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Energy Procedia 12 (2011) 538 546

1876-6102 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of University of Electronic Science and Technology of
China (UESTC).
doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.10.073
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
Energy
Procedia
Energy Procedia 00 (2011) 000-000
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
ICSGCE 2011: 2730 September 2011, Chengdu, China
Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Generation
Based on the Type 2 Fuzzy Logic Control Method
Amir Gheibi
*
, S.M.A.Mohammadi, M.maghfoori

The Electrical Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.
Abstract
According to a nonlinear current-voltage characteristic Photovoltaic for exploitation of this optimization we need to
track maximum output instantly. The aim of this paper is to search maximum power point (MPP) Based on the Type2
Fuzzy logic controller (T2FLC) which is a novel method in maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Solar cells
MPP varies with solar insolation and ambient temperature. With the improved efficiencies of power electronics
converters, it is now possible to operate photovoltaic (PV) power systems at its MPP in order to improve the overall
system efficiency. This paper presents a T2FLC method for tracking MPP in photovoltaic power systems and the
control system is established simultaneously. The results of simulation show that the T2FLC significantly improves
the robustness of controllers PV during the tracking phase as compared to a conventional type1 fuzzy logic control
(T1FLC) in present of noise in photovoltaic power systems. This noise maybe insert to system when voltage and
current are measured. We show that the results obtained with T2FLC are better than the ones obtained with the
T1FLC method.
2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of ICSGCE 2011
Keywords: Boost converter; MPPT; Photovoltaic; Solar cell; Type2 FLC
1. Introduction
Solar energy, as an emerged green energy resource with characteristics of copiousness, cleanness,
environmental protection and no territorial restrictions and so on, is widely used. The Photovoltaic (PV)
arrays produce electric power directly from sun light. Due to their initial high costs, solar cells have not
yet been an attractive alternative for electricity users who are able to buy cheaper electrical energy from
the utility grid. PV gives the well-known nonlinear relationship between the current and voltage of the PV

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +986613228124.
E-mail address: A.gheibi@eng.uk.ac.ir.
2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of University of Electronic
Science and Technology of China (UESTC).
Amir Gheibi et al. / Energy Procedia 12 (2011) 538 546 539
2 Amir Gheibi et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2011) 000-000
cells; it can be observed that there is a unique point, under given illumination, at which the cell produces
maximum power, Thats why its be called MPP. This point occurs when the rate of change of the power
with respect to the voltage is equal to zero. Because the output characteristic of the solar cells varies with
the environments, conversion efficiency of the solar cells is relatively low; getting some benefits from the
converted energy by solar cells as much as possible becomes a key issue in the solar energy utilization.
The Boost converters are widely used in PV generation as an interface between the PV panel and the load,
allowing the follow-up of the MPP. Based on concept, a kind of maximum power point tracking (MPPT)
technology is suggested. Many MPPT techniques have been proposed, they can be categorized as:
The methods based on a algorithm for example perturbation and observation (P&O)methods [15]-[18]
and IC that measured cell characteristics ( current, voltage, power) are employed along with an online
search algorithm to compute the corresponding MPP independent of insolation, temperature .
Intelligent controlling methods [1]-[6]-[13]-[14]. Consist of fuzzy logic control (FLC) and Adaptive
fuzzy logic control (AFLC) and Artificial neural network (ANN).
Computational method [16]-[21].Characteristics of solar cells is modeled using mathematical
equations or numerical approximations. The model most be valid under different insolations,
temperature, and degradation conditions.
The model which we considered in this paper is based on type2 fuzzy logic control (T2FLC). The
concept of a type2 fuzzy set was introduced by Zadeh [11]. This controller considers uncertainty of the
model which is characterized by membership functions (MFs) that are they fuzzy. FLCs are usually
constructed using type1 fuzzy sets. Such FLCs have been applied to many areas, especially for the control
of complex nonlinear systems that are difficult to model analytically. Despite their popularity, research
has shown that type1 FLCs may have difficulties in modeling and minimizing the effect of uncertainties.
The quantification of the degree of uncertainty in a system depends on the type of uncertainty one is
trying to measure and on the particular measure selected for that type of uncertainty.
2. The Characteristic of a PV
The relationship between output voltage and current of the solar cell at same light intensity and
temperature as depicted in Fig.1. It can be observed that under a certain light intensity and temperature
there is a unique point located at the knee of the I-V curve, at which the MPP can be generated from the
PV. Boost converter is used to have MPP of PV. This controller placed between PV and load. But MPP
varies with changing temperature and sun light intensity. Fig.1 shows these variations.
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Voltage (V)
P

o

w

e

r


(
W
)
1000 W/m
2
800 W/m
2
600 W/m
2
T =25
o
C
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Voltage (V)
P

o

w

e

r


(
W
)
60
o
C
40
o
C
25
o
C
S =1000 W/m
2
(a) (b)
Fig.1. Variations of MPP with changing: (a) isolation (b) temperature
540 Amir Gheibi et al. / Energy Procedia 12 (2011) 538 546
Amir Gheibi et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2011) 000-000 3
3. Type1 Fuzzy Logic Controller
This controller has been applied to photovoltaic systems in many papers since now [4]-[10]. Type1
fuzzy logic controller is made of fuzzification, knowledge and inference unit, defuzzification and the
membership function of the inputs and output are indicated in Fig. 2. The fuzzy control requires that
variable used in describing the control rules has to be expressed in terms of fuzzy set notations with
linguistic labels. The rule base that associates the fuzzy output to the fuzzy inputs is derived by
understanding the system behavior.
After the rules have been evaluated, the last step to complete the fuzzy control algorithm is to calculate
the crisp output of the fuzzy control with the process of defuzzification. The implementation of the fuzzy
controller in terms of type1 and type2 fuzzy sets has two input variables; the error ( ) e t and the error
variation ) (t e , given by:
( )
( )
( )
p t
e t
v t

, ( ) ( ) ( 1) e t e t e t = (1)
Fig.2. Structure of a type1 FLC
4. Type2 fuzzy logic controller
A T2FLC composed of four basic elements (Fig.3): the type1 fuzzyfier, the fuzzy rule-base, the
inference engine, and the type1 defuzzyfier. The fuzzy rule-base is a collection of rules, which are
combined in the inference engine, to produce a fuzzy output. Table1 shows these rule bases with Lower
Standard Deviation (LSD) and Upper Standard Deviation (USD) which are one of important
characteristics of T2FLC[19]-[20],which these shows in Fig. 4. The type1 fuzzyfier maps the crisp input
into type1 fuzzy sets, which are subsequently used as inputs to the inference engine, whereas the type1
defuzzyfier maps the type1 fuzzy sets produced by the inference engine into crisp numbers.
A T1FLCs are unable to handle rule uncertainties directly, because they use type1 fuzzy sets that are
certain. On the other hand, T2FLCs are very useful in circumstances where it is difficult to determine an
exact, and measurement uncertainties [8]. It is known that type2 fuzzy set let us to model and to minimize
the effects of uncertainties in rule base FLC. Unfortunately, type2 fuzzy sets are more difficult to use and
understand than type1 fuzzy sets; hence, their use is not widespread yet.
A T2FLC A
~
, is characterized by the membership function:
Knowledge base
Rule base
Fuzzification
Decision
making
Defuzzification
) (t e
) (t e
Crisp
inputs
Crisp
output
) (t u
Amir Gheibi et al. / Energy Procedia 12 (2011) 538 546 541
4 Amir Gheibi et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2011) 000-000
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] { }
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
, , , , 0,1
0 , 1
, / , 0,1
x
x A
A
x A
x X u J
A x u x u x X u J
x u
A x u x u J


=

=

%
%
%
%
%
(2)
Fig. 3. Structure of a type2 FLC
Hence, a type2 membership grade can be any subset in [0, 1], the primary membership, and
corresponding to each primary membership, there is a secondary membership (which can also be in [0,
1]) that defines the possibilities for the primary membership.
This uncertainty is represented by a region called footprint of uncertainty (FOU) which can be
described in terms of an upper membership function (UMF) and a lower membership function (LMF) as
shown in Fig. 4.
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
e(t) and de(t)
M

e

m

b

e

r

s

h

i

p


f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n


v

a

l

u

e
UMF
LMF
N e g a t i v e P o s i t i v e
Z e r o
(a)
Fuzzificatio
n
Defuzzificatio
n
( ) e t
) (t e
Crisp
inputs
) (t u
Rule Base
Inferenc
e
Fuzzy
input sets
Fuzzy
output
sets
Type-reduced
Set (Type1)
Type-reducer
Crisp
output
542 Amir Gheibi et al. / Energy Procedia 12 (2011) 538 546
Amir Gheibi et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2011) 000-000 5
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
u(t)
M

e

m

b

e

r

s

h

i

p

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n


v

a

l

u

e
P
PG
Z
N NG
(b)
Fig.4. membership function: (a) inputs (b) output
4.1. Fuzzification and the Rules
The fuzzifier maps a crisp point
( )
1 1 2
,..., ....
T
p P
x x x X X X X = into a type2 fuzzy set
X
A
%
in
X. As a type2 singleton fuzzifier in a singleton fuzzification with the input fuzzy set having only a
single point on nonzero membership is used, we have:
~
'
'
1 1
1 0
A
x
X X
X X

=
=

(3)
The structure of rules in a T1FLC and a T2FLC is the same. However, in the latter the antecedents and
the consequents will be represented by T2FLCs. Suppose a T2FLC has p inputs
1 2
, ,......,
p
x x x an output
y, and a multiple input single output (MISO). It is assumed that there are M rules and the l
th
rule in the
type2 FLC can be written as follows:
M l G is y then F is x IF F is x IF R
l l
p p
l l
,... 2 , 1
~ ~
....
~
:
1 1
=
(4)
4.2. B. Inference
In T2FLC, the inference engine combines rules and gives a mapping from input T2FLCs to output
T2FLCs. It is necessary to compute the join (unions), the meet (intersections), and the extended
sup-star composition (sup-star compositions) of type2 relations. If
~ ~ ~
1
......
l l l
P
F F A = , Eq. (4) can be re-
written as:
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
1
: ...... , 1,....,
l l l l l l
P
R F F G A G l M = = (5)
l
R Rule is described by the membership function ( ) ( )
1
, ,...., ,
l l
p
R R
x y x x y = where:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
~ ~ ~ ~ 1
, ,
l l l l l
i
P
i i
R
A G F G
x y x y x y
=

(
= =
(


(6)
Amir Gheibi et al. / Energy Procedia 12 (2011) 538 546 543
6 Amir Gheibi et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2011) 000-000
In general, the p-dimensional input to
l
R is given by the type2 fuzzy set
X
A
%
whose membership
function is:
( ) ( ) ~ ~
1
i
X
P
i i
A X
X x
=
=

(7)
where
i
X
~
(i=1; . . . ; p) are the labels of the fuzzy sets describing the inputs. Each rule
l
R determines a
type2 fuzzy set
l
X
l
R A B
~ ~
=
such that:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
~
~
~
, , 1,....,
l
l
x
l
x
A oR
B
x X
R
A
y y
X X y y Y l M

= =

=


C
(8)
This equation is the input / output relationship between the T2FSLC that activates one rule in the
inference engine and the T2FLC at the output of that engine as described in Fig. 3. In the FLC we used
interval T2FLCs and meet under product t-norm, so the result of the input and antecedent operations,
which are contained in the firing set, ( )
~ 1
'
l
i
P
i i
F
firingSet x
=
=

, is an interval T1FLC set :
( ) ( ) ( ) ' ' , ' ,
l
l l l l
F x f x f x f f


=


(9)
where:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
~ ~
1
~ ~
1
' '
1
' '
1
' *.....*
' *.....*
l l
P
l l
P
l
P
F F
l
F F P
f x x x
f x x x


=
=
(10)
Note * is the product operation.
4.3. Type-reducer and defuzzification
The type-reducer generates a T1FLC output which is then converted into a crisp output through the
defuzzifier. This T1FLC is also an interval set. For the case of our FLC we used center of sets (cos) type
reduction,
cos
Y which is given by:


=
=
=
=

= =
] , [
] , [ ] , [ 1
1
] , [
cos
1 1 1 1
1 1
/ 1 .... ....
] , [
r l
M
M M
M
r
M
l
M
y y y
f f f f f f
M i
i
i
M i
i
i i
y y y
r l
f
y f
y y Y
(11)
This interval set is determined by its two end points,
l
y and
r
y , which correspond to the centroid of
the type2 interval consequent set
i
G
~
expressed as:
1 1
1
...... 1/ [ , ]
i
N N
y y
N
i i i i i
l r
G
J J
i
y
C y y

=

= =

%
(12)
Before the computation of
cos
( ) Y X , we must evaluate (12) , and its two end points,
l
y and
r
y . Let the
values of
i
f and
i
y that are associated with
l
y are denoted by
l
i
f and
l
i
y , respectively, and the values of
i
f and
i
y that are associated with
r
y are denoted by
i
r
f and
i
r
y , respectively, then from (11), we have:
544 Amir Gheibi et al. / Energy Procedia 12 (2011) 538 546
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1
1
M i i
l l i
l
M i
l i
f y
y
f
=
=
=

(13)

1
1
M i i
r r i
r
M i
r i
f y
y
f
=
=
=

(14)
From the type-reducer we obtain an interval set ) (
cos
X Y , to defuzzify it we use the average of
l
y
and
r
y , so the defuzzified output of an interval singleton T2FLS is:
( )
2
l r
y y
y X
+
= (15)
Table.1 shows the characteristics of the inputs and output of the T2FLC system with three parameters
for tuning (the mean of the inputs' and outputs' membership function (MF)).
Table 1: Characteristics of the Inputs and Output of the T2 Flc
Variable Term Center Lower Standard Deviation Upper Standard Deviation
Input e
Negative
Zero
Positive
-Me
0
Me
3.25 5.24
Input delta-e
Negative
Zero
Positive
-Mde
0
Mde
3.25 5.24
Output
NG
N
Z
P
PG
-Mo
-Mo/2
0
Mo/2
Mo
1.6233 4.6233
In this experiment, the lower and upper standard deviations are fixed.
5. Simulation
By receiving controlling signal from controller, Boost converter kept voltage at a value which has
maximum power (Fig. 5). Assume an expected noise is imported to system. Equation (15) shows this
noise:

2
2
signal
noise
P s
SNR
P

= =

(16)
Because most signals have a very wide dynamic range, SNR
is usually expressed in terms of the logarithmic decibel scale,
SNR (db):
10
( ) 10log
signal
noise
P
SNR db
P

=


(17)
Amir Gheibi et al. / Energy Procedia 12 (2011) 538 546 545
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Usually this noise is imported to system when voltage and current are measured. Noise is applied to
system is shown in Fig. 5. We have been exerted noise in T1FLC [7] and have been compared
performance of T1FLC and T2FLC which was simulated in MATLAB with different SNR is shown on
table 2.
Fig. 5. Structure of photovoltaic array with applied noise
Table (2) indicates for a constant value of SNR T2FLC has less error than T1FLC because it coverts
more uncertainty. The above applications have demonstrated that T2FLC is better at modeling
uncertainties than T1FLC.
Table 2: Compare Between Rates of Error Type1and Type2

) (t e
SNR(db) Type1 Type2
34 2.1171 0.1608
44 2.0939 0.1553
54 2.0689 0.1364
Fig. 6 shows MPPT with noise in PV panel.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Time (s)

P

o

w

e

r


(
W
)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Time (s)

P

o

w

e

r


(
W
)
(a) (b)
Fig. 6. Comparing MPPT with noise in (a)T1FLC (b)T2FLC
6. Conclusion
In this paper we applied T2FLC on photovoltaic panel. We observed it is proper for performance in
noisy environments just like these environments. Noise importation is unavoidable .so using controller
which is could decrease noise effect is very important. By considering the results of simulation which
were achieved in this paper it is noticeable; T2FLC has better operation than FLCT1 whenever noise was
present. On the other hand because of its complicating and time consuming calculation T2FLC is slower
than T1FLC.
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