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MAURER Tuned Mass Dampers

Technical Information and Products

Page 1 of 15

1. Necessary technical data for the design of the TMD 4.3 Practical application of TMD -V-550/1200: Abandoibarra Bridge Bilbao . Different types of MAURER-TMDs 5.2 Consequences of a wrong or bad adaptation of the TMD 2.1.2.MAURER – Tuned Mass Dampers Contents 1.1.2 Practical application of TMD-H-1900: Port Tawe Bridge in Swansea – United Kingdom 6.1 Vertically acting tuned mass damper TMD-V 5.3 Assessment of the three main adaptation criteria for a TMD 3.1 Horizontally acting tuned mass damper TMD-H 5. Testing and recording of functions Page 3 3 4 6 6 7 8 9 9 9 10 10 11 12 13 13 14 15 Page 2 of 15 .Spain 5.1 Why are TMDs necessary? 1.2 Practical application of TMD-V-1000/1660: Bridge Forchheim -Germany 5.2. Adaptation of the TMD onto the main system (structure) 2.1 Adaptation criteria 2. Optimal procedure for TMD dimensioning 5.1 Technical description of TMD-H 5. Introduction 1.2 Function of a TMD 2.1 Technical description of TMD-V 5.

From there almost any kind of shape and size (up to 30. as every TMD will be individually calculated and designed according to: · critical structural natural frequency. stair ways. 1: Samples for vibration sensitive structures Roof tops.MAURER – Tuned Mass Dampers 1. and · appearing vibrations with regards to direction. Page 3 of 15 . stands For best possible reduction of structural vibrations Maurer TMDs are individually adapted to the structural requirements and characteristics. · Fatigue phenomena with crack in the structure can occur. Mostly these are structures with low natural damping in combination with mostly rather low natural frequency. · kinetic equivalent structural mass. Many tall and overhanging structures are susceptible to vibrations. Antennas and chimneys Bridges Tall structures Fig. which can lead finally to the structural collaps.000 kg or even more) can be realised.1 Introduction Why are TMDs necessary? In case such vibrations are not going to be damped · A normal service or walking on these structures is not possible. admissible vibration amplitude and acceleration. 1.

Without external input mD kD dD mH yH yD With external force input (F) TMD with mass (m D ) springs (k D ) damping element (d D ) F Implications due to exteranl input force (F) kH dH H Kinetic equivalent structural mass (m H ) with eigenelasticity (k H ) and eigendamping (d H ) Fig. a TMD with certain characteristics (mass = mD. springs and a damping element.2 Functions of a TMD sketches describe the principle of horizontal and vertical vibrations. The below Kinetic equivalent mass Tuned mass damper M-ST-H Horizontal vibrations Horizontal vibrations damped with TMD-H Vertical vibrations Vertical vibrations damped with TMD-V Fig. etc. chimney. stiffness = kD. 3: Working principle of TMD Page 4 of 15 .) at the location where a significant or the biggest vibration is occurring. that it is mitigating and partially accommodating the vibrations of the main system. as then the efficiency is granted to be highest possible with lowest effort. A TMD is connected to the structure (bridge. stiffness = kH. natural damping = dD) will be firmly set onto this main system. The device is consisting of a moving mass. Between main system and the TMD mass a spring element and a damping element is arranged to adapt the TMD in a way. natural damping = dH) will vibrate under certain circumstances.1. 2: Principle of system and location for TMDs For instance in case the main system (Index H) with certain characteristics (mass = mH. The TMD should be placed at the location of the greatest vibration.

4: Dynamic response of the main system with and without TMD The coupling of a TMD to a main system with mass mD .Introduction of the above physical values: · Main system: mH = kinetic equivalent mass of structure [kg] kH = stiffness coefficient [N/m] dH = damping coefficient [N/m/s=Ns/m] yH = yH (t) displacement of mH [m] F = F(t) = external influence force acting onto mH mD = moving/swinging mass of TMD [kg] KD = stiffness coefficient [N/m] dD = damping coefficient [N/m/s=Ns/m] yD = yD (t) displacement of mD [m] The absolute displacement yD of the TMD mass is of less practical interest compared to the relative displacement of mD to mH: zD = yD . 4).yH The main system will react with a harmonic vibration – after a short transient phase . The mitigation of the vibration of the main system results of counteracting displacements of the damper mass (mD). · TMD: Without TMD With TMD F yH F yH y/y st Strctural vibration without TMD y/y st Limited vibration amplitudes with TMD 1 h = W / wH 1 h = W / wH Fig. In case the main system is not fitted with a TMD.if an external harmonic force F = F (t) = F · sinWt is acting and the main system is vibrating stationary with the natural frequency W. while considering certain rules for the optimal TMD dimensioning – spring stiffness (kD) and damping (dD) – results in much less reactions of the main system (see Fig. it is reacting with severe vibrations if the exiting frequency of the external force is correlating with the structural natural frequency. the frequency adaptation of the springs and the simultaneous damping supplied by the special damping element. Page 5 of 15 . which is called resonance.

1 Adaptation of the TMD onto the main system (structure) Adaptation criteria µ 0. In addition a small mass ratio is decreasing the effective range of the TMD (Fig. 5). 6: Behaviour of main system if deviation varies · Damping: The necessary optimal damping the TMD has to be adapted to the chosen mass ratio µ.1161 1.06 0. means both frequencies must not be identical. y/y st Resonance with +20% discrepancy opt k opt = with fD = natural frequency of TMD fH = natural frequency of main system and according to DEN HARTOG it is valid for harmonic excitation: fD fH kopt = optimal deviation k to k kwith .8357 1 h 2 1.2.02 0.9226 1.8874 1. The TMD mass movements are significantly smaller for bigger ratios (µ > 0. 6). while following equation is valid: z D .025) and the effective range around the resonance frequency is greater too. h 0.0975 0.025) big vibration amplitudes of the TMD mass relatively to the structure are resulting.08 For a optimal efficiency of the TMD a accurate adaptation with respect to following issues is necessary: · Mass: The mass ratio (µ) of the TMD mass to the kinetic equivalent structural mass has to be chosen sufficiently.0626 1 h = W / wH Fig.04 0.8146 0.opt of 1 h = W / wH Fig.8596 1. The ration between them is called deviation k or to be out of tune respectively (Fig.1079 0. 5: Frequency range with respect to µ · Frequency: To achieve the best possible mitigation of the main system vibration the natural frequency of the TMD has to be calculated in a certain ratio to the natural frequency of the main system.0835 0. For small ratios (µ £ 0.10 0. 2.opt = 8 ´ (1 + m ) 3m 3 Page 6 of 15 .20% discrepancy to k k= k opt opt k opt = 1 <1 1+ m z D.

2 is by the factor 5.. it is usually difficult to determine exactly the natural frequency of the structure to be damped.04 with 29 is by factor 4 (= 29/7. Due to the complexity of structures and lack of knowledge of stiffness values (soil. Fig. the natural frequency of the structures is changing. etc. 8: Amplitude amplification factor in case the optimal deviation does not fit Page 7 of 15 . 7: Relative displacements of the TMD compared with the structure itself · Deviation of the optimal „out of tune“ value: The optimal natural frequency of the TMD is not identical with the natural frequency of the structure! The TMD frequency is out of tune to the structural frequency by a well defined value.2. Consequences of a wrong or bad adaptation of the TMD · Too less mass ratio µ: For small mass ratios (ca.1 this factor is 2. Example: In case of a value of 0.04.53 only. Fig. µ < 0.2. bearings. 0. In addition small µ-values result in bigger mass amplitudes (Fig. In the upper part a) of Fig. For µ = 0.06 und 0.36 bigger than the maximum displacement of the structure itself. This is valid also for the kinetic equivalent mass. structural fatigue. the efficiency of the TMD with a µ less than 4% is influenced more than for bigger mass ratio values (see Fig.08 is shown along the relation k/kopt (on horizontal axis). etc. 8 the value max y/yst for the three different mass ratios 0. which can not be realised due to a lack of available space within the structure. Example: The maximum relative displacement of the tuned mass for µ = 0. which is the deviation with a big influence on the final efficiency of the TMD. Therefore the structural natural frequency and the kinetic equivalent structural mass has to be known.2) bigger compared to the optimal deviation.).8 for the relation k/kopt – the deviation k is 20% less than the optimal value – the maximum related amplitude for µ = 0. 4). 5).04) the effective range of the TMD is limited. that in case of environmental temperature changes. This means.

The deviation to the optimal damping has got less influence than the deviation to the optimal TMD frequency. 2) A important criteria is an effective mass ratio value granting a wide-banded range of operation (Fig. Page 8 of 15 . 9). lower curve) and on the TMD (index z. Therefore damping is important but the structure will react not such sensitive to deviations to the optimal values. Assessment of the three main adaptation criteria for a TMD 1) The most important criteria is the optimal deviation from the structural natural frequency. Fig. as here the biggest deviations are acceptable without creating a big loss in efficiency (Fig. 3) The damping is less important than the above two criteria. there is minor influence on the overall efficiency of the TMD! In Fig. 8). 7).3.· Deviation to optimal damping: The correctly adapted damping for the TMD mass is helping to provide best possible efficiency of the unit also. Example: In case the deviation of damping is within the range of ±30% to the optimal values. 9: Deviation of damping with resulting changes of structure and TMD amplitudes for µ = 0. In general significant changes in amplitudes will result due to deviations greater than ±50%.04 2. 9 consequences of damping deviation (see factor on horizontal axis) on the vibration amplitudes of the structure (index y. In case the TMD frequency including the defined value for the deviation is not optimally fitting to the structure. upper curve) are shown. already small frequency deviations can result in major efficiency loss of the TMD (Fig.

5. Evaluation of TMD type and TMD-design (number. Optimal procedure for TMD dimensioning · · · · · · Determination of critical natural values or –frequencies respectively and the kinetic equivalent structural mass. Possibly a second vibration test to verify the efficiency of the TMD. Different types of MAURER-TMDs MAURER-TMDs are always individually adapted to the structure with regard to mass. d) Optional: Degree of damping for the damping element of the TMD. b) Natural frequency of the structure.2 Horizontally acting tuned mass damper: TMD-H Page 9 of 15 . 4. Vibration test by MAURER or an University or other specialists after erection of the structure and recording of the real frequencies. as otherwise a TMD cannot be designed. The two last data are not essentially necessary. which are finally adapted individually to the structure. frequency. Necessary technical data for the design of the TMD For the dimensioning and the design of TMDs following input data are required: a) Kinetic equivalent bridge mass. location. mass. Different TMD types: 5.1 Vertically acting tuned mass dampers: TMD-V 5. etc.3. The data of a) and b) have to be known. In these data are not fixed. Final TMD design based on vibration tests and manufacture of TMD.) and design of necessary structural fixation brackets. the design is done according to economical considerations. The below listed types are showing up the design principles only. which is the vibrating mass of the structure or alternatively the mass ratio is already supplied. Installation of TMD. damping and available space. c) Optional: Space requirements for the TMD.

000 kg or even more). Vertically acting tuned mass damper TMD-V 5. Page 10 of 15 . springs and damping element Kinetic equivalent mass of the structure Fig. tall. 11: Description of TMD-V The TMD-V is individually adapted to the structure in co-operation with the contractor and the designer. The TMD-V is consisting of a vertically swinging mass. etc. Is available in all sizes (30. shapes (flat.1.). damping. which is placed onto steel springs. The fixation to the structure is provided normally by bolt connections to girders or structural brackets.) and adjustment versions (frequency.1.5. etc. In parallel to the springs a damping element is arranged. TMD .1 Technical description of TMD-V Principle of function: The TMD is placed at the structure´s location with the corresponding maximum of the vibration amplitude of the vertical natural frequency. 10: Principle of function of TMD-V 1 2 3 4 5 1= 2= 3= 4= 5= Adjustable damping element => providing required damping ( z ) vertical TMD -mass guide system => exact guidance of the mass in vertical direction adjustable steel mass => mass according to required mass ration (µ) Vertically acting steel springs with frequency (f D ) => adapted to eigenfrequency of the structure (f H ) including deviation ( k) adjustable base plate => provides proper fixation of all components and is connecting the TMD to the structure itself Fig.V with mass.

14: Installed TMD-V Fig. 13: Side view Fig. 15: Cross section through TMD-V Page 11 of 15 .5.1.7 Hz 3280 /4585 Ns/m Fig.Germany TMD-Data: a) TMD-mass: b) frequency: c) damping: 1000 / 1660kg 1. 12: Bridge Forchheim Location of TMD-V Fig.2 Practical application of TMD-V-1000/1660: Bridge Forchheim .255 / 2.

3 Practical application of TMD-V-550/725/1200: Abandoibarra Bridge Bilbao .5.32 /2.78 Hz c) damping: 681 / 815 / 1241 Ns/m Fig. 17: Side and top view Fig.1.Spain TMD-Data: a) TMD-mass: 550 / 725 / 1200kg b) frequency: 1. 19: Installed TMD-V in bridge rail Page 12 of 15 . 18: Cross section through TMD-V Fig. 16: Abandoibarra Bridge Fig.85 / 2.

Kinetic equivalent structural mass TMD with mass. which is placed between steel springs.2. The fixation to the structure is provided normally by bolt connections to girders or structural brackets. 21: Description of TMD-H The TMD-H is individually adapted to the structure in co-operation with the contractor and the designer. tall.000 kg or even more).1. Page 13 of 15 . Technical description of TMD-H Principle of function: The TMD is placed at the structure´s location with the corresponding maximum of the vibration amplitude of the horizontal natural frequency.) and adjustment versions (frequency. shapes (flat. 20: Principle of function of TMD-H 1 2 3 4 5 1= 2= 3= 4= 5= Adjustable damping element => providing required damping ( z ) adjustable steel mass => mass according to required mass ration (µ)n horizontal TMD -mass guide system => exact guidance of the mass in horizontal direction Horizontally acting steel springs with frequency (fD ) => adapted to eigenfrequency of the structure (f H ) including deviation (k ) adjustable base plate => provides proper fixation of all components and is connecting the TMD to the structure Fig. etc. In parallel to the springs a damping element is arranged. The TMD-H is consisting of a horizontally swinging mass. Fig. damping. Horizontally acting tuned mass damper TMD-H 5.2.). springs and damping element . etc.5. Is available in all sizes (30.

22: Port Tawe Footbridge Locations of the four TMD-H 137 m Fig. 24: Installed TMD-H Fig.5.2. 23: Side and top view of bridge Fig.159 Hz 3876 Ns/m Fig.2 Practical application for TMD-H-1900: Port Tawe footbridge in Swansea – United Kingdom TMD-Data: a) TMD-mass: b) Frequency: c) Damping: 1900kg 1. 25: Port Tawe bridge deck Page 14 of 15 .

4 -0.6 -0.4 0.6. Fig. 27).6 0. 28: Force-displacement-plot of damping element · After total assembly of TMD a function test Is carried out. means the TMD mass has to move without significant internal friction within the guide system (Fig. 29: Testing rig for damping element Page 15 of 15 . 26 : Testing and possibly fine adjustment of the TMD function characteristics Fig. 1. 27: Recording of data with special sensors and documentation of results · With special testing rigs the damping element is tested (Fig.8 -1 -1.8 0. Das Dämpfungselement wird mit entsprechenden Prüfmaschinen getestet.2 1 0. Testing and recording of functions Each MAURER TMD is tested before leaving the workshop.2 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 -0.2 0 -0. The specific spring frequency is recorded with a special sensoric and electronic system (Fig. 26).2 [m ] m [kN] 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Fig. means the proper function is checked and documented: · · · The moving capability of the TMD is checked. 28+29). Fig.

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