MODULE ..

V
Culture

Notes

INDIAN CULTURAL HERITAGE

In the first lesson, we have discussed

the meaning of culture, the concept. and different characteristics ofcu1ture.1bis lese 1D will tell us about1he cultural heritage of our country. The knowledge of our past traditions and practices is very important because by understanding these, we can understand our present cultme. Our food, dress, languages. music and artfonns etc. are all parts of ourculture are transmitted from one generation to the next over years. All these are woven into an integrated whole and lend Indian culture its distinctiveness.

After studying this lesson you will be able to • explain the meaning of cultural heritage; • explain what is enculturation; and • state different facets of culture from ancient to modem times . . I 'I L·\ NI \ G 0 F B.
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A nation is recognised through its achievements - past and present. The past achiev~ wbichsurvive the onsJmtghtof time pass into the realm ofJteritage. Thus heritage is that item. of culture which is inherited by the posterity collectively.

The Sun temple ofKonark, the pyramids of Egypt, the KumbhaMela., many rituals and beliefs associated withday-to-day life and the Vedas are some examples of Cultural Heritage.

. as a whole.C. veda is synonymous with 'Snat'. sculpture language. The Yajurveda deals with sacrificial rites. India's cultural heritage is not only one of the most ancient. the world's earliest literary heritage. As a matter offset. toohnology_. The Rig-veda is 1argelya book of prayers. literature. The achievements in all these areas of activity that have come down to us defying the ravages oftime. on the strength of astronomical evidence dates the earliest part of the Veda to about 2000 B.In the following section. are the successors of a rich cultural heritage.e revealed to the rishis. the people of India. set to music. Culture . bat of the humanity. It is • heritage. It is believed that no one authored the Vedas. ornaments. Over several generations. art and painting. This is why.':~ iAo"""~ .C. Notes 33. meaning something that is ~beard. dress. people of diverse cultures have either temporarily come into contact with India or have pennanently settled here into evolve a distinctive Indian Culture. material coinponents and intellectual give India its unique identity as a nation visible in many aspects of om culture like food. The contents of the vedas were handed down through generations orally/audially. or revealed'. Because of this practice..MODULE-V. Indians. architecture. we shall discuss some of them. or they were flashed before theirmitlds eyes in the depth of their mystical experience. created and left for us by our ancestors in different walks of life. are termed as om heritage. The vedas are four in Dumber. They were only the media to transmit to posterity the insight which they received. though LokamanyaBal Gangadhar Tilak. The ~ is a repetition of a part of the Rig-veda. The Atharva Veda contains what later has come to be known as Science as well as morals and ethical codes to guide hwnan behaviour. the Vajur. but it is also one of the most extensive and varied. Throughout its history. the Veds are also designated as Sruti.. are the beneficiaries of a unique body of literature called 'The Vedas'. The contents wer. values and practices etc.. science. Indian Culture presents a synthesis of several ways of life. Indian Cultural Heritage We. the Sanaa ad the AthlllVa.2 THE HERITAGE LITERATL:RE (BHAR-\T) . These are: the Rig. The transmissions were carried through verbally and were received audially. The ten:rtveda is coined from the root 'JIitl'meaning knowledge. De Rig-veda is said to be the oldest scripture of the world. It is carbondated to 1500 B. OF [[\[)lA We. dance and music. to be sung at appropriate stages doringthe sacrificial rituals. Dot ofBharat alone.

These are more than one hundred. The others are by Parasara. It is an integral part ofMahabharata. NeXt in importance is the Bhagavad Geeta. devotion. the Smruti explain.a part is called a "Mandala". etc. The chief among the smrutis.Vasistha.. Manliness and seltless devotion to duty are the keynotes of this great treatise. Though they deal primarily with the story of Rama and that of the Kuru dynasty. there is a body of literature known as Smruti. a warrior prince. Yajna. The Aranyakas teach meditation based. Then there ere'Ramayana and Mahabharata. A Mandala is divided into "Suktas" (a group of related Mantras) and a S~ contains a number of stanzaslfuantras. * Notes Each veda isdivided into two parts: The Mantra and Brahmanas (liturgies inprose).into a number of parts . Each Samhita is divided. Then. These are stories woven a round some historical event or personality to inculcate ~~~10_t~OG=-Y "" . elaborate and illustrate the ftmdamental teachings of the Sruti. set in the form of a dialogue between Sri Krishna (believed to be an incarnation of God Vishnu) and Atjtma. The Mantra part is also called. Mantra * (Samhita) Brahmana . 'Samhita' ~TheBrahmanas teach the 'know-how' of sacrificial rites. they are respected as the basic foundations of Bbaratiya Culture. The Upanishads may roughly be described as philosophical treatises dealing with the ultimate problems of life and ~ life.MODULE-V Culture Veda -+ .upon the symbolical interpretations of the liturgical rites. Each Samhita has its own Brahmanas.36 in number. is that of Manu. the Kuru and ~ that shaped the destiny ofBharat. meaning 'remembered'.valkya. there are the Puranas . meditation and solutions there to. Deriving their authority from the Sruti. By the term Veda we mean only the Mantra or Samhita Part. They provide codes to regulate society. knowledge. The dialogue took place inthe midst of a battlefield. Aranyakas and Upanishads having different and independent names.~technically called 'the ltihas' •they contain the history of two most important ruling families. It contains discussions on problems offife and death. Distinct from the Sruti. duty. 18 Mabapuranas and 18 Upapuranas.

There are also treatises on various branches of science. The scholar Prince."Agama". The Vedanta offers rational solutions to the fundamental problems posed by the Darshana. Brahmasutra (ofVyasa) and the Vedanta are known as 'Prasthana Traya'. Down in the recent history. famous daughter of Aurangjeb. The Jataka tales of Buddhism.Akbari". Sankhya ofKapila. They are known as Darsanameaning visions of1ruth. \--~-. there are other literary creations of the ancient India. Yoga deals with the control of the mind and the body. is based upon the Upanishads. of There flourished six systems of Philosophy in different times of ancient Bharata. The Geeta. Abul-Fazl.anada. meaning three basic scriptures. Artba Sastra by Chanaky8. They are 'the Panchatantra by Vishnu Sharma.. Jaina literature move around several incarnations of Buddha and also address the inculcation of values guiding healthy hmnanrelationship. They areNyaya ofGautama. Babar and p Jahangir wrote their own memoirs. At Ntbar's court gathered ~ galaxy of poets and men of literature. the. Vedanta. Rajatarangini by K. Astadhyayee (a treatise on Grammar) by Panini. Brihat Samhita on Astronomy by Baraha Mihir etc. such as Charaka and Susruta Samhitas on Medicine and Surgery. etc. the Mughals were great patrons ofliterature and gave a considerable impetusto its development indifferent branches. surpassing time and space. Kadambari by BanaBhatta.alhana. Many thinkers and scholars flourished and wrote interesting and important works under the patronage of Akbar.1hesearesectarianscriptures dealing with the worship of particular GOd and Goddess and prescriptions discipline forthe worshipper. There had been drastic changes towards the latter half of the 19th century commencing from the time when India came in contact with the west . was Akbar's "ftiend philosopher and guide" has written "Deen .Mimansa of Jaimini and Vedanta ofBadarayna or Vyasa. Mimansa upholds the Vedic ritualism. Yoga of Patanjali. Natya Sastra by Bharata. Vaiseshika ofK. Not only emperors buttheladiesoftheroyalhouseboldsfromHumayun'smothertoZebwmisa. Sankhya propounds the animate soul and inanimate matter as the basic factors in creation. \1{Cre atrons of art and literatures. Thereisanotherbodyofliteratureknownru. Dara translated the principal Upanishads into Persian. The treatises on Nyaya and Vaiseshika are around the atomic theory of creation.MODULE-V Culture iJf~" Indian Cultural Hl'nt. Meghadoota by Kalidasa. meaning the culmination of the Vedas. Apart from these fundamental scriptures which are supposed to have regulated the Hindu way life for millenia.I~t: basic human values through concrete evidences.1. leading to the highest goal.

. Subnunanyam Bharati. Together with music. national awakening and freedom struggle introduced the sentiment of patriotism into Indian literature. and poetry . . Raj Kumar andPriya Gopal (Manipuri). Gopinath (Bharat Natyam).3 OA:\CE :\:\0 :\ltSIC Dance and Music have always been popular in Indian Culture. Swami Vivekanand and Mahatma Gandhi and many others turned their attention to a critical examination ofIndian social practices. Widespread English Education has also introduced new ideology and western thought into the literature of regional languages. Menaka.. Talented musicians like Adarang and Sadarang were famous for their Veena playing. essay.novel. Bharat Natyam and Odissi have been popularised by great artists like Rukmini Devi..MODULE . Mohammad Shah liberally patronised music in the first quarterofl8th Century. Dinkar. V Cult"re Great Indians. RabindraNath Tagore.versed Illusician. National spirit and pa1riotism deeply impressed the evolution of modem literature and consequently some of the best works were composed in this period. Swami Dayananda Sarswati. However. such as RajaRama Mohan Roy. Many Sanskrit works have been translated into English and other Indian languages. to name only a few.. These led to Notes great social andreligious awakening end produced literature in different regional Indian languages. plight of the widows and women and . Madame Simaki (Kathakali).. belong to a galaxy of powerful writers whose works have already entered the realm of heritage was the pioneer in this field. Various branches of literature . WIth the advent of2Otb century. such as Brahminical rituals. the couple ofRaghunathPanigrahi.-". dance was encouraged: during modem India.were enriched. musicians liberally. Tagore and Vivekanand Dinkar may be given) -1 33. Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar. Mahatma Gandhi. an attitude of realism and an enlarged global vision.. drama. Sanjukta Panigrahi (Odissi) and the latter's Guru Kelu Charan Mohapatra have popularised both dance and music throughout India and abroad. patronized by kings and nobles. Jawaharlal Nehru. The bluYans (devotional songs) ofTyagraj ofTanjore were very popular in South India. Manipul'i. Raja Tuljaji ofTanjore (of South) himself was a well. story.. He has written a famous book on music ''Sangeet Saramrit··.. Today we see in our literatures. The traditions of Kalhkali. patronised. (Photographs of Gandhi. Nehru. caste rigidity.__ came out with ideas to weed the Indian culture from its dead wood.

They show close association with religion. RdaniniDevi 4. A large number of books have been published on folk . Gajar (Bengali).MODULE-V Culture India is full of folk . The music is woven into thetexture of the dance patterns. RaghunathPaoigrahi and SanjuktaPanigrahi 3.P). The popular and weD known fulkdances areBhil. immemorial.iN~o':""'te-s.Nritya (U . They are flourishing together with the classical dances. Adanmg and Sadarang B Odissi. dance and other forms of art. 2. most important compositions are the procession of elephants and a dancer with women musicians.paintings on the walls and ceilings of the Ajanta and Ellora caves and those at Bagh in Gwaliar in tbe ~le pf Ajanta still attract admiration. The Sahitya Academy (the National Academy of Letters) •Sangeet NatakAcademy (Academy of Music Dance and Drama) and Lalit KalaAcademy (Academy offine arts) are some of the prominent Academies established by the Government of India for the development of Art and Culture. The Government of India has also been doing a good deal in this direction. The fresco.dances and folk -lore. The Rajputpaintings are sensitive. Madame Simak Kathakali Veena Bharatnatyam The paintings of ancient India are master-pieces ofall times. and Bihar) and Ahir . the Chau of Orissa have been entertaining the people of India from times \--':". The Madhubani paintings ofMadhubani offiibar and Patta Painting of Orissa are some good examples of ancient art and painting. Naga . Dances ofsome tribal communities are stunningly colourful.dances and other dances of India.Nritya. Kajri (U. "Shantiniketan" several institutions like of West Bengal have been contributing inunensely to both song..Nritya. 1he martial dance with sticks & words and strings are also popular throughout India. (phtotographs of various dancers are to be given) Matchcolwnn 'A' withcolwnn 'B' A 1. SantbalNritya.P. delicate and serene. The .

This synthesis has left a deep impression on painting. fine art rose to a standard of considerable excellence. The Orissan temples are characterized by the absence . the Sun temple at Konark.5 ARCHITECTlJRE Ancient India was as rich in the domain of sculpture and architecture as in the field of art and literature. 33. His Notes . his religious tolerance and active association with Hindus are noticeable in the paintings of his times.jewellery and metal . the paintings and writings which ushered in a new beginning during the early decades of the 20th century mainly done by the Bengal Renaissance. AU artistic creations oftbis period breathe an air ofluxury. The creative power and the faculty of appreciating real art had also declined.coloured sandstOnes are still standing as loud witness to the outstanding architecture of ancient India The Jain Dilwara temples of Mount Abu exhibit sculptural decoration of most marvelous richness and delicacy. The temples of Orissa have special place in the field of Indian architecture.Indian ( ultural l leritauc >::~. Khajumjotemples in Bundelkhand built ofbuff . After the decline of the Mughals._-::~_ work of the age. Mention can be made of artists like Ravi Venna and M. Then gradually it spread to other parts of the country. Painting made remarkable progress during the time of Akbar. The Vishnu temple at Deogarh. the famous temple of Lord Jagannath at Purl are admired as gems of ancient Indian' architecture. MODULE-V ellfture During the Mughals. architecture. Being lovers of fine art. Hussain (Photographs) who are acclaimed internationally inthe field and painting. The best work of painting were undertaken when Akbar was staying at his new capital Fatepur Sikri. personal interest inpainting.P. embroidery. the mughaI kings patronised new styles and techniques where one can notice a happy mingling ofPersian and Indian elements. the traditional continuity disappeared. sympathetic attitude towards foreign artists. generous aesthetic temperament.

Mukteswara temple and RJVarani temple at Bhubaneswar besides the Sun temple ofKonark and the Jagannath temple of . Kota and Udaipur are some of the examples ofarchitectura1 skill of India ~~---11 Sun temple of Konark With the adventofMughals. in design containing. the grand fort of Jodhpur the Hawa Mahal. The strong and magnificent forts of'Chittorgarh. Inthe beginning of 20th century. Puri. Gawalior. the TajMahal in Agra. V c '~ I ncliuu Cultural j III i!. Udaipur and Gawallor. Indian architecture entered a new phase in which the rugged and simple work of the earlier Sultans of Delhi is softened and beautified by Persian influence. and Amar Palace of Jaipur.Dlwan . During the British rule.i-Am and pi~. which aimed at the revival of indigenous architecture and· .MODULE . TheMughals were famous for gardens.i-_Khas and the Jama Masjid represent this style. freely provided. Mughal architecture reveals a happy blending of Persian and Indian style. Revivalist school ~. and the towns like JaisaImir. the Red-Fort. channels. two distinct schools emerged in Indianarchitecture : a. tanks and water· ~ which were. the gardens were to be geometrical . As per the Persian style. Among the tinestofthese are Lingaraj temple. an adorned interior and-a-lavishly adorned exterior.I~'Y of pillars in the halls. ... artificial lakes. Architecture under the Mughals attained a very high peak. The Go1 Gumbaz at Fatepur Sikri. the western architectural styles became popular and spR-ai all overibecouatry. the palaces of Jaipur. Anotherimportantinnovation was the making of terraces at different levels.

1heconstructions~fVictoriaMemoria1 inKolkataandatNew Delhi we1'e desi8ned by ~eers. Mysore and other places are the best specimens of the art ofIndian master .{ . Varanasi andMaheswar. They are the brilliant examples oflndian arcbitecture set inmodem times.:~ :ti' .The latter bad been more popular. MODULE .: VictoriaMemoria1 c. The Mathma and Samath schools. Theprogressive and modem school whichincJined toward tbewestanmodels. Culture D. Jaipur. many Indian Princes "'_-N~o-te-I--I and Nawabs constructed a few structures intraditional Indian design.by a bighly developed sense of rhythm and beauty. Bud~ and other gods and goddess were sculptured in minute details. The modem magnificent buildings at Udaipur. Modem India have _tained the sculptures of ancient and medieval India but there is no significant mark of advancement in sculpture in contemporary India Write the name of the places where the following are situated : a.lndl:lfI( uhUfallhnLI!. Jodhpur. All the statues found inside the temples of Orissa (Purl. Sun Temple b.. Konark. the Jain temple of glass at Indoor and the Birla temple at Delhi and the Vishnu temple at Nagda in Madhya Pradesh are those which were least influenced by the western ideas.:. paid special attention to the physical cbarm of the statues and to the dignity of their poses. HawaMahal .lnspite of expausion of western arcbitecture. The. Shiva. stittues ofVishnu. . tbetemples atMathura.builders. V .) are characterized . . Bhubaneswar etc.!( '" ":':. Ujjain. bathing Ghats of Haridwara.

Laija Homa. For example the Grhuya sutias. A nonn is a specific guide and P-~N=-o~te-s-"" action which defines acceptable and appropriate behaviours and particular situations.\:\1) VALLES Every culture contains a large number of guidelines which direct individual and groups conduct themselves particular situations. in Values. reconciliation and concord. old-women are normally consulted. These rituals fonn an integral part of the traditional marriage ceremony. In addition to these. on the other hand provide more general guidelines. diversified racial contribution have not basically affected the continuity of Indian culture associated with its values and practices. These practices could be easily seen in institutions like marriage and rituals and languages. Incase there is any doubt about these. A vIue is a belief that something is good and desirable. worthwhile. Panigrahana. the emphasis on rituals seems to be a bit high. Certain norms and values are essential forthe operation ofhwnan society. AUhuman societies have their own rituals which are considered important by their members. This too has been the practice all·along. Homa.MODULE-V Culture '~". A great deal of attention was directed by the thinkers of ancient India to provide specific guidelines to individuals to conduct their inter-personal relationships in specific situations. Lokachara or the customs prevailing in the community are observed. . Agnisthapana. Many norms can be seen as reflections of values. It defines what is important. There are numerous practices conn~ with rites depassage.lgl: 33. " Indian ( ultural Ikril.7 [\()I{\IS . and worth striving for. Cultural practices have been modified fiom time to time. festivals. but different enviromnents. The values and practices of ancientlndia were of great importance. Agni Parinayanaand Saptapadi.~". A variety of norms can be seen as expressions of a single value. lay down that the following rituals are essential for the marriage ceremony: Kanyadana. pilgrimages besides the daily worship of gods and goddesses. For example millions of people from all corners of India congregate on specific occasions such as Kumba on a specific placelike Haridwar and Allahabd without any invitation or announcement The values / beliefs attached to this practice is the same as these were years back.e. In Indian society. The religious practices and values associated with Indian culture are constantly striving towards "Samanvaya" i.

These two discoveries tevolutionisedmethematics. a work still considered to be an 1---:-::-- Notes authority. Sacrifices had to be performed as the sine-qua-non of the vedic way of'life on an altar of prescribed size and shape. But its main subject is astronomy.etc. It also throws light on the riumbers. Brahmagupta was another famous mathematician of this period. geometry. Dhanavantari was another gx:eatmedica1 authority in the science of Ayurveda system of medicine. The priests formulated rules for constructing squares equal in area to oblongs and oblongs to squares. which acquainted the West with our progress in the field of Chemistry. and. Vriddha . was the Mathmatician. Aryabhattiya deals with algebra.Siddhanta". and arithmatic medicine and surgery (Ayurveda).Vagbhatta was perhaps the greatest physician of this age. arithmetic and trignornetry. Varahamihira was another greatscientist of this age. In 1911 the Indian Institute of Science was founded by Tata at Bangalore for all research .MODULE-V' Culture 33.and "Surya .Science (Dhanurvidya). But the contact with the West and the Indian Renaissance made Indians realize that development of science. Prafulla Chandra Ray wrote the history of Hindu Chemistry. the. Baudhayana. Aryabhatta authored two great scientific works "Aryabhattiya" . He was the author ofthe famous book "Brihatsarnhita deals with astronomy. He also explained the movements of the stars and analysed the causes of the solar and lunar eclipses. it received a setback in the medieval age. Moreover. the science of medicine also flourised in the Gupta period. Though India achieved remarkabieprogress in the field of science in ancient times. This requirement gave rise to the science of geometry. He was first to enunciate ~ the earth is round and revolves round the sun. The system of medicine that he adopted and propagated was the same as that of Charaka and is considered an authority on the ancient system of medicine. The concept ofzero has been his everlasting contribution to science and mathematics. agriculture military . He is credited with the discovery of the use oftbe zero and the profounder of the decimal system. geography and many other subjects. methods for making triangles equal to squares and oblongs and circles equal to squares. Lagdha Aryabhatta the astronomers. In 1902. Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose made discoveries on plant-life in' 1897 and startled the world by his demonstration in short waves wireless.S SCIE~CE ANO TECHl\OLOGY In ancient India.study of the Veda in addition to subjects like astronomy. were also studied with considerable interest. Virddha Garga. etc. geometry. have had a lasting impact on science in India. scientific inventions and discoveries were responsible for unprecedented progress and material prosperity of the west. botany. Besides astronomy and mathematics.

To further the cause of science the National Academy of Science was founded at Allahabad in 1930. Incolleges and universities it became a subject of higher studies . chemistry etc. Fill in the Blanks': a. It has been doing admirable work in the field of science. Indian Science Congress was started to promote the study and research in science. _______ W8S a noted mathematician of ancient India. Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute. Raja Ramanna who is known as the father oflndia' s nuclear science.is Siddhanta" of the two scientific "Aryabhattiya" and "Surya . (We are proud to have Dr. Geological Survey of India. Institute ofRadio Physics . we have famous nuclear scientists like Dr. to create interest in science and establish close contacts. Consequently. the firstIndian Woman who went to spare). of and Electronics at Calcutta. A. Fuel Research Institute at Jharia Coalfields. Raman received the Nobel Prize for Physics (1930). Besides these. IIHJi.m ('ulturallll'rila~l' work in physics.-" this.J. In recognition of his researches. Srinivas Ramanujam startled the world by his talents inMathematics. All these institutions have trained scientists and keep on making valuable contributors to various branches of science. Abdul KaJam as the president of our country while recently we have lost Kalpana Chawla. works named as b. a large number of technical scientific institutions were established..V.J. A. Also. contributions C. . the National Physical Laboratory at Delhi. Among these. As a result of these institutions and researcher therein. established in 1916. After the political liberation. IndianS made remarkable progress invarious branches of science arulgained international fame. to acquaint people with the progress of science.P. In 1918. the Government ofIndia had started a separate department to encourage scientific inventions and constituted an advisory body for it. interest in the scientific inventions and discoveries increased and the people and the Government bothmoved in this direction rapidly. He established the Raman Institute of Science at Bangalore to promote the studyofPhysics.P. In 1914.among the scientists. Abdul Kalam and Kalpana Chawla have made commendable contributions in their field. . Our space scientists. and Botanical Survey of India are doingpraiseworthy work in their own fields. As a result of \--':"':N:-o~te-. Gradually. are well known. National Metallurgical Laboratory at Jamshedpur.. National Chemical Laboratory atPune. discoveries of Jagdish Cbandm Bose in Botany. the author ------. science gained popularity. Raman to Physics in 1930 have all brought them international reputation and acclaim.

sculpture. 4. music and dance as well as . Art and Paining.11Hl!:III( 1I111Ilallhrilagl' jjf MODULE' . 2. :. Write about contributions ofindian scientist inbrief. science and technology in order to understand Indian Cultural Heritage in a better way. 3. We have to achieve anewsynthesis in which the cultural heritage of our ancient land will be reconciled and enriched. Muslim and various other culture~ and has become very wide and assimilative. Nothing is more advantageous and more credible than a rich heritage. Write briefly the meaning ofIndian Cultural Heritage. _ Notes d. Chinese. 1he second section of the lesson discusses the various aspects of culture like literature. > • • • • 1.back and live on that heritage alone. Today. A nation cannot progress ifitm.erely imitates its ancestors. But nothing is more dangerous for a nation than to sit . Dravidian. inventive and vital activity.V CultllN c. architecture. we need such a human culture which may not only unify the ancient and modem Indian culture but also have synthesis of the East and the West. art and painting. Persian. has absorbed various ingredients of the Aryan. Discuss any two aspects of our culture to know the Indian Cultural Heritage.. what builds a nation is creative. India is the only country where the East and West can interact happily and synfuesizeeasily. Greek. ____ received the Nobel Prize for Physics.. ~SPC~~_OL~OG~Y_· I111· . Indian Institute of Science at Bangalore was founded by \< • • India has arich cultural heritage. Indian culture. Noons and Values b. 'Write notes on: a.

a formal account in writing systematically of some subjects. c} Heritage . Raghtmath Panigrahi and SanjuktaPanigrahi Odissi 3. marble or clay etc.the art or practice of shaping figures or designs as by carving wood. 33. Tata .1 33.V. Agra a.·MODULE·V Culture ~. e) astronomy .'.. Baudhayana h. C. b) Sculpture .. Adarang and Sadarang Veena 2. Madame Simalc Kathakali 33. Jaipur d.Kolkata c. AIyabhatta c.h.Raman d. w Notes .3 a.the scientific study of the universe beyond the earth. Konark .to inherit something passed down from preceding generations. Rukmini Devi: Bharathatyam 4.. d} Norms a standard model or pattern regarded as typical for a specific group of people.1 1. Indian Cultural HtTi!agl' GLOSSARY a) Architecture-the art and since of designing and erecting buildings. t) Treatise .