You are on page 1of 10

Experiment 3 TITLE: THE HALF-WAVE AND FULL-WAVE RECTIFIRE CIRCUIT WITH A FILTER CAPACITOR

Objective: 1. To construct and test half-wave and full-wave rectifier circuit with a filter capasitor. 2. To measure the input and output rectifier by using multimeter and oscilloscope. 3. To identify the operation of half wave and full-wave rectifier.

Appratus: 1. 2. 3. 4. Ecperiment ModuleKL-23002 Multimeter Osilloscope Connection wire

Theory/Background:

RECTIFIER
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC) which flows in only one direction. The process is known asrectification. Physically, rectifiers take a number of forms, including vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves, solid state diodes, silicon-controlled rectifiers and other siliconbased semiconductor switches. Historically, even synchronous electromechanical switches and motors have been used. Early radio receivers, called crystal radios, used a "cat's whisker" of fine wire pressing on a crystal ofgalena (lead sulfide) to serve as a point-contact rectifier or "crystal detector". Rectifiers have many uses, but are often found serving as components of DC power supplies and high-voltage direct current power transmission systems. Rectification may serve in roles other than to generate direct current for use as a source of power. As noted, detectors of radio signals serve as rectifiers. In gas heating systems flame rectification is used to detect presence of flame. The simple process of rectification produces a type of DC characterized by pulsating voltages and currents (although still unidirectional). Depending upon the type of end-use, this type of DC current may then be further modified into the type of relatively constant voltage DC characteristically produced by such sources as batteries and solar cells. A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is known as an inverter.

Half-wave rectification In half wave rectification, either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed, while the other half is blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output, it is very inefficient if used for power transfer. Half-wave rectification can be achieved with a single diode in a one-phase supply, or with three diodes in a three-phase supply.

The output DC voltage of a half wave rectifier can be calculated with the following two ideal equations

Full-wave rectifier A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform to DC (direct current), and is more efficient. However, in a circuit with a non-center tapped transformer, four diodes are required instead of the one needed for half-wave rectification. (See semiconductors,diode). Four diodes arranged this way are called a diode bridge or bridge rectifier.

Graetz bridge rectifier: a full-wave rectifier using 4 diodes. For single-phase AC, if the transformer is center-tapped, then two diodes back-to-back (i.e. anodes-to-anode or cathode-to-cathode) can form a full-wave rectifier. Twice as many windings

are required on the transformer secondary to obtain the same output voltage compared to the bridge rectifier above.

Full-wave rectifier using a center tap transformer and 2 diodes.

Full-wave rectifier, with vacuum tube having two anodes. A very common vacuum tube rectifier configuration contained one cathode and twin anodes inside a single envelope; in this way, the two diodes required only one vacuum tube. The 5U4 and 5Y3 were popular examples of this configuration. A three-phase bridge rectifier.

3-phase AC input, half & full wave rectified DC output waveforms For three-phase AC, six diodes are used. Typically there are three pairs of diodes, each pair, though, is not the same kind of double diode that would be used for a full wave single-phase rectifier. Instead the pairs are in series (anode to cathode). Typically, commercially available double diodes have four terminals so the user can configure them as single-phase split supply use, for half a bridge, or for three-phase use.

Disassembled automobile alternator, showing the six diodes that comprise a full-wave threephase bridge rectifier. Most devices that generate alternating current (such devices are called alternators) generate three-phase AC. For example, an automobile alternator has six diodes inside it to function as a full-wave rectifier for battery charging applications. The average and root-mean-square output voltages of an ideal single phase full wave rectifier can be calculated as:

For an ideal three-phase full wave rectifier, the average output voltage is

Where: Vdc, Vav - the average or DC output voltage, Vp - the peak value of half wave, Vrms - the root-mean-square value of output voltage. = ~ 3.14159 = firing angle of the thyristor (0 if diodes are used to perform rectification)

PROCEDURE: 1. The short circuit clip by referring to figure 1 and the short circuit clip arrangement diagram in figure 2 : 23002-block c.2 (C6: 229 ) is inserted.

2. The AC source 9V to Vac is supplied. 3. Input terminal (Vac) is measured by using ACV scale of mitimeter and oscilloscope respectively, then its recorded in table 1. 4. Vr4 (VRIM) is adjusted to minimum,then the output terminal (OUT) is measured by , using DCV scale of multimeter and oscilloscope, wherein the DC scale of oscilloscope will be used to test.Vdc and the AC scale of oscilloscope will be used to test Vr (ripplezz) .then its was recorded. In table 1. B. The full-wave rectifier circuit with filter capasitor. 1. The short circuit clip is inserted by referring to figure 3 and the short circuit clip arrangement diagram in figure 4: 23002-block c.5. (C6: 220)

2. The AC source is applied 9V-0V,0V-9V to Vac1, Vac2 respectively. 3. Vac1,Vac2 is measured by using ACV scale of multimeter and oscilloscope, then its is recorded in table 1. 4. Vr4 (VRIM) is adjusted to minimum,then the output terminal (OUT) is measured by using DCV scale of multimeter and oscilloscope, wherein the DC scale of oscilloscope will be used to test Vdc and the AC scale of oscilloscope will be used to test Vr (ripple).then its recorded.

RESAULTS :

Measurement

Multimeter IN OUT

Oscilloscope IN Waveform OUT Waveform

Half-wave rectifier

Vin=9V

Vout=4V

Vpp=V/div x div = 5x5 = 25 Waveform Full-wave rectifier

Vpp=V/div x div =5x5 =25 Waveform

Vin=10V

Vout=8V

Vpp=V/div x div =2x5=10

Vpp=V/div x div =3x5=15

What the function of rectifier?


A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC) which flows in only one direction. The process is known asrectification.

List the component for: a. A half-wave rectifier o Resistor o Diode o AC voltage source o Groundb. A full-wave rectifier o Transformer o Resistor o Diode o Ac voltage source o Ground

-1(number of component) -1(number of component) -1(number of component) -1(number of component)

-2(number of component) -1(number of component) -2(number of component) -1(number of component) -1(number of component)

Draw the input and output wave form for: a. Half-wave rectifier

input

output

b. Full-wave rectifier

Input

output

How to produce steady DC from a rectifier AC supply? In order to produce steady DC from a rectified AC supply, a smoothing circuit or filter is required In its simplest form this can be just a reservoir capacitor or smoothing capacitor, placed at the DC output of the rectifier. There will still remain an amount of AC ripple voltage where the voltage is not completely smoothed.

CONCLUSION From the experiment know to contruct and test half-wave and full-wave rectifier circuit with a filter capasitor. Otherwise we also know how to measure the input and output rectifier by using multimeter and oscilloscope, we also know to identified the operationof half-wave and full-wave rectifier, from the wave form we can conclude that the full-wave rectifier produce most steady waveform then half-wave rectifier.

REFERENCE
http://www.electronics-wiki.com/Rectifier
Full Wave Rectifier and Bridge Rectifier