the assessment consider the effects of failures and degradations, in addition to normal operations, in order to ensure that an adequate level of safety could be maintained during periods of non-normal operations. The conference supported the need to address these issues, and to ensure that an adequate level of safety was maintained at all times. 2.2.26 The conference noted that the work done by AGAS could have relevance to States outside Europe, and agreed it could be a useful source of information for the development of the global framework for safety. Therefore the conference suggested that the European States should ensure the distribution of the results of the work of AGAS to relevant ICAO bodies and other States. 2.2.27 The need to take into account future safety requirements and the impact of increases in traffic density in the initial assessment of safety requirements for new ATM systems was stressed, in order to ensure that the systems would continue to meet appropriate levels of safety. The conference noted the comment, and the fact that the system safety approach proposed in the ATM operational concept included the need to consider safety over the whole life cycle of a system. Human factors issues in safety management 2.2.28 The conference discussed a number of issues concerning the role of organizational culture in achieving safety in ATM, and the concept of a safety culture. The conference agreed that development of a safety culture was an important element in safety management, and noted that the role of the human had been identified in the ATM operational concept, and had also been addressed in the draft Manual on Safety Management for Air Traffic Services presented to the conference. 2.2.29 The conference noted that the outstanding safety record of international civil aviation was primarily due to three key factors: a) the dedication to safety by aviation organizations and their people; b) a continuous learning process, based on free flow of safety information; and c) the ability to turn errors into preventive actions.

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2.2.30 The conference recognized that information from safety monitoring and data collection systems had allowed international civil aviation to develop an understanding of errors, and was being increasingly used to develop and implement corrective actions, and proactive long-term strategies. The conference noted that monitoring based on submission of reports of safety occurrences was an important element of such systems, and that for these to be effective, the culture of the organization must encourage staff to submit reports. 2.2.31 It was recognized that the majority of operational errors in aviation were inadvertent, and that the way in which such inadvertent operational errors were handled had an impact on the willingness of staff to submit reports of safety occurrences. In the rare situations where operational errors were the result of wilful acts, substance abuse, sabotage, violations or similar acts, disciplinary or enforcement action was appropriate and necessary. However, it was also recognized that there was a need for an enlightened understanding of inadvertent operational errors, which moved beyond a blame culture that singled out individuals and criminalized errors. 2.2.32 It was noted that organizational culture in many sections of the aviation industry had moved towards the concept of a just culture with respect to the treatment of unintentional errors. Attention had shifted from determining who made the error, to identifying the circumstances under which the error was made. The purpose was twofold: first, by understanding the circumstances, it might become possible to introduce changes that could make it less likely that similar errors would be made again (error prevention); and second, understanding the circumstances might make it possible to develop strategies to minimize the negative effect of the error (error recovery). It was further noted that safety occurrence reporting programmes were a cornerstone for identifying these circumstances. 2.2.33 The conference noted that there had been cases in international civil aviation where information from accident and incident records, and safety monitoring and data acquisition systems, had been admitted as evidence in judicial proceedings. In some cases, this had resulted in criminal charges being brought against individuals involved in occurrences. It was noted that this could hinder the free flow of information, and thus adversely affect aviation safety. 2.2.34 The conference recalled that issues related to the protection of sources of safety information had already been addressed within ICAO in a number of different places. These included Assembly Resolution A33-17, Non-disclosure of certain accident and incident records, Assembly Resolution A33-16, ICAO Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP), Annex 13 Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation, paragraphs 5.12 and 8.3, and Annex 6 Operation of Aircraft, paragraph 3.2.4. It was noted, however, that giving effect to these provisions required that each State enact appropriate legislation. 2.2.35 The conference supported the need for these issues to be addressed in the implementation of safety management systems, and agreed the following factors should be taken into account in determining an organizations policy on disciplinary action. a) No group or workforce should be above the law. b) There is a need to strike a balance between the protection of sources of safety information, with a view to enhancing the safety of civil aviation, and the public interest in the availability of evidence in judicial proceedings. c) Judicial proceedings related to actions by operational personnel should primarily be based on evidence other than that obtained from sources of safety information.

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Report on Agenda Item 2 d) Protection of sources of safety information is not intended to provide operational personnel with undue protection from prosecution, but to preserve the sources.

2.2.36 The conference supported the need for further action on this issue, and agreed to the following recommendation: Recommendation 2/4 The protection of sources of safety information

That ICAO develop guidelines which will provide support to States in adopting adequate measures of national law, for the purpose of protecting the sources and free flow of safety information, while taking into account the public interest in the proper administration of justice. 2.2.37 The conference was advised that a further source of safety information could be found in programmes for observation of normal operations by appropriately trained observers. Programmes of this type, known as line operations safety audit (LOSA) had been implemented by a number of airlines. 2.2.38 The conference noted that LOSA was based on the threat and error management (TEM) model, which proposed that threats and errors were an integral part of daily flight operations, and that they must be managed by the flight crews to ensure the safe outcome of flights. The TEM model provided a quantifiable framework to collect and categorize safety data. In LOSA, trained observers recorded and coded potential threats to safety, and how the threats were addressed during the flight. They also recorded and coded the errors such threats generated, and how flight crews managed these errors. 2.2.39 The conference was informed that the Air Navigation Commission had requested that the Secretariat explore the extension of LOSA to ATS, under the activities of the Flight Safety and Human Factors Programme. However, as with other safety initiatives that originated in the airline environment, an adaptation of LOSA would be required. 2.2.40 To distinguish the ATS tool, ATS organizations involved in the development of the concept tentatively adopted the name normal operations safety survey (NOSS). It was expected that NOSS would share most of the operating characteristics of LOSA, with modifications where necessary. 2.2.41 The conference agreed that ATS organizations needed to explore all available sources of safety data when establishing their safety management programmes, and that in this regard, ATS organizations could benefit from the experience of airlines, and agreed to the following recommendation: Recommendation 2/5 Monitoring of safety during normal operations

That ICAO

2.2.42 The conference also discussed a broad range of issues related to other aspects of human factors and their importance in the achievement of safety, and agreed that human factors was an important issue in the establishment of effective ATM safety management systems.

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2.2.43 The discussions identified a range of human factors considerations, in addition to the issues of organizational culture addressed earlier, which could affect the safety of an ATM system. These included, inter alia, the interaction of human operators with automated systems, interface design, workplace issues such as lighting, temperature and noise levels, and the provision of adequate rest facilities. The conference noted that ICAO guidance was available in Human Factors Guidelines for Air Traffic Management (ATM) Systems (Doc 9758), and that considerable emphasis had also been placed on human factors considerations in the draft Manual on Safety Management for Air Traffic Services. 2.2.44 The conference noted that in the development of some of the options proposed in the ATM operational concept, there would be a need to clearly identify the proper allocation of tasks between air traffic controllers, pilots and automated systems. 2.2.45 The conference recognized that there would be a need to address issues of responsibility and liability, for example, in situations where a controller would not be able to intervene if pilots or automated systems were not able to maintain separation. 2.2.46 The conference was presented with information concerning the potential impact on safety of differing understandings of terms, definitions and phraseologies. It was noted that many languages were spoken by more than one State, and that regional differences in the meanings associated with particular words could exist between native speakers of a language who came from different countries. The conference further noted that the ATM Committee of the CAR/SAM Planning and Implementation Regional Group (GREPECAS) had established a Phraseology Task Force which was developing a methodology, which involved participation by aeronautical operational personnel at the end-user level, for addressing this problem. The intent was to apply the methodology to a review of the Spanish phraseology in the PANS-ATM. 2.2.47 The conference agreed that it was essential to have a common understanding of terms, definitions and phraseologies, and expressed its support for the initiatives being taken by GREPECAS. It also supported the application of this methodology, once fully developed, to reviewing other language versions of the PANS-ATM to identify any similar problems. Expansion of the ICAO Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP) 2.2.48 The conference was presented with information on the expansion of the ICAO Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP) to Annex 11, Annex 13 Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation and Annex 14 as of 2004. The presentation briefly explained the historical background to the expansion of the USOAP, the status of the preparatory work and the procedures for conducting the audits. It also emphasized the need for cooperation from all Contracting States to ensure the achievement of the objectives of ICAO in respect to conducting safety oversight audits. 2.2.49 The conference was informed that the audits would, in general terms, follow the process which had been utilized during the previous audits relating to Annex 1 Personnel Licensing, Annex 6 Operation of Aircraft and Annex 8 Airworthiness of Aircraft and that the Safety Oversight Manual, Part A, The Establishment and Management of a States Safety Oversight System (Doc 9734) was being amended to cover all audit areas. Additional guidance material, the Safety Oversight Manual, Part B The Development and Management of Regional Safety Oversight Systems, was also being developed to provide guidance to Contracting States which wished to establish a common safety oversight management system. Both manuals were expected to be available by late 2003.

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2.2.50 The conference was further advised that all safety oversight-related documents would be available in electronic format and that States would be provided with the ability to access, complete and submit the State Aviation Activity Questionnaire (SAAQ) and the compliance checklist (CC) electronically. It was emphasized that the full cooperation of States for the timely completion and submission of all required documentation pertaining to the preparation, conduct and reporting of the audits will be essential for the effectiveness of the programme and the fulfilment of the mandate given to the Organization by the Assembly. 2.2.51 The conference was informed that the long-term objective was to transform the audit programme from audits on an Annex-to-Annex basis into a systemic and comprehensive audit programme which would address the overall safety oversight management system established in States and determine its ability to ensure the effective implementation of SARPs and the critical elements of a safety oversight system.

2.3

SAFETY CERTIFICATION OF ATM SYSTEMS

2.3.1 The conference discussed a number of issues concerning the need for certification of ATM service providers and systems, and the need for coordination and cooperation between safety regulatory authorities with regard to certification standards and procedures. The conference recalled that certification requirements existed for aircraft and aircraft equipment. Provisions requiring certification of aerodromes had become applicable on 1 November 2001. However, there were no existing ICAO requirements for certification of ATM systems, or ATM service providers. 2.3.2 The conference noted that a significant number of States were moving to a situation where air traffic services were provided by an organization separate from the State body responsible for the regulatory function. However, irrespective of whether or not the service provision is the responsibility of the State or a separate body, it was the State which was responsible for ensuring compliance with the provisions of ICAO Annexes. Certification had been seen, by some States, as an important element of the regulatory and oversight functions, and it was noted that a number of States had already implemented requirements for certification of ATM service providers. 2.3.3 The conference expressed strong support for the concept of certification. It was recognized that there was more than one way in which this could be approached. Certification requirements could be introduced for ATM equipment, or for ATM service providers, or for both. 2.3.4 The conference noted that safety of ATM system operations depended on a great number of criteria including, inter alia, the competency of personnel, the quality and reliability of the aeronautical data, operational procedures, navigation communications and surveillance equipment, and the interactions between these elements. It was further noted that in modern ATM systems, it was possible that ATS providers could be relying on facilities or services, such as satellite navigation and communications, which were outside the jurisdiction of the State concerned. All these factors would need to be taken into account in the development of certification criteria. 2.3.5 While recognizing that States could introduce, and in some cases had introduced, certification requirements for ATM service providers in spite of the absence of ICAO SARPs, the conference considered that it would be preferable, in order to achieve harmonization of certification criteria, to have these specified as ICAO provisions. The conference agreed to the following recommendation: Recommendation 2/6 Safety certification of ATM systems

That ICAO investigate the need for the development of provisions for safety certification of ATM systems and service providers.

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2.3.6 One organization raised the need to consider air traffic electronics personnel in the overall debate on safety and certification, and to introduce licensing provisions for such personnel in Annex 1. The conference recognized the importance of such personnel to the safety of operations, and agreed that were certification of ATS service providers to be introduced, having competent electronics staff would be one of the criteria to be considered in the certification process. However, it was pointed out that there were specific requirements to be satisfied in order to justify the inclusion of provisions requiring licensing in Annex 1, and that competency could be assured without licensing. The conference was of the view that the need related more to training than to licensing, and did not support the inclusion of licensing requirements. However, it did express the view that the needs related to training, qualification and competency of air traffic safety electronics personnel required further investigation.

2.4

SAFETY REGULATION

2.4.1 The conference recognized that both the State and ATS service providers had responsibilities for the safe, regular and efficient provision of ATS. It was recalled that the responsibility of a Contracting State was implicit in its acceptance of the SARPs for the safety of air navigation to which Article 37 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation refers. 2.4.2 The ATS service provider had a responsibility for the safe provision of services, and for compliance with the laws and regulations promulgated by the State. These laws and regulations were the means by which the State implemented the provisions of the Annexes, and fulfiled its obligations under the Convention. 2.4.3 Recalling the previous discussions on certification, the conference noted that the regulatory function should, to the extent possible, be separated from the service provision function, even where both functions were the responsibility of a single State civil aviation authority. Compliance with the regulatory provisions should be monitored by a safety oversight mechanism, to ensure that the regulatory objectives and requirements were effectively met. The methods of safety oversight should include safety regulatory approval, audit and/or inspection. 2.4.4 The conference noted that the implementation of safety regulation would be a new task for many States, as there had not been the same emphasis on the need for a separate regulatory function in the era when the provision of ATS was generally the direct responsibility of the State civil aviation authority. The conference also emphasized the need for the establishment of coordination mechanisms between regulators, for the purposes of harmonization of procedures and sharing of information. 2.4.5 The conference agreed that, with the introduction of requirements for safety management, the establishment of a safety regulatory function had assumed even greater importance. While it had been noted during the discussions on safety management under Agenda Item 2.1 that the ongoing management of safety was the responsibility of the ATS service provider, it was agreed that there was a need for independent oversight of the safety management practices and safety performance of the provider. 2.4.6 The conference was advised that one chapter of the draft Manual on Safety Management for Air Traffic Services had been devoted to safety regulation, and that in this chapter, the importance of the separation of the regulatory and ATS service provision functions had been emphasized. 2.4.7 The conference noted that for a safety oversight system to be effective, it must have adequate resources. The conference agreed that States should be encouraged to establish ATM safety oversight capabilities and procedures, and to ensure that the necessary resources to perform the task, including an

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adequate number of competent staff, were provided. Therefore the conference agreed on the following recommendation: Recommendation 2/7 Safety oversight capabilities and procedures

That ICAO encourage States to develop ATM safety oversight capabilities and procedures. 2.4.8 The conference agreed that, with regard to new ATM/CNS developments, there was a need to adopt a more formalized approach to the development of SARPs and Regional Supplementary Procedures with respect to their safety assessment and validation. The safety validation of new SARPs and Regional Supplementary Procedures undertaken at ICAO level should be documented as a reference for future developments and could provide the foundation for safety assessments conducted by individual States. 2.4.9 The attention of the conference was drawn to a related problem concerning notification and publication of differences between national regulations and practices and ICAO SARPs and Procedures. Safety oversight by the safety regulatory authority would identify non-compliance by an ATS service provider with regulations and practices of the State. However, it was recognized that there were a significant number of instances of State regulations and practices being different from those specified in ICAO SARPs and PANS. 2.4.10 The conference noted the requirements of Article 38 of the Convention concerning notification of differences to ICAO, and the requirements of Annex 15 Aeronautical Information Services concerning publication of differences. The conference was informed that the existence of differences which had not been notified to ICAO or published in national AIPs was considered to be a significant safety issue by pilots operating internationally. It was recognized that the introduction of provisions requiring mandatory notification of differences for other than Standards would require an amendment to the Convention. However, the existing Standard in Annex 15 concerning this did require States to publish, in their AIPs, significant differences between national regulations and practices, and ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures. 2.4.11 The conference noted that a truly seamless operational environment, as envisaged in the ATM operational concept, would require that phraseologies and operating procedures did not change when crossing boundaries. Thus, while publication of differences would contribute to safety by raising pilot awareness of the differences, the long-term aim should be to achieve standardization.

2.5

THE GLOBAL AVIATION SAFETY PLAN

2.5.1 The conference was provided with information on the scope and status of the ICAO Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP). It was noted that through GASP, ICAO was able to perform a coordinating role with respect to the various safety initiatives under way worldwide. ICAOs role within the GASP included facilitating the communication of safety-related information between governments and industry, endeavouring to ensure that the various safety programmes being undertaken worldwide were complementary rather than competitive, and ensuring that they addressed regional as well as global aviation safety concerns in a comprehensive and systematic manner. 2.5.2 The conference recalled that the objectives of the GASP were to:

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a) reduce the number of accidents and fatalities irrespective of the volume of air traffic; and b) decrease worldwide accident rates, particularly in those regions where they remain high. 2.5.3 The conference noted that GASP was not a single programme, but acted as an umbrella document for the safety-related activities of the Organization. Because aviation is a dynamic industry with constantly emerging technologies which often introduce new problems and safety challenges, it was recognized that at any given time, there could be known safety issues which had not yet been adequately addressed, and identified safety fixes that had not been widely implemented. To reflect these realities, the GASP needed to be periodically reviewed to ensure it remains relevant. 2.5.4 The conference was advised that the Air Navigation Commission met with leaders of the aviation industry periodically. The interchange of ideas and information at these meetings helped identify emerging safety issues and possible responses thereto. These meetings also provided an opportunity for the aviation industry to review the GASP and to provide inputs towards its further development. The Commission also carried out a formal review of the GASP annually and updated it as required. Progress reports on the development of the GASP are also presented to regular Sessions of the Assembly. 2.5.5 The conference noted the information on GASP, and expressed its appreciation for the fact that it had been provided, and re-affirmed, on behalf of the States and organizations represented, a commitment to GASP.

2.6

SAFETY AND SECURITY OF THE ATM INFRASTRUCTURE

2.6.1 Under this agenda item, the conference discussed security of the aviation infrastructure, focussing particularly on response procedures for air traffic controllers in the various phases of unlawful interference. 2.6.2 The conference was informed that ICAO had developed numerous SARPs, together with supporting guidance material, that had implications for security and that in its review of security requirements in the air navigation field, the Air Navigation Commission concluded that there was a need to ensure the development of safety and security provisions to be fully coordinated. 2.6.3 The conference was also informed of ICAOs work on an Aviation Security Plan of Action which had the objective of strengthening aviation security. The plan, approved by the Council in June 2002, contains an air navigation programme which, inter alia, included a comprehensive review of the sixteen Annexes under the responsibility of the Air Navigation Bureau (ANB). The conference was advised that during its last session of 2003, the Commission would undertake a review of the air navigation part of the ICAO Aviation Security Plan. 2.6.4 The conference noted the action undertaken by ICAO on security issues in the air navigation field and expressed its strong support for the objective that the Air Navigation Commission had set out for the harmonization of aviation safety and aviation security. The conference therefore agreed on the following recommendation: Recommendation 2/8 Harmonization of aviation safety and aviation security

2-14 That ICAO: a)

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continue its efforts to encourage and monitor the harmonization of aviation safety and aviation security; and encourage States to monitor the impact of aviation security measures on aviation safety, and to take action as necessary.

b)

2.6.5 Recognizing that air traffic controllers could play an important role in dissemination of critical information among other things, and that the interaction between flight crew and air traffic controllers was critical during unlawful interference events, the conference agreed on the need for ICAO to develop in-flight emergency response procedures for air traffic controllers as a counter to the threat of unlawful interference to aircraft. This need had arisen from the realization that the international civil aviation support services system was not designed to cope with the extreme form of unlawful interference perpetrated in September 2001. 2.6.6 The conference noted that although there were clear security-related demands on air traffic controllers specified in several ICAO documents, it could be concluded that they lacked specificity. Guidance material directly related to management of in-flight emergencies was also lacking. Therefore, there was a need to develop response procedures that differentiated between emergency circumstances where a flight crew was or was suspected of being in control of an aircraft and where hijackers were known to have taken over in-flight control. The need for air traffic controllers to be properly trained on relevant procedures, which should take into account human factors principles, was stressed. Additionally, the issue of legal responsibility of the individual controller and of the service provider and associated liability concerns were raised. The conference agreed that these issues would have to be addressed as work was progressed. 2.6.7 The conference noted that there would be a need for coordination between all parties involved, including civil, military and other security authorities of the State. The conference also agreed that the establishment of a regional focal point for ATM-related security matters would help ensure effective coordination. 2.6.8 The conference observed that rapid and effective information transfer was necessary between ATS units and rescue coordination centres (RCCs) that may have to assume operational responsibility if the affected aircraft impacted terrain or water. This could require an extension to the existing provisions of Annex 12 Search and Rescue, to broaden the role of RCCs in emergency response. 2.6.9 In consideration to the above, the conference agreed on the following recommendation: Recommendation 2/9 In-flight emergency response procedures for air traffic controllers

That, consistent with the ICAO Aviation Security Plan of Action and the ATM operational concept, ICAO consider developing in-flight emergency response and coordination procedures for air traffic controllers, together with training guidance, related to the distinctly different types and phases of unlawful interference. These procedures and guidance material should allow for the different conditions which exist in States.

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2.6.10 While not detracting from the need for more comprehensive provisions for ATC as described above, the conference noted that it was important not to lose sight of the underlying problem. Security began on the ground, therefore the most important focus for security needed to be on identifying security threats before the aircraft became airborne. 2.6.11 The conference was also informed of the criticality of maintaining the integrity of computer and communications systems used in aviation and the efforts made in several States to address these issues. It was noted that there was a need for coordination between all parties involved and it was proposed that there would be merit in establishing regional focal points for collecting and disseminating information on computer and communications system security as a means of improving overall security of these systems. The conference was supportive of all these efforts and agreed that the Air Navigation Commission should take them into account when updating the air navigation part of the ICAO Aviation Security Plan of Action.

Report on Agenda Item 3 Agenda Item 3: Air traffic management (ATM) performance targets for safety, efficiency and regularity and the role of required total system performance (RTSP) in this respect

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3.1

INTRODUCTION

3.1.1 Under this agenda item, the conference considered the establishment of performance targets for ATM as well as the concept of required total system performance (RTSP).

3.2

PERFORMANCE TARGETS FOR ATM

Required communication performance (RCP) 3.2.1 ICAO activities to develop a concept of RCP in the provision of air traffic services (ATS) were reviewed. It was noted that in 1996 the Aeronautical Mobile Communications Panel, during its consideration of general aspects in the future evolution of the very high frequency digital link (VDL), had seen RCP as a set of performance parameters, the values of which would determine the operational requirements for communication systems in the various phases of flight. The conference was informed that the panel had agreed upon the urgent need to assess the various technical options of communication systems against such a set of parameters. In follow-up, the Air Navigation Commission had tasked the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Panel (subsequently renamed as the Operational Data Link Panel (OPLINKP)) to develop the concept of RCP. 3.2.2 It was noted that before the advent of data communication systems for ATS, voice communications were assessed on the basis of actual performance, as it usually was readily evident when performance became degraded or was unavailable. With data link, however, these indications were not provided in the same way. The acceptance of data communications as a technology for communications, navigation, and surveillance/air traffic management (CNS/ATM) systems, in addition to voice communications, meant that a formal method of determining and specifying communication performance suitable for a variety of ATS functions was desired. Such a concept should be seen as a complement to collision risk modelling. 3.2.3 The conference noted a number of key characteristics of RCP, the most significant of which were that the concept was performance based, human-centred, operationally significant and independent of specific technologies. 3.2.4 It was noted that in 2001, States and international organizations had been consulted on the RCP operational concept developed by OPLINKP, with a majority of responses indicating broad support for the operational concept of RCP. The conference was informed that the OPLINKP was continuing work on the task and was expected to report on substantial progress by 2005. 3.2.5 On the basis of its discussions, the conference agreed that further work was needed to develop means to specify performance requirements appropriate for the assumptions made by separation studies, particularly with regard to controller intervention and pilot-initiated weather deviations, within the framework provided by the RCP concept. It was also agreed that there was a need for further work on the relationship of the RCP concept to interoperability, as well as efforts in the areas of standardization of RCP types and allocations, assessment of the adequacy of international air traffic services procedures for new CNS/ATM environments and safety performance monitoring.

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Report on Agenda Item 3

3.2.6 Recognizing the important position States and planning and implementation regional groups (PIRGs) would have in ensuring an orderly and coordinated implementation of RCP, the conference noted that ongoing work by OPLINKP would continue to concentrate on how RCP would provide regional planning and implementation groups with a basis for the development of documents, procedures, and programmes to introduce the use of RCP in the airspace planning methodology. In this regard, State and regional support for performance-based planning was seen as an essential first step in advancing to the implementation stage. 3.2.7 In light of the urgent need for global harmonization of communication performance measures, the conference recommended that ICAO give high priority to progress the work of enabling RCP implementation, while ensuring full consistency with the broader concept of RTSP being developed in parallel: Recommendation 3/1 That ICAO: a) continue the development of Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs), procedures and guidance material on RCP; and investigate areas for further work to determine the relationship of the RCP concept to separation studies and interoperability, the standardization of RCP types and allocations, the adequacy of ATS functions and procedures for new CNS/ATM environments, as well as requirements for safety performance monitoring. Required communication performance (RCP)

b)

Performance metrics and ATM 3.2.8 During further discussions on performance targets for ATM, several presentations were made on work undertaken with regard to the analysis of economic performance, including quality, efficiency of service and establishment of benchmarks. 3.2.9 The conference was made aware of ongoing work within ICAO seeking to define the future involvement of the Organization with regard to the development and use of performance metrics in the provision of ATM and related services. It was noted that the Manual on Air Navigation Services Economics (Doc 9161), containing guidance material on organizational, managerial and financial aspects of the operation and provision of air navigation services (ANS), was under revision and being expanded. On the basis of work undertaken in several States, the manual would eventually provide a general description of best practices in benchmarking and performance measurement, however, without going into detail or trying to define any parameters. The guidance would be non-prescriptive, encouraging States to publish their particular performance measures in order to facilitate user consultation. 3.2.10 It was stressed that substantial benefits stood to be gained from the introduction of a strong, transparent and independent performance review system; for example, a 10 per cent improvement in cost-effectiveness equalled, in Europe alone, a potential saving of some i 600 Million a year. It was also emphasized that in the analysis of economic performance of ATM, transparency was seen as an essential component of a performance review system to ensure the cost-effectiveness of air navigation services and to support target setting and performance processes.

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3.2.11 The conference noted that expectations of the airlines sometimes went further than among other members of the ATM community. In this context, the conference recognized that although safety was paramount, efficiency and regularity were still crucial to the development of a sustainable, efficient and cost-effective air transport system. The efficiency of an ATM service provider in delivering a service, including equipment and staffing, had a profound effect on the cost of that service to the airspace user. Although many elements relating to ATM efficiency and regularity could not yet be established mathematically, they were nevertheless measurable, and should be evaluated through observation and benchmarking. In this context it was essential that the highest degree of openness and transparency be maintained. 3.2.12 The point was also raised, however, that economic indicators alone were not sufficient, but that other factors like the number of trained staff and safety recommendations addressed also were important measurements related to performance. 3.2.13 The conference recognized that some caution would be appropriate in relation to benchmarking, keeping in mind the need for diversity, that all locations and States were not immediately comparable and that not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects should be considered. On the other hand, what was not measured would stand little chance of being improved. 3.2.14 It was pointed out that a system of quality management could easily be added to the safety management systems currently being implemented. This would encourage an atmosphere of continuous improvement among air traffic services providers. 3.2.15 The conference noted progress as regards the analysis of economic performance of ATM and benchmarking, and recommended that ICAO continue its work in this field, including an assessment of the need for worldwide standardization of minimum reporting requirements. Recommendation 3/2 Standardization of minimum reporting requirements

That ICAO continue its work in the field of economic performance of ATM and benchmarking, and assess the need for worldwide standardization of minimum reporting requirements in relation to information disclosure.

3.3

THE CONCEPT OF RTSP

Introduction 3.3.1 The conference reviewed the results of the work of the Air Traffic Management Operational Concept Panel (ATMCP) to date on the subject of performance and required total system performance (RTSP). The panel had identified air traffic management performance, including the notion of RTSP, as a key aspect of the ATM operational concept and had therefore decided to introduce RTSP in the operational concept. The purpose of the discussion was to clarify and develop the next steps of RTSP development on the basis of the initial arguments related to the feasibility of RTSP as a method to measure performance of the ATM system.

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3.3.2 It was pointed out that the performance work undertaken by the ATMCP was only of an initial nature, and that further substantial work remained, in order to have the subject of ATM performance covered at the desired level of clarity. Need for performance orientation 3.3.3 The conference agreed that safety was the overriding aspect of performance in aviation.

3.3.4 It was noted that ATM was increasingly being discussed in terms of performance. Corporatization and a more structured regulatory environment, were placing increasing pressure on accountability. In this respect, it was agreed that at all levels, communicating performance objectives and achievements would facilitate positive dialogue between the parties involved. 3.3.5 It was further agreed that it was essential that systems be developed in terms of objectives to be achieved. The absence of performance objectives at the appropriate level of abstraction on the one hand and a lack of understanding of the effect of changing the objectives on the other, would likely significantly hamper the decision-making process. ATM performance concepts 3.3.6 The conference recognized that an essential prerequisite for the development of a complex system was an understanding of the nature of its performance. A hierarchy of five levels of concepts relating to ATM performance was recognized, as follows:

Level 1: Political and socio-economic requirements


safety, security, environmental efficiency, costs, etc.

Level 2: RASP
safety, throughput, delay, predictability, flexibility, etc.

Level 3: RTSP
on operational functions/entities set of characteristics

Rf1P

RfnP

Actual Performance Measurement & Monitoring

Level 4: System requirements

{...} {...} for an airspace and/or type of users sets of consistent enabler requirements, e.g. RNP, RCP, etc.

Level 5: Standards and specifications (technologies)


tech SARPs, MOPS, standards, IOS90xy, etc.

}
9

Figure 1. Hierarchical ATM performance concept

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3.3.7 It was agreed that performance should be seen from many perspectives, such as safety and cost, as well as from the points of view of requirements, system design and specifications, and should include actual assessment and monitoring. The conference therefore endorsed the hierarchy of performance concepts as depicted in the diagram as a sound basis for all future work in this field. 3.3.8 Level 1 of the figure above represented the high-level political and socio-economic expectations of society and/or the air transport sector, of a future ATM system. The measures necessary to meet these expectations should then govern the design of the system. More specifically, these general expectations addressed the technical, economic, environmental and other concerns relative to the effective operation of the ATM system and included, in particular, the areas of safety, security, environmental efficiency, cost-effectiveness, capacity, access and equity, general efficiency, flexibility, predictability, global interoperability and participation by the entire ATM community. 3.3.9 It was noted that expectations could be difficult to meet. Therefore, compromises would have to be negotiated throughout the development process of the ATM system, with a view to maximizing the relative advantages of that system for each of the stakeholders involved. 3.3.10 The ATM performance specification level, entitled the required ATM system performance (RASP) level, defined a second set of indicators of users expectations which concerned the overall ATM systems operational services provided at the users interface level. These could be considered as indicators of sub-objectives of the Level 1 expectations from a specific ATM system operational performance perspective. 3.3.11 The conference agreed that, in more general terms, RASP metrics should provide a set of high-level operational objectives for changing the global ATM system at its highest level of specification (e.g. operational objectives to mitigate effects on the environment, in balance with safety and regularity). Hence, RASP could be considered as a set of mission requirements for the ATM system aimed at achieving a top-level system operational objective. 3.3.12 It was noted that the RASP requirements might in some cases be very high and perhaps not technically and financially feasible, in which case the RASP requirements would need preliminary validation. The purpose of this validation would be to establish those requirements for the system that would be realistically achievable in the event that sufficient resources were not available to ensure the best indicators in accordance with cost/effectiveness criteria. The possibility could not be ruled out that the acceptable range for the RASP requirements would not correspond to available technical and financial resources. In such cases, having taken air traffic safety as the priority, it would be necessary to adjust the value of the remaining RASP requirements. 3.3.13 The conference noted that Level 3, which covered the overall performance metrics for the ATM core system functions specified at the highest level, was entitled the required total system performance (RTSP) level. The ATM core system functions or concept components (airspace organization and management, aerodrome operations, demand/capacity balancing, traffic synchronization, airspace user operations, conflict management and ATM service delivery management) were parts of the entire ATM system divided into functions, the combination and integration of which represented the global ATM system. The conference emphasized the importance of considerations related to environment. The need to fulfil safety requirements within environmental constraints might have an impact on efficiency, capacity or regularity. 3.3.14 RTSP was related to the performance of services provided by the ATM concept components. In this context, the term service referred to the implementation of a functionality of the ATM system in a given environment. It was agreed that requirements should be kept abstract enough to allow for flexibility

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in implementing choices, while preventing the proliferation of particular solutions. It was not, however, possible to address requirements independently from the different implementation options. RTSP was thus linked to system requirements (Level 4). To build this link, RTSP should provide indicators that would allow an assessment of the appropriate technical means for implementing operational scenarios, i.e. ways to realize implementation of concept components or other parts of the ATM system. 3.3.15 The conference noted that performance metrics could eventually be applied to many parts of the ATM system. In this context, it was noted that Level 4 defined performance metrics for information management, data processing services and CNS operational services. It was entitled System Requirements and allowed, in particular, the introduction, within an appropriate architecture/hierarchy of system elements, of performance concepts such as RCP and required navigation performance (RNP). Other required performance measures could be identified, such as required monitoring performance (RMP) to specify the capability to monitor the traffic situation in a given environment, or required planning performance (RPP) to specify the capability of predicting the future position of aircraft. 3.3.16 Subject to further validation, Levels 3 and 4 could be modelled using an identical template of characteristics, to permit the combination or separation of functional elements as needed, thus allowing for the determination of the key requirements for RTSP, for a given environment and traffic level. 3.3.17 Level 5 dealt with specific technologies and methodologies to implement Level 4.

3.3.18 It was suggested that the above hierarchy and the overall performance model provided a suitable structure for discussing performance. At the same time, it should assist the organization of the work and individual contributions from various bodies and partners, such as States, regional bodies and the Secretariat with respect to establishing a harmonized and generally acceptable basis for the development of performance requirements. 3.3.19 The conference agreed that performance metrics should be developed within the ICAO framework and future agreement reached on the definition of metrics for the different objectives to be reached for Levels 1 and 2, as well as on guidance material for setting targets at the global, regional and State levels. Furthermore, the overall framework and guidance material on RTSP should be further developed and maintained by an appropriate body within ICAO. 3.3.20 It was further agreed that the definition of requirements for specific aspects of CNS/ATM, i.e. the individual elements of RTSP (Level 3) and lower layers, should be assigned to the relevant technical bodies, working in close coordination with each other as well as the body referred to above. 3.3.21 The conference recognized that a further important phase, that of planning the implementation activities related to RTSP, was mainly within the purview of the PIRGs and States, with an overall coordination role for ICAO within the framework of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750). These activities would include the definition of performance targets at the appropriate level depending on the general policy adopted. Performance metrics for RTSP implementation would be selected either from a list defined at the global level or from locally-available options, as warranted by local traffic density. In this respect, the conference emphasized the importance of different regions following identical definitions of the performance model; however, it was also recognized that the comprehensive definition of a common global framework would require some time. PIRGs and States should therefore be encouraged to begin moving to a performance driven planning process which would, however, have to be harmonized with globally-applicable definitions of the performance model as a common global framework, as they become available.

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3.3.22 The conference agreed that monitoring was an important aspect of the overall performance framework and that it therefore should be addressed at the appropriate level. Because effective monitoring provided an essential feedback which, on the basis of lessons learned, could significantly improve performance via benchmarking and dissemination of good practices, the conference agreed that guidance for measurements and standards for information disclosure and guidelines for monitoring should be established by ICAO and consistently applied by States. 3.3.23 The conference recognized that a performance orientation in ATM was fundamental, and agreed that it would be feasible to establish a performance framework which included the concept of RTSP. However, these were new notions, and they addressed complex systems. It would be necessary to develop the different layers of the model as well as the different related functions and services in much greater detail in order to ascertain the validity of this model. It was particularly stressed that for RASP and RTSP, while safety was the paramount aspect, it was one of several expectations that also included the environment, efficiency, and regularity, and that all these aspects would require careful balancing. 3.3.24 The conference agreed that more work was also needed to identify, among other things, the main functions within the individual concept components of the ATM operational concept, and analyse which requirements would be imposed on them and how, collectively, they would meet expectations. It had to be established further how each operational function would be supported by technical functions, thus complementing the model with descriptions of interdependencies between the different functions. Moreover, the origins of expectations and functions must be clarified; what exactly would meet their requirements; what might counteract their original intent and what were the dependencies and interactions between these issues. The development of a causation model dealing with these and other related issues might provide a deeper system engineering understanding of ATM than was possible on the basis of currently available information. 3.3.25 The future work concerned all layers, from an understanding of future expectations suggested for Level 1 and how they could be met collectively, to the preparation of the standardization material for the next generation of technical systems, governed by Level 5. Progress must be made simultaneously on all levels to some extent. However, priority should be given to the clarification of the issues of the upper layers of the hierarchy, the understanding of how the ATM system behaved and generated performance. Also, the definition of indicators and targets were priority issues, as these aspects were currently not developed to sufficient maturity and because it was precisely this knowledge that would allow further decisions to be made for all other levels with greater confidence than in the past. This, in turn, would significantly accelerate the pace of modernization of ATM. 3.3.26 The conference re-affirmed that the definition of the future global ATM system should be based on specific performance objectives to be met and monitored, as well as on the related operational and technical requirements, which would aim at achieving the agreed performance. The following recommendation was agreed: Recommendation 3/3 Performance framework

That ICAO, in consultation with the other members of the ATM community: a) formulate the performance objectives and targets for a future global ATM system; continue the definition of related performance metrics and elementary characteristics in the context of the overall behaviour of the ATM

b)

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Report on Agenda Item 3 system; and c) coordinate and harmonize all related contributions within the overall performance framework initiated by the Air Traffic Management Operational Concept Panel, including definitions, standards for reporting requirements, information disclosure and guidance for monitoring.

Report on Agenda Item 4 Agenda Item 4: Capacity-enhancement measures

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4.1

INTRODUCTION

4.1.1 Under this agenda item, the conference recalled the problems being experienced by a number of regions as a result of increasing air traffic demand and limited capacity, and considered some of the efforts being made at both the global and regional levels to enhance capacity and to establish a more efficient operating environment. Additionally, noting the necessary function ICAO provisions played in enabling a more efficient and effective use of available airspace, the role of such provisions was examined. 4.1.2 The conference reviewed global and regional principles and guidelines for States and planning and implementation regional groups (PIRGs) to consider when developing capacity-enhancement measures and the relationship between capacity-enhancement and safety, with a particular emphasis on runway safety. In view of the extent the field of capacity enhancements could cover, the conference also took the opportunity to review and assess particular strategies, some of which had already been considered by individual States and/or regions to support enhanced capacity in the near term.

4.2

GLOBAL MEASURES

4.2.1 The conference recognized that in many areas, demand often exceeded the available capacity of the air navigation system, resulting in significant negative consequences not only to the aviation industry, but also to general economic health. Over the long term, this required the implementation of an ATM system that allowed maximum use to be made of enhanced capabilities provided by technical advances, based on the principle of collaborative decision making (CDM). Over the last ten years in particular, most States and all ICAO regions had embarked on implementation programmes intended to improve aviation operations by making use of new technologies. The conference noted, however, that the conclusions reached under Agenda Item 1 underscored the need for a comprehensive concept of an integrated and global ATM system, based on clearly-established requirements. This concept, in turn, would form the basis for the development of ATM requirements and the coordinated implementation of CNS/ATM technologies. ATM operational concept 4.2.2 The conference noted that the ATM operational concept and all enablers to enhance capacity and improve aircraft operations, such as 4-dimensional trajectory and ADS-B, would need to be adaptable to the unique operational environment and needs of the different States and regions. Additionally, there was a range of economic, legal, political, financial, environmental and institutional issues that varied from region to region. The conference further noted that the planning processes at the global, regional and national levels should provide a well-understood, manageable and cost-effective sequence of improvements that kept pace with user needs, culminating in a system meeting safety, security, capacity, efficiency and environmental demands. The ATM operational concept provided the basis from which the ATM requirements, objectives and benefits would be derived, thereby providing the foundation for the development of regional and national ATM implementation plans. 4.2.3 It was recognized that States and regions were different from each other with different requirements needing different solutions, which was a fundamental aspect of the ATM operational concept. At the same time, plans of all States needed to be aligned to the greatest extent possible, to ensure that solutions were internationally standardized and integrated, and did not unnecessarily impose multiple

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Report on Agenda Item 4

equipment carriage requirements in the air components of the ATM system, or multiple systems on the ground. 4.2.4 In many areas, simple solutions based on regional harmonization or cooperation across homogeneous areas could provide satisfactory short- or medium-term responses while in other areas more complex ATM systems and sophisticated political and legal arrangements might be required. The conference also noted that the PIRGs had made considerable progress on implementing CNS/ATM systems and, in some cases, had worked inter-regionally to progress global initiatives. In this respect, a number of initiatives were recalled including the introduction of reduced vertical separation minimum (RVSM) over the South China Sea (to be extended over the Middle East and the Bay of Bengal), combined with the Europe, Middle East, Asia ATS Route Structure South of the Himalayas (EMARSSH). These inter-regional coordinated initiatives had brought about substantial benefits to both ATS providers and users. The conference also noted a proposal for the Asia and Pacific Regions to commence planning for further airspace capacity enhancements and, in particular, the implementation of required navigation performance (RNP) 4 operations, to cater for future air traffic growth. In this respect, it was acknowledged that during the regional planning process, States and aircraft operators would have an important role to play in following through with the necessary operational approval process. The need was also stressed that States should adhere to the ICAO provisions as contained in ICAO Annex 11 Air Traffic Services and the Procedures for Air Navigation Services Air Traffic Management (PANS-ATM, Doc 4444) when implementing RNP and not develop abnormal values or track spacings. 4.2.5 The discussion highlighted the importance placed on coordination between the regions. The conference noted that existing mechanisms already provided the opportunity for States and PIRGs to advance inter-regionally those capacity-enhancing procedures that were likely to have a follow-on effect on their neighbours. The already existing inter-regional coordination mechanisms were recalled; however, the conference acknowledged that other coordination mechanisms should be utilized, including informal interface coordination meetings. The conference concluded its discussion with the following recommendation: Recommendation 4/1 Harmonization of air navigation systems between regions

That ICAO: a) maintain, and develop further, a coordination mechanism between regions for planning and implementation of capacity-enhancing measures and ATM performance improvement between regions for a harmonized evolution aimed at enhancing aviation efficiency and safety; be systematically involved in any regional initiatives aiming at enhancing ATM capacity and performance; and urge States, who have not already done so, to establish national CNS/ATM coordination and implementation committees, with a point of contact to be made known to the respective ICAO Regional Office, so as to facilitate harmonized transition to CNS/ATM systems.

b)

c)

Report on Agenda Item 4 ICAO provisions

4-3

4.2.6 It was recalled that the globally accepted framework for the harmonization of civil aviation were the ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs), which covered procedures of worldwide applicability. These SARPs, contained in ICAO Annexes were complemented by Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) which specified, in greater detail than the SARPs, the actual procedures to be applied by ATS units. To accommodate specific needs on a regional basis, the development of international civil aviation was further governed by regional air navigation plans (ANPs), which set forth in detail the facilities and services to be provided by States pursuant to Article 28 of the Convention. Complementing the ANPs were the ICAO Regional Supplementary Procedures (SUPPs, Doc 7030), which formed the procedural part of the ANPs to meet those needs in specific areas, which were not covered in worldwide provisions. 4.2.7 As safety, regularity and efficiency of air traffic, to a large extent, depended on the uniform application of procedures on a global basis, the conference recognized that it was of paramount importance that Regional Supplementary Procedures were not in conflict with the provisions contained in the Annexes and PANS. Further, they must either specify detailed regional options for those provisions or promulgate a regional procedure of justifiable operational significance, additional to existing provisions in Annexes or PANS, and should furthermore avoid variations in text of procedures with similar intent applicable to more than one area. More specifically, it was important that Regional Supplementary Procedures should indicate a mode of implementing procedural provisions in Annexes and PANS, as distinct from a statement or description of required facilities and services as published in the ANPs. The conference noted that Regional Supplementary Procedures may also indicate permissible additions to provisions in Annexes and PANS. 4.2.8 The conference further noted, however, that some States, in their efforts to develop and implement capacity-enhancing procedures, sought to utilize the Regional Supplementary Procedures as a means of harmonizing such procedures among neighbouring States. In several cases, the proposals had contravened provisions already contained in the Annexes and/or PANS, and such proposals could not be considered. 4.2.9 The conference agreed that as a long-term goal, the implementation of an ATM system that allowed maximum use to be made of enhanced capabilities provided by technical advances held the key to a safe and efficient global ATM system. The ATM operational concept addressed what was needed to increase user flexibility and maximize operating efficiencies in order to increase system capacity and improve safety levels in the future system. This long-term goal was therefore preferable to using intermediate measures implemented in an ad hoc fashion on a regional basis. 4.2.10 Although it was appreciated that accommodating regional needs for capacity enhancement within the framework of existing SARPs and PANS was not always expeditious, the conference agreed that it was vital that States and PIRGs continued to propose procedures for capacity-enhancement to ICAO with a view to possibly amending global provisions rather than implementing on a regional basis. Ultimately, this would avoid the danger of disparity with existing ICAO provisions. Performance-driven planning process 4.2.11 The conference was informed of current efforts to improve ATM service provision in Europe, within the framework of a performance-driven top-down planning process (as documented in the European Convergence and Implementation Plan (ECIP)). The ECIP was part of a process, where planning decisions were based on benefits rather than technology, and took as its foundation the need to set and attain quantifiable and measurable ATM performance targets for the ATM key performance areas. In its initial phase the process had been applied to capacity enhancement.

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4.2.12 The conference noted that the process was consistent with the ICAO Air Navigation Plan/Facilities and Services Implementation Document (ANP/FASID) process, as well as the ICAO Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750), as far as operationally applicable. 4.2.13 It was further noted that the IATA member airlines supported a performance-driven planning approach that incorporated the widespread, consistent, and timely implementation of currently available ATM capacity improvements. 4.2.14 The conference noted that some PIRGs were already applying some of the elements of the European approach, particularly with regard to collaborative links within the ATM community. Nevertheless, the conference also agreed that the approach might serve as a model that each PIRG could study for possible application in its respective region. The conference therefore agreed on the following recommendation: Recommendation 4/2 Investigation of performance-driven planning and implementation methods

That States study the approach to planning and implementation commonly adopted by European States, with a view to the possible application of its elements in their respective regions. 4.2.15 The importance of collaborative decision-making and global air traffic flow management in improving capacity and ATM provisions over large areas was stressed. The efforts of several States that had been working closely together in this respect were presented. The conference recognized that the overall goals and benefits of these efforts were already being realized by these States, which included the provision of a seamless system traversing international boundaries, based on shared information to enhance security and ATM effectiveness. The conference noted that the section of the operational concept dealing with demand/capacity balancing was very much aligned with the work being accomplished and that the work on global demand/capacity balancing should be prioritized as an important facilitator of the sought-after seamless ATM system. The conference therefore endorsed the following recommendation: Recommendation 4/3 Collaborative decision-making and global demand/capacity balancing

That ICAO: a) develop SARPs and procedures for global air traffic flow and capacity management based on the concept of demand/capacity balancing as described in the operational concept; and develop guidance material for States to implement global demand/capacity balancing techniques based on collaborative decision-making processes, and sharing of aviation information in accordance with the operational concept.

b)

4.2.16 The view was expressed that the prevalent practices of night curfew at some airports had led to restrictive air traffic handling capacity situations. Such restrictions, with increasing traffic volumes, resulted in air traffic congestion and imbalances in the utilization of the aviation infrastructure. In noting the sentiment conveyed, the conference recalled that ICAO policies and practices related to environmental

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protection were contained in Assembly Resolution A33-7, with particular reference being made to a balanced approach to aircraft noise management in Appendix C to the Resolution.

4.3

REGIONAL MEASURES

Single European Sky 4.3.1 The conference was informed of efforts in some parts of the European Region to address the unique problems that the region faced with respect to increasing air traffic and the problems associated with this increase. The initiative came to be known as Single European Sky and was first used by the transport ministers of the European Union (EU) following a proposal by the European Commission. Additionally, the intense increase in traffic was beginning to stretch the system. The subsequent agreement led to the development of harmonized rules on service provider certification, charging, cross-border airspace organization and management, increased cooperation between civil and military, and standardization of equipment. Standardized licensing was called for, facilitating air traffic controllers to be employed in other Member States where shortages were occurring, as was a more uniform airspace to streamline safety procedures and save fuel by allowing aircraft to fly more direct routes. 4.3.2 Whilst the Single European Sky initiative was developed to deal with the unique problems of a particular region, the conference recognized that the project, or parts of it, might be adaptable to other regions or for global use as part of the ongoing effort to achieve an interoperable and more seamless global ATM system. Nevertheless, the conference also recognized that it was appropriate that a more thorough investigation, analysis and review of the progress achieved as well as difficulties encountered would need to be undertaken to determine if, where and how, the project could be adapted for global use, or perhaps, for use by other regions. The conference therefore agreed on the following recommendation: Recommendation 4/4 Investigation and analysis of the Single European Sky approach to global harmonization

That ICAO follow the progress of the Single European Sky project for possible use in other homogeneous regions or at the global level. Runway safety programme 4.3.3 Information was presented to the conference on work currently under way, or planned, relating to runway safety. The conference noted that several States and international organizations, including ICAO, had embarked on extensive programmes to improve the situation with respect to runway incursions. The conference noted that the Air Navigation Commission had identified several critical areas that it felt had to be investigated and which had a relation to overall runway safety. These included: radiotelephony phraseology, language proficiency, ATC procedures, standards and performance requirements for equipment, aerodrome lighting and markings, aerodrome charts, operational aspects, situational awareness and human factors. 4.3.4 On completing an overview of relevant ICAO provisions and guidance, the conference noted that extensive work had already been accomplished. The conference also noted that ICAO had embarked upon a worldwide education and awareness campaign which encouraged States to implement the relevant provisions and runway safety programmes. In this regard, the conference was informed that the campaign had

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begun with the development of an ICAO interactive CD-ROM toolkit, which would include references to relevant ICAO SARPs and other available documentation on runway safety programmes, videos, electronic versions of posters, etc. ICAO had also commenced a series of seminars on runway safety and ATS safety management in the different ICAO regions. 4.3.5 With respect to the significant work already under way in some States and regions, a number of similar proposals were tabled encouraging ICAO to undertake an international approach, which could lead to an effective global solution. Specifically, the availability of standardized runway incursion information was recommended as an essential step towards achieving worldwide risk reduction and improving risk management of runway incursions. The view was expressed that standardization of the definition of a runway incursion, a runway incursion severity and error type categorization taxonomy, and a runway incursion database would provide the following benefits: a) the development of improved global runway incursion statistical and trend information to support a wider range of risk identification; and b) improvement of risk management worldwide. 4.3.6 The conferences attention was also drawn to the results of the work of both Transport Canada and NAV CANADA in analysing the phenomenon of increasing runway incursions. According to the Transport Canada report in this respect, a number of factors were potentially responsible for the upward trend in runway incursions, including increasing traffic volume, capacity-enhancing procedures to deal with the increasing traffic, airport layouts and human factors. Briefly, the report concluded that: a) the potential for a runway incursion increased more rapidly than the traffic volume; b) many aerodrome improvement projects had resulted in a more complex aerodrome layout which, together with inadequate aerodrome design, marking and lighting, and a lack of standard taxi routes, had worsened the situation; and c) the effects of increased traffic volume, capacity-enhancing procedures and aerodrome physical layout may simultaneously exacerbate the runway incursion potential at certain aerodromes; and human error was the mechanism that translates potential occurrences, based on the factors above, into actual occurrences. 4.3.7 Following a survey of pilots and air traffic controllers conducted in 2001 regarding specific runway safety issues and analysis of the available data, runway incursions had been identified as one of the most serious safety issues in airport operations. The resulting European Action Plan for the Prevention of Runway Incursions consisted of the survey findings and contained more than fifty recommendations with supporting material. It was also noted that the Action Plan underlined the need to amend some ICAO provisions. The conference noted that the Action Plan was in the process of being formally distributed through the national aviation safety authorities of the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) Member States. 4.3.8 The conference agreed that the implementation of runway safety programmes by States would be an important step to addressing safety of operations at aerodromes, and that the action by ICAO currently under way or planned, would provide the necessary support for such an exercise. In this respect, the conference noted that the ICAO CD-ROM toolkit might also be a more effective tool in terms of access and maintenance than the development of traditional guidance material. In particular, the material contained in the European Action Plan was considered useful for integration into the toolkit. The discussion also

Report on Agenda Item 4

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highlighted the importance States placed on the harmonization of radiotelephony speech and the improvement of the use of radiotelephony phraseology. The importance of all States to implement phraseologies published in the PANS-ATM, in particular those related to runway safety, was stressed. 4.3.9 The conference agreed that ICAO should develop a formal definition of runway incursion. It was also agreed that ICAO should standardize a runway incursion severity and error type categorization taxonomy, that is harmonized, to the extent possible with existing classifications, and include such a taxonomy into a suitable database. Categorization would help define and measure risk, and the availability of data in a common database would allow for more powerful statistical analyses. In this respect, the conference noted that further enhancement of the ICAOs Accident/Incident Data Reporting (ADREP) system would facilitate the reporting of runway incursion occurrences by States. 4.3.10 The conference also recognized that any link between capacity-enhancing procedures and a potential increase in runway incursions should be dealt with through the appropriate safety studies that would be conducted when a State was considering such procedures. The conference was informed that a number of States would jointly aim at utilizing guidance contained in the soon to be published ICAO Manual on Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (A-SMGCS) to support appropriate capacity safely, in all weather conditions. The conference noted that the European Community and its Member States had initiated the action of implementing the use of the A-SMGCS Manual and, in particular, that part concerned with surveillance and control functions, for the installation of such a system at European airports. In this regard, the conference was informed that ICAO had an established task (ATM-9703) in the Technical Work Programme (TWP) of the Organization in the Air Navigation Field to continue to advance the operational requirements for A-SMGCS and that such emerging provisions would take account of research and development programmes in a number of States. 4.3.11 With respect to the proposal for the inclusion of requirements for communications and air side driver training for personnel who operate on or near the runway, the conference was of the view that such action warranted further consideration in the context of the ongoing effort to review ICAO requirements and guidance. 4.3.12 In concluding its discussion on these topics, the conference agreed to the following recommendations: Recommendation 4/5 That States: a) take appropriate actions to improve runway safety worldwide through the implementation of runway safety programmes; collect and share runway incursion incidents in accordance with Annex 13 Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation, Chapter 8, Accident Prevention Measures; and take into consideration that part of the ICAO Manual on Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (A-SMGCS) related to surveillance and control functions, when implementing such systems at airports. Runway safety programmes

b)

c)

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Report on Agenda Item 4 Recommendation 4/6 Capacity-enhancing procedures

That States, when considering capacity-enhancing procedures at aerodromes, conduct appropriate safety studies and take due consideration of the effect on runway safety. Recommendation 4/7 That ICAO: a) urgently progress the development of a formal definition for runway incursion as a prerequisite for further actions to be taken in this domain; and enhance the Accident/Incident Data Reporting (ADREP) system to incorporate a common categorization taxonomy of runway incursion severity, error type and/or factors that contribute to incursions. Global runway incursion risk management

b)

Rectification of deficiencies in the air navigation field 4.3.13 The conference recalled efforts by ICAO, PIRGs and States in pursuing the elimination of deficiencies in the air navigation field and the implementation of all regional air navigation plans to further improve the existing levels of safety. Furthermore, the 33rd Session of the ICAO Assembly (September/October 2001), through Resolution A33-16, had urged States to apply the political will to take the remedial action identified by universal safety oversight audit programme (USOAP) audits, to correct the deficiencies identified in the regional planning process and related activities, and to promulgate the necessary regulations to implement the safety systems developed under the Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP). 4.3.14 In an effort to take advantage of the momentum already evident, it was proposed that States and users be urged to review their respective lists of identified deficiencies to ensure validity. Furthermore, plans indicating actions intended and time frames for the elimination of deficiencies in air navigation facilities and services, as listed by PIRGs, should then be formulated and forwarded to ICAO. As a final step in the reporting process, the regional office should be systematically notified of the rectification of deficiencies and receive confirmation from the user which originally identified the deficiency. 4.3.15 The conference noted that many deficiencies had continued to persist for a number of years, thus causing concern. Furthermore, States should increase their efforts to overcome the delay in mitigating the air navigation deficiencies identified by the respective PIRG and resolve cases of non-implementation of regional plans. It was further noted that while a proper reporting mechanism for deficiencies existed, additional mechanisms in the monitoring and reporting of corrective actions taken and progress towards the elimination of deficiencies were necessary. Within the context of a list of deficiencies, the view was expressed that rectification of deficiencies by States should follow a prioritization process where deficiencies related to SARPs and procedures should be eliminated in that order. 4.3.16 On concluding its discussion, the conference agreed to the following recommendation: Recommendation 4/8 Rectification of air navigation deficiencies

Report on Agenda Item 4 That ICAO: a) urge States to: 1) review their respective lists of identified deficiencies and inform the ICAO Regional Office of those that have been eliminated;

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2)

formulate and forward an action plan and timetable for rectification of outstanding deficiencies to the respective ICAO Regional Office for review; and identify areas, if any, where the establishment of multinational agreements or informal coordination groups may contribute to the resolution of deficiencies;

3)

b)

encourage users of air navigation facilities and services to report to the respective regional office once they note that the remedial action on the deficiency they had reported has been taken; and continue to provide assistance to States for the purpose of rectifying deficiencies.

c)

Flight level harmonization 4.3.17 The conference was invited to consider the need to harmonize flight level assignment procedures wherever reduced vertical separation minimum (RVSM) was being applied through the worldwide adoption of the system of cruising levels specified in Annex 2 Rules of the Air, Appendix 3, Table of Cruising Levels. Of particular concern were operations at the interface between airspaces where different units of measurement were used. Information was presented that illustrated that when the common cruising levels structure and corresponding vertical separation minima, expressed in metres or feet, as outlined in Annex 2 were adhered to, the maximum difference in cruising level experienced by any aircraft transitioning between metres and feet was 23 m (75 ft). By contrast, on some regional boundaries where this conversion was made today using State-specific procedures for conventional vertical separation (500 m or 2 000 ft), the cruising level difference was as great as 287 metres (941 ft) and averaged over 165 m (541 ft). Differences between individual ATS units cruising level procedures were mitigated in many cases by sterilization of altitudes within one or both flight information regions. With the introduction of RVSM, however, the latitude to mask differences in this manner would almost be eliminated. Further, this practice limited capacity and flexibility as States and regions moved towards a more dynamic CNS/ATM environment. 4.3.18 The conference recalled that substantial consideration of existing transition procedures in operations in the interface airspaces mentioned above had been made by ICAO in the past. Nevertheless, the conference agreed that the introduction of RVSM should warrant further consideration of the issue. 4.3.19 The conference concluded its discussion with the following recommendation:

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Report on Agenda Item 4 Recommendation 4/9 Harmonization of flight level assignment methodology across flight information region boundaries

That relevant States, when planning for the introduction of reduced vertical separation minimum (RVSM) at interfaces between airspaces where different units of measurement are used, taking into account relevant operational and technical considerations, should apply a common cruising levels structure in accordance with the tables of cruising levels expressed in metres or feet, as outlined in Annex 2 Rules of the Air, Appendix 3. Recommendation 4/10 Tables of cruising levels That ICAO continue to study the common cruising levels structure, as outlined in Annex 2 Rules of the Air, Appendix 3.

Report on Agenda Item 5

5-1

Agenda Item 5: Review of the outcome of the ITU World Radio Conference (2003) (WRC-2003) and its impact on aeronautical electromagnetic spectrum utilization

5.1

INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU) WORLD RADIOCOMMUNICATION CONFERENCE 2003 (WRC-03) Preparation for WRC-03

5.1.1

5.1.1.1 The conference was informed that ICAO Contracting States, international organizations and the ICAO Secretariat had participated actively in the international preparatory meetings for the World Radio Conference (2003) (WRC-03), organized by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), regional telecommunication organizations1 and the Aeronautical Communications Panel (ACP) Working Group F. Such participation, as urged in Assembly Resolution A32-13 (see Appendix A), was essential to secure that significant elements of the ICAO position, which had been developed by the Air Navigation Commission and approved by Council, were incorporated by the regional telecommunication organizations in their proposals to the WRC-03. It was recognized that the inclusion of aeronautical experts in the national delegations and the active participation of international organizations and ICAO to the WRC-03 had contributed significantly to the favourable results that were obtained. 5.1.1.2 The conference noted that during the preparation for the WRC-03, ICAO had organized various regional preparatory meetings to review and address developments by States and regional telecommunication organizations and to consider updates to the ICAO position. These regional meetings were held in conjunction with meetings of AMCP Working Group F, which developed the draft ICAO position, and were critical in the development of the updates to the ICAO position, in particular with regard to the inclusion of regional considerations. 5.1.2 Results of WRC-03 on key aeronautical items

5.1.2.1 The conference was informed that some countries had deleted their name from a number of footnotes allocating certain aeronautical bands to non-aeronautical services. It was noted that further deletions of country names should be encouraged at WRC-07. 5.1.2.2 The WRC-03 had re-affirmed the need to keep the frequency band 5 091 - 5 150 MHz available for aeronautical radionavigation on a shared basis with the fixed satellite service with priority being given to assignments necessary for international standard systems for the aeronautical radionavigation service (such as the microwave landing system (MLS)). No new assignments to the fixed satellite service would be made after 2012 and at 2018 the fixed satellite service would become secondary. The conference noted that these arrangements might be revised around 2011. 5.1.2.3 Revisions to the band 5 150 - 5 725 MHz involved the existing allocations, on a primary basis, to the aeronautical radionavigation service in the band 5 150 - 5 250 MHz and 5 350 - 5 470 MHz. The WRC-03 granted a worldwide allocation to the mobile service in the band 5 150 - 5 250 MHz. The conference also upgraded the radiolocation service from a secondary to a primary service in the band 5 350 - 5 470 MHz. To date, the band 5 150 - 5 250 MHz was not used for aviation and the band 5 350 - 5 470 MHz was used

Asia-Pacific Telecommunity (APT), Arab Spectrum Management Group (ASMG), European Conference of Postal and Telecommunication Authorities (CEPT), Commisin Interamericana de Telecommunicaciones (CITEL) and African Telecommunication Union (ATU)

5-2

Report on Agenda Item 5

for airborne weather radar. Regulatory provisions were adopted to protect the aeronautical use of the band 5 350 - 5 470 MHz . 5.1.2.4 The radiolocation service in the band 2 900 - 3 100 MHz had been upgraded to a primary service. This band was shared with aeronautical primary surveillance radar systems. Regulatory provisions were adopted to protect the aeronautical use of this band. 5.1.2.5 Open issues from WRC-00 (2000, Istanbul, Turkey) concerning the introduction of allocations to the radionavigation satellite service (RNSS) in the bands 1 164 - 1 215 MHz and 1 215 1 300 MHz had been reviewed. In the band 1 164 - 1 215 MHz an aggregate equivalent power flux density for all RNSS satellite systems operating in this band had been established in order to protect the distance measuring equipment (DME) from harmful interference. In the band 1 215 - 1 300 MHz regulatory measures had been incorporated in the radio regulations to ensure that the RNSS shall neither cause interference to nor claim protection from the aeronautical radionavigation service, which was using this band for primary surveillance radar systems. In this regard it was noted that the ITU would continue studies related to the protection of these radar systems. 5.1.2.6 WRC-03 had also introduced in the band 108 - 117.975 MHz an allocation to the Aeronautical Mobile (R) service on a primary basis, limited to systems that transmit navigational information in support of air navigation and surveillance functions in accordance with recognized international standards. This allocation enabled the use of this band for the ICAO standard ground-based augmentation system (GBAS) and VHF digital link (VDL) Mode 4. It was stipulated that these systems shall not cause harmful interference to instrument landing system (ILS) and VHF omnidirectional radio range (VOR), which were also using this band. However, until all issues relating to compatibility with FM broadcast stations operating below 108 MHz would be addressed in the ITU, the use of the band 108-112 MHz by VDL Mode 4 was not allowed. 5.1.2.7 In summary, the conference noted with appreciation that the results of WRC-03 were very favourable to aviation and that the extensive preparatory work and participation by States had contributed significantly to the successful outcome. The conference was informed that further work on the outcome of the WRC-03 (addressing protection of radar and FM compatibility aspects as reported in 5.1.2.4 and 5.1.2.5 above) would be undertaken within the ITU-R study groups.

5.2

PREPARATION FOR THE WRC-07

5.2.1 WRC-03 also developed the agenda for the next World Radiocommunication Conference, which is expected to be held in 2007. The conference noted the following items of critical concern to aviation were on the agenda of this WRC-07: 5.2.1.1 Agenda Item 1.1 of WRC-03 would request from administrations to delete their country footnotes or to have their country name deleted from footnotes, if no longer required. Among other things, deletion of footnotes such as footnote RR 5.362B which limit global navigation satellite service (GNSS) implementation in some countries were encouraged by ICAO. 5.2.1.2 Agenda Item 1.2 would consider allocations and regulatory issues related to the earth exploration-satellite (passive) service, space research (passive) service and the meteorological satellite service. International civil aviation would need to ensure that such allocations did not limit current aeronautical usage or future enhancements to aviation systems.

Report on Agenda Item 5

5-3

5.2.1.3 Agenda Item 1.3 would consider the upgrade (used for ground-based radar and airborne weather radar) of the radiolocation service to a primary allocation in the bands 9 000 - 9 200 MHz and 9 300 - 9 500 MHz, and the introduction of a primary allocation to the Earth exploration-satellite service (active) and the space research service (active) in the band 9 300 - 9 500 MHz . International civil aviation would need to insure that this upgrade is made in such a manner that current and future aeronautical operations are fully protected. 5.2.1.4 Agenda Item 1.6 of WRC-07 would consider additional allocations for the aeronautical mobile (R) service in parts of the bands between 108 MHz and 6 GHz, and to study current satellite-frequency allocations that will support the modernization of civil aviation telecommunication systems. In this connection the conference noted that in particular elements of the operational concept requiring additional radio-frequency spectrum, including the effect of introduction of additional services and traffic growth, the implementation or transition time frame as well as the need to secure global allocations would need special attention. The conference noted that this agenda item might also be used to study the spectrum needs of the universal access transceiver (UAT), the potential for airport network and location equipment, aeronautical fixed links in the 5 091 - 5 150 MHz band, and allocations for new technologies to support aeronautical mobile communications requirements. 5.2.1.5 Agenda Item 1.6 of WRC-07 would also include a review on the need of some developing countries which still lack an appropriate communication infrastructure that meets the evolving requirements of modern civil aviation (ITU Resolution 415 refers). In this regard the conference noted that current satellite frequency allocations that could meet aeronautical requirements to support the modernization of civil aviation telecommunication systems in these countries and in particular those radio frequencies that could be used to support both ICAO communications, navigation, and surveillance/air traffic management (CNS/ATM) systems and other, non-aeronautical, telecommunication services would also need to be addressed. The conference noted that this issue would be addressed further in ICAO. 5.2.2 The full agenda for the WRC-07 is reproduced in Appendix B.

5.2.3 Noting that the ITU and regional telecommunication organizations would be conducting international preparatory meetings for WRC-07, as they had done for WRC-03 (section 5.1.1.1 refers), the conference agreed that ICAO Contracting States, international organizations and the ICAO Secretariat should continue their active participation in such meetings, as urged by Assembly Resolution A32-13. 5.2.4 Considering the experience gained during the successful preparation for the WRC-03, the conference developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 5/1 That ICAO a) urge States and international organizations to continue their efforts on implementation of the relevant elements of Assembly Resolution A32-13 and in particular participate in the preparatory work of the ITU and the regional telecommunication organizations for WRC-07; and continue to assign high priority to the tasks relating to the protection and availability of radio-frequency spectrum allocated to aeronautical Preparation for WRC-2007

b)

5-4

Report on Agenda Item 5 services and in particular actively participates in the relevant activities of the ITU-R and of the regional telecommunication organizations.

5.2.4.1 The conference was informed that ICAO would ensure any required cooperation and participation of all ICAO Regional Offices in the ICAO preparatory activities. 5.2.5 Schedule for developing the ICAO position for WRC-07

5.2.5.1 The conference noted that the draft ICAO position for WRC-07 was expected to be reviewed by the Air Navigation Commission during the second quarter of 2004. This would enable the Council to review and approve the ICAO position in the first quarter of 2005. If required, the ICAO position would be further updated shortly before WRC-07, in the light of developments during the preparatory activities.

5.3

RADIO-FREQUENCY SPECTRUM PLANNING MECHANISMS

5.3.1 The conference was informed that a spectrum policy framework had been set up in the European Union. This framework consolidated the EU position in the international radio-frequency spectrum coordination process, notably for ITU WRCs. Under this framework, the CEPT coordinated the technical negotiations for Europe for all sectors, including aviation, and the European Commission provided policy guidance, political support and EU-wide regulatory implementation of specific results of WRC. The conference further noted that a new spectrum management mechanism had been set up by Eurocontrol to coordinate the development of the aeronautical European aviation position for WRCs. 5.3.2 The conference was presented with views that there was a fragmentation of activities related to spectrum management and frequency assignment planning over various working groups in the ACP and between the ACP and the NSP. As a consequence, panel members might be required to participate in multiple ICAO groups. The conference agreed that the Secretariat, as a matter of urgency, should conduct a thorough review of the working arrangements for spectrum and frequency management and should develop proposals for streamlining and/or consolidating the various spectrum-related activities, to the maximum extent possible.

5.4

USE OF SHARED FREQUENCY BANDS

5.4.1 The conference recognized the requirement to ensure that adequate spectrum be available to sustain the long-term viability of the existing VOR, ILS and DME infrastructure, including the ability to provide MLS as a long-term replacement for ILS. The development of a coordinated plan for the shared use of these bands with new systems or services would be necessary to establish a methodology for the implementation of these new systems while giving due priority to the existing systems. After it would have been demonstrated to what extent reliance can be placed upon GNSS, it might be feasible to reduce some of the requirements for existing systems.

Report on Agenda Item 5

5-5

5.5

ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN AERONAUTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NAVIGATION SYSTEMS

5.5.1 The conference noted that due to the increased use of radio systems, both within and outside aviation, harmful electromagnetic interference to aeronautical communication and navigation systems had been a long-standing aviation concern. This concern had been heightened by the introduction of new aeronautical systems. 5.5.1.1 It was recognized that the introduction of new aeronautical systems must take place under conditions that ensured compatibility with existing systems, in particular those operating in the same or adjacent band, through the application of appropriate frequency assignment planning criteria. As part of the aircraft installation process, it was essential to ensure that no harmful interference was caused to any aircraft system. 5.5.1.2 It was further recognized that the increased use of non-aeronautical radio and other electronic equipment, including portable electronic devices that could be brought on board aircraft, had increased the level of potential interference to aeronautical systems. The standards for these systems, which were often claimed to radiate low-power RF energy, were normally agreed by international telecommunication and standards organizations. 5.5.1.3 The conference recognized the importance of addressing interference issues for aviation and the need for action by States, ICAO and international organizations together. This interference falls broadly into three categories: a) aeronautical sources; b) non-aeronautical sources; and c) malicious interference. 5.5.1.4 It was noted that, since compatibility issues between ILS/VOR and FM broadcasting had become an urgent problem in several ICAO regions, material should be developed to assist States in assessing potential interference from FM broadcasting stations. 5.5.1.5 The conference noted the problem of interference produced in the VHF COM band by aeronautical sources, including the transmission by aircraft outside the designated service area and the permanent transmission due to stuck microphones. An expert group should work (urgently) on these sources of interference and produce SARPs or guidance material, aiming at reducing their occurrence. In addition the problem of intentional interference in the VHF COM band, which constitutes a real threat, should also be addressed by a group of experts in order to develop guidelines aiming to mitigate the associated risk. 5.5.1.6 The conference was informed that EUROCAE had completed a draft report on interference from passenger carried portable electronic devices2 and that this report should be taken into consideration when studying the above issues. The conference was also informed that RTCA had initiated a similar study, using the EUROCAE study as a basis.
2

Report on electromagnetic compatibility between passenger-carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) and aircraft system (WG58 ED118)

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Report on Agenda Item 5

5.5.2 The conference agreed that ICAOs involvement in these areas was critical and needed to be intensified in order to ensure that relevant regulatory provisions would protect all aeronautical communication and navigation systems from harmful interference as electromagnetic interference to aeronautical communication and navigation systems would present a potential flight safety problem and actual interference in most cases would be required to be removed without delay. 5.5.3 The conference noted that some States had developed strategies, to control this type of interference at a national level. These included: a) Preventive action. Spectrum users were brought together to raise awareness of the potential risk to civil aviation resulting from interference and identifying known ways to minimize such interference. This could be supplemented by monitoring frequencies in operational use and identifying potential sources of interference; and b) Remedial action. Ground and airborne equipment could be deployed for the detection of interference sources which were detected by the monitoring station when it is beyond line-of-sight of the interfering station. 5.5.4 The conference recognized that it was necessary to develop guidance material to assist States in implementing means to control interference. 5.5.5 Accordingly, the conference developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 5/2 That ICAO; a) intensify its activities to secure protection of aeronautical communication, navigation and surveillance systems from the adverse effects of electromagnetic interference and develops guidance material, as necessary; develop material to assist States in assessing interference from FM broadcasting stations; support the relevant activities of the ITU and regional telecommunication and standards-making organizations; and develop guidance material on the control and removal of interference to aeronautical systems. ICAO activities on interference

b)

c)

d)

Appendix A to the Report on Agenda Item 5 APPENDIX A ASSEMBLY RESOLUTION A32/13

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A32-13: Support of the ICAO policy on radio frequency spectrum matters

Whereas ICAO is the specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for the safety, regularity and efficiency of international civil aviation; Whereas ICAO adopts international Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) for aeronautical communications systems and radio navigation aids; Whereas ITU is the specialized agency of the United Nations regulating the use of the radio frequency spectrum; Whereas the ICAO position, as approved by the Council, for ITU World Radiocommunication Conferences (WRCs) is the result of the coordination of international aviation requirements for radio frequency spectrum; Recognizing that the development and the implementation of the CNS/ATM systems and the safety of international civil aviation could be seriously jeopardized unless aviation requirements for allocations of radio frequency spectrum are satisfied and protection of those allocations is achieved; Recognizing that support from ITU member administrations is required to ensure that the ICAO position is supported by the WRC and that aviation requirements are met; Considering the urgent need to increase such support due to the growing demand for spectrum and aggressive competition from commercial telecommunications services; Considering the increased level of ITU WRC preparation activities associated with the biennial WRC regime; Considering Recommendations 7/3, 7/5 and 7/6 of the Special Communications/Operations Divisional Meeting (1995) (SP COM/OPS/95); The Assembly: 1. Urges Contracting States and international organizations to support firmly the ICAO position at WRCs and in regional and other international activities conducted in preparation for WRCs by the following means: a) undertaking to provide for aviation interests to be fully integrated in the development of their positions presented to regional telecommunications fora involved in the preparation of joint proposals to the WRC;

5A-2

Appendix A to the Report on Agenda Item 5 b) including in their proposals to the WRC, to the extent possible, material consistent with the ICAO position; c) supporting the ICAO position at WRC-2000 to retain the frequency band 1 559-1 610 MHz for exclusive use by the Aeronautical Radionavigation Service and the Radionavigation Satellite Service; d) undertaking to provide aviation authorities to fully participate in the development of States' positions; and e) ensuring, to the maximum extent possible, that their delegations to WRCs include representatives of their civil aviation administrations or other officials who are fully prepared to represent aviation interests;

2. Requests the Secretary General to bring to the attention of ITU the importance of adequate radio frequency spectrum allocation and protection for the safety of aviation; and 3. Instructs the Council and the Secretary General, as a matter of high priority within the budget adopted by the Assembly, to ensure that the resources necessary to support increased participation by ICAO to international and regional spectrum management activities are made available.

Appendix B to the Report on Agenda Item 5 APPENDIX B RESOLUTION 802 (WRC-03) AGENDA FOR THE 2007 WORLD RADIOCOMMUNICATION CONFERENCE The World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 2003), considering a)

5B-1

that, in accordance with No. 118 of the Convention, the general scope of the agenda for a world radiocommunication conference should be established four to six years in advance and a final agenda shall be established by the Council two years before the conference; Article 13 of the Constitution relating to the competence and scheduling of world radiocommunication conferences and Article 7 of the Convention relating to their agendas; the relevant Resolutions and Recommendations of previous world administrative radio conferences (WARCs) and world radiocommunication conferences (WRCs), recognizing

b)

c)

a)

that this Conference has identified a number of urgent issues requiring further examination by WRC-07; that, in preparing this agenda, many items proposed by administrations could not be included and have had to be deferred to future conference agendas, resolves

b)

to recommend to the Council that a world radiocommunication conference be held in 2007 for a period of four weeks, with the following agenda: 1. on the basis of proposals from administrations, taking account of the results of WRC-03 and the Report of the Conference Preparatory Meeting, and with due regard to the requirements of existing and future services in the bands under consideration, to consider and take appropriate action with respect to the following items: 1.1 requests from administrations to delete their country footnotes or to have their country name deleted from footnotes, if no longer required, in accordance with Resolution 26 (Rev.WRC-97); 1.2 to consider allocations and regulatory issues related to the Earth exploration-satellite (passive) service, space research (passive) service and the meteorological satellite service in accordance with Resolutions 746 (WRC-03) and 742 (WRC-03); 1.3 in accordance with Resolution 747 (WRC-03), consider upgrading the radiolocation service to primary allocation status in the bands 9 000 - 9 200 MHz and 9 300 - 9 500 MHz and extending by up to 200 MHz the existing primary allocations to the Earth exploration-satellite service (active) and the space research service (active) in the band 9 500 - 9 800 MHz without placing undue constraint on the services to which the bands are allocated;

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Appendix B to the Report on Agenda Item 5

1.4 to consider frequency-related matters for the future development of IMT-2000 and systems beyond IMT-2000 taking into account the results of ITU-R studies in accordance with Resolution 228 (Rev.WRC-03); 1.5 to consider spectrum requirements and possible additional spectrum allocations for aeronautical telecommand and high bit-rate aeronautical telemetry, in accordance with Resolution 230 (WRC-03); 1.6 to consider additional allocations for the aeronautical mobile (R) service in parts of the bands between 108 MHz and 6 GHz, in accordance with Resolution 414 (WRC-03) and, to study current satellite frequency allocations, that will support the modernization of civil aviation telecommunication systems, taking into account Resolution 415 (WRC-03); 1.7 to consider the results of ITU-R studies regarding sharing between the mobile-satellite service and the space research service (passive) in the band 1 668 - 1 668.4 MHz, and between the mobile-satellite service and the mobile service in the band 1 668.4 - 1 675 MHz in accordance with Resolution 744 (WRC-03); 1.8 to consider the results of ITU-R studies on technical sharing and regulatory provisions for the application of high altitude platform stations operating in the bands 27.5 - 28.35 GHz and 31 - 31.3 GHz in response to Resolution 145 (WRC-03), and for high altitude platform stations operating in the bands 47.2 - 47.5 GHz and 47.9 - 48.2 GHz in response to Resolution 122 (Rev.WRC-03); 1.9 to review the technical, operational and regulatory provisions applicable to the use of the band 2 500 - 2 690 MHz by space services in order to facilitate sharing with current and future terrestrial services without placing undue constraint on the services to which the band is allocated; 1.10 to review the regulatory procedures and associated technical criteria of Appendix 30B without any action on the allotments, the existing systems or the assignments in the List of Appendix 30B; 1.11 to review sharing criteria and regulatory provisions for protection of terrestrial services, in particular terrestrial television broadcasting services, in the band 620 - 790 MHz from BSS networks and systems, in accordance with Resolution 545 (WRC-03); 1.12 to consider possible changes in response to Resolution 86 (Rev. Marrakesh, 2002) of the Plenipotentiary Conference: Coordination and notification procedures for satellite networks in accordance with Resolution 86 (WRC-03); 1.13 taking into account Resolutions 729 (WRC-97), 351 (WRC-03) and 544 (WRC-03), to review the allocations to all services in the HF bands between 4 MHz and 10 MHz, excluding those allocations to services in the frequency range 7 000 - 7 200 kHz and those bands whose allotment plans are in Appendices 25, 26 and 27 and whose channelling arrangements are in Appendix 17, taking account of the impact of new modulation techniques, adaptive control techniques and the spectrum requirements for HF broadcasting; 1.14 to review the operational procedures and requirements of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) and other related provisions of the Radio Regulations, taking into account Resolutions 331 (Rev.WRC-03) and 342 (Rev.WRC-2000) and the continued transition to the GMDSS, the experience since its introduction, and the needs of all classes of ships; 1.15 to consider a secondary allocation to the amateur service in the frequency band 135.7 - 137.8 kHz;

Appendix B to the Report on Agenda Item 5

5B-3

1.16 to consider the regulatory and operational provisions for Maritime Mobile Service Identities (MMSIs) for equipment other than shipborne mobile equipment, taking into account Resolutions 344 (Rev.WRC-03) and 353 (WRC-03); 1.17 to consider the results of ITU-R studies on compatibility between the fixed-satellite service and other services around 1.4 GHz, in accordance with Resolution 745 (WRC-03); 1.18 to review pfd limits in the band 17.7 - 19.7 GHz for satellite systems using highly inclined orbits, in accordance with Resolution 141 (WRC-03); 1.19 to consider the results of the ITU-R studies regarding spectrum requirement for global broadband satellite systems in order to identify possible global harmonized FSS frequency bands for the use of Internet applications, and consider the appropriate regulatory/technical provisions, taking also into account No. 5.516B of the Radio Regulations; 1.20 to consider the results of studies, and proposals for regulatory measures regarding the protection of the Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) from unwanted emissions of active services in accordance with Resolution 738 (WRC-03); 1.21 to consider the results of studies regarding the compatibility between the radio astronomy service and the active space services in accordance with Resolution 740 (Rev.WRC-03), in order to review and update, if appropriate, the tables of threshold levels used for consultation that appear in the Annex to Resolution 739 (WRC-03); 2. to examine the revised ITU-R Recommendations incorporated by reference in the Radio Regulations communicated by the Radiocommunication Assembly, in accordance with Resolution 28 (Rev.WRC-03), and to decide whether or not to update the corresponding references in the Radio Regulations, in accordance with principles contained in the Annex to Resolution 27 (Rev.WRC-03); 3. to consider such consequential changes and amendments to the Radio Regulations as may be necessitated by the decisions of the conference; 4. in accordance with Resolution 95 (Rev.WRC-03), to review the Resolutions and Recommendations of previous conferences with a view to their possible revision, replacement or abrogation; 5. to review, and take appropriate action on, the Report from the Radiocommunication Assembly submitted in accordance with Nos. 135 and 136 of the Convention; 6. to identify those items requiring urgent action by the Radiocommunication Study Groups in preparation for the next world radiocommunication conference; 7. 7.1 in accordance with Article 7 of the Convention: to consider and approve the Report of the Director of the Radiocommunication Bureau: on the activities of the Radiocommunication Sector since WRC-03; on any difficulties or inconsistencies encountered in the application of the Radio Regulations; and

5B-4

Appendix B to the Report on Agenda Item 5 on action in response to Resolution 80 (Rev.WRC-2000);

7.2 to recommend to the Council items for inclusion in the agenda for the next WRC, and to give its views on the preliminary agenda for the subsequent conference and on possible agenda items for future conferences, taking into account Resolution 803 (WRC-03), further resolves to activate the Conference Preparatory Meeting and the Special Committee on Regulatory/Procedural Matters, invites the Council to finalize the agenda and arrange for the convening of WRC-07, and to initiate as soon as possible the necessary consultations with Member States, instructs the Director of the Radiocommunication Bureau to make the necessary arrangements to convene meetings of the Conference Preparatory Meeting and to prepare a report to WRC-07, instructs the Secretary-General to communicate this Resolution to international and regional organizations concerned.

Report on Agenda Item 6 Agenda Item 6: Aeronautical navigation issues

6-1

6.1

GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM (GNSS) DEVELOPMENT STATUS BASED ON REPORTS FROM STATES, SERVICE PROVIDERS AND INDUSTRY ORGANIZATIONS Introduction

6.1.1

6.1.1.1 When inviting States and international organizations to the Eleventh Air Navigation Conference (State letter ST 12/1-02/58 refers), ICAO drew particular attention of States, service providers and organizations involved in the development of GNSS and its elements to the need for providing, under Agenda Item 6, relevant supporting information on these activities. 6.1.1.2 In response to ICAOs request, a number of States and service providers presented to the conference information concerning modernization of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) and development of the new core satellite constellation GALILEO. The conference was also informed of the status of satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) in the United States, Europe, Japan and India. Also presented were the reports concerning ground-based augmentation system (GBAS) and ground-based regional augmentation system (GRAS). 6.1.1.3 The conference reviewed information in the following order: core satellite constellations, satellite-based augmentation systems and ground-based augmentation systems. 6.1.2 GPS 6.1.2.1 The conference was informed that the space segment of the Global Positioning System (GPS) consisted of twenty four satellites in operational status. The conference was also informed that the United States had developed a plan for the modernization of GPS. One of the principle objectives of modernization is to provide additional coded civil signals. A second civil signal, known as L2C will be broadcast at the 1227.6 MHz frequency, and a third civil signal, known as L5, will be at 1176.45 MHz. The new, more robust civil code to L2 will begin in 2004. The addition of a third civil signal (L5) designed for aviation and other safety-of-life uses will be available beginning in 2006. Based on the current 2004 budget schedule, an initial operational capability for dual frequency navigation will occur in 2010 (calendar year), based on a constellation of eighteen satellites broadcasting the new civil code on L2. Similarly, the L5 signal should be available on eighteen GPS satellites by late 2013. GLONASS 6.1.2.2 The conference was informed that the space segment of the GLONASS system at the time of the conference consisted of eleven satellites, eight of which operated without restrictions. The conference was also informed that, in August 2001, the Government of the Russian Federation had adopted a ten-year federal special programme for maintaining and further developing GLONASS. The programme includes the development of the new-generation satellites GLONASS-M, the fist of which will be launched together with two GLONASS satellites in the fourth quarter of 2003. Further evolution will include the development of an advanced satellite GLONASS-K with a lifetime of ten to twelve years, improved accuracy performance and an additional navigation signal in the band 1 164 - 1 215 MHz. The GLONASS-K satellite will be considerably lighter than existing versions, making it possible to reduce by several times the costs of deploying and maintaining the orbital segment of the system. Core satellite constellations

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Report on Agenda Item 6

6.1.2.3

Deployment of the orbital segment will be phased as follows: Phase 1: In 2006 the orbital segment will be increased to 18 satellites, some of which will be GLONASS-M satellites with an increased lifetime and improved performance. Phase 2: After 2006 the orbital segment will be deployed and maintained at the level of 24 satellites by launching GLONASS-K satellites.

6.1.2.4 It was also reported that gradual transfer of system operation to lower portions of the currently occupied bands would continue in accordance with the existing agreements to secure eletromagnetic compatibility with the Radioastronomy and Mobile Satellite Service. GALILEO 6.1.2.5 The conference was informed that European States, recognizing the strategic importance of satellite navigation, its potential applications and the current GNSS shortcomings, had decided to develop a European GNSS capability in a two-step approach through the implementation of an SBAS known as European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) to cover the short and medium term needs, and of a satellite navigation constellation (GALILEO) to support multimodal user needs for the longer term. The GALILEO program will deploy a full European satellite constellation, under civil control, that will strengthen the robustness of satellite navigation, alleviate a number of institutional concerns and should further facilitate a full transition to satellite navigation. The GALILEO stakeholders had already established and support further international and bilateral cooperation in the system development. The use of the services offered by GALILEO would rely on the availability of ICAO Standards. 6.1.2.6 Alongside an open service similar to the GPS Standard Positioning Service, GALILEO would offer new features to improve and guarantee services supporting the critical, safety-of-life or commercial applications. GALILEO services would be required to be fully compatible and interoperable at the user level with other GNSS services, with no common failure mode between systems. The combined use of GALILEO and other GNSS elements would offer better performances for all users worldwide. 6.1.2.7 The GALILEO satellite services would be provided worldwide and independently from other systems by combining the signals broadcast by the GALILEO satellites. There was a wide range of possible applications with different operational requirements that had been grouped around five reference services: GALILEO Open Service (OS), Safety-of-Life (SoL), Commercial Service (CS), Public Regulated Service (PRS) and Support to Search and Rescue (SAR). 6.1.2.8 The conference noted that the GALILEO preliminary system design phase was completed and that the European Space Agency (ESA) was preparing development contracts for deployment of the infrastructure, including the launching of the first test satellites. 6.1.2.9 The GALILEO infrastructure would be implemented in three phases: a) development and validation phase (2002-2005); b) deployment phase (2006-2007); and c) operational phase (from 2008).

Report on Agenda Item 6 6.1.3 Satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS)

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Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) 6.1.3.1 The conference noted with appreciation that, on 10 July 2003, WAAS was commissioned for use in all phases of air navigation in the United States national airspace system (NAS) including one class of instrument approach with both lateral and vertical guidance (lateral navigation (LNAV)/vertical navigation (VNAV)). WAAS performance had consistently demonstrated 1 m horizontal and 1.5 m vertical accuracy. WAAS initial operating capability (IOC) provided users with the capability to fly approaches with vertical guidance throughout the United States NAS. This initial WAAS capability also provided improved guidance to users in the en-route and departure domains. LNAV/VNAV is an approach procedure with vertical guidance with nominal minimums of a 105 m (350 ft) decision height and 1.25 mile visibility. Over 700 LNAV/VNAV procedures had been published for WAAS operations. The WAAS service area is the continental United States and portions of Alaska. In the CAR/SAM Regions, WAAS test bed trials are being conducted. 6.1.3.2 The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) had improved the approach capability of WAAS through terminal instrument procedure optimization. This improvement consisted of a new approach procedure with vertical guidance called LPV, which is compliant with Annex 10 performance requirements for APV I1. LPV provided lateral approach guidance performance equivalent to instrument landing system (ILS) localizer performance. This represented a significant improvement over LNAV/VNAV resulting in lower approach minima for most runways. LPV procedures have nominal minimums of 75 m (250 ft) decision height and 0.5 mile visibility with proper lighting. LPV would make the vertical guidance safety benefit accessible to the general aviation community, thus directly enhancing the flying safety for general aviation aircraft and other WAAS users. 6.1.3.3 WAAS final operating capability (FOC), with LPV capability, throughout an expanded service area, is expected by December 2007. WAAS Category I precision approach capability, would await the availability of the second GPS aviation frequency, L5 (1176.45 MHz). According to the current plan, enough GPS satellites with L5 capability would be on orbit by 2013 so as to be operationally usable by aviation. The FAA plans to upgrade WAAS to use L5 prior to this time. European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) 6.1.3.4 The conference was informed that the EGNOS project, as implemented by the European Tripartite Group (ETG), formed by ESA, European Commission and Eurocontrol, represented the first European contribution to the GNSS. EGNOS would provide and guarantee navigation signals for aeronautical, maritime and land mobile trans-European network applications. On behalf of the Tripartite Group, the European Space Agency was responsible for the system design, development and technical validation of an Advanced Operational Capability (AOC) of the EGNOS system. The technical validation is to be completed in 2004, to enable operational use of the EGNOS signal for safety-of-life applications in 2005. Possible evolution scenarios of EGNOS after 2004 were being assessed. 6.1.3.5 EGNOS would provide improved services with respect to GPS, in terms of accuracy (from 20 metres to 1 - 2 metres), service guarantee (via integrity signal) and availability (via additional ranging signals). It would operate on the GPS L1 frequency. Initial service areas would be the European Civil Aviation Conference area, and could be later extended to include other regions. EGNOS would meet, through

Annex 10, Volume I, Chapter 3, 3.7.2.4

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Report on Agenda Item 6

enhancing GPS and GLONASS, many of the current positioning, velocity and timing requirements of the land, maritime and aeronautical modes of transport in the European Region. 6.1.3.6 For civil aviation, EGNOS would comply with RTCA DO 229C and ICAO SBAS SARPs requirements and would provide in ECAC an aviation service from en route through APV-II (vertical alert limit = 20 m; horizontal alert limit = 40 m). 6.1.3.7 An evaluation of the EGNOS service outside the core ECAC area in the AFI Region was successfully being conducted, initially through the deployment of an EGNOS system test bed (ESTB) ranging and integrity monitoring stations (RIMS) in the Western and Central Africa areas by the ASECNA (Agency for Air Navigation Safety in Africa and Madagascar) in cooperation with the States involved. The follow up phase of the AFI Region work plan included the deployment of a RIMS network throughout other areas in the AFI Region and the preparation for EGNOS operational implementation. 6.1.3.8 In the CAR/SAM Regions, EGNOS trials were conducted under an ICAO technical cooperation project. To carry out the trials based on the ESTB-signal, three reference stations were deployed in the region and connected to the ESTB. The EGNOS-type trials provided useful information in support of the GREPECAS activities in the definition of the GNSS strategy for the region. Areas of cooperation with the WAAS trials had been identified. Multifunctional transport satellite-based augmentation system (MSAS) 6.1.3.9 The conference noted that, in accordance with the Future Air Navigation System (FANS) concept endorsed at the Tenth Air Navigation Conference in 1991, the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau (JCAB) had been developing multifunctional transport satellite (MTSAT) and MTSAT Satellite-based Augmentation System (MSAS). MTSAT was designed as a geostationary satellite with both a meteorological and an aeronautical mission. 6.1.3.10 The aeronautical mission consists of two functions: aeronautical mobile satellite service (AMSS) and GNSS satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) to provide aircraft with GPS augmentation information uplinked to the geostationary satellite from ground facilities. The MSAS function of the MTSAT would be fully compliant with the ICAO SARPs. Technical details not specified in SARPs were coordinated through the activities of SBAS Interoperability Working Group (IWG). Thus, the MSAS was fully interoperable with other SBAS services. 6.1.3.11 After the launch failure of MTSAT-1 (the first MTSAT) JCAB procured an alternate satellite, MTSAT-1R which would be launched in early 2004. The second MTSAT, MTSAT-2 would be launched in 2005. After completion of the certification, MSAS would be commissioned and be operational using only MTSAT-1R from 2005. Dual operation by MTSAT-1R and MTSAT-2 would be commissioned in 2006. 6.1.3.12 Two aeronautical satellite centres would be engaged in controlling MTSATs. MSAS master control stations (MCSs) had been installed at the two aeronautical satellite centres. To provide MSAS service over the Japanese FIR, ground monitor stations (GMSs) had been installed at four air route traffic control centres. To secure a long base line for accurate orbit determination of MTSATs, two monitor and ranging stations (MRSs) were installed in Hawaii, United States and Canberra, Australia. There was also a MRS at each aeronautical satellite centre. 6.1.3.13 In normal operation, users would be able to receive two SBAS signals with different PRN codes. Each signal would be uplinked from a different MCS and through a different satellite. In the event of failure of one of the satellites, the MCS currently uplinking through the failed satellite would switch to the

Report on Agenda Item 6

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other satellite. Thus, even in these abnormal conditions the user avionics would still be able to receive the two SBAS signals. The conference noted that this architecture provided the assurance of highly redundant and reliable SBAS service. 6.1.3.14 Since the MSAS signal would be broadcast by MTSAT over most of the Asia/Pacific Region, the MSAS service area could be easily expanded if GMSs were installed in the MTSAT coverage area and dedicated ground lines were connected to MCSs. In this connection, the conference noted with appreciation that JCAB offered free MSAS service to the Asia/Pacific States in order to achieve a global, seamless, safer and more reliable air navigation system in this region. GPS and GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) 6.1.3.15 The conference was informed by India that the Airports Authority of India (AAI) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) had jointly undertaken a programme for the development and implementation of the GPS and GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) system, to cater to the satellite navigation augmentation requirements for aircraft operators and air traffic services (ATS) providers in the Indian airspace, including the Indian oceanic airspace, as well as large parts of the Asia/Pacific Region. 6.1.3.16 The GAGAN programme would be implemented in three phases: a) 1st phase: Technology demonstration systems (TDS): A minimum configuration system which would demonstrate the capability of the system to support up to precision approach (Category I) over a limited region of Indian airspace and would serve as a proof of concept. The TDS phase will be completed by 2005. b) 2nd phase: Initial experimental phase (IEP): In this phase TDS would be expanded to cover the entire Indian airspace and requisite redundancies would be added to the system. The IEP would be completed in a period of one year after the development of TDS. c) 3rd phase: Final operational phase (FOP): During this phase the GAGAN programme is expected to be matured. The system would be put to extensive trial operation and would be evaluated with respect to ICAO SARPs before declaring the system operational. This phase is expected to be completed in one year after IEP. 6.1.3.17 In late 2003, after completing a detailed payload design review, ISRO was in the process of procurement of critical components for fabrication of the navigational payload which will be put in GSAT-4 satellite to be launched in 2005 and put in 82 degree East orbital slot. 6.1.3.18 Due to the fact that India is situated close to the equator, ionospheric activities would have a significant effect on received GPS signals over Indian airspace. To adequately assess the effect of ionosphere on GPS signals and to minimize its effect, development of an ionospheric model had been initiated based on ionospheric data collected from a large number of locations over an extended period of time. Keeping this in view, it was planned to establish twenty Stations for collection of ionospheric data spread over the whole country. 6.1.3.19 The conference noted that GAGAN had been designed to meet the ICAO SARPs and to be interoperable with WAAS, EGNOS and MSAS.

6-6 6.1.4

Report on Agenda Item 6 Ground-based augmentation system (GBAS)

Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) 6.1.4.1 The conference recalled that the local area augmentation system (LAAS) was the ground-based augmentation system (GBAS) developed in the United States to provide for all categories of precision approach (PA) capability, precise position, velocity, and time (PVT) data in the terminal area (GBAS positioning service) and surface operations to suitably equipped aircraft. 6.1.4.2 The initial implementation of LAAS would support both Category I instrument approaches and the GBAS positioning service at selected airports. The FAA awarded a contract in April 2003 for the design, development and production of the LAAS ground facility. 6.1.4.3 After validating the system design, the FAA planned to install a limited number of ground systems throughout the United States National Airspace. LAAS IOC is expected by September 2006. The FAA coordinated with the aircraft operators to identify the procedures that would fully exploit the LAAS capabilities to improve airspace utilization and provide the lowest possible approach visibility minima. 6.1.4.4 The end state for LAAS is the provision of Category II/III approach and landing service, and most of the longer-term development efforts are aimed at achieving this goal. Near-term efforts are focused on achieving Category III without the use of a second frequency in the airborne receiver. This would be followed by the incorporation of the benefits from GPS modernization, in particular the additional frequency L5. 6.1.4.5 In addition, exploration of how LAAS could facilitate more efficient terminal area operations is expected to result in future LAAS applications such as guided departures, complex approach paths, guided missed approaches and surface movement guidance and control. Ground-based Regional Augmentation System (GRAS) 6.1.4.6 The conference recalled that the ground-based regional augmentation system (GRAS) had been presented to the ICAO GNSS Panel (GNSSP) in 1999 as an alternative to SBAS and GBAS and that the GNSSP had been requested to develop SARPs for GRAS. The conference was informed that validation of draft SARPs for GRAS was being progressed with the aim of presenting the completed validation to the Navigation Systems Panel (Working Group of the Whole) in May 2004. 6.1.4.7 The conference was also informed that Australia had built a GRAS test bed to facilitate the validation of the GRAS SARPs. GRAS differential and integrity data was being gathered using SBAS methodology but was uplinked to aircraft in the GBAS message format via a network of stations using VHF broadcast. The test bed showed that GPS augmented by GRAS could provide en route, terminal area and approach with vertical guidance navigation.

6.2

NAVIGATION POLICY ISSUES IN THE LIGHT OF PRESENT AND ENVISAGED GNSS SERVICES AND ARCHITECTURES, INTEGRATION AND BACK-UP OPTIONS

Report on Agenda Item 6 6.2.1 Introduction

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6.2.1.1 The current ICAO strategy for the introduction of communications, navigation, and surveillance/air traffic management (CNS/ATM) systems envisages a gradual transition from the current terrestrial navigation infrastructure to the increased use of a satellite navigation infrastructure. The initial step of this transition has been supported by the development of ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) for the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and publication of procedures and criteria for operations using Basic GNSS receiver.2 6.2.1.2 GPS was already being extensively used worldwide for aircraft navigation. This use included both Oceanic and domestic primary means en route, GPS non-precision approaches, GPS-based separation standards and area navigation (RNAV) and required navigation performance (RNP) operations. In Europe, it was being used as a means of compliance with basic RNAV (B-RNAV) requirements. SBAS was coming on-line with the commissioning of the United States Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and the introduction into operation of other SBASs in Europe, Japan and India in the 2004 - 2006 time frame. GBAS developments were progressing, initially to support Category I precision approach. 6.2.2 The role of GNSS in provision of aeronautical navigation services and transition strategy considerations

6.2.2.1 The conference received information on developments in States indicating an increasing role satellite navigation was playing in provision of air navigation services. One State presented its plans for phasing out some existing terrestrial facilities, beginning with the decommissioning of non-directional radio beacons (NDBs) as the equipage of commercial fleets and general aviation progresses. Several other States also indicated their planning for gradual decommissioning of terrestrial navaids as the reliance on satellite navigation increases. 6.2.2.2 The conference was also informed of a common aviation position in the European region which was being developed with the participation of airspace users and air navigation service providers. The ultimate goal envisaged was a sole navigation service to be achieved with GNSS provided that this service would be proven to be safe, secure and the most cost beneficial solution. 6.2.2.3 This information was supplemented by the airline position on aeronautical navigation needs which supported GNSS as the primary radio navigation system for positioning and timing in the near future. The airspace users urged States, in close collaboration with airspace users, to move rapidly from the current ground-based system to a cost-effective, harmonized and interoperable space-based radio navigation system capable of being used in all airspaces during all phases of flight. Airlines position also encouraged implementation of GNSS procedures, in a coordinated manner, with a view to achieving as soon as possible worldwide navigation capability from en-route down to at least Category I minima. 6.2.2.4 Based on the general consensus to expedite transition to satellite navigation the conference discussed a proposal for the development of a strategy that sets the basis for transition to a future worldwide navigation service centred around the use of GNSS. It was recognized however that the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750) and the Regional Air Navigation Plans represent strategic documents that meet the intent of such a proposal. The conference agreed to reconfirm the transition objectives and to establish a set of conditions to be met in the course of transition (see section 6.3 below).

The term Basic GNSS receiver designates GNSS avionics that at least meet requirements for a GPS receiver in Annex 10, Volume I, and specifications of RTCA DO-208 or EUROCAE ED-72A, as amended by FAA TSO-C129A or JAA TGL 3 (or equivalent).

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Report on Agenda Item 6

6.2.2.5 The conference addressed near-term objectives in the transition process. It was noted from information presented on the status of GNSS development that one satellite-based augmentation system, namely the United States WAAS became operational in mid-2003, and three other SBASs were planned to become operational in the 2004 - 2006 time frame. APV operations based on WAAS were being introduced, and States were making plans for introduction of these operations upon the commissioning of other SBASs. 6.2.2.6 The conference reviewed information presented on the planned implementation of approaches with vertical guidance (APV) in some States. The programme in one State envisaged the deployment of such approaches in phases. The work being carried out with a view to complementing conventional approach and landing aids, in particular the instrument landing system (ILS), would involve: a) approval of non-precision approaches based on the use of aircraft-based augmentation system (ABAS); b) evaluation of the use of APV procedures with barometric vertical guidance; and c) lastly, the operational benefits provided through the use of APV approach and landing procedures with SBAS vertical guidance for all airspace users. 6.2.2.7 In addition, several States and international organizations reported on significant activities in the Caribbean, South American and African Regions to evaluate SBAS performance using WAAS and EGNOS test bed. Support to these trials rendered by service providers and preliminary results were appreciated, and the conference agreed that these activities should be promoted. 6.2.2.8 Based on the above, a proposal was made that the airspace users should be encouraged to equip with SBAS receivers3 to take advantage of their superior performance over Basic GNSS receivers and the improved service availability. Another proposal was also presented advocating the adoption of SBAS-based APV operations as a global requirement. The intent of the proposals was supported and the conference agreed to encourage States and service providers, airspace users and the manufacturing industry to work together towards the above goals. The conference therefore developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 6/1 That: a) ICAO continue to develop as necessary provisions that would support seamless GNSS guidance for all phases of flight and facilitate transition to satellite-based sole navigation service with due consideration of safety-of-flight, technical, operational and economics factors; air navigation service providers move rapidly, in coordination with airspace users, with a view to achieving, as soon as possible, worldwide navigation capability to at least APV I performance; and States and airspace users take note of the available and upcoming SBAS Transition to satellite-based air navigation

b)

c)

The term SBAS receiverdesignates GNSS avionics that at least meet requirements for a SBAS receiver in Annex 10, Volume I, and specifications of RTCA DO-229C, as amended by FAA TSO-C145A/146A (or equivalent).

Report on Agenda Item 6

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navigation services providing for APV operations and take necessary steps towards installation and certification of SBAS capable avionics. 6.2.3 GNSS vulnerabilities and sole navigation service

6.2.3.1 The conference was presented with a navigation strategy for the area of the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) Member States which identified a transition to an area navigation (RNAV) environment supported by global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Consideration of the costs of the transition to such an environment together with the need to ensure failure survival indicated that there would, for the foreseeable future, remain a need for ground-based navigation aids and the consequent requirement to ensure continued spectrum protection for these aids. 6.2.3.2 Having agreed that spectrum availability aspects of the strategy should be addressed, as necessary, under its Agenda Item 5, the conference discussed the GNSS potential to become the sole navigation service. The discussion focussed on some uncertainties that remain in respect to the GNSS potential to become the sole navigation service due to its potential failure modes, their corresponding impact on the ATM operations of the ECAC Member States, and mitigation possibilities. 6.2.3.3 The conference was made aware that the Global Positioning System (GPS) without any augmentation had already been accepted as a means of providing a basic RNAV capability en route throughout the ECAC area. This has been possible because of the ability to revert to conventional navigation using ground-based navigation aids such as VOR/NDB. The availability of GALILEO as a second satellite system complementing GPS, both having additional navigation signals, was expected to allow further reliance upon GNSS, thereby enabling VOR/NDB decommissioning and relying upon RNAV based on GNSS and DME. 6.2.3.4 However, whilst the GPS plus GALILEO might provide the basis upon which a total RNAV environment might be predicated, it had still to be proven that such a solution would be cost effective in the light of the potential need for carrying dual RNAV systems to meet continuity and availability requirements. Since many aircraft were equipped with only single RNAV or flight management system (FMS) equipment, the timescale by which a cost-effective transition to a total RNAV environment could therefore be considerably extended. 6.2.3.5 Studies in the ECAC area had suggested that, as a reversionary option for the interim 2010 - 2015 time-scale, it might be more cost-effective to ensure the required level of continuity-of-service by retaining the current VOR environment to support reversionary navigation using dual VOR avionics installations on the aircraft than it would be with dual RNAV/FMS equipment and dual sensor input. If these initial results were confirmed, the expected decommissioning of VOR in that period might not be possible. 6.2.3.6 Having reviewed this information, the conference recognized that future developments were expected to considerably reduce the risks associated with a sole GNSS service. Whilst GNSS is expected to be used for all phases of flight, some failure modes would remain that could prevent a total reliance upon GNSS. It was noted that in the context of operations within the ECAC area, there was work on-going to identify means and associated mitigation strategy by which a gradual move towards sole service might become possible. However, the ability to reach that ultimate objective and the time-scale are still uncertain and must be addressed urgently. 6.2.3.7 The conference then reviewed the results of GNSS vulnerability study carried out by the Global Navigation Satellite System Panel (GNSSP) at the request by the Air Navigation Commission. It was

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Report on Agenda Item 6

observed that studies had been carried out over the recent years by several highly qualified institutions addressing GPS vulnerabilities while the report presented to the conference attempted to consider same issues in the context of GNSS, GPS being one of the core elements of GNSS. Various vulnerabilities of GNSS, evaluation of operational risks, means of prevention of system outages and guidance on mitigation of such outages were presented and appreciated. 6.2.3.8 The conclusion of the study that, to date, no vulnerabilities had been identified that compromise the ultimate goal of transition to GNSS as a global system for all phases of flight was noted by the conference, with the understanding that the assessment of GNSS vulnerability aspects and mitigation alternatives should continue. It was agreed that States were responsible for developing appropriate mitigation techniques for GNSS outages and that the study results presented to the conference could serve as useful guidance for States in assessing the GNSS vulnerability and selecting appropriate mitigations. The conference therefore developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 6/2 Guidelines on mitigation of GNSS vulnerabilities

That States in their planning and introduction of GNSS services: a) assess the likelihood and effects of GNSS vulnerabilities in their airspace and utilize, as necessary, the mitigation methods as outlined in the guidelines contained in Appendix A to the report on Agenda Item 6; provide effective spectrum management and protection of GNSS frequencies to reduce the possibility of unintentional interference; take full advantage of on-board mitigation techniques, particularly inertial navigation; where determined that terrestrial navigation aids need to be retained as part of an evolutionary transition to GNSS, give priority to retention of DME in support of INS/DME or DME/DME RNAV for en-route and terminal operations, and of ILS or MLS in support of precision approach operations at selected runways; and take full advantage of the future contribution of new GNSS signals and constellations in the reduction of GNSS failures and vulnerabilities.

b)

c)

d)

e)

6.2.3.9 It was suggested that the recommended guidelines should be considered for inclusion in the GNSS Manual which, in its draft form, was made available to the conference for information. The suggestion was noted by the Secretariat. 6.2.3.10 During the review of GNSS vulnerabilities, a number of concerns was raised in regard to the ionospheric effects in equatorial regions. Several States reported that they had established data collection programmes and proposed that ICAO assess the results of such studies and provide appropriated guidance to States. The conference encouraged continuation of these efforts and exchange of data between States and regions, noting that such data exchange was already taking place in some international expert groups, e.g. the

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SBAS Interoperability Working Group (IWG). The conference therefore developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 6/3 Assessment of atmospheric effects on SBAS performance in equatorial regions

That ICAO, in order to aid the work on mitigation of ionospheric effects on SBAS performance in equatorial regions, assess the results of data collection being carried out in States and develop appropriated guidance material. 6.2.3.11 The conference also reviewed a proposal to consider the need for standardization of an automated means to report GNSS outages and determine the effects of an outage on GNSS operations. In this regard, the conference noted information on the example software posted on the ICAO Web site (http://icaosec.icao.int, group name_NSP, directory_links) to demonstrate a prediction tool which can support flight planning and NOTAM generation. Having appreciated this initiative, the conference was of the opinion that a uniform application of such tools was essential and developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 6/4 Automated means for reporting and assessing the effects of outages on GNSS operations

That ICAO consider standardization of an automated means of monitoring and reporting scheduled and unscheduled GNSS outages and assessing their effects on GNSS operations and develop, as necessary, the requisite provisions. 6.2.4 RNP and RNAV issues

6.2.4.1 The conference was informed of a number of open issues surrounding different definitions and concepts related to required navigation performance (RNP) and area navigation (RNAV). Further concerns were raised that, despite efforts to develop and implement a cost-effective global definition of RNP, it was unlikely that the harmonization of the concept and requirements in this area could be achieved in the near future. The rationale for these concerns included dependance of most RNAV systems upon ground infrastructure which was location dependent, the potential for a variety of required RNAV functionalities associated with the same RNP types in various ATC environments, and avionics versatility driven by cost effectiveness considerations or resulting from evolutionary development of RNAV/FMS systems. The conference recognized the complexity of the issues involved and shared these concerns. 6.2.4.2 In this regard, one State informed the conference that it was currently implementing performance-based RNAV procedures and airspace restructuring to take advantage of aircraft navigation capabilities to fly more accurate and predictable flight paths through its airspace. Performance-based RNAV would result in increased levels of navigation accuracy and flight path predictability, leading to improved efficiency and capacity. This State was also implementing required navigation performance (RNP) approach procedures and developing a strategy for the introduction of RNP for other phases of flight. In the context of the above, it also expressed concern about a state of affairs with RNP and RNAV concepts. 6.2.4.3 The conference was informed that on 10 June 2003, during consideration of the report of the fourth conference of the Global Navigation Satellite System Panel (GNSSP/4), the Air Navigation Commission had agreed that, as proposed in GNSSP/4 Recommendation 1/1, action should be taken to establish a focal point for the resolution of the issues identified. It had been noted during consideration of this

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matter that there was an urgent need to address these issues in order to ensure a harmonized approach to the further development of RNP and RNAV. Accordingly, a new air navigation study group named as the Required Navigation Performance Study Group (RNPSG)4 had been established. Several States and international organizations attending the conference expressed their commitment to support the work of RNPSG. 6.2.4.4 In supporting the above action, the conference also noted that air navigation service providers were making investments in their navigation infrastructure as they implement new RNAV and RNP procedures. As these procedures were developed and used, States were modifying separation standards to account for enhanced aircraft navigation capability, and redesigning airspace for best use of these new procedures. The schedule for implementation of new requirements should be coordinated to align with infrastructure investments and to allow operators sufficient time to equip with the needed capabilities. In this connection, the conference stressed an urgent need for global harmonization of performance-based navigation concepts and requirements and the leading role of ICAO in this harmonization activities. It was suggested that by the end of 2004, a framework should be developed for the resolution of issues identified by GNSSP/4, particularly RNP definitions and terminology, and other issues relating to the implementation of performance-based navigation operations. By the end of 2005, the operations approval criteria, the obstacle clearance criteria, and the separation criteria for performance-based navigation operations should be defined or updated, as appropriate. Accordingly, the conference developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 6/5 Early resolution of issues arising from implementation of RNAV and RNP

That ICAO as a matter of urgency address and progress the issues associated with the introduction of RNP and RNAV. 6.2.5 Advanced GNSS capabilities and new technology alternatives

6.2.5.1 The conference was presented with information on the status of initial GNSS implementation in one State. It was stressed that the key motivation for the introduction of satellite navigation services was the ability of new services to solve airspace issues and increase the availability of instrumental flight procedures. A number of distinctive features of GNSS was elaborated as enablers of improvements in terms of accessibility, flexibility in terminal area operations and RNAV coverage, particularly in mountainous (obstacle rich) environments or under other constraints (e.g. noise abatement requirements). Accordingly, the conference was presented with a proposal that ICAO needs to focus on updating and development of Standards and procedures providing for realization of GNSS operational and safety benefits including those associated with advanced system capabilities. 6.2.5.2 The conference was cautioned that the current state of development of ICAO technical Standards was still insufficiently advanced to support those capabilities in the near term. Specifically, the conference was informed that the development of the relevant GNSS performance requirements for such capabilities currently under way within the Navigation Systems Panel (NSP) was expected to be completed in 2007. Hence, development of the corresponding GNSS SARPs could only be completed after 2007 with procedures and criteria to follow. Concerns were also expressed that some of the additional developments that were proposed might entail substantial indirect costs to the user community. However, the conference noted

Following the Eleventh Air Navigation Conference, this study group was renamed as the Required Navigation Performance and Special Operational Requirements Study Group (RNPSORSG).

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that not all the proposed developments were necessarily of a challenging technical nature and that some States were already engaged in studies of proposed capabilities. The conference therefore developed the following recommendations: Recommendation 6/6 Advanced GNSS RNAV procedure design

That ICAO develop RNAV procedures supported by GNSS for both fixed and rotary wing aircraft, enabling lower operating minima in obstacle rich or otherwise constrained environments. Recommendation 6/7 Curved GNSS RNAV procedures

That ICAO develop RNAV procedures supported by GNSS for fixed wing aircraft, providing high track and velocity keeping accuracy to maintain separation through curves and enable flexible approach line-ups. 6.2.5.3 In follow-up to the above discussion, the conferences attention was drawn to the significant inertial capability that existed in the worlds aircraft and to benefits that can be derived from integrated GNSS/INS applications. It was recalled that such applications were recognized as a valuable mitigation in conference deliberations of GNSS vulnerabilities. It was also noted that many aircraft used inertial data to complement performance of ILS in precision approach and landing operations, and, similarly, the integration of GNSS with INS can enhance navigation performance in terms of accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity. 6.2.5.4 The conference noted, however, that realization of full benefits of GNSS/INS integration was constrained by the lack of standardization of system capabilities and its characteristics, particularly coasting times that constitute an essential factor of risk assessment and mitigation strategies. The conference, therefore, developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 6/8 GNSS/INS integration

That ICAO develop provisions for the integration of GNSS/INS in order to reduce the vulnerability of GNSS to RF interference and aid the development of advanced GBAS capabilities. 6.2.5.5 The conference reviewed the feasibility assessment of GNSS-based Category II/III approach and landing and aerodrome surface operations. It was recalled that the current Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) for GBAS provide augmentation to the core satellite constellations of GLONASS and GPS and support Category I precision approach. GALILEO would be added to the core satellite constellations and its local component would be standardized as an amendment to the GBAS SARPs at a later date. It was also noted that a goal of GBAS development in support of Category II/III operations was to enable the evolution of the basic Category I architecture to Category III minimizing changes to the basic system and ensuring backwards compatibility with existing Category I avionics. 6.2.5.6 The assessment results had indicated that Category II/III capability would be achieved in the 2010-2015 time frame depending on the GBAS architecture and performance requirements. The final outcome of the ongoing development of the performance requirements and standards would also influence the complexity of the future GBAS architecture supporting Category II/III approach and landing operations

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and when it would be generally available. Expressing concerns over possible complexity of the future GBAS architecture, the conference however supported a conclusion that the benefits of having a single system which can provide guidance in all phases of flight justified continued work on the resolution of technical and operational issues involved. 6.2.5.7 The conference was also made aware of current studies in States in support of advanced surface movement guidance and control systems (A-SMGCS) and the work in the Navigation Systems Panel which was focussing on the application of GNSS as a position sensor for A-SMGCS. 6.2.5.8 The conference considered a proposal to develop requirements and provisions for a GNSS augmentation system to be used in support of A-SMGCS applications and based on the same technologies that are used for ADS-B. In the discussion, concerns were expressed over the use of the same systems for ADS-B and A-SMGCS because of perceived single point-of-failure considerations. It was also questioned whether there was a need for and feasibility of integrating ADS-B and GNSS augmentation systems that had already been defined in ICAO SARPs. In this connection, it was argued that the proposed approach, by using a common augmentation would ease the integration of air and surface movement in the new ATM environment. Although the proposal received some support, the conference was not in a position to recommend it for further study by ICAO. 6.2.5.9 A proposal for ICAO to define requirements and develop appropriate provisions in support of a ground-based autonomous back-up to GNSS was reviewed. The proposal made use of the ICAO standard VDL Mode 4 system to provide, by range measurements from VDL Mode 4 transmissions, an independent back-up for GNSS service. Interest in the proposed approach was expressed by some delegations, while others questioned its maturity and feasibility. Issues with on-board integration, both from a human factors and an avionics point of view were also raised. In conclusion, there was consensus that the proposal should be noted and referred to an appropriate ICAO body. This was noted by the Secretariat who would bring it to the attention of the Navigation Systems Panel (NSP). 6.2.5.10 The conference was informed of the results of trials conducted in the European Region to validate a new GNSS terrestrial regional augmentation concept, the EGNOS Terrestrial Regional Augmentation Network (ETRAN). With this concept, a subset of the EGNOS data is broadcast through terrestrial networks. The results presented to the conference where based on the use of VDL Mode 4 as the supporting network. The use of terrestrial links compensates for limitations in EGNOS satellite signal availability, for instance at northern latitudes. The conference noted that, while the concept was similar to that underlying the GRAS for which SARPs are currently under development by the NSP, certain differences existed. The differences included the use of different physical layers. It was observed that the results provided to the conference included useful supporting information for the validation of certain aspects of the GRAS currently under standardization by ICAO. The conference noted the results achieved within the ETRAN programme and encouraged presentation of these results to an appropriated ICAO body. The Secretariat indicated the information would be brought to the attention of the NSP. 6.2.6 Pre-operational experiences

6.2.6.1 The conference received information from a number of States and regional organizations regarding trials being carried out in the Caribbean, South American and African Regions at the regional and national levels to collect data for the definition of the GNSS architectures in these regions. A three-stage GNSS implementation strategy in the AFI Region and the initial results of the EGNOS test bed trials conducted in the region were reported to the conference. The conference was also presented with the information on trials involving WAAS and EGNOS test beds in the CAR/SAM States.

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6.2.6.2 The lessons learnt and proposals stemming from the experiences gained were reviewed by the conference. These concerned a broad range of issues, including human resources, regional training capabilities, the need for integration of technical cooperation projects and financing aspects. The conference was made aware of ICAO activities and groups addressing these issues. The conference also noted with appreciation the support States involved in the development of WAAS and EGNOS were providing within the framework of the SBAS test bed trials. To encourage the continuation of these activities, the conference developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 6/9 Support of and participation in SBAS pre-operational implementation activities

That: a) States that develop and introduce satellite-based augmentation systems and other SBAS service providers commence or continue to provide their technical and financial support and participation in the activities leading to the extension of their SBAS service areas into neighbouring States and Regions; and States participating in SBAS implementation activities coordinate with other participating States to optimize their effort, minimize duplication of service and facilitate participation of service providers.

b)

6.2.7

Other related issues

6.2.7.1 Concerning the issue of legal and institutional aspects of GNSS referred to in AN-Conf/11-WPs/143, 153 and 160, the conference agreed that neither the scope nor the agenda presented a suitable opportunity for discussions on those topics. Therefore, the conference, assisted by the President of the Council, Dr. A. Kotaite and the Director of the Legal Bureau, agreed to note the information and views contained in the above referenced papers and agreed that they should be referred to the ICAO Council for urgent consideration and action as deemed appropriate by that ICAO body. 6.2.7.2 Concerning the issue of economics aspects of GNSS referred to in AN-Conf/11-WP/107, the conference agreed that neither the scope nor the agenda presented a suitable opportunity for discussions on this topic. After receiving an update report of Air Navigation Services Economics Panel (ANSEP) work by the secretary of the panel, the conference noted some principles and assumptions endorsed by ANSEP to be applied for cost allocation between civil aviation and other users, in particular that basic GNSS services should be provided free of direct users charges and that any cost allocation of GNSS services should take place at the regional level. The conference concluded that the information and the views contained in the above reference paper should be brought to the attention of ANSEP.

6.3

AMENDMENTS ON AERONAUTICAL NAVIGATION SUBJECTS IN RELEVANT ICAO DOCUMENTS INCLUDING THE GLOBAL AIR NAVIGATION PLAN FOR CNS/ATM SYSTEMS (DOC 9750), ANNEX 10 AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS AS NECESSARY

6-16 6.3.1

Report on Agenda Item 6 Proposed updates to the ICAO Strategy for the introduction and application of non-visual aids to approach and landing in Annex 10, Volume I

6.3.1.1 The conference was presented with updates, developed by the Global Navigation Satellite System Panel (GNSSP) at the request of the Air Navigation Commission (ANC), to the ICAO Strategy for the introduction and application on non-visual aids to approach and landing in Annex 10, Volume I, Attachment B. The conference was advised that proposed amendments to the strategy took account of developments in aeronautical navigation since the strategy was approved by the COM/OPS Divisional Conference in 1995. In particular, the progress was contemplated in the development of GNSS and introduction of GNSS-based operations. 6.3.1.2 In addressing proposed amendments the conference agreed that the general objectives of the strategy were still valid and not affected by any developments since 1995. Accordingly, the conference extended the applicability for the updated strategy until 2020. 6.3.1.3 The conference was reminded that the current strategy had introduced a notion of generic criteria for approach, landing and departure operations which was intended to facilitate the application of emerging technologies for precision approach and landing operations. The development of the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) for GNSS-based precision approach operations had shown that the required navigation performance (RNP) concept did not replace the need for detailed system-specific SARPs. Such SARPs for GNSS to support Category I precision approach were developed after the concept had been introduced, and additional standards were under development for Category II/III. Having noted that with the adoption of GNSS SARPs three standard aids were established, providing for the whole variety of precision approach and landing operations, the conference agreed that no new precision approach and landing systems need to be standardized. References to the generic RNP criteria for precision approach and landing were no longer deemed necessary and therefore deleted in the proposed amendment to the strategy. 6.3.1.4 The conference reviewed the strategy based on the latest information available and its previous deliberations. The most significant changes concerned the following areas: a) there had been some significant advances in the implementation of Category III MLS; b) approach with vertical guidance (APV) with satellite-based augmentation reached operational capability; c) GNSS with ground-based augmentation capable of supporting Category I operations did not progress as projected and was expected to become operational by 2006. Development of performance requirements and SARPs for GNSS ground-based augmentation system (GBAS) to support Category II and III operations was in progress. However, it was not possible at the time to give an accurate forecast when an operational capability would be available. Thus, availability time frames were changed from 2005 - 2015 to 2010 - 2015; d) there had been some significant developments related to the multi-mode receiver (MMR). Multi-mode receiver industry Standards had been developed and MMRs had been fielded with ILS and basic GNSS functions. Other MMR functions such as MLS and GBAS were under development and expected to be available in the near future;

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e) as MMR was only one specific implementation of airborne landing capability, a more generic notion of multi-modal capability was introduced; f) as transition to GNSS as a global system for all phases of flight was recognized to be a long-term objective. Thus, the frequency bands allocated to ILS, MLS and GNSS needed to be protected indefinitely. A statement to this effect was included in the strategy; and g) Standards and criteria for approach and landing with vertical guidance (APV) were available or under development. APV procedures based on various technologies offered operational benefits and enhanced safety compared with non-precision approaches, particularly in regard to prevention of CFIT incidents/accidents. Thus, the strategy was expanded to include general information to this effect. 6.3.1.5 In reviewing proposed amendments to the strategy, the conference was presented with and noted the IATA position on non-visual aids for Category II/III approach and landing. Taking IATAs views into account, the conference agreed to update the strategy as shown in Appendix B to the report on this agenda item. The conference therefore developed the following recommendation: RSPP Recommendation 6/10 Amendment to Annex 10, Volume I, Attachment B Updating the strategy for introduction and application of non-visual aids to approach and landing That Attachment B to Annex 10, Volume I be amended as shown in Appendix B to the report on Agenda Item 6.

6.3.2

Amendments to the Global Plan

6.3.2.1 The conference reviewed a proposal developed by the GNSSP to amend the navigation parts of the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750) including, inter alia, updates to the document to reflect recent developments in the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). 6.3.2.2 The proposed amendments were based on the following key considerations: a) a vision of GNSS is evolving away from the concepts of supplementary, primary or sole means of navigation (using a single system) to the concept of multiple sensors to be used for area navigation and approach, landing and departure operations, where GNSS elements are regarded as individual sensors; b) the goal of transition to GNSS, which removes the requirement for conventional ground-based navigation aids, is maintained for the GNSS-based navigation and future ATM environments where this goal can be safely and cost-effectively achieved; c) the need for some or all conventional ground-based navigation aids during the transition is maintained until such time when the requirements for safe and cost-effective operations using GNSS are met; and

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Report on Agenda Item 6 d) the need to retain conventional ground-based navigation aids during the transition does not imply a requirement to add ground-based NAVAIDs in less developed regions when introducing GNSS-based operations unless it is demonstrated that the safe implementation of particular operations demand such additional NAVAIDs.

6.3.2.3 The conference developed additional amendments that were included in the proposal to take account of its earlier discussions concerning: a) vulnerability of GNSS to interference and the need for means of mitigation; b) enhanced role of DME and INS/IRS in the provision of navigation service; and c) importance of RNAV and RNP in the realization of GNSS benefits. 6.3.2.4 The conference also considered a proposal to amend the time lines for implementation of CNS/ATM systems for the AFI Region which were contained in Part II of the Global Plan. It was stated that the originally expected pace of implementation has not been achieved, particularly in the AFI Region due to a number of factors such as delays in the availability and installation of appropriate avionics and lack of funding. 6.3.2.5 Arising from the above, the AFI States extended their time frame for CNS/ATM systems implementation up to 2015. Nevertheless, the ultimate objective of the region was a navigation system based on satellite navigation for all phases of flight. As far as augmentation was concerned, any deployment was to be in line with the regional policy as defined and approved by AFI Planning and Implementation Regional Group (APIRG). It was noted that strategy had detailed an evolutionary path from existing constellations through a minimal SBAS providing over the whole AFI Region a non-precision approach capability with vertical guidance at the 20 m vertical accuracy and vertical alert limit of 50 m (APV-I). 6.3.2.6 The conference took note of the information provided on the implementation objectives and plans. Concerning the proposed amendments to the implementation time lines, it was noted that similar changes may be proposed by other ICAO regions and that all such changes should be consolidated and reflected in the next edition of the document. 6.3.2.7 In concluding its consideration of the subject, the conference updated the Global Plan as shown in Appendix C to this agenda item and developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 6/11 Amendment to the Global Plan Navigation That: a) the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750) be amended as shown in Appendix C to the report on Agenda Item 6; and updated CNS/ATM systems implementation time lines contained in Part II of the Global Plan be reviewed by the Regional Implementation Group and consolidated for incorporation in the next edition of the Global Plan.

b)

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6.4

DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF AERONAUTICAL NAVIGATION SERVICES Concept of using combinations of independent satellite navigation systems and their augmentations

6.4.1

6.4.1.1 The conference was presented with the results of study carried out by the Global Navigation Satellite System Panel (GNSS) at request by the ICAO Air Navigation Commission. The study indicated that the increasing number of GNSS signals and constellations would offer significant benefits to civil aviation in terms of improved robustness and performance, simplification of GNSS ground architecture and alleviation of institutional concerns. The study also cautioned that the introduction of these new elements would raise some technical, economical and institutional issues. 6.4.1.2 The conference recalled that information presented on GNSS development (Section 6.1 of this report refers) had indicated that GPS would be enhanced by providing additional signals and modernized satellites. It was also reported that modernized GLONASS satellites with improved characteristics would be added to the constellation. Further, a new constellation called GALILEO which would provide three signals and a worldwide integrity function was being developed by Europe. It was understood that for any new signal and/or constellation, an additional time period of one to two years would probably be needed for the purpose of validation and certification by civil aviation authorities before new GNSS elements could be used for safety-of-life applications. This implied that the operational use of new signals and combined constellations service could start in the 2010 2015 time-frame. 6.4.1.3 The conference recognized that the implementation of a multiplicity of different possible combinations of elements would result in overall system complexity and negative economic impact particularly on the user side and concluded that this can be avoided by the thorough assessment and selection of the most promising combinations for general implementation. Accordingly, the conference developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 6/12 Development of guidance material on applications of new GNSS elements and their combinations That ICAO, in developing standards for new GNSS elements and signals, address the issues associated with the use of multiple signals and their combinations, and develop guidance on the most promising combinations of GNSS elements. 6.4.1.4 The conference was apprised that current GNSS avionics automatically select which satellites and augmentation elements to use. It was noted in this regard that State regulations could require or prohibit the use of certain future GNSS elements or their combinations in some airspaces. The conference agreed that such a situation could result in significant costs for users in terms of additional cockpit controls and procedures, crew training and maintenance support or become a safety issue due to human factors considerations. It also agreed that these potential repercussions require ICAO to encourage States, in their planning for implementation of GNSS services, to avoid limitations on the use of specific GNSS elements for institutional reasons. The conference therefore developed the following recommendation:

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Report on Agenda Item 6 Recommendation 6/13 Potential constraints on using multiple GNSS signals That States, in their planning for implementation of GNSS services, take full advantage of future benefits accrued from using independent core satellite constellations, other GNSS elements and their combinations, and avoid limitations on the use of specific system elements.

6.4.1.5 Having completed the review of the study results documented for the conferences consideration, the conference concluded that the document represented a useful overview of benefits from, and issues associated with the introduction of new elements of GNSS. Accordingly, the conference agreed this overview to be included in Appendix D to the report on this agenda item. 6.4.2 GNSS services in the 960 - 1 215 MHz band

6.4.2.1 The conference recalled that in its discussion on mitigation of GNSS vulnerabilities and benefits offered by the future development of GNSS, the introduction and use of additional second civil frequencies was emphasized on a number of occasions. In this regard, it was noted that the United States had decided to implement a second GPS civil frequency, known as L5, in the band 1 164.45 - 1 188.45 MHz. In parallel with this decision, GALILEO signals would also utilize spectrum in the 1 164 - 1 215 MHz frequency range. The Russian Federation also reported plans to introduce an additional signal(s) in this frequency range as a part of the GLONASS modernization programme. These signals would be introduced in accordance with the ITU allocation of the 960 - 1 215 MHz band to the radionavigation satellite service (RNSS) on the conditions specified in ITU Radio Regulations, Footnote 5.328A (MOD-03) and Resolution 609 (WRC-03). 6.4.2.2 The conference was reminded that the band 960 - 1 215 MHz, which continues to be allocated to the aeronautical radionavigation service (ARNS), was being heavily used by ICAO standardized distance measuring equipment (DME). 6.4.2.3 The conference was made aware of a potential for interference to GNSS receivers in the 1 164.45 - 1 188.45 MHz band and to a lesser extent (due to the frequencies being used for special national allocations) in the 1 197.14 - 1 215 MHz band. The level and hence impact of interference was related to how many pulses transmitted by DME ground transponders in these portions of the band can interfere with the aircraft GNSS antenna (the airborne interrogators do not operate at these frequencies). 6.4.2.4 The conference agreed that, in cases where the shared use of DME and GNSS in the same frequency band may lead to unacceptable interference, ways of mitigating the interference, while maintaining the aeronautical radionavigation services, need to be considered. This could be achieved by: a) modifying future DME installations to reduce the quiescent squitter rate as practicable (Annex 10, Volume I, Chapter 3, paragraph 3.5.4.1.5.6 refers); b) by making greater use of Y-channel DMEs; and c) by re-assigning the current frequencies where practicable. 6.4.2.5 The conference therefore developed the following recommendation:

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Recommendation 6/14 GNSS services in the 960 - 1 215 MHz band That, a) States be encouraged to take into account the need to minimize potential interference to GNSS services in their planning of the deployment of DMEs; and an appropriate ICAO body be tasked to review the issues listed in paragraph 6.4.2.4 of the report on Agenda Item 6.

b)

6.4.3

Review of Annex 10 SARPs for ground-based radio navigation aids in the light of present and planned GNSS services

6.4.3.1 The conference was presented with the results of the preliminary review of Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) in Annex 10, Volume I undertaken by the GNSS Panel at the request of the Air Navigation Commission (ANC) in order to assess the need for updates of the document in the light of present and planned GNSS services. The objective of the review was to identify the areas where additional work should be initiated to investigate the impact of potential changes to the Standards and develop draft amendments to the Annex if necessary. 6.4.3.2 The conference noted that future implementation of GNSS capable of providing global navigation coverage and area navigation (RNAV) capabilities in support of all phases of flight would overlay a number of capabilities and functions delivered by the existing radio navigation aids defined in Annex 10. The identified candidate parts with the potential to require modifications were generally those where SARPs may become redundant through the introduction of GNSS or alternatively where the Standards in their present form may prove problematic in the transition to satellite navigation. 6.4.3.3 The conference also noted that, although these candidate parts were identified with the focus on GNSS-related aspects, a number of the potential updates were resulting from the increasing application of ground-based navigation aids in support of RNAV operations. 6.4.3.4 The conference agreed that further work is required to investigate the feasibility of amending SARPs and guidance material in Annex 10, Volume I taking into account the potential for reduction of redundant navigation functionalities and protection considerations, and to develop draft amendments to the Annex as necessary. The issues to be addressed included: a) general review of protection dates; b) changes to DME specifications, taking account of the increasing use of this system in support of terminal RNAV operations and the use of DME/DME RNAV as a back up option to GNSS; c) requirements for DME/P; d) requirements for MLS/RNAV and updates of MLS specifications; and

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Report on Agenda Item 6 e) updates of guidance material on DME, ILS and VOR service volumes and frequency planning.

6.4.3.5

Based on the above, the conference developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 6/15 Updating of SARPs for radio navigation aids in Annex 10, Volume I That ICAO undertake a review of SARPs and guidance material in Annex 10, Volume I in the areas identified in paragraph 6.4.3.4 of the report on Agenda Item 6.

6.4.3.6 Noting the scope of Volume I of Annex 10, the conference acknowledged close correlation and connection between Recommendations 6/14 and 6/15. 6.4.4 Enhanced data integrity for RNAV and GNSS-based operations

6.4.4.1 The conference was made aware that, during the first GNSS procedure and RNAV operation implementation trials, deficiencies revealed in the quality of the aeronautical data in airborne systems had included errors and/or discrepancies between the data encoded in the computer-based navigation system and the data published in the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). It was noted that the main sources of errors were as a result of non-compliance with the data quality provisions in Annex 15 during the origination phase, and the alteration of data during the various processes of the aeronautical data chain. 6.4.4.2 It was further noted that, although ICAO had developed SARPs that govern various aspects of processing electronic aeronautical information, it could not prevent flight critical data from being processed manually. Although several initiatives had been launched to address the problem of data integrity, especially in the context of RNAV implementation, there were no coordinated system or applicable standards to make sure that the required levels of data integrity are met all the way through the aeronautical data chain, from origination to end-use. The conference was also informed of some discrepancies between the industry and the ICAO data quality requirements for accuracy, integrity and resolution. 6.4.4.3 In the discussion of issues raised, safety aspects of aeronautical data quality, particularly the integrity of data for RNAV and GNSS-based operations, were emphasized by many States and international organizations. In this regard, the conference stressed an urgent need for ICAO to develop guidance material covering the acquisition of data from various sources, processing and assessment of the overall quality. It was suggested the material should also address detecting the data corruption events (alteration of the data by a given organisation without acknowledgement to the other involved organisations) in the aeronautical data chain. It was also suggested that the task of harmonization of Annex 15 data quality requirements and corresponding industry standards be endeavoured without delay. 6.4.4.4 In follow up to suggested actions, the conference was made aware of work under way in ICAO to address the shortcomings tabled before the conference. In particular, the conference noted the progress of a task (AIS-9401) of the Technical Work Programme (TWP) of the Organization in the Air Navigation Field which included, among other things, the development of guidance material for the application by the aeronautical information services of the ISO 9000 standard series that would provide for the quality assurance of aeronautical information. The conference was advised that this work was approaching the final stage and the Quality Management System Manual for AIS/MAP Services was to be completed by

Report on Agenda Item 6

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the end of 2003. The conference also noted that in accordance with a recommendation of the Global Navigation Satellite System Panel (GNSSP/4 Recommendation 3/4), the Navigation Systems Panel (NSP) had been requested to develop specific proposals towards harmonization of ICAO and industry standards for aeronautical data used in support of GNSS-based operations. 6.4.4.5 Having noted the above, the conference developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 6/16 Completion of guidance material on application of data quality SARPs in Annex 15 That ICAO give high priority to the completion of guidance material for the data quality assurance including the data processing from origination to end-use. 6.4.5 Proposals for the future development of GNSS navigation services in the regions

6.4.5.1 In conclusion of its deliberations on aeronautical navigation issues, the conference reviewed information on the Asia/Pacific Regional strategies for navigation services and proposals for the future regional development of GNSS navigation services. 6.4.5.2 The conference noted the strategy for the provision of precision approach and landing guidance systems and the strategy for the implementation of GNSS navigation capability in the Asia/Pacific Region that had been adopted by the Fourteenth Meeting of the ASIA/PAC Air Navigation Planning and Implementation Regional Group (APANPIRG/14). 6.4.5.3 In regard to information and proposals developed and presented pursuant to Conclusion 11/54 of the Eleventh Meeting of the CAR/SAM Regional Planning and Implementation Group (GREPECAS/11), the conference appreciated the progress in the trials and planning for GNSS navigation services. It agreed that the resulting experiences and challenges may be of general interest for other regions. These included activities in the development of regional satellite navigation service that can be progressed with small investments due to regionally coordinated efforts and committed participation of States. Human resource training and financing issues were noted as major challenges in implementing complex technology systems such as GNSS. 6.4.5.4 The conference was informed that ICAO was using of three different mechanisms to provide assistance to States for the implementation of CNS/ATM systems on continuous basis. These included Special Implementation Projects, Technical Cooperation Projects and International Financial Facility for Aviation Safety. In addition, ICAO was undertaking periodical technical visits to States, developing regional guidance material and conducting regional workshops. 6.4.5.5 In concluding its discussions on aeronautical navigation issues, the conference once again, in line with its Recommendation 6/1, emphasized the need for ICAO, States, airspace users and other parties concerned to continue work towards the safe and efficient global navigation system for all phases of flight.

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Report on Agenda Item 6

Appendix A to the Report on Agenda Item 6 APPENDIX A GUIDELINES ON GNSS VULNERABILITY AND MITIGATION METHODS INCLUDING TERRESTRIAL, AIRBORNE AND PROCEDURAL SOLUTIONS

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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GNSS is being progressively introduced throughout the world and has the potential to meet performance requirements for all phases of flight, obtaining safety and efficiency benefits through the navigation domain. As GNSS operations become prevalent, it is essential that the service providers identify the vulnerabilities of this system and develop the necessary mitigations. This paper identifies the vulnerabilities of GNSS and the corresponding mitigations that can be applied when appropriate. In developing this paper, several other vulnerability studies have been considered and their concerns and recommendations addressed. Most vulnerabilities discussed are common to other navigation systems providing aeronautical radio navigation service, but those systems are outside the scope of this paper.

2. 2.1

GNSS SIGNAL VULNERABILITIES Interference

2.1.1 GNSS core satellite constellations and satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) signals are vulnerable due to their relatively low received signal power since GNSS signals originate from satellites and each satellites signal covers a large fraction of the Earths surface. While the very high frequency (VHF) data broadcast of a ground-based augmentation system (GBAS) is more difficult to interfere (its signal power is similar to that of terrestrial navigation aids), GBAS service depends on the core satellite signals. Interfering signals are limited to line-of-sight propagation. For example, the interference region at 600 m (2 000 ft) above ground level is inherently limited to approximately 110 km (60 NM) for a ground-based interferer. 2.1.2 The GNSS Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) require a specified level of performance in the presence of levels of interference as defined by the receiver interference mask. These interference levels are generally consistent with the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) regulations. Interference at levels above the mask may cause loss of service but such interference is not allowed to result in hazardous or misleading information. 2.1.3 Unintentional interference. The majority of reported GNSS interference events have been traced to on-board systems, and experience with GNSS installation has identified several sources of unintentional interference (e.g. spurious emissions or harmonics of VHF communications equipment and the out-of-band and spurious emissions from satellite communications equipment). Portable electronic devices can also cause interference to GNSS and other navigation systems. 2.1.3.1 Ground-based sources of interference currently include mobile and fixed VHF communications, point-to-point radio links operating in the GNSS frequency band, harmonics of television stations, certain radar systems, mobile satellite communication systems and military systems. The likelihood of such interference depends on State spectrum regulation, frequency management and enforcement within each State or region.

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Appendix A to the Report on Agenda Item 6

2.1.4 Intentional interference. Because of the low power of GNSS signals, it is possible for low power transmitters to jam the GNSS signal. While there have been no recorded instances of intentional jamming directed at civil aircraft, the possibility of intentional interference must be considered and evaluated as a threat. 2.2 Spoofing

2.2.1 Spoofing is the intentional corruption of the navigation signals to cause aircraft to deviate and follow a false flight path. Spoofing of satellite-based GNSS signals is technologically much more complex than spoofing of conventional ground-based navigation aids. Spoofing of the GBAS data broadcast is as difficult as spoofing conventional landing aids. 2.2.2 While spoofing can theoretically cause misleading navigation for a particular aircraft, it is very likely to be detected through normal procedures (e.g. by monitoring of flight path and distance to waypoints and by radar surveillance). Ground proximity warning systems (GPWS) and aircraft collision avoidance systems (ACAS) provide additional protection against collision with the ground and with other aircraft. In view of the difficulty in spoofing GNSS and the fact that unique operational mitigations are not deemed necessary, spoofing is not further addressed in this paper. 2.3 Ionospheric and other atmospheric effects

2.3.1 Heavy precipitation attenuates GNSS satellite signals by only a small fraction of 1 dB and does not impact operations. Tropospheric effects are addressed by system design and do not represent a vulnerability issue. There are two ionospheric phenomena that must be considered: rapid and large ionospheric changes, and scintillation. Ionospheric changes result in range errors that must be accounted for in system design. Scintillation may result in temporary loss of GNSS signals from one or more satellites. 2.4 Other vulnerabilities

2.4.1 The GNSS ground and space segment vulnerabilities also need to be considered. There is a risk of an insufficient number of satellites in a given constellation due to lack of resources to maintain a constellation, launch failure(s) or satellite failure. Constellation control segment failure or human error can potentially cause the failure of multiple satellites within a constellation. 2.4.2 Another risk is service interruption or degradation during a national emergency situation, where each State has the freedom of action as authorized by the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Article 89 refers). If signal denial is limited to a specific area, jamming of all civil GNSS signals would occur but the affected airspace would be closed to civil air traffic regardless. Another less likely situation would involve degradation or denial of core satellite or satellite augmentation signals throughout the coverage area.

3.

ASSESSING GNSS OUTAGE RISKS

3.1 There are two principal aspects to be considered in the evaluation of the operational risks associated with GNSS vulnerabilities: a) the likelihood of GNSS outage; and b) the impact of GNSS outage.

Appendix A to the Report on Agenda Item 6

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3.2 By considering these aspects as a function of airspace, air navigation service providers can determine whether mitigation is required and, if so, to what level. Mitigation is required for outages with major impacts having a moderate to high likelihood of occurrence. 3.3 Assessing likelihood of GNSS outage

Interference 3.3.1 Unintentional interference. Operational experience is the best way to assess this risk. The likelihood of unintentional interference is often a function of geography. Large cities with significant radio frequency (RF) interference sources, industrial sites, etc., are more prone to the unintentional interference than remote regions. This interference is very unlikely in remote regions. 3.3.2 Intentional interference. Each State must consider the motivation to interfere with GNSS in determining the likelihood of intentional interference. The motivation may be driven by potential damage to a region and the operational impact on aviation and non-aviation applications. If there is minimal impact, the threat potential is low since there is no motivation to interfere. The extent of potential impacts may grow as applications using GNSS expand and the dependence on GNSS increases. Ionospheric effects 3.3.3 Rapid and large changes in the ionosphere are frequently observed near the geomagnetic equator, but their effect is not large enough to impact en-route through non-precision approach operations. For approach with vertical guidance (APV) and precision approach (PA) operations, the effects of these changes can be assessed and mitigated when designing augmentation systems. In equatorial regions, the availability of APV and PA operations using a single GNSS frequency may be limited. 3.3.4 Ionospheric scintillation is insignificant at mid-latitudes. In equatorial regions, and to a lesser extent at high latitudes, scintillation may result in the temporary loss of one or more satellite signals. Operational experience in equatorial regions has shown that the probability of loss of existing GNSS service is remote due to the relatively large number of satellites in view. Scintillation can interrupt reception of broadcasts from a SBAS geostationary orbit (GEO) satellite. 3.4 3.4.1 Assessing impact of GNSS outage The impact of a GNSS outage on navigation services depends on the following factors: a) type of airspace: remedial action timing is more critical for a terminal area than for high altitude en-route airspace, and, for en-route airspace, is more critical for airspace where more stringent separation minima is established; b) air traffic density: in regions with high traffic density, reliance on radar vectoring or pilot procedures may be impractical due to workload; c) level of service: for less demanding operations dead reckoning may be all that is required to proceed to an area where GNSS service is available; d) availability and equipage of other navigation systems: aircraft that can navigate with other means will not be affected;

6A-4

Appendix A to the Report on Agenda Item 6 e) radar surveillance: if primary or secondary radar is available, ATC will be able to provide more assistance to assure separation and divert to alternate airports; f) extent of outage: the geographic extent and duration of a service interruption; g) outage assessment: the ability of the air navigation service provider to quickly assess the extent of the service outage; and h) weather conditions: while it is prudent to assume instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) when assessing outage impacts, the geographic extent of IMC and the meteorological parameters assumed in any analysis should be realistic.

3.4.2 The impact of a GNSS outage on other services should also be considered. GNSS is frequently used as a source of precision timing information within communication and radar systems, and may be used for automatic dependent surveillance (ADS) services. Timing vulnerabilities can be addressed through system design, and ADS applications are outside the scope of this paper.

4. 4.1

REDUCING THE LIKELIHOOD OF GNSS OUTAGES Installation and operation

4.1.1 On-aircraft interference can be prevented by proper installation of GNSS equipment, its integration with other aircraft systems (e.g. shielding, antenna separation, out-of-band filtering) and restrictions on the use of portable electronic devices on board aircraft. 4.2 Spectrum management

4.2.1 Spectrum management. Effective spectrum management is the primary means of mitigating unintentional interference from man-made transmitters. Operational experience has indicated that the threat of unintentional interference can become a rare event if effective spectrum management is applied. There are three aspects of effective spectrum management: a) creation of regulations/laws that control the use of spectrum; b) enforcement of those regulations/laws; and c) vigilance in evaluating new RF sources (new systems) to ensure that they do not interfere with GNSS. 4.2.2 Interference location and termination. The ability to locate the interferer and terminate the interference to GNSS without delay is a critical aspect. The primary method of detecting interference is through pilot reporting. As many aircraft may experience outage simultaneously when interference first occurs, an automated method of reporting the outage (e.g. an automatic data link message) would reduce workload and facilitate defining the outage area and locating the interferer. Interference detection systems may be implemented in aircraft and on the ground.

Appendix A to the Report on Agenda Item 6 4.3 New signals and constellations

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4.3.1 New signals and core satellite constellations will significantly reduce the vulnerability of GNSS. The use of the stronger signals and diverse frequencies planned for GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO will effectively eliminate the risk of unintentional interference, since it is highly unlikely that such an interference source would simultaneously affect more than one frequency. Additional satellites (including multiple constellations) will eliminate the risk of the complete outage of GNSS due to scintillation, and multiple frequencies will mitigate the impact of ionospheric changes. Future GEO satellites will mitigate the effect of ionosphere on SBAS by using satellites which lines of sight are separated by at least 45. More robust GNSS signals and new frequencies make it more difficult to intentionally interfere with all GNSS services. Additional core satellite constellations mitigate the risk of system failure, operational errors or discontinuance of service. They may also continue to provide global service in the unlikely event that a provider of one GNSS element modifies or denies service due to a national emergency situation. 4.3.2 Robust system management and funding are essential to continued operation of GNSS services and mitigate the system vulnerabilities identified in paragraph 2.4, except for the potential for global interruption of service due to a national emergency. An effective means of avoiding a global interruption of service is for service providers to adopt a policy of specific area denial in the event of national emergency.

5. 5.1

MITIGATING THE EFFECTS OF GNSS OUTAGES Introduction

5.1.1 There are three principal methods currently available to mitigate the effects of GNSS outages on aircraft operations: a) by taking advantage of inertial navigation systems and GNSS receiver technologies; b) by employing procedural (pilot or ATC) methods; and c) by taking advantage of terrestrial radio navigation aids used as a backup to GNSS or integrated with GNSS. 5.1.2 By adopting an effective strategy using one or more methods identified in this section, a service provider will not only ensure safe aircraft operations in case of GNSS outages but will also discourage the attempts of intentional interference by reducing the potential effects of these attempts. 5.2 Inertial navigation systems and receiver technologies

5.2.1 Inertial navigation system (INS) provides a short-term area navigation capability after the loss of GNSS or other position updating. Many air transport aircraft are already equipped with INSs and inertial systems become more affordable and accessible to operators with smaller, regional aircraft. This capability should therefore be considered when evaluating the need for terrestrial aids as mitigations for GNSS outages. 5.2.2 There are also technologies that add robustness to GNSS receivers to mitigate interference. Anti-jam technologies include advanced antennas (e.g. spatial nulling) and receiver signal processing techniques. As the cost of these technologies decreases, they may become more affordable alternatives to inertial navigation systems for small aircraft.

6A-6 5.3 Procedural methods

Appendix A to the Report on Agenda Item 6

5.3.1 If there is no other navigation system available in case of GNSS outage in non-radar airspace, aircraft can revert to dead reckoning, as most new aircraft navigation systems include an automatic dead reckoning capability. When possible, pilots can revert to visual navigation, exit the affected area or land at a suitable airport. In the event the GNSS capability is lost, ATC can assess the potential for loss of lateral separation and, where possible, use vertical separation instead. 5.3.2 The same procedures can be used in radar airspace, with the additional possibility for ATC to vector aircraft through the affected area, depending on the ATC workload and the number of impacted aircraft. For many current terminal operations, aircraft are already radar vectored to intercept a precision approach path. 5.3.3 In uncontrolled non-radar airspace, pilots can communicate with each other via air-to-air channel to maintain separation and attempt to determine the geographical extent of the outage. 5.3.4 Successful reliance on procedural means to assure separation and diversion depends upon all of the factors in paragraph 3.4. The most significant consideration is the extent to which aircraft are equipped with another means of navigation, such as inertial navigation. 5.3.5 Procedures and training for pilots and air traffic controllers should address the vulnerability of GNSS and identify how to respond effectively to interference and implement alternative procedures, and to report interference occurances and their location. 5.4 Terrestrial radio navigation aids

5.4.1 Currently, one of the most effective means of mitigating a GNSS outage is for aircraft to revert to using terrestrial navigation systems. As the transition to GNSS is accomplished and the terrestrial infrastructure is reduced, increased reliance will be placed on the other mitigation techniques. The operational capability required from a terrestrial infrastructure will evolve as GNSS operations become predominant and airspace and procedures rely increasingly on area navigation (RNAV) operations. A DME infrastructure can be used to provide an area navigation service for en-route and terminal operations for aircraft equipped with flight management systems that use multiple DMEs. This same capability can be used for RNAV approach operations if the DME coverage is sufficient. 5.4.2 For those cases where reversionary navigation does not provide an RNAV capability, the workload to transition to alternative routes and procedures must be considered. However, once the operations on these alternative routes are established, operations can continue as long as required in the event of sustained interference. 5.4.3 If it is determined that an alternate precision approach service is needed, instrument landing system (ILS) or microwave landing system (MLS) may be used. This would likely entail retaining a minimum number of such systems at an airport or within an area under consideration.

Appendix A to the Report on Agenda Item 6

6A-7

6.

CONCLUSIONS

6.1 Unintentional interference. The likelihood and operational effect of interference varies with the environment. Unintentional interference is not considered a significant threat provided that States exercise proper control and protection over the electromagnetic spectrum for both existing and new frequency allocations. Furthermore, the introduction of GNSS signals on new frequencies will ensure that unintentional interference does not cause the complete loss of GNSS service. 6.2 Intentional interference. The risk of intentional interference depends upon issues that must be addressed by States. For States that determine that the risk is unacceptable in specific areas, safety and efficiency can be maintained by adopting an effective mitigation strategy through a combination of on-board mitigation techniques (e.g. use of INS), procedural methods and terrestrial navigation aids. 6.3 Ionosphere. Scintillation can cause loss of GNSS satellite signals in the equatorial and auroral regions, but is unlikely to cause complete loss of GNSS service and will be mitigated with the addition of new GNSS signals and satellites. Ionospheric changes may limit the SBAS and GBAS services that can be provided in the equatorial region using a single GNSS frequency, and must be considered when designing the augmentation systems. 6.4 Other vulnerabilities. Independently managed constellations, funding, and robust system design will significantly mitigate system failure, operational errors, and discontinuance of service. 6.5 States should assess the GNSS vulnerability for their airspace and select appropriate mitigations depending on the airspace in question and the operations that must be supported. These mitigations can ensure safe operations in transition to GNSS and enable States to avoid the provision of new terrestrial navigation aids, reduce existing terrestrial navigation aids, and discontinue them in certain areas.

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Appendix A to the Report on Agenda Item 6 ATTACHMENT EXAMPLE GNSS VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

Guidelines for evaluating the impact and likelihood of a GNSS outage is provided in section 3 of this paper. This appendix provides two examples of how this methodology can be applied to existing GNSS operations. These examples do not take into account future GNSS signals or constellations. 1. Congested airspace Mid-latitudes. The following example applies to the existing GNSS operations in airspace with a high density of aircraft operations, and a mid-latitude region with effective spectrum management. 1.1 Unintentional interference. Unintentional interference has been encountered in North America and Europe. In North America, there have been seven confirmed cases of interference to GPS in the last few years. Based on operational experience, unintentional interference is unlikely but cannot be neglected. 1.2 Intentional interference. For current operations, there is no significant motivation to deliberately interfere with GNSS. No case of intentional interference in civil environment has been reported so far. The likelihood of this interference is negligible for existing operations. The threat of intentional interference may change over time as reliance on GNSS increases. 1.3 The impact of interference is to cause a GNSS outage within the line of sight of the interferer. The majority of air carrier operators in these regions are equipped with inertial navigation and/or an FMS with a DME/DME RNAV capability. DME facilities are available in the majority of airspace. While some aircraft are not equipped with an independent RNAV capability, safety for these aircraft can be maintained and operations can continue, perhaps with reduced efficiency. Therefore, a unintentional and intentional interference have a moderate impact. 1.4 Spoofing. There is no significant threat due to spoofing, and the impact would be moderate.

1.5 Ionospheric effects. For mid-latitudes, ionospheric scintillation that causes loss of GNSS positioning has never been experienced, so the likelihood of occurrence is negligible. There would be no operational impact due to the short duration of the event and the available terrestrial navigation aids and high level of equipage to use those aids. 1.6 Summary. Table 1 summarizes the likelihood and operational impact of the vulnerabilities that have been identified. The table maps the likelihood of occurrence against the operational impact. The State should mitigate any vulnerability that is remote and has a severe impact, or probable and has any impact (the area bounded by a bold line in the table). In addition, consideration should be given to vulnerabilities that are remote and have a moderate impact. 2. Remote areas Equatorial. The following example applies to the existing GNSS operations in remote airspace with a low density of aircraft operations in an equatorial region with effective spectrum management. 2.1 Unintentional interference. Most sources of unintentional interference are less likely in remote regions. With effective spectrum management, the likelihood of interference in these areas may be negligible. The impact of outage may be moderate to severe due to unavailability of radar services.

Appendix A to the Report on Agenda Item 6

6A-9

2.2 Intentional interference. Intentional interference has not been encountered, and there is no significant motivation to deliberately interfere with GNSS given the low density of operations and the remote areas. The likelihood of this interference is considered to be negligible for existing operations. The threat of intentional interference may change over time as reliance on GNSS increases. The impact of intentional interference is the same as unintentional interference. 2.3 Spoofing. There is no significant threat due to spoofing, and the impact would be moderate.

2.4 Ionospheric effects. For equatorial regions, ionospheric scintillation that impacts GNSS performance is likely to occur. The operational effect is moderate, since it is typically a degradation in performance and not a complete loss of navigation capability. In the event that a complete loss of positioning occurs, it does not persist for very long and the low density of operations ensures continued safety. 2.5 Summary. Table 2 summarizes the likelihood and operational impact of the vulnerabilities that have been identified. The most significant issue is the potential for ionospheric scintillation. States should take action to reduce the impact of this effect. This can be accomplished through: a) operational procedures that ensure continued operation during brief GNSS outages; and b) continued research on the duration and likelihood of severe scintillation. Table 1. Congested airspace Mid-latitudes Operational impact Moderate impact Intentional interference; Spoofing; Unintentional interference

No impact Ionospheric effects Negligible Likelihood

Severe impact

Remote

Probable

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Appendix A to the Report on Agenda Item 6 Table 2. Remote areas Equatorial Operational impact Moderate impact Unintentional and intentional interference; Spoofing;

No impact Negligible Likelihood

Severe impact

Remote Ionospheric effects

Probable

3. When the analysis shows there is no critical vulnerabilities, implementation of spectrum management measures is still essential to reduce, as much as possible, the occurrences of service interruptions.

Appendix B to the Report on Agenda Item 6 APPENDIX B DRAFT AMENDMENT TO ANNEX 10, VOLUME I

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NOTES ON THE PRESENTATION OF THE AMENDMENT

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Appendix B to the Report on Agenda Item 6 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS ANNEX 10 TO THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION VOLUME I RADIO NAVIGATION AIDS

... ATTACHMENT B. STRATEGY FOR INTRODUCTION AND APPLICATION OF NON-VISUAL AIDS TO APPROACH AND LANDING (see Chapter 2, 2.1)

1.

Introduction

1.1 Various elements have an influence on all weather operations in terms of safety, efficiency and flexibility. The evolution of new techniques requires a flexible approach to the concept of all weather operations to obtain full benefits of technical development. To create this flexibility a strategy enables, through identification of its objectives and thoughts behind the strategy, incorporation of new technical developments or ideas into this strategy.

1.2 The strategy does not assume a rapid transition to a single globally established system or selection of systems to support approach and landing operations. The strategy is intended to accommodate future systems or system architectures to be standardized and certified for international use in addition to the present standard non-visual aids.

2. The strategy must: a) b) c) d) e)

Objectives of strategy

maintain at least the current safety level of all weather operations; retain at least the existing level or planned improved level of service; maintain global interoperability; provide regional flexibility based on co-ordinated regional planning; be applicable until at least the year 2015 ; and

Appendix B to the Report on Agenda Item 6 f) take account of economic, operational and technical issues.

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3.

Considerations

3.1

General

The following considerations (as of the SP COM/OPS/95 Meeting) are based on the assumption that the operational requirement and the required commitment are available and the required effort is applied.

3.2 a)

Standardization considerations

A concept which describes the performance criteria for approach, landing and departure operations in generic terms is under development; acceptance and introduction of the generic performance criteria is expected to facilitate the application of emerging technologies for the approach, landing and departure phases of flight; and introduction of the generic performance criteria for approach, landing and departure operations will not eliminate the need for safety and interoperability-related SARPs, and these SARPs are to be developed to support the generic performance criteria.

b)

c)

3.3 a) b)

ILS-related considerations

There is a risk that ILS Category II or III operations cannot be safely sustained at specific locations; operators must equip with ILS receivers which meet the interference immunity performance standards by 1 January 1998 (Annex 10, Volume I, Chapter 3, 3.1.4); expansion of ILS is limited by channel availability (40 channels); many aging ILS ground installations will need to be replaced; and in most areas of the world, ILS can be maintained in the foreseeable future.

c) d) e)

3.4 a) b) MLS Category I is operational;

MLS-related considerations

Category II capable ground equipment is certified ; and

c)

Category III capable ground equipment is available .

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Appendix B to the Report on Agenda Item 6 3.5 GNSS-related considerations

a )

GNSS with augmentation has been demonstrated, for at least two States, to meet accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability requirements for Category I precision ; approach GNSS with differential augmentation has been demonstrated, for at least two States, to meet accuracy requirements for Category II and III approach and landing operations, and integrity, continuity and availability requirements are under evaluation for such operations; it is not expected that an internationally accepted GNSS with augmentation as required may be available for Category II and III operations before the 2005 -2015 time frame. technical and operational issues associated with GNSS approach, landing and departure operations must be solved in a timely manner; institutional issues associated with GNSS approach, landing and departure operations must be solved in a timely manner; it is expected that an internationally accepted GNSS with augmentation as required may be available for Category I operations within the 2000-2005 time frame; and

b)

f )

c)

d )

e)

3.6

Emerging technologies-related considerations

Emerging technology systems are expected to contribute to improved service performance. Only core systems (ILS, MLS and GNSS with augmentation as required) are considered to play a major role in supporting all weather operations. 3.7 Multi-mode receiver (MMR)-related considerations

The MMR (also known as multi-mode avionics landing system (MMALS)) can provide a means for a flexible transition. For maximum flexibility, this receiver is expected to include critical landing functions in a single box. A multi-mode airborne capability could equally be used; b) the multi-mode receiver is under development and is expected to become available for progressive implementation within the 1997-2002 time frame; and

Appendix B to the Report on Agenda Item 6 c)

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the MMR, with a high integrity data link, can support GNSS operations. The differential GNSS data link could be integrated into the MMR.

3.8 a)

Other considerations

There is an increasing demand for Category II and III operations; and

b )

while a single step transition is preferable, i n it may not be possible to make this transition towards new technology systems some States (e.g. GNSS Category II/III) without losing the current level of Category II or III operations.

4.

Strategy

Based on the considerations above and a need to consult aircraft operators and international organizations as appropriate, the global strategy is to: a) continue ILS operations to the highest level of service as long as operationally acceptable and economically beneficial; implement MLS where operationally required and economically beneficial ;

b)

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Appendix B to the Report on Agenda Item 6 promote the use of MMR or equivalent airborne capability to maintain aircraft interoperability ; validate the use of GNSS, with such augmentations as required, to support approach and departure operations, including Category I operations, and implement GNSS for such operations as appropriate;

d)

e)

complete feasibility studies for Category II and III operations, based on GNSS technology, with such augmentations as required. If feasible, i mplement GNSS for and economically beneficial; Category II and III operations where operationally acceptable and

f )

enable each region to develop an implementation strategy for future global strategy.

systems in line with the

Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6 APPENDIX C DRAFT AMENDMENTS TO THE GLOBAL AIR NAVIGATION PLAN FOR CNS/ATM SYSTEMS (DOC 9750)

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NOTES ON THE PRESENTATION OF THE PROPOSED AMENDMENT

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Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6 GLOBAL AIR NAVIGATION PLAN FOR CNS/ATM SYSTEMS

...

Editorial Note.

The table of contents is reproduced in part and expanded to highlight, in bold, the parts of the document that are affected by this amendment.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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PART I. OPERATIONAL CONCEPT AND GENERAL PLANNING PRINCIPLES

Chapter 1. ...

Introduction to CNS/ATM

A brief look at CNS/ATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1-3 Communications Navigation Surveillance Air traffic management ...

Chapter 2. ...

ICAOS planning structure for CNS/ATM

APPENDIX A. Statement of ICAO policy on CNS/ATM systems implementation and operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-2-7 1. Universal accessibility 2. Sovereignty, authority and responsibility of Contracting States 3. Responsibility and role of ICAO 4. Technical cooperation 5. Institutional arrangements and implementation 6. Global navigation satellite system

Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6

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... Chapter 4. ... Chapter 6. Navigation systems Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required navigation performance (RNP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GNSS augmentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Avionics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WGS-84 coordinate system and aeronautical databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evolutionary introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Systems to support approach, landing and departure operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General transition issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... Chapter 12. Organizational and international cooperative aspects Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-12-1 Organizational forms at the national level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-12-1 Specific operational and technical organizational aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-12-2 General Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) implementation and option selection Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Air traffic management (ATM) Air traffic management

I-6-1 I-6-1 I-6-1 I-6-2 I-6-3 I-6-3 I-6-3 I-6-3 I-6-4

...

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Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6 PART I Operational Concept and General Planning Principles

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO CNS/ATM

... A BRIEF LOOK AT CNS/ATM

...

Navigation 1.20 Improvements in navigation include the progressive introduction of area navigation (RNAV) capabilities along with the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) . These systems provide for worldwide navigational coverage and are being used for worldwide en-route navigation and for non-precision approaches. With appropriate augmentation systems and related procedures, it is expected that these systems will also support most precision approaches. 1.21 GNSS, as specified in Annex 10, will provides a high-integrity, navigation service. The successful implementation of high-accuracy and all-weather worldwide enable aircraft to navigate in all types of airspace, in any part of the world, GNSS would

offer ing the possibility for many States to dismantle some or all of their existing ground-based navigation infrastructure. However, the removal of conventional radio navigation aids should be considered with caution and after a safety assessment has demonstrated that an acceptable level of safety can be met and after consultation with users through the regional air navigation planning process.

Editorial Note. Renumber subsequent paragraphs accordingly.

Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6 ... Amend Navigation section of Figure I-1-2 as follows:
Navigation ! ! ! ! ! ! High-integrity, high-reliability, all-weather worldwide Improved four-dimensional navigation accuracy C ost savings from reduction or non-implementation of ground-based navigation aids Better airport and runway utilization navigation services

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Provision of non-precision approach/precision approach NPA/PA capabilities at presently non-equipped airports R educed pilot workload

...

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Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6 Chapter 2 ICAOS PLANNING STRUCTURE FOR CNS/ATM

...

APPENDIX A TO CHAPTER 2 STATEMENT OF ICAO POLICY ON CNS/ATM SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATIONS

Approved by Council (C 141/13) on 9 March 1994

...

6.

GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM

implemented as an evolutionary progression The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) should from existing global navigation satellite systems, including the United States global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian Federations global orbiting navigation satellite system (GLONASS), towards an integrated GNSS over which Contracting States exercise a sufficient level of control on aspects related to its use by

civil aviation. ICAO shall continue to explore, in consultation with Contracting States, airspace users and service providers, the feasibility of achieving a civil internationally controlled GNSS . ...

Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6 Chapter 4 AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ...

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Note.

Chapter 4 is under review on the basis of material developed by the Air Traffic Management Operational Concept Panel (ATMCP). Proposed amendments to this chapter will be presented separately. Tables I-4 will be deleted in revised Chapter 4.

... Chapter 6 NAVIGATION SYSTEMS

REFERENCES Annex 10 Aeronautical Telecommunications Guidelines for the Introduction and Operational Use of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) (Circular 267) Manual on Required Navigation Performance (RNP) (Doc 9613) Annex 11 Air Traffic Services

OBJECTIVES 6.1 The navigation element of CNS/ATM systems is meant and seamless position determination introduction of satellite-based aeronautical navigation. to provide accurate, reliable capability, worldwide, through

REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE (RNP)

6.2 Modern aircraft are increasingly equipped with RNAV , the use of which facilitates a flexible route system. Also, by using the concept of RNP, the need for selection between competing systems can be avoided. However, international standardization of navigation techniques, which are in wide use internationally, is still required.

6C-8 6.3

Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6

The RNP concept for en-route operations has been approved by ICAO (Annex 11, Chapter 2) and has been extended to cover approach, landing and departure operations.

6.4 RNP is a statement of navigation performance accuracy within a defined airspace based on the combination of the navigation sensor error, airborne receiver error, display error and flight technical error. 6.5 RNP types for en-route operations are identified by a single accuracy value defined as the minimum navi-gation performance accuracy required within a specified containment level. The en-route RNP types are described in Doc 9613. 6.6 The RNP types for approach, landing and depar-ture operations are defined in terms of required accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability of navigation. While some RNP types contain accuracy specification of lateral performance only (i.e. similar to en-route), other types also include lateral and vertical performance specifications. The types similar to en-route specification are intended for operations such as non-precision approach or departure. Most RNP types for approach and landing operations do require vertical containment based on navigation system information.

GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM (GNSS) The GNSS is a worldwide position and time determination system, which includes one or more satellite constellations, aircraft receivers, and system integrity monitoring, augmented as necessary to support the RNP for the actual phase of operation. 6.7 6.8 The satellite navigation systems in operation are the global positioning system (GPS) of the United States and the g LObal orbiting na vigation s atellite s ystem (GLONASS) of the Russian Federation. Both systems were offered to ICAO as a means to support the evolutionary development of GNSS. In 1994, the ICAO Council accepted the United States offer of the GPS, and in 1996 it accepted the Russian Federations offer of GLONASS. The GPS space segment is composed of twenty-four satellites in six orbital planes. 6.9 The satellites operate near-circular 20 200 km (10 900 NM) orbits at an incli-nation angle of 55 degrees to the equator, and each satellite completes an orbit in approximately 12 hours. The GLONASS space segment consists of twenty-four operational satellites and 6.10 several spares. GLONASS satellites orbit at an altitude of 19 100 km with an orbital period of 11 hours and 15 minutes. Eight evenly spaced satellites are arranged in each of the three orbital planes, inclined 64.8 degrees and spaced 120 degrees apart.

Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6

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GNSS AUGMENTATIONS To overcome inherent system limitations and to meet the performance 6.11 requirements (accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity of service) for all phases of flight , GPS and GLONASS require varying degrees of augmentation. Augmentations are classified in three broad categories: aircraft-based, ground-based and satellite-based (see Table I-6-1).

Aircraft-based augmentations 6.12 One type of aircraft-based augmentation (ABAS) is called receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM), which can be used if there are more than four satellites with suitable geometry in view. With five satellites in view, five independent positions can be computed. If these do not match, it can be deduced that one or more of the satellites are giving incorrect information. If there are six or more satellites in view, more independent positions can be calculated and a receiver may then be able to identify one faulty satellite and exclude it from the position determination calculations.

6.13 Other aircraft-based augmentations can also be implemented and are usually termed aircraft autonomous integrity monitoring (AAIM). An inertial navigation system, for example, can aid GNSS during short periods when the satellite navigation antennas are shadowed by the aircraft during manoeuvres or during periods when insufficient satellites are in view. Augmentation techniques particularly useful for improving availability of the navigation function also include altimetry-aiding, more accurate time sources or some combination of sensor inputs combined through filtering techniques. Ground-based augmentations 6.14 airport where For g round-based augmentation systems (GBAS), a monitor is located at or near the precision operations are desired. Signals are sent directly to the aircraft in the vicinity (approximately 37 km (20 NM)). These increase the position accuracy locally along with satellite signals provide corrections to integrity information. This capability requires data link(s) between the ground and the aircraft .

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Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6 Satellite-based augmentations

It is not practical to provide coverage with ground-based systems for all phases of flight. 6.15 One way to provide augmentation coverage over large areas is to use satellites to transmit augmentation information. This is known as satellite-based augmentation (SBAS).

6.16 The provision of satellite-based augmentation by geostationary satellites has certain limitations cannot be expected to support all phases of flight, especially precision approach and therefore and landing of higher categories. Since these satellites orbit above the equator, their signals would not be available in polar regions and may be masked by aircraft structure or terrain. This suggests that other GNSS augmentation satellite orbits and/or ground-based augmentation might need to be considered to alleviate these . shortcomings

AVIONICS Simple GPS or GLONASS receivers that do not include RAIM 6.17 capability (or similar forms of integrity monitoring) generally cannot meet the requirements for all phases of flight. 6.18 Multi-sensor systems, using GNSS as one of the sensors, are expected to be in use for the foreseeable future. Such navigation systems generally exhibit better levels of performance than the individual sensor or stand-alone systems. Aircraft using multi-sensor navigation systems, such as integrated GNSS/IRS or GNSS/IRS/FMS, may be certified as meeting levels of RNP which could not be obtained by use of GPS or GLONASS alone.

Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6 WGS-84 COORDINATE SYSTEM AND AERONAUTICAL DATABASES

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6.19 The successful global implementation of satellite navigation is predicated on the existence . Accurate of a coordinate and procedures database of a very high quality satellite navigation is only possible when the ground-derived coordinates, calculated coordinates, and the satellite system-derived coordinates use the same geodetic reference system. 6.20 In support of evolving satellite-based technology, ICAO adopted WGS-84 as the common geodetic reference datum for civil aviation with an applicability date of 1 January 1998 (Annex 15). Implementation of WGS-84 involves, among other things, the transformation of existing coordinates and reference datums to WGS-84. 6.21 Aeronautical databases are built and updated through the use of surveys of existing navigation aids, position fixes and runway thresholds and through the design of new routes or approach procedures. Systems are to be in place to ensure the quality (accuracy, integrity and resolution) of position data from the time of the survey, to the submission of information to the next intended user. Aeronautical databases must be updated on a regular basis.

EVOLUTIONARY INTRODUCTION GNSS implementation will be carried out in an evolutionary manner, allowing gradual 6.22 system improvements to be introduced. Near-term applications of GNSS are intended to enable the early navigation , using the introduction of satellite-based en-route satellite systems (GPS and GLONASS) and primarily aircraft-based existing augmentations . 6.23 Medium-term applications will make use of existing satellite navigation systems with augmentation, or combination of augmentations required for operation in a particular phase any of flight. Longer-term applications will apply to future GNSS. 6.24 a) Three levels are generally accepted for the introduction of GNSS-based operations: supplemental-means GNSS must meet accuracy and integrity requirements for a given operation or phase of flight; availability and continuity require-ments may not be met. Other navigation systems supporting a given operation or phase of flight must be on board; primary-means GNSS must meet accuracy and integrity requirements, but need not meet full availability and continuity of service requirements for a given operation or phase of flight. Safety is achieved by limiting operations to specific time periods and through appropriate procedural restric-tions. Other navigation systems can be retained on board to support the primary-means GNSS;

b)

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Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6 sole-means GNSS must allow the aircraft to meet, for a given operation or phase of flight, all four requirements: accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity of service.

SYSTEMS TO SUPPORT APPROACH, LANDING AND DEPARTURE OPERATIONS Editorial Note. Original paragraph 6.25 has been moved and modified. It is now paragraph 6.28.

The terminology in 6.24 applies to the required state of avionics equipage and the ability 6.26 of aircraft to meet RNP requirements with, in case of sole means, no other navigation equipment on board. It is also related to the intended operation (or phase of flight). Operational approvals for aircraft are therefore issued for particular operations and normally identify specific conditions or restrictions to be applied. To this . end they may vary from State to State 6.27 GNSS sole-means approval condition for termination of present services. is therefore a necessary, but not sufficient, radio navigation

A number of aircraft may be approved for sole-means GNSS navigation for particular operations or phases of flight. However, he service provider must provide a navigation service to all users concerned to support air traffic phases of flight . It is all withdrawal of conventional navaids with the introduction of GNSS therefore necessary to harmonize navigation service. These considerations are not applicable to airspace where present navaids are not available and GNSS alone can be introduced to benefit GNSS-equipped users. 6.28 When introducing GNSS-based services, each State shall identify the elements of GNSS (e.g. GPS, GLONASS, SBAS, GBAS ) and that are provided develop an implementation plan. Where navigation services such as VOR, DME and ILS already exist, States could credit the economic savings associated with the decommissioning of ground-based navigational aids. The cost of implementing SBAS and GBAS should be tied to the provision of user benefits and increased airspace efficiency associated with area navigation and the potential to support lower decision altitude/height to more runways.

6.29 Advantages of GNSS services include the use of GPS/ABAS for en-route and non-precision approach operations where the coverage of ground-based navigation aids does not exist or is limited. In such an environment, GNSS would become the only navigation service as soon as it is introduced. SBAS-based precision approach capability

Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6

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to runways that currently only have a non-precision approach capability will provide further advantages in terms of increased safety and operational efficiency. 6.30 Several technical concerns have been raised with respect to the reliance on GNSS services. Principal among them is the possibility for intentional interference, or jamming, that has the potential to disrupt GNSS navigation services over relatively large areas. States and air navi-gation service providers should develop plans to reduce the likelihood of such occurrences, to detect and eliminate sources of interference and to ensure that aircraft can continue to operate safely during periods when GNSS signals are disrupted. Depending on the traffic density in a given airspace and the degree of integration and automation of the air navigation system, a safety assessment might demonstrate the need for navigational information derived from different independent sources to address certain threats such as intentional jamming. 6.31 Other risk areas are expected to be mitigated as GNSS continues to evolve to a more comprehensive service, such as the introduction of additional signals for aeronautical use on GPS and GLONASS satellites, aug-mentation system improvements, and the introduction of additional satellites and satellite systems. Each State will have to evaluate the effectiveness of the mitigation tech-niques applied in its airspace to determine if it is acceptable to rely on GNSS alone for the provision of navigation service.

SYSTEMS TO SUPPORT APPROACH, LANDING AND DEPARTURE OPERATIONS The standard non-visual aids for precision approach and landing are defined in Annex 10, 6.25 Volume I, Chapter 2. It is intended that the introduction and application of these non-visual aids will be in accordance with the global strategy set forth in Annex 10, Volume I, Attachment B. This strategy will : a) continue ILS operations to the highest level of service as long as operationally acceptable and economically beneficial; implement MLS where operationally required and economically beneficial; promote the use of multi-mode receivers (MMR) or equivalent airborne capability to maintain aircraft interoperability;

b) c)

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Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6 validate the use of GNSS, with such augmentations as required, to support approach and departure operations, including Category I operations, and implement GNSS for such operations as appropriate; complete feasibility studies for Category II and III operations, based on GNSS technology, with such augmentations as required. If feasible, implement GNSS for Category II and III operations where operationally acceptable and economically beneficial; and enable each region to develop an implementation strategy for future systems in line with the global strategy.

e)

f)

...

GENERAL TRANSITION ISSUES Guidelines for transition to the future systems encourage equipage by users for the earliest 6.32 possible accrual of systems benefits. Provision and carriage of terrestrial and satellite-based navigation equipment are required during the transition period when the reliability and availability of a new system must be proven. Appendix A to this chapter lists the guidelines that States, regions, users, service providers and manufacturers should consider when developing GNSS or when planning for its implementation.

Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6 APPENDIX A TO CHAPTER 6 GUIDELINES FOR TRANSITION TO NAVIGATION SYSTEMS

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GNSS should be introduced in an evolutionary manner with increasing benefits commensurate with improve-ments in navigation service. These benefits should culminate in GNSS sole-means operations.

The ground infrastructure for current navigation systems must remain available during the transition period. States/regions should consider segregating traffic according to navigation capability and granting preferred routes to aircraft with better navigation performance .

separation standards and procedures

States/regions should coordinate to ensure that

for appropriately equipped aircraft are introduced approximately simultaneously in each FIR through which major traffic passes. In planning the transition to GNSS, the following issues must be considered:

a )

schedule for provision and/or adoption of a GNSS service, including aircraft and operator approval processes; extent of existing ground-based radio navigation services; strategy for transition schedule to GNSS capability (i.e. benefits-driven or mandatory); appropriate level of user equipage with GNSS capability; provision of other air traffic services (i.e. surveillance and communications); density of traffic/frequency of operations; and mitigation of risks associated with radio frequency interference .

b ) c ) d ) e) f ) g )

...

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Appendix C to the Report on Agenda Item 6 Chapter 12 ORGANIZATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE ASPECTS

... Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) 12.11 The GNSS will initially be composed of a satellite system that provides standard positioning service and system augmentation , which may either have wide area or local area coverage. System criteria that may be imposed. augmentation is required for meeting certain performance Positioning signals are being offered free of charge by the two provider States concerned: at least up to the year 2010 by the Russian Federation (the GLONASS system) and, for the foreseeable future, with six years advance notice of any change to that policy, by the United States (the GPS system). Both these systems are military systems, which are being made available for civilian use. Until these systems are replaced by (civilian) systems requiring financial commitments from the civil establishment worldwide, the provision, as opposed to the use, of the standard positioning service does not appear to be dependent on organizational issues needing to be addressed by States other than the two provider States.

12.12 Systems augmentation gives rise to somewhat different considerations. For example, wide area augmentation could be provided by the same State(s) or entity that operates a satellite constellation providing global standard positioning service. However, a group of States or a regional organization might also undertake to operate the augmentation satellite service required, either by themselves or by contracting with a commercial or government organization to do so on their behalf. Thus, the same type of options as outlined in 12.8 above apply. In each instance, costs would be incurred that would presumably need to be recovered. From an organizational point of view, such augmentation would in fact be a multinational facility or service to which the guidance material on the provision and operation of multinational facilities and services, which is addressed later in this chapter, could apply, as long as the augmentation is primarily to serve civil aviation. On the other hand, if civil aviation is only going to be a minority user of the augmentation services provided, and the entity will provide augmentation services worldwide, a joint concerted approach through, for example, ICAO, a regional air navigation services providers association, or an international aviation user association, for dealing with the service provider, may be the most appropriate. 12.13 Augmentation with local coverage would most likely not require international involvement provided that the facility meets the specifications and Standards required for it to be listed as an international civil aviation facility. The facility itself could be provided by the national or local government or under contract by a commercial entity.

...

Appendix D to the Report on Agenda Item 6 APPENDIX D OVERVIEW OF BENEFITS AND ISSUES RELATING TO THE FUTURE COMBINATIONS OF INDEPENDENT SATELLITE NAVIGATION SYSTEMS AND THEIR AUGMENTATIONS

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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) have been developed for both Global Positioning System (GPS) and GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) for L1 signals and for aircraft-based (ABAS), satellite-based (SBAS) and ground-based (GBAS) augmentations systems. 1.2 In the future, GPS will be enhanced by providing additional signals and will possibly include a worldwide integrity function. GLONASS-M satellites with improved characteristics will be added to the constellation and subsequently new generation GLONASS-K satellites will be launched. A new constellation called GALILEO is also being developed by Europe and will provide three signals and a worldwide integrity function. 1.3 A number of benefits for the civil aviation users can be expected from the use of these additional signals and constellations. The existing systems can be combined to improve robustness and therefore increase the ability to meet performance requirements in the presence of interference or system failures. In addition, increased performance can be obtained in nominal conditions when using combination of signals from independent systems. This means that, for some regions, the use of combined constellation is likely to offer navigation service levels that previously required the use of augmentation systems. Finally, the availability of multiple constellations could alleviate institutional concerns about relying on a single service provider. 1.4 The introduction of these new elements also raises some technical, economical and institutional issues that need to be addressed in order to take full credit of the opportunities offered.

2.

OPPORTUNITIES FROM NEW SIGNALS AND CONSTELLATIONS Implementation time frames

2.1

2.1.1 As of September 2003, the estimates of service delivery for the various constellations and new signals are as follow: a) GPS/L1: available; b) GPS/L5: Initial operational capability - 2012, Full operational capability - 2015; c) GLONASS/L1: available (number of operational satellites is limited); d) GLONASS/L3: planned availability from 2008;

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Appendix D to the Report on Agenda Item 6 e) GALILEO/L1: planned availability from 2008 ; f) GALILEO/E5a: planned availability from 2008; and g) GALILEO/E5b: planned availability from 2008.

2.1.2 For any new signal/constellation, an additional time period of one to two years would probably be needed for the purpose of validation/certification by civil aviation authorities before approving signals use for safety-of-life applications. This implies that the operational use of new signals and combined constellations service could start in the 2010 time frame. 2.1.3 ICAO planning for GNSS standardization involves development and validation of SARPs for the above-mentioned elements of GNSS as the development of these elements progresses. 2.2 Technical and operational opportunities

2.2.1 Assessment of GNSS vulnerability and mitigation methods (AN-Conf/11-WP/17 refers) indicates that there is inherent merit in making satellite navigation as robust as possible against interference. In this respect, each of the new GNSS signals will be more resistant to interference than GPS/L1 due to higher power and wider bandwidth, resulting in better interference rejection capability. Moreover, all signals intended for safety-of-life applications will benefit from the protection provided through International Telecommunication Union (ITU) allocation within the aeronautical radionavigation service (ARNS) bands. 2.2.2 Frequency diversification is also a very effective mitigation against unintentional interference, since it is highly unlikely that such an interference source would simultaneously affect more than one frequency. Indications have been received that all core constellations (GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO) will provide services on multiple frequencies, and any combination of two of these constellations make available at least one non-common frequency. 2.2.3 Atmospheric effects will also be mitigated in a very effective way when a combination of constellations is used. The impact of signal loss which exists today in equatorial regions and at a lesser extent at high latitudes under severe ionospheric scintillation conditions will be significantly mitigated when more satellites are in view. This could be achieved by combining at user level the different measurements from different constellations. 2.2.4 With single frequency satellites, GBAS and SBAS must correct for errors induced by the ionosphere. Multiple frequencies from each satellite support this error correction in the receiver. When combining constellations, availability and continuity of service limitations currently related to the events such as ionospheric scintillation, system maintenance, space segment failures or terrain/building masking (e.g. for GNSS-based surface operations) will be alleviated due to the larger number of satellites in view. 2.2.5 In areas where integrity data is not provided (by SBAS or future core constellations), performance improvement may be obtained by combining measurements from multiple constellations with ABAS, albeit with less robustness. This will obviate the need for SBAS deployment in some instances and simplify SBAS architecture in other cases. 2.2.6 Some States are already considering potential benefits of increasing GNSS robustness through frequency diversity with a single constellation. Combining the different signals of at least two of these constellations at user level would further enhance the robustness, improve performance and also seriously mitigate the institutional concerns issued from the use of a single constellation.

Appendix D to the Report on Agenda Item 6 2.3 Institutional opportunities

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2.3.1 There are non-technical reasons for the use of multiple constellations . These reasons can include institutional concerns about the control and maintainability of a single constellation, the threat of service denial, and the possibility of a major failure in a core constellation. The availability of multiple, independent constellations from independent service providers will in particular allow that: a) satellite navigation services can continue to provide their nominal performance despite a lack of funding resources to maintain a specific constellation, technical difficulties with operation of the constellation, launch failures, or destruction resulting from emergency situations; b) navigation service can be maintained on a worldwide basis, even if the performance of a single constellation is degraded or denied in the whole coverage area during a national emergency situation, as recognized by the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Article 89 refers). In this case an independently managed second constellation could continue to provide service; and c) navigation service can be maintained even in the case of signal interruption or major modification of one satellite constellation, a mid-term service interruption of one constellation or the decision of one satellite constellation provider to discontinue provision of the service.

3.

CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF ADDITIONAL INDEPENDENT CONSTELLATIONS AND AUGMENTATIONS Complexity related to using multiple combinations of elements

3.1

3.1.1 The introduction of independent constellations and augmentation system elements introduces technical complexity. This must be managed properly in both the technical and operational domains to ensure that aircraft operators obtain the benefits described above and that these benefits exceed costs. 3.1.2 Complexity could increase, as GNSS evolves, if there will be a proliferation of airborne receivers that use different combinations of independent GNSS elements in different ways. It is also anticipated that there will be architectures that further enhance capability by integrating GNSS with inertial systems. The market will naturally preclude architectures that use combinations failing to provide economic benefits, but fragmentation could undoubtedly occur. Air navigation services providers, aircraft operators and manufacturers will have to work together to match capability to required navigation performance and published approach procedures in order to maximise benefits. 3.1.3 It was suggested that air navigation service providers would require a real time indication of whether various combinations of GNSS system elements support published levels of service, accounting for users with various capability levels. This approach stems from the current system monitoring philosophy, where the air navigation service provider can monitor individual terrestrial aids and where each aid provides a defined service. However such approach probably will not suit future GNSS operations, in particular when multiple signals and constellations are introduced. Therefore the current status monitoring concept should be revisited.

6D-4

Appendix D to the Report on Agenda Item 6

3.1.4 The standardisation of a multiple combination of elements could become difficult to manage for ICAO, depending on the implementation strategy for SARPs introduction. The best option could be to standardize the new signals individually supplementing SARPs with guidance material on the use of these new signals and signal combinations. 3.2 System cost for aircraft operators and service providers

3.2.1 From the users prospective, the introduction of additional signals and constellations will require replacement of existing receivers and aircraft antennas. These receivers and antennas will be more complex and will likely cost more than the current generation of GNSS avionics. However, with the continuous advances in receiver technology, these cost increases are likely to be relatively modest. 3.2.2 The most viable strategy for aircraft operators could be to retrofit only when a business case is positive. The cost of retrofitting could be reduced if manufacturer designs allow for software or simple hardware upgrades. The other part of this strategy would be to procure new aircraft with avionics that match the state of GNSS development. This will require advance knowledge of standards and plans for the introduction of new signals. 3.2.3 In the case of GBAS, a system capable of augmenting two core constellations (e.g. GPS/GLONASS or GPS/GALILEO) may be more expensive due to the increased complexity in reference receivers and antenna elements. On the other hand, service providers using relatively new GBAS equipment, which augments a single constellation, would not rush to introduce new equipment and take decisions for system upgrades primarily based on nominal life cycle considerations. 3.2.4 In order to minimise the potential cost impact and to maximise the benefits, ICAO, in developing standards for new GNSS elements and signals, should develop recommendations on the most promising combinations of elements and signals. 3.3 Repercussions of regulatory restrictions

3.3.1 Current GNSS avionics automatically select which satellites and augmentation elements to * use . In the future, State regulations could require or prohibit the use of certain GNSS elements or their combinations. Such situation could result in significant costs for users in terms of additional cockpit controls and procedures, crew training and maintenance support. If each independent GNSS element had to be selected, the avionics interface would become very complicated. Crew training for use of this interface and system operation modes that should be selected in various parts of airspace would be costly. Furthermore, a complex avionics interface could increase pilot workload and become a safety issue. 3.3.2 These potential repercussions require ICAO to encourage States, in their planning for implementation of GNSS services, to avoid limitations on the use of specific GNSS elements for institutional reasons.

This is true with the exception of GBAS precision approach that has a channel selection capability to direct the receiver to use a specific GBAS augmentation system.

Appendix D to the Report on Agenda Item 6

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4.

CONCLUSIONS

4.1 GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO will offer independently operated satellite constellations and independent signals. Thus, GNSS service failures when a combination of constellations is implemented will be extremely unlikely. 4.2 Therefore, the increasing number of GNSS signals and constellations offers significant benefits to civil aviation in terms of improved robustness, as well as performance improvements, GNSS ground architecture simplification and alleviation of institutional concerns. 4.3 The implementation of a multiplicity of different possible combinations of elements would result in overall system complexity and negative economic impact particularly on the user side. This problem can be avoided by the thorough assessment and selection of the most promising combinations for general implementation. 4.4 If the issues related to the use of independent core satellite constellations, other GNSS elements and their combinations are properly addressed, the introduction of new constellations and additional signals will facilitate the transition to GNSS as a global system for all phases of flight. 4.5 ICAO, in developing Standards for new GNSS elements and signals, will address the issues associated with the use of multiple signals and their combinations, and develop guidance on the most promising combinations of GNSS elements.

Report on Agenda Item 7 Agenda Item 7: Aeronautical air-ground and air-to-air communications

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7.1

INTRODUCTION

7.1.1 Under this agenda item, the conference reviewed the developments on aeronautical mobile communications since the Tenth Air Navigation Conference and in particular considered the planned evolution of existing communication systems and the potential development of future ones in the framework of the global air traffic management operational concept.

7.2

BACKGROUND

7.2.1 The conference recalled that in September 1991, the Tenth Air Navigation Conference had met to consider and endorse the concept of a future air navigation system, as developed by the Special Committee on Future Air Navigation System (FANS) to meet aviation needs well into the next century. 7.2.2 The conference noted with appreciation that since the Tenth Air Navigation Conference, ICAO technical bodies had conducted significant development work addressing the communications issues identified by the FANS Committee and by the Tenth Air Navigation Conference. As a result, several amendments to Annex 10 had been introduced, including: a) Amendment 70 (applicability date: 9 November 1995), including new Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) for the aeronautical mobile-satellite service (AMSS); b) Amendment 71 (applicability date: 7 November 1996), including specifications for the Mode S data link, material relating to the introduction of 8.33 kHz channel spacing, changes to material related to the protection of air-ground communications in the VHF band and technical specifications relating to the RF characteristics for the VHF digital link (VDL); c) Amendment 72 (applicability date: 6 November 1997), including SARPs and guidance material for VHF digital link (VDL-Mode 2); d) Amendment 73 (applicability date: 5 November 1998), including material relating to the ATN and changes to specifications of the Mode S data link and subnetwork; e) Amendment 74 (applicability date: 4 November 1999), including SARPs for HF data link; f) Amendment 75 (applicability date: 2 November 2000), including changes to the AMSS SARPs introducing a new antenna type, a new voice channel type and enhanced provisions for interoperability among AMSS systems; changes to the VDL SARPs to reduce potential interference to current VHF voice communication systems caused by VDL transmitters; and changes to the VHF voice communication SARPs to enhance immunity to interference from VDL transmitters on board the same aircraft; g) Amendment 76 (applicability date: 1 November 2001), including ATN system management, security and directory services; integrated voice and data link system (VDL Mode 3); and data link satisfying surveillance applications (VDL Mode 4);

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Report on Agenda Item 7 h) Amendment 77 (applicability date: 28 November 2002), including changes to SARPs addressing issues encountered during tests and operational trials of the Mode S data link subnetwork; and i) Amendment 78 (expected to become applicable in November 2003), including consequential amendments to ATN SARPs relating to the inclusion of VDL Modes 3 and 4 in the table of priorities.

7.2.3 Work had also been conducted on the optimal use of aeronautical radio spectrum, the maintenance of communications systems standards to ensure continued viability and the examination of future requirements and systems to meet the increasing demands of ATM. 7.2.4 The conference recognized that, notwithstanding the developments over the last decade, elements of the shortcomings that had been identified by the FANS Committee were still present, including, inter alia: a) disparate services and procedures resulting from differing systems and limited system and decision support tools; b) a reliance on increasingly congested voice radio communications for air-ground exchanges; c) limited facilities for real-time information exchange between ATM, aerodromes and aircraft operators, resulting in less than optimal responses to real-time events and changes in the users operational requirements; d) the limited ability to maximize benefits for aircraft with advanced avionics; and e) the long lead-times involved in developing and deploying improved systems in aircraft fleets or in the ground infrastructure. 7.2.5 It was noted that a number of activities were being conducted to address those limitations: a) in its participation to International Telecommunication Union (ITU) activities, ICAO was actively supporting the introduction of additional radiofrequency spectrum allocations to meet requirements for increased communication capacity and new applications. In parallel, ICAO was also promoting the development of new techniques to increase the efficiency of use of the existing aeronautical spectrum allocation; b) with regard to the provisions for voice and data communications systems contained in Annex 10, ICAO activities focused on ensuring that SARPs were up to date and applicable and interoperable on a global basis; and c) with respect to future digital voice and data communications systems, research and development work on air-ground communications was being monitored, including the use of new modulation schemes, protocols, and frequency bands. 7.2.6 The conference noted that these activities would be continued to enable international civil aviation to meet future communication requirements in a spectrum-efficient manner and enable gradual implementation of the ATM operational concept.

Report on Agenda Item 7

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7.3

IMPLEMENTATION STATUS AND PROGRAMMES

7.3.1 The conference was provided with information on status of the activities undertaken by several States and international organizations towards the operational implementation of various air-ground data links in support of air traffic services (ATS) applications. 7.3.2 7.3.3 A summary of the information is shown in the following paragraphs. Implementation of air-ground data links in Japan

Transition to VDL 7.3.3.1 The conference was informed that the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau (JCAB) was in the process of studying the future implementation of VDL Mode 3, recognizing that ATS providers needed a reliable and high-speed VHF voice and data communication system and that the rapid growth in air traffic required a dramatic increase of VHF channel capacity. The Electronic Navigation Research Institute (ENRI) had been working on research and development (R&D) of the VDL Mode 3 system since 1998 and would be conducting actual flight tests for evaluation of data link performance and voice quality in 2003. Transition to AMSS 7.3.3.2 The conference noted that, in order to cope with the rapid increase of international traffic in North Pacific (NOPAC), JCAB had decided to develop a new aeronautical satellite system called multifunctional transport satellite (MTSAT) in 1994. In addition to its SBAS functions (Section 6.1.3 refers), the MTSAT system also supported aeronautical mobile-satellite service (AMSS) functions. The AMSS function of MTSAT system was fully compliant with the AMSS SARPs and fully supported all types of aeronautical communications defined by ICAO. 7.3.3.3 The conference was informed that there would be two aeronautical satellites, MTSAT-1R and MTSAT-2 available for the Asia and Pacific Region. There were also two aeronautical satellite centres where two GESs were implemented in each centre. The instantaneous switch over between two satellites and four GESs fully assured in the MTSAT. This redundant architecture would provide highly reliable AMSS to users, which would strongly support the reduction of the lateral and longitudinal separations over NOPAC and Central Pacific (CENPAC). With the MTSAT-1R scheduled for launch in early 2004, JCAB intended to apply 50 NM longitudinal separation minimum using DS/CPDLC for appropriately equipped aircraft. With the MTSAT-2 scheduled for launch in early 2005 and obtaining operational experiences, JCAB would further reduce the longitudinal separation minimum to 30 NM. 7.3.3.4 The ATS messages through MTSAT system in Japanese FIR would be handled by JCAB in the same manner as very high frequency (VHF) and high frequency (HF) voice communications in the current ATS environment, whereas the aeronautical operational control (AOC), aeronautical administrative communication (AAC) and aeronautical public communications (APC) messages would be handled separately by a service provider (SITA). JCAB had signed an operational agreement with Inmarsat, which was providing AMSS services worldwide, in order to assure full interoperability between MTSAT and the Inmarsat system. Therefore, the aircraft earth station (AES) currently operating in the Inmarsat system would be able to use the MTSAT system without any modification to aircraft systems by simply adding MTSAT data to their satellite data unit (SDU).

7-4 7.3.4

Report on Agenda Item 7 Data link flight information services (DFIS) applications in China

7.3.4.1 The conference was informed that China had commenced operations at Hong Kong International Airport on the dissemination of the ATIS and VOLMET via data link (D-ATIS and D-VOLMET) and on pre-departure clearance (PDC) delivery to aircraft via data link. Aircraft equipped with the appropriate aircraft communications addressing and reporting system (ACARS) and the required software (compliant to AEEC Specifications 618, 620, 622 and 623) could access and/or receive the full script of the D-ATIS, D-VOLMET and PDC messages. China was considering to extend the D-ATIS and PDC delivery services via data link to other major airports in China. At the same time, use of other data link technologies, including ACARS over aviation VHF link control (AOA) and VHF digital link (VDL) was being explored. 7.3.4.2 The conference noted that the known intrinsic limitation of the ACARS system did not have a significant impact on information of broadcast nature, such as DFIS, as information could be accessed at the will of the pilots in advance. The implementation of DFIS through the ACARS system could also promote more efficient utilization of avionics that were already available. The identified operational and/or safety benefits gained as a result of these applications of data link flight information services were noted with appreciation. 7.3.5 HFDL 7.3.5.1 The conference was informed that ARINC had initiated service of its SARPs-compliant HFDL system in January 1998. During 2003, fourteen geographically diverse HFDL ground stations, transmitting on 30 active frequencies, would provide near global (with the exception of Antarctica) air-ground data link coverage. An adaptive frequency management programme changed the active frequencies at each site in response to atmospheric conditions, such as day-night temperature changes and ionospheric anomalies, to achieve optimum propagation and to avoid interference with nearby HFDL ground stations or HF voice stations. ARINC would expand site configurations as required by equipage and usage growth. There were nearly 300 aircraft equipped with HFDL (mostly transmitting for AOC and AAC). Operational availability exceeded 99 per cent with an uplink message success rate greater than 97 per cent. An operational trial of HFDL in support of waypoint position reporting was under way in the North Atlantic. VDL 7.3.5.2 In 2002, ARINC had installed and deployed thirteen VDL Mode 2 ground stations to provide coverage for the US FAAs CPDLC Build 1 programme in the Miami Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The associated infrastructure included redundant ATN air-ground and ground-ground routers. Deployment of VDL Mode 2 (in an ATN environment) by ARINC was planned in Europe for the operational use of CPDLC at the Maastricht Upper Area Control Center (UACC) . Further deployment was also foreseen in Japan. 7.3.6 SITA AIRCOM data link service Implementation of ICAO air-ground data link by ARINC

7.3.6.1 The conference was informed that SITA VHF AIRCOM service provided near global coverage with over 700 VHF stations deployed in over 170 countries around the world. The service was used by over 5 000 aircraft on a daily basis, primarily for AOC.

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7.3.6.2 The SITA Satellite AIRCOM Data Link service was being used by over 1 500 aircraft that generated an average of 50 000 kilobits of traffic on a daily basis and provided global coverage (except polar regions) via the Inmarsat geo-stationary satellites. The service was currently used in ACARS mode but had been capable of providing AMSS SARPs-compliant services since its launch. 7.3.6.3 Both the VHF and Satellite AIRCOM services supported FANS-1/A operations. The SITA deployment of VDL Mode 2 services had started in 2001. At present there were 25 sites with operational VDL Mode 2 service and this number would increase to over 40 sites by the end of the first quarter of 2004. 7.3.7 FAAs next generation air/ground communications (NEXCOM) and Capstone programmes

NEXCOM 7.3.7.1 The conference noted that VDL Mode 3 had been selected by the United States FAA for its NEXCOM programme to fulfil requirements for added spectrum capacity, replacement of ageing air-ground communication infrastructure, high-integrity secure and interference-free data path. To facilitate transition, development of a ground-based multi-mode digital radio (MDR) capable of VDL Mode 3, and analog 25 kHz/8.33 kHz operation had been undertaken. Final operational approval of the radio was in progress. 7.3.7.2 Three manufacturers were developing multi-mode avionics that would incorporate VDL Mode 3 for the commercial air transport, business aviation and general aviation markets. The Certification Branch of the FAA was currently developing technical standard orders (TSO) to support the installation approval process of the users. A system demonstration involving pre-production avionics and the ground test bed was scheduled at the William J. Hughes Technical Centre for November 2003. The production version of these radios would be certified and available for purchase beginning in 2005. 7.3.7.3 A rapid development effort of the ground system was under way and a full-scale development of the ground system was scheduled to begin in early 2005 and continue through 2007 allowing for first implementation of a fully digital air-ground infrastructure in selected sectors by 2009. Capstone 7.3.7.4 As part of the United States FAAs Capstone programme, there were over 180 aircraft in Alaska equipped with universal access transceiver (UAT)1. Additionally, ten ground stations had been installed. In January 2001, the FAA had approved the use of UAT/ADS-B to support radar-like services for equipped aircraft in areas of Western Alaska without radar coverage. This represented the first operational use of ADS-B to support air traffic services. The Capstone programme was planning to upgrade the installed avionics and ground stations to comply with UAT RTCA MOPS. Additionally, the programme planned to award new contracts for 200 additional avionics suites to equip aircraft in Southeast Alaska and for 30 new ground stations. 7.3.8 Air-ground data link implementation in Europe

7.3.8.1 Information on the LINK 2000+ Programme launched by the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (Eurocontrol) was presented to the conference, addressing the objectives of the programme, its time scales and the modalities of the data link implementation in Europe. The conference
1

UAT is a broadcast data link designed for ADS-B applications. SARPs development for the UAT is under way within the Aeronautical Communications Panel (ACP).

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Report on Agenda Item 7

noted that the objective of the programme was to implement air-ground data link services for air traffic control (ATC) in the core area of Europe, based on the aeronautical telecommunication network (ATN) and VHF digital link Mode 2 (VDL Mode 2). The selected technology combination had been successfully used by EUROCONTROL in operational trials. 7.3.8.2 The conference was informed that the programme concentrated on the implementation of controller-pilot data link communications for en-route ATC, including ATC communication management used to transfer aircraft silently between sectors or centres, ATC clearances used to request and issue ATC clearances and ATC microphone check, used to alert pilots about a blocked voice frequency. In addition it provided a migration path to ATN/VDL Mode 2 for services already existing over ACARS, such as DCL, D-ATIS and oceanic clearance. 7.3.8.3 The EUROCONTROL Maastricht Upper Area Control Centre would provide the services from 2003 onwards, followed by other centres of the described region in 2006 and 2007. This stepped implementation of data link equipped centres would allow pilots to get accustomed gradually to data link operations and is not considered a disadvantage. The controller-pilot data link communications would reduce controller and aircrew workload and voice congestion. The conference noted that full benefits of data link would only become available when a large majority of flights was equipped and that; therefore, EUROCONTROL was investigating the possible need for a mandate for data link equipage. 7.3.9 Modernization of aeronautical communications in India

7.3.9.1 The conference noted that, considering the increase in air traffic growth over Indian terrestrial airspace, the oceanic airspace of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea and advent of new technology and infrastructure in the data communication, the Airports Authority of India (AAI) had drawn plans to improve air-ground communication infrastructure using satellite technology in accordance with the regional communications, navigation, and surveillance/air traffic management (CNS/ATM) plan. Implementation of the plan was being carried out in phases. 7.3.10 Modernization of the Brazilian VHF data link communications services 7.3.10.1 The conference was informed that the Brazilian DATACOM system was an air-ground digital communication system operating in the VHF band and aimed at reducing the amount of voice communications through automatic data transmission. The system allowed exchange of ATS, AOC and AAC messages between ground users (ATC facilities and airlines) and aircraft. The system was based on ACARS technology. A modernization programme was under way, aimed at introducing VDL Mode 2 technology to optimize data link traffic in those sites already approaching saturation levels. Departure clearance and digital ATIS air traffic services would be supported.

7.4

ADS-B DATA LINKS

7.4.1 The conference recalled that automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) was defined in Annex 10 as a surveillance technique in which aircraft automatically provided, via a broadcast mode data link, data derived from on-board navigation and position-fixing systems, including aircraft identification, four-dimensional position, and additional data as appropriate. 7.4.2 Progress in the development of an ADS-B concept of use had been discussed under Agenda Item 1, which focused on the role of ADS-B as an enabling concept in support of a global ATM operational

Report on Agenda Item 7

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concept. In that context, it had been noted that one of the constraints to be taken into account as a part of the activities leading to the implementation of ADS-B was the availability of standardized technology. Thus, the conference proceeded to address some of the associated issues from a technical standpoint. 7.4.3 Comparative analyses/data link evaluations

7.4.3.1 The conference was informed that, at the request of the Air Navigation Commission (ANC), the Aeronautical Mobile Communications Panel (AMCP) had considered a comparative analysis of the following three ADS-B data links: a) secondary surveillance radar (SSR) Mode S extended squitter; b) VHF digital link (VDL) Mode 4; and c) universal access transceiver (UAT). 7.4.3.2 In the course of the analysis, the data links had been assessed and compared against a number of criteria. The criteria used included those considered in earlier assessments of data links for surveillance applications carried out by AMCP, criteria derived from RTCA minimum aviation system performance standards (MASPS) for ADS-B, and additional criteria supplied by the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) to the joint FAA/EUROCONTROL Technical Link Assessment Team (TLAT). In order to evaluate system performance in several different air traffic situations, two air traffic scenarios (a high-density one and a low-density one) had been used as representative of future environments. The conference noted with appreciation the substantive amount of effort invested and the wealth of technical information provided in the analysis developed by the AMCP. It was noted that each of the three data links could be seen to have relative advantages over the others with regard to some criteria. 7.4.3.3 The conference was also informed that over the past several years a number of States and organizations had participated in activities to develop and evaluate ADS-B technologies and the operational applications enabled by those technologies. One of these efforts was a cooperative activity between the United States FAA and EUROCONTROL. This activity had included the evaluation of three candidate ADS-B link technologies (i.e. Mode S extended squitter, VDL Mode 4, and UAT) and had been conducted by the TLAT. In addition, further studies by a consortium of European companies had been funded by the Directorate General for Energy and Transport of the European Commission. 7.4.3.4 The FAA had also conducted additional technical and economic studies that were focused on the use of ADS-B within the United States. Likewise, EUROCONTROL had sponsored additional studies focused on the European applications for ADS-B. In addition, the United States FAA and EUROCONTROL had jointly sponsored a number of flight evaluations that had utilized single and multiple ADS-B link technologies. Other States, such as Australia and Sweden had conducted ADS-B evaluations using a single ADS-B link technology. 7.4.3.5 An APANPIRG ADS-B Study and Implementation Task Force had identified near-term applications and benefits of ADS-B in the ASIAPAC region and reviewed the available ADS-B data link, based on a comparison with ADS-B plans for other regions and avionics availability considerations.

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Report on Agenda Item 7 Implementation decisions and recommendations at the regional and national level

7.4.4.1 Following its review of comparative analysis/data link evaluation activities, the conference was informed of a number of national and regional implementation decisions and recommendations originating from several regions on the basis of the results of such activities. United States link decision 7.4.4.2 The conference was informed that in 2002 the United States FAA had announced a decision on the ADS-B links for use within the United States for the initial introduction of ADS-B services. Under this decision the SSR Mode S extended squitter was to be used for air transport and other high-performance aircraft while UAT was to be used on the typical general aviation aircraft. No actions had been taken to require ADS-B equipage. The UAT had been selected to provide ADS-B and associated services for the general aviation users because of its lower cost and greater uplink capacity, especially for flight information services broadcast (FIS-B) services. European data link recommendation 7.4.4.3 The conference was informed that within EUROCONTROL, an ADS-B data link recommendation for the short and medium term had been elaborated, concerning primarily a data link option that could support ADS-B applications planned to be implemented in Europe in the time frame 2008 - 2012. It called for, inter alia, the SSR Mode S extended squitter to be accepted as the logical choice to support the early implementation of ADS-B applications (both air-to-ground and air-to-air) and to provide interoperability with the United States, with deployment to begin as soon as practicable. ADS-B Implementation in Sweden 7.4.4.4 The conference noted the implementation of ADS-B based on VDL Mode 4 in Sweden. Initial applications covered A-SMGCS and surveillance in areas presently not covered by radar. Australian ADS-B network 7.4.4.5 The conference was informed that, following operational trials conducted using ADS-B based on the SSR Mode S extended squitter for ATC ground surveillance, Airservices Australia planned to install a network of approximately twenty ADS-B ground stations across the non-radar areas of Australia to provide nationwide coverage at and above flight level 300, complementing coverage from a radar network down the east coast. The meeting noted that this plan was in line with the Asia/Pacific regional strategy. Asia/Pacific regional strategies for ADS-B implementation 7.4.4.6 Following its review of available ADS-B data links (Sect. 7.4.3.5 refers), the ASIA/PAC Air Navigation Planning and Implementation Regional Group (APANPIRG) ADS-B Study and Implementation Task Force had unanimously recommended that the SSR Mode S extended squitter be used as the data link for ADS-B radar like services in the ASIA/PAC Regions in the near future. Subsequently, the fourteenth meeting of APANPIRG, held in August 2003, had endorsed the task forces recommendation with the target date of January 2006.

Report on Agenda Item 7 Phased implementation of ADS-B in the Russian Federation

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7.4.4.7 The conference noted that the State Civil Aviation Authority of Russia had adopted the concept and programme of the phased implementation of ADS-B in Russia based on VDL Mode 4. It was planned to create a network of ADS-B ground stations. The equipment developed in the Russian Federation was presently being certificated. Implementation of ADS-B would start in 2004 in the Tyumen region. ADS in Mongolia 7.4.4.8 The conference noted that, based on findings from real-time simulations of a possible ADS infrastructure, a recommendation had been made in Mongolia to implement VDL Mode 4 ground stations supporting ADS-B to provide surveillance coverage for domestic traffic in the lower airspace. Global and inter-regional considerations 7.4.4.9 The conference reviewed the future aeronautical mobile communication scenarios for data link surveillance services developed by AMCP (section 7.5.1 refers). According to these scenarios, for high density terrestrial areas ADS-B services would be supported by the SSR Mode S extended squitter in the initial phase. Where the ATM service requirements or the RCP levels could not be met, a complementary data link could be introduced using the UAT, or the VDL Mode 4, on the basis of regional agreements. For oceanic and low/medium density areas, ADS-B services would be supported by the SSR Mode S extended squitter, the UAT, or the VDL Mode 4 on the basis of regional agreements. 7.4.4.10 The conference was apprised of the position of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) on the implementation of ADS-B and noted that IATA supported the identification of the SSR Mode S extended squitter as the single, interoperable link in present regional transition plans, as the system satisfied the requirements posed by the initial applications and was available and mature, enabling early implementation. The conference was also informed that IFALPA supported the establishment of the SSR Mode S extended squitter as the single interoperable link for initial implementation in order to gain operational experience 7.4.4.11 In addressing inter-regional harmonization considerations, the conference noted that the FAA and EUROCONTROL had undertaken to coordinate strategies for the introduction of the initial ADS-B services within the United States and European airspace respectively. Common to both the United States and the European strategies for the introduction of the initial ADS-B services was the use of the SSR Mode S extended squitter as a common link technology for achieving interoperability in support of near-term ADS-B applications. It was also recalled that, in the course of the development of the Asia Pacific strategy for the implementation of ADS-B in the regions, a comparison with ADS-B plans had been performed. 7.4.4.12 Finally, with regard to avionics availability, it was noted that both Airbus and Boeing had announced plans to equip new commercial air transport class aircraft with SSR Mode S transponders supporting the transmission of SSR Mode S extended squitter for ADS-B. The most recent generation of airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) and Mode S equipment had incorporated support for the extended squitter and, given the global use of ACAS in air transport class aircraft, the widespread availability of extended squitter based ADS-B services was becoming possible. The retrofit of commercial air transport aircraft with extended squitter capability for ADS-B had already begun by some commercial operators.

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Report on Agenda Item 7 Strategy for the near-term introduction of ADS-B

7.4.5.1 In reviewing the available information on implementation decisions, the conference noted that one of the key factors in the decision making process at the national and regional level appeared to have been the overriding requirement to ensure global interoperability while enabling the near term introduction of ADS-B services. Such requirement was dictated by safety and efficiency reasons; was responsive to the needs of the user community; and had been extensively embraced and supported throughout the industry. 7.4.5.2 The conference also noted that the majority of the States and international organizations that had provided information on their implementation decisions or recommendations had selected the SSR Mode S Extended squitter as an initial ADS-B link, based on a wide range of considerations, including but not limited to technical ones. This convergence could form a sound basis for achieving the desired global interoperability and the associated benefits. In this respect, the conference noted with appreciation the efforts of States and regions that had fostered the convergence by endeavoring to coordinate their implementation choices to the extent possible. 7.4.5.3 At the same time, the conference recognized that a significant number of States from several regions might not be in a position to fully support such convergence on a global near-term solution at the present time without further study and consideration. In particular, it was recognized that certain States might not have identified a near term need for introducing ADS-B in their airspace; or might be still in the process of selecting an appropriate ADS-B link technology; or might be conducting regional coordination in the interest of regional harmonization before committing to a technology choice; or might have already identified as their preferred technical solution one that was partly or wholly inconsistent with the implementation of the SSR Mode S extended squitter. In this regard, the conference recognized that for the near term, other link technologies supporting the initial introduction of ADS-B applications may optionally be used on a local or regional basis either in addition to Mode S extended squitter or in lieu of Mode S extended squitter in support of local or regional operations. 7.4.5.4 The conference agreed that the awareness of the substantive convergence achieved so far could provide a useful supporting element in the decision process of States that had not made their selection yet, in addition to the results of technical studies such as those conducted by AMCP, and to the information made available by States and organizations that had already completed the decision process.

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7.4.5.5 On the basis of the above considerations with regard to potential near term ADS-B solutions, the conference developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 7/1 Strategy for the near-term introduction of ADS-B

That States: a) note that a common element in most of the approaches currently adopted for early implementation of ADS-B is the selection of the SSR Mode S extended squitter as the initial data link; and take into account this common element to the extent possible in their national and regional implementation choices in order to facilitate global interoperability for the initial introduction of ADS-B.

b)

7.4.6

Support of longer-term ADS-B requirements

7.4.6.1 The conference recognized that, in the longer term, the current SSR Mode S extended squitter technology may not be able to fully satisfy all of the requirements for ADS-B services in all airspaces. It was therefore important to more fully define the evolution of the operational requirements for ADS-B; the evolution of the air traffic environments in which ADS-B must operate; and the evolution of the use of the 1 090 MHz channel in order to determine whether a link with greater performance would be required. Any long-term ADS-B solution would need to be integral with an overall long-term surveillance architecture that supported the required surveillance performance (RSP) associated with a set of internationally standardized ATS applications. 7.4.6.2 The long-term operational requirements would become the basis for ICAO to develop SARPs for an internationally standardized set of ADS-B applications, supporting both air-air and air-ground services. The conference confirmed that the continued development within ICAO of alternative ADS-B link technologies was appropriate. However, it was felt that it was premature to select any specific long-term ADS-B link architecture for the support of global aviation needs. In the development of such architectures, care should be taken to ensure backward compatibility with the near term architecture and to make optimum use of the available data links already standardized by ICAO (such as VDL Mode 4) or currently undergoing standardization (such as the UAT). Other link technologies, or enhancements to existing ADS-B link technologies, that might emerge in the future would also need to be taken into account. In considering any candidate link technology, special attention should be paid to ICAO ADS-B operational requirements, frequency spectrum availability and aircraft integration considerations. 7.4.6.3 On the basis of the above considerations with regard to potential longer term ADS-B solutions, the conference developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 7/2 That a) States recognize that in the longer term the current SSR Mode S extended squitter technology may not be able to fully satisfy all of the Support of longer term ADS-B requirements

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Report on Agenda Item 7 requirements for ADS-B services in all airspaces; and b) ICAO continue development of technical standards for ADS-B link technologies, including SSR Mode S extended squitter, VDL Mode 4 and UAT, with special attention being paid to ICAO ADS-B operational requirements, frequency spectrum availability and aircraft integration issues.

7.4.7

VDL Mode 4 considerations

7.4.7.1 The conference was presented with an overview of the aircraft aspects of multiple VHF transmitter-receiver installations, with particular reference to co-site interference issues related to installation of VDL Mode 4 equipment on large air transport class aircraft. The conclusions of the overview was that, in order to accommodate on such aircraft VDL Mode 4 equipment for ADS-B applications, more onerous precautions needed to be taken at the frequency planning level than those generally required to accommodate other equipment operating in the VHF band. 7.4.7.2 The conference was informed by the Secretary that the issue was currently under the consideration of the ACP, which had undertaken an assessment of the extent of the problem (including its relevance to other VDL modes in addition to Mode 4) and of potential solutions or mitigations. The Secretary also informed the conference that the recommendations offered in the paper with regard to frequency planning would be submitted to the ACP for consideration.

7.5

FUTURE EVOLUTION OF CURRENT AERONAUTICAL MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS Future aeronautical mobile communication scenarios

7.5.1

7.5.1.1 The conference reviewed material developed by the AMCP discussing future aeronautical mobile communications scenarios as might develop over the following two decades, and presenting some of the issues to be investigated in connection with the scenarios. A set of diagrams summarizing the scenarios is included in the appendix to the report on this agenda item. The conference concurred that the aeronautical mobile communication infrastructure had to evolve in order to accommodate new functions and to provide the adequate capacity and quality of services required to support evolving air traffic management (ATM) requirements within the framework of the global ATM operational concept. It also noted that a major constraint on the evolution of the infrastructure in high-density areas where the very high frequency (VHF) spectrum was already heavily congested, or was approaching congestion, was the limited availability of radiofrequency spectrum dedicated to aeronautical mobile communication services. 7.5.1.2 In its review of the AMCP material, the conference observed that the scenarios were based on a three-step approach, whereby: a) the first step was the introduction or the expansion of the voice and data link systems that were already included in Annex 10 or which were already under development; b) the second step was the definition and implementation of new terrestrial and/or satellite systems that operated outside the VHF band. This step would be required only in some high-density areas, where the VHF spectrum is expected to experience saturation despite

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the introduction during the first step of more frequency efficient systems. This second step would provide capacity that was initially complementary to VHF. By taking over some communications services that were originally provided over VHF, this step would then reduce VHF congestion; and c) the third step was the introduction of a new global VHF system making use of the spectrum that had been made available by the second step. This step would be envisaged only in high-density areas, and only in the longer term. 7.5.1.3 The conference took particular note of the fact that the second and third step were intended only to be applicable in high-density areas. The conference also noted that, while the purpose of the scenarios was to reflect the likely evolution of the communication infrastructure over time for areas with different traffic density, they were not intended to replace or pre-empt the relevant ICAO planning process, but merely to provide a common basis for discussion of the way forward in the development of the infrastructure. Separate scenarios were defined for voice and data link services. Within the data link service, separate scenarios were defined for data link communications service and data link surveillance service. The data link surveillance service in turn included automatic dependent surveillance contract (ADS-C) and automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B). For each of the services, three operational situations with different constraints had been considered: a) oceanic and low/medium density areas where only a limited ground-based communication infrastructure can be efficiently deployed; b) low/medium density areas where a full ground-based communication infrastructure can be deployed; and c) high density terrestrial areas. 7.5.1.4 The conference noted that in the course of the development of the scenarios a number of issues had been identified as requiring further consideration. 7.5.1.4.1 A critical element of the three-step evolution path, particularly in high density areas, was spectrum availability. During the first step, VHF spectrum needed to be made available for the introduction of new services; during the second step, the transfer of services from the VHF band to other bands was conditional on availability of appropriate spectrum in the new bands; during the third step, the introduction of new VHF services was conditional on availability of sufficient spectrum in the VHF band. 7.5.1.4.2 The suitability of the present and future communication systems considered in the scenarios to support the emerging ATM requirements and RCP levels needed to be assessed in quantitative terms as a function of the operational environment. 7.5.1.4.3 Systems using different operational modes might give rise to different ATS operational procedures that were optimized for system characteristics. As aircraft crossed boundaries between areas or regions that operated different types of systems, pilots would be required to manage these procedures. Human factors and human machine interfacing would have significant impacts on the efficiency and, ultimately, on the safety of these new procedures. 7.5.1.4.4 The coexistence of multiple communication systems within each scenario and across different scenarios posed technical, operational and economic challenges that needed to be addressed. In particular,

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the definition of an on-board architecture supporting the integration of multiple systems should be undertaken. 7.5.1.4.5 It was observed that the scenarios also included use of aircraft communications addressing and reporting system (ACARS). In this regard, the conference was provided with information on the increasing use of ACARS for digital ATIS and pre-departure/oceanic clearance as well as FANS-1/A avionics package for controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC) and ADS. It was noted that approximately 1 200 long haul aircraft had already been equipped with FANS-1/A and that airframe manufacturers were considering the introduction of that technology to smaller single-aisle aircraft. It was recognized that real operational benefits were being accrued through the use of the above-mentioned systems, mostly in oceanic/low-density airspace and for specific type of operations. In high-density airspaces, safety considerations may limit the use of ACARS/FANS-1/A for tactical CPDLC operations. 7.5.1.4.6 The conference was informed about issues faced by the business aviation community in relation to the use of CPDLC/ADS. Specifically, it was stated that for business aviation there was no business case for equipage. Furthermore, the appropriate avionics (based on FANS-1/A or ATN technologies) were not yet available, and uncertainties associated with market and implementation plans of air navigation service providers were preventing their development for business aircraft. The conference acknowledged the aforementioned problems and their relevance to planning and implementation of CNS/ATM. 7.5.1.4.7 It was also noted that the provision of ATS data link applications via FANS-1/A had not been subject to ICAO provisions. However, the Organization had promulgated to States its position on the early use of the package and its relationship to the envisaged end state via a State letter in December 1994. Similarly, guidance material on the operational accommodation of FANS-1/A aircraft in a system complying with the ICAO end state had been promulgated to States via another State letter in October 1998. It was noted that FANS-1/A continued to evolve technically through activities of relevant industry bodies. 7.5.2 Review of proposals on future development of air-ground communications

7.5.2.1 The conference proceeded to consider a number of proposals addressing the future evolution of current aeronautical mobile communications, referring to the scenarios discussed above as required to assist in clarifying commonalities and divergences of the various proposals. 7.5.2.2 The conference noted information supporting the definition of a future communications concept presented by Eurocontrol. The contribution stressed that present global development plans could and should be harmonised in the near term through the use of multi-mode avionics capable of user-transparent and seamless operations in all ICAO Regions and that the pursuit of future communications solutions was best accomplished as a global activity. The future communications infrastructure should provide backward compatibility with the present infrastructure; be capable of both voice and data services; be able to operate in more than one band simultaneously in a spectrum efficient manner; be capable to provide expanded capacity as the needs of the aviation community dictate; have minimum economic impact on airspace users; and could potentially consist of more than one system (e.g. terrestrial and satellite). The conference noted that Eurocontrol was exploring the potential of new technologies for aviation (e.g. wide band communication systems based on evolving international telecommunications standards and satellite-based systems). This would enable the financial benefits of commercial off the shelf (COTS) products to be realised, as well as allowing the flexible and effective use of radio spectrum. It was also noted that commercial technology, which offered the potential for attractive lower cost solutions to future aviation communications needs, might need certain modification to meet aviation community standards or air traffic quality of service levels. Hence, the convergence of aviation and commercial requirements needed to be promoted.

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7.5.2.3 Another contribution stressed the need for ICAO to discuss the most appropriate VDL system for ATS operation taking into consideration the future voice traffic and data link traffic within the limited VHF frequency band for AMS, and to develop a transition plan for VDL on a global basis, once the selection was made on VDL based on the technological advantages and cost/benefit analysis. Additionally, ICAO should assist the transition to AMSS and encourage the use of AMSS for ATS in oceanic and remote airspace. ADS/CPDLC trial operations through AMSS should also be promoted on a global basis, so that technical and operational problems can be identified to ensure the smooth transition to actual ATS operations through AMSS. 7.5.2.4 An approach emphasizing the need for an interoperable air/ground communications solution from an airspace users perspective was introduced. It concluded that multi-mode avionics supporting ICAO standardized systems could provide seamless VHF communications operation for international airspace users. This approach would allow regions to mitigate spectrum congestion at a pace appropriate to their anticipated usage. By maximizing service life of the VHF spectrum, it would minimize future investment costs and increases availability of voice and data link communications options for service providers. The conference was informed that, in the United States, it was projected that a VDL-3 implementation should exceed 30 years of life expectancy. It was anticipated that, while in other high-density regions VHF band saturation could occur by 2015, in other regions a minimum 20-year useful life extension for the VHF band could be achieved. Thus, the use of multi-mode avionics should provide an effective solution for the aviation community and would allow significant time for the aviation community to explore next generation communications options. 7.5.2.5 A proposal from the CAR/SAM Regions concerning the future development of air-ground aeronautical communications noted that, according to the studies conducted by GREPECAS, the implementation of VDL Mode 2 in the medium term was considered feasible to support data link applications, such as CPDLC. The implementation of VDL Mode 3 or 4 would be subject to regional agreements, together with other future data link options. 7.5.2.6 The conference was apprised of the position of IATA on aeronautical air-ground communications needs, according to which future development of the VHF air-ground infrastructure should converge to a single globally harmonized, compatible and interoperable system to reduce the proliferation of solutions based on national or regional priorities. The conference noted that IATA encouraged the use of VDL Mode 2 to sustain the growth in data communications and the introduction of 8.33 kHz when needed to alleviate voice congestion. The conference also noted that IATA Member airlines did not support the implementation of VDL Mode 3 considering the uncertain benefits and limited capacity gain. They also did not support implementation of VDL Mode 4 as it would add to the proliferation of VHF system alternatives and delay the needed overhaul of the VHF system. 7.5.3 Identification of common elements among the proposed approaches

7.5.3.1 The conference noted that a variety of views had been presented with regard to the future evolution of aeronautical mobile communications. It was recognized that, while to a certain extent that variety could be attributed to different planning horizons being addressed by different contributions to the conference, some differences remained even when comparable time frames were considered. For instance, within the scope of the first of the three potential evolutionary steps outlined in the AMCP scenarios, namely the introduction or expansion of the voice and data link systems already standardized by ICAO (Section 7.5.1.2 refers), a number of different approaches were currently being followed in different regions. When considering future evolution beyond the implementation of existing ICAO Standards towards the development of new generations of aeronautical communication technologies, additional potential divergences included matters as substantial as the proposed band of operation and the relative roles of

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terrestrial versus satellite technology and of commercial telecommunication technology versus purpose-developed aeronautical technology. 7.5.3.2 While the conference acknowledged that each of the alternatives under consideration was valid and justifiable on its own terms, it was noted that the universally recognized benefits of harmonization and global interoperability of air ground communications should not be lost sight of when pursuing optimization of local solutions. Therefore, the conference agreed that an effort must be made to identify common elements which could form the basis for a broad consensus on an evolutionary approach towards global interoperability. It was expected that a detailed strategy for future evolution could realistically be developed only by gradually building on such an evolutionary approach. 7.5.3.3 The conference recognized that one such common element was the widespread recognition that in some high-density regions, after an initial period in which continued operation of current standard ICAO systems would be sustainable, saturation of the VHF band would become a real issue, and that measures should be taken with some urgency to address it. However, perception of the amount of urgency varied from region to region. In this regard, the conference agreed that it would be useful if forecasts of anticipated saturation were conducted within ICAO to reach a consensus on the time frame in which it would occur. Another common element identified was that the successful gradual introduction of data communications should be continued to complement and replace voice for routine communications. The conference also noted the emergence of multi-mode avionics, such as were being developed as a part of FAA validation and verification program of the VDL-3 technology. Availability of such equipment, complying with a wide range of ICAO Standards, could assist the transition towards global harmonization of air/ground communications (which remained the ultimate goal of ICAO standardization), although it would not necessarily provide a generally applicable remedy to communication capacity problems. In this regard, the conference also noted that multi-mode receivers might not prove to be a cost-effective solution to overcome regional differences, and that harmonization was normally the most effective way of assuring interoperability. 7.5.3.4 On the basis of this understanding, the conference developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 7/3 Evolutionary approach for global interoperability of air-ground communications

That States: a) continue the use of currently implemented ICAO standardized systems for VHF band voice and data communications until such time as either saturation of the VHF band is approached or significant cost/benefit or safety advantages are expected from the implementation of other ICAO Standards; continue efforts in maximizing efficient use of existing aeronautical spectrum allocations through spectrum management measures; continue the progressive deployment of data communications on the basis of applicable ICAO Standards such as aeronautical telecommunication network (ATN) using VDL Mode 2 as dictated by evolving operational requirements with a view to complementing or replacing voice communications for most routine communications; provide a forecast of anticipated VHF band saturation in high-density regions;

b)

c)

d)

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in view of the anticipated saturation of the VHF band for voice communication, consider transition to spectrally more efficient ICAO systems, and/or make increased use of data communications; and investigate multi-mode avionics as a transitional method of achieving interoperability of air/ground communications, where global harmonization has not been achieved.

f)

7.5.3.5 Another common theme that the conference recognized as emerging from various contributions was the need to investigate the development of a future communication infrastructure, although there was not full agreement on the time frame over which actual deployment of the infrastructure would be required. This activity should include an investigation of the feasibility of new technology alternatives, including solutions outside the VHF band and wide band communication systems based on evolving international telecommunications standards and satellite-based systems. Exploration of such systems should include an assessment of costs required to meet the safety critical standards of aviation, including certification costs. Evolutionary developments of standardized ICAO systems should also be considered as candidates components of the future infrastructure. The conference recognized that these activities should be guided by operational needs and be conducted within the framework of the global ATM operational concept. 7.5.3.6 The conference therefore developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 7/4 Investigation of future technology alternatives for air-ground communications

That ICAO a) investigate new terrestrial and satellite-based technologies, on the basis of their potential for ICAO standardization for aeronautical mobile communications use, taking into account the safety-critical standards of aviation and the associated cost issues; continue evolutionary development of existing standardized ICAO technologies with a view to increasing their efficiency and performance; and

b)

7.5.4

assess the needs for additional aeronautical spectrum to meet requirements for increased communications capacity and new applications, and assist States in securing appropriate additional allocations by the ITU. Guidelines on standardization of new aeronautical communication technologies

c)

7.5.4.1 In connection with its consideration of future technology alternatives, the conference reviewed a proposed approach to ICAO standardization of new aeronautical communication technologies and developed the following recommendation: Recommendation 7/5 Standardization of aeronautical communication systems

That, for new aeronautical communication systems, ICAO:

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a)

continue to monitor emerging communication systems technologies but undertake standardization work only when the systems meet all of the following conditions: 1) can meet current and emerging ICAO ATM requirements; 2) are technically proven and offer proven operational benefits; 3) are consistent with the requirements for safety; 4) are cost-beneficial; 5) can be implemented without prejudice to global harmonization of the CNS/ATM systems; and 6) are consistent with the Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems (Doc 9750)

b)

include in Annex 10 provisions ensuring that the introduction of mandatory carriage of new equipment be based only on appropriate ICAO regional and inter-regional coordination; and further limit SARPs for complex aeronautical systems to broad, system-level, functional and performance requirements and better capitalize on the work of other standard-making organizations so as to reduce the complexity/size of technical provisions.

c)

7.5.4.2 The conference also noted that aspects traditionally not fully taken into account in ICAO standardization activities could have a significant impact on the successful implementation of a standard. Such aspects included aircraft integration issues, cost and duration of the certification and operational approval process and the viability of business case for implementation from an avionics vendor/air frame manufacturer, airline and air traffic service provider perspective. 7.5.5 Use of VDL Mode 4 for point-to-point data communications

7.5.5.1 The conference was informed of concerns with the use of VDL Mode 4 to support point-to-point data communications. It was recalled that ICAO State letter, AN 7/1.3.83-03/59, dated 27 June 2003, requested comments on a proposal for the amendment of Annex 10, Volume III. The proposed amendment included the deletion of existing Note 4 to paragraph 6.1 of Annex 10, which indicated that VDL Mode 4 SARPs apply to surveillance applications only. The letter noted that approval of the change would result in adding another point-to-point data link operating in the VHF band and that the use of VDL Mode 4 as a point-to-point data link would satisfy the same requirements and desirable features as were already included in the VDL Mode 3 data link, thereby introducing a proliferation of air/ground data links. The letter indicated that the matter might be addressed by the conference, and that related recommendations from the conference would be considered together with response from States to the letter. 7.5.5.2 The concerns presented to the conference, in addition to those related to the potential proliferation of air/ground data links, included a number of technical issues/concerns and opposition from industry. In the discussion, the conference noted that VDL Mode 4 would offer an air-to-air communication facility which went beyond the requirements and desirable features already satisfied by VDL Mode 3; that

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the ACP was working on the resolution of some of the technical issues highlighted; and that opposition from industry was less extensive than reported.

7.6

STATEMENT BY THE INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION (IATA)

7.6.1 The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is honoured to participate in the 11th Air Navigation Conference as the voice of 275 international carriers representing 98% of the international scheduled traffic. Our formal policy development and approval process ensures that we confidently speak on behalf of ALL of our members. We believe that the valuable debates and discussions has been open and frank, and this committee has achieved significant progress on issues crucial to the future of aviation. 7.6.2 As highlighted by President of the Council of ICAO, Dr. Kotaite, airlines have been critically affected by recent events. Therefore, IATA Members will only commit to implementing system solutions, which have proven to be safe, beneficial and operationally justified. Implementation of unnecessary system solutions, in particular equipment that duplicates functions onboard the aircraft are unacceptable. Such unnecessary equipment, increases operating costs, increases user charges and reduces efficiency whilst potentially, negatively impacting safety. 7.6.3 The airspace users, who have to bear the cost of such implementation onboard AND on ground, find the idea of diverging into multiple communication systems unacceptable. The future communication environment must be seamless in every sense of the word. Airspace users do expect competitive services and competition in applications but not competing systems. 7.6.4 The implementation of VDL Mode 2 will improve the speed and data capacity to sustain the growth in data link communication without increasing band congestion. Implementation of VDL Mode 3 and/or VDL Mode 4 cannot be justified, as they do NOT demonstrably provide overall benefits to airspace users. 7.6.5 IATA remains committed to working with ICAO, States and Industry, to achieve a global, seamless and harmonized communications environment for the benefit of all users of civil aviation.

Appendix to the Report on Agenda Item 7 APPENDIX SCENARIO DIAGRAMS

7A-1

On the diagrams the introduction of a service is associated with one of the following trigger events: a) capacity: increase of the telecommunication infrastructure capacity; b) quality: improvement of quality of voice exchanges; c) coverage: improvement of coverage; d) ADS-B: automatic dependent surveillance broadcast; e) FANS 1/A: Boeing/Airbus data link avionics applications; f) CPDLC Ph 1: first set of SARPs-compliant CPDLC messages; g) CPDLC Ph 2: second set of SARPs-compliant CPDLC messages; and h) ARINC 623: departure/pre-departure clearance (DCL/PDC) and automatic terminal information service (ATIS) character oriented data link applications.

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Figure A1. Voice services in oceanic and low/medium density areas where only a limited ground-based communication infrastructure can be deployed

Figure A2. Voice services in low/medium density areas where a full ground-based communication infrastructure can be deployed

Appendix to the Report on Agenda Item 7

7A-3

Figure A3. Voice services in high density areas

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Figure A4. Data link communications services in oceanic and low/medium density areas where only a limited ground-based communication infrastructure can be deployed

Figure A5. Data link surveillance services in oceanic and low/medium density areas where only a limited ground-based communication infrastructure can be deployed

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7A-5

Figure A6. Data link communications services in low/medium density areas where a full ground-based communication infrastructure can be deployed

Figure A7. Data link surveillance services in low/medium density areas where a full ground-based communication infrastructure can be deployed

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Appendix to the Report on Agenda Item 7

Capacity Capacity CPDLC Ph 1 VDL M3 or VDL M4 (regional decision) VDL M2 AOA ACARS CPDLC Ph 2 Systems outside VHF band: Next Generation Satellite, Next Generation Terrestrial

ARINC 623

Capacity New VHF system

Time

Figure A8. Data link communications services in high density terrestrial areas

Figure A9. Data link surveillance services in high density terrestrial areas

END

ICAO 2004 7/04, E/P1/1270


Order No. 9828 Printed in ICAO