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Mr. Bipin Prasad NAME-_______________________________________________________

ROLL-________________________________________________________ COURSE CODE-________________________________________________ BTS STUDY CENTRE-________________________________________________

PATNA REGIONAL CENTRE-_____________________________________________


Completing a task is never a one man effort. It is always a result of invaluable contribution of a number of individuals in a direct or indirect manner. The successful culmination of our efforts reminds us of our debt towards our venerated guide Dr. ASHA TRIPATI for his invaluable guidance and encouragement throughout the project. He gave me invaluable advice in the hour of need and provided me with the requisite facilities for the completion of the project work. I would also like to express my gratitude towards Dr. ASHOK GHOSH, who provided me all the required information and idea of Kawar Lake as well as practical environment together with his whole hearted co-operation during the performance of project work. Last but not the least, I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents for their blessing and whole hearted supports during the performance of project work. Also, I thanks to all my friends for their cooperation and support.

Bipin prasasd


a. To know about the bird species present and extinct. b. To check the Water quality of KAWAR LAKE, which give adverse effect on birds? c. To know the physico-chemical analysis of drinking water. d. To create awareness mass and class about water pollution and its ill effects on birds as well as on their environment. e. To know about people suggestion about bird conservation.










Wetlands are those areas inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support and that, under normal circumstances, do support a prevalence of vegetation typically adopted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas. In general wetlands are areas of land that remains waterlogged for a substantial period of a year. Wetlands are also home to a large range of birds, mammals, amphibians, fish, insects, crustaceans and reptiles; and a variety of medicinal plant species used by the rural masses to treat many kinds of disorders. Some of the best known species that have therapeutic values include pistia (Pistia stratiotes), tholkuri (Hydrocotyle asiatica) and kesuti (Eclipta alba). Pistia, for instance, has been used for centuries to cure skin diseases, dysentery and asthma. According to Ramsar Convention definition Under the Ramsar international wetland conservation treaty, wetlands are defined as follows: Article 1.1: "...wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peat land or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six meters." Article 2.1: "[Wetlands] may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six meters at low tide lying within the wetlands". Wetlands are considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystem Wetlands have also been described as Eco tones, providing a transition between dry land and water bodies Mitsch and Gosselink write that wetlands exist " the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic systems, making them inherently different from each other, yet highly dependent on both.

Wetlands have played a crucial role in human history; major stages in the evolution of life itself probably took place in nutrient rich coastal waters. Some of its benefits for environment are as following:(1) Flood control (2) Binding of the vegetation (3) Stabilization of banks and shores (4) Groundwater recharge (5) Deposition of rich nutrients for aquatic fertility (6) Immobilization and transformation of a wide range of environmental contaminants (7) Sink for various contaminants as NITRATE. (8) Decomposition of complex compounds to simpler ones.


The wetlands of north Bihar are dependent upon six major tributaries of the Ganga flowing out from the central Himalaya on to the plains between the Nepalese border, and the Ganga itself. From the Gandak river in the west to the Mahananda river in the east, the northern part of the Gangetic plains is studded with numerous small freshwater lakes and chaurs, the vast majority of which are oxbow lakes marking the historical courses of the Bayanadi, Burhi Gandak, Sapt Kosi and Mahananda rivers. Most of the lakes are 100-200 ha, but some exceed 1,000 ha in area. There are more than 14,000 ha under chaurs in Darbhanga district alone. The other major lake Kawar in Begusari district, covering an area of 7,400 ha. It is considered one of South Asia's largest freshwater lakes The Kanwar Taal or Kabar Taal Lake at Begusarai District in Bihar is Asias largest Fresh Water Oxbow lake, in eastern India spreading over an area of 67.37 sq. km (Bihar Govt., 1999) It is around 22 km from Begusarai in Bihar. Kabar is an important extremely Ecological, floral, faunal, geomorphologic, and natural water body. The Government of Bihar declared Kabar a bird sanctuary on Tuesday the 20th of June 1989 The wetland, despite being a proposed Ramsar site since 1987, was not included among the 13 others declared as wetlands of international importance in 2002, Recently it has been placed under the Ramsar convention (2000) of wetlands of international importance The resident and migratory birds from Central Asia and Himalayan regions flock here every winter. Ornithologist Salim Ali, mentioned about 60 migratory birds that come all the way from Central Asia in winter and recorded about 106 species of resident birds. During rainy season water from the adjoining villages viz. Jaimanglagarh, Rajour, Parora, Narainpur, Sonbasa, Kumbhi and others resulting to increase the depth as well as the area of the lake but during winter and summer months water dries up, resulting the sufficient shrinkage of the lake. Recently it has been placed under the Ramsar convention (2000) of wetlands of international importance.

Economically, too, the lake is significant because it yields about two tons of fish every day and is the single biggest source of irrigation in the area. The wetland is used simultaneously for rice cultivation, fishing, and many other uses. In 1986, Kabar Tal was declared a protected area. There is threat because of reclamation of land for agriculture and excessive removal of biomass by human population. The lake is threatened by pollution and effluents released by the local habitants. Recently national committee on wetlands, mangroves and coastal reefs identified 24 wetlands of national importance .among them MAP(Management action plan) for 10 sites has been prepared, Kabar Lake is also included in this list.


The Kawar Lake has a vital importance for the local residential as the lake is used by them through several aspects. One of the most important faces of the use is its role in agriculture. The lake is used for irrigation purpose, since the water has high nutrient content in the form of organic matters. The lake is also used by the people for daily uses of water such as for washing, bathing and other sanitation purposes. Sometimes the water is used even for drinking purpose by the poor sahnis (fishermans),because in summer days when the sahnis working in the fields feels thirst, they dig a small ditch in which the water is collected through seepage and the water is used to quench the thirst. Since the lake is enriched with nutrient, the encroached part of the lake in which the farming has started is very fertile resulting a good crop production. Sometimes seeds of some aquatic plants are also used as a food by local peoples.


The lake Kawar (2530 and 8610 E) is one of the important fresh water lakes in eastern India spreading over an area of 67.37 sq. km (Bihar Govt., 1999) in the district Begusarai under the block Cheriabariapur and Bakhari of Central Bihar (previously north Bihar) During rainy season water from the adjoining villages viz. Jaimanglagarh, Rajour, Parora, Narainpur, Sonbarsa, Kumbhi. The lake is surrounded by the river Burigandak in the west and south, the N.E. Railway line from Samastipur to Khagaria in the north and east. It is situated at about 22 km north from Begusarai town. In the south-east corner of the lake there is an island, locally called Jaimanglagarh famously known as MONKEY ISLAND which covering an area of about sq. km and on the west of the Kawar there is another chaur called Nagree Jheel The lake has been formed due to cut of meander of the river Burigandak and occurred in the extensive plains of deep alluvial field Mean rainfall ranges from 1000-1800 mm.


The kabar lake has very rich ecological diversity of plants, birds and fishes and some common animals. About 106 macrophytes, phytoplanktons and hydrophytes were also found. Among 106 species of birds known, about 60 were of migratory birds and rest was common or local species. while in macrophytes about 120 species were known in and around the lake. In hydrophytes ICORNIA, Nymphaea nouchali Burm, Nymphaea pubescens wild etc. are abundant. Instead of some local trees, inland bushes, grasses Some big trees are also found in abundance such as Arjun (Terminalia arjuna) and Sisso (Dalbergia sissoo) with in the Jaimanglagarh island planted by forest department. These trees are sometimes useful for the

birds as they use it for shelter. In kawar lake there are also some common varieties of fishes, insects and molluscs etc. Although the area of the lake has shrinked due to encroachment of land for agricultural and residential purposes which is impacting the organisms adversely, and due to several interventions by human activities to their life cycle some of them are threatened. There was a time when this lake was also economically significant for the local stakeholders as the lake was used for the production of makhana(foxnut) and singhara(water chestnut). The local stakeholder also gets benefit from fishing because the lake is productive and has a wide range of varieties of fishes which is consumed into the local market.

Following are the picture of 2004

Above are the picture of 2011


SL NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

NAME OF THE PLANTS Hydrilla verticillata Royle Vallisneria spiralis L. Caldesia oligococca Buch. Polygonum plebejum R. Br Peristrophae bicaliculata Cyanodon dactylon Hygroryza aristata Nees ex Wt. Phragmites vallatoria (L.) Veld. Najas minor Allioni Aeschynomene aspera L. Ipomoea aquatica Forss. Nymphoides indica (L.) Kurz. Nymphoides hydrophylla (Lour.) Kurz. Oryza rufipogon Griff. Utricularia aurea Lour Utricularia exoleta R. Br. Aponogeton natans (L.) Engl ex Krause. Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers. Polygonum barbatum L. Leersia hexandra Sw. Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash Saccharum spontaneum L. Pseudographis brunoniana Hymenachne acutigluma (Steud.) Gilliland. Hygrophylla spinosa Andr. Limnophila indica (L.) Druce Cyperus platylis R. Br. Ceratophyllum demersum L. Paspalum scrobiculatum L. Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poir. Xanthium strumarium L. Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. N. tabacum L. Phyla nodiflora (L.) Grume Alternanthera philoxeroides Grisebach. A. sessiles R. Br. Cannabis sativa Nymphaea nouchali Burm. Nymphaea pubescens willd. Ludwiga adsendens Hara Abutilon indica Nelumbo nucifera Gaerthen Eichhorria crassipes Solm-Laub. Pistia stratiodes

FAMILY Hydrocharitaceae Hydrocharitaceae Alismataceae Polygonaceae Acanthaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Najadaceae Fabaceae Convolvulaceae Menyanthaceae Menyanthaceae Poaceae Lentibulariaceae Lentibulariaceae Aponogetonaceae Hydrocharitaceae Polygonaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Acanthaceae Scrophulariaceae Cyperaceae Ceralophyllaceae Poaceae Compositae/ Asteraceae Asteraceae Solanaceae Solanaceae Verbenaceae Amaranthaceae. Amaranthaceae. Cannabinaceae Nymphaeaceae. Nymphaeaceae. Onagraceae Malvaceae Nelumbona Ceae. Pontedeniaceae Araceae

45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55.

Spirodella polyrhiza (L.) Schl. Coccinia indica Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. Spilanthus calva A. P. decandole Chenopodium album L. Commelina diffusa Burman. Fimbristylis dichotoma Vahl. Potamogeton crispus P. nodosus Azolla bipinnata R. Br. Salvinia natans (L.) Allione

Lemnaceae. Asteraceae. Asteraceae. Chenopodiaceae Commelinaceae Cyperaceae Putemofetrnace Azollaceae Salviniaceae

In addition to this some chars are also found which provide nesting facility to birds,some common waterfowls of kawar lake are1) Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruticollis 2) Great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo 3) Indian cormorant P. fuscicollis 4) Little cormorant P. niger 5) Grey heron Fulica atra and several others. 6) Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruticollis 7) Great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo 8) Indian cormorant P. fuscicollis 9) Little cormorant P. niger Grey heron Fulica atra and several others. Species of birds were found in these region

spreaded over 6737 hectares, in addition to this a diverse range of trees,



SI NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Bird name Little grebe Indian shag Little cormorant Large cormorant Grey heron Purple heron Little green heron Indian pend heron Cattle egrat Large egrat Smaller or madia egrat Little egrat Indian reef heron white bellied heron Little bittern Chestnut bittern Black bittern Yellow bittern Night heron White necked stork Adjutant stock Black necked stork White lbis Indian black lbis Large whistling teal Large whistling teal Cotton teal Conb duck Black winged kite Pariah kite Brahminy kite Indian shikra White-eyed buzzard-eagle Greater spotted eagle Pallass fishing eagle Indian white backed vulture Indian scavenger vulture Crested serpent eagle White breased waterhen Water cock Indian moorhen Purple moorhen Pheasant-tailed jacana Redwaffled lapuing Great gested grehe Great bittern Open bill stork Glossy ibis Eurasian spoonbill Greylag Goose Bar-headed goose Bateaded Goose Pintail Common teal Spot bill duck Mallord platyrhyachos ORDER Podicipediformes Podicipediformes Podicipediformes Pelecaniformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Pelecaniformes Pelecaniformes Ciconiiformes Pelecaniformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Pelecaniformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Accipitriformes Falconiformes Falconiformes Falconiformes Falconiformes Falconiformes Falconiformes Accipitriformes Accipitriformes Accipitriformes Gruiformes Gruiformes Gruiformes Gruiformes Charadriformes Charadriformes Podicipediformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Ciconiiformes Pelecaniformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Anseriformes FAMILY Podicipedidae Phalacrocoracidae Phalacrocoracidae Phalacrocoracidae Ardeidae Ardeidae Ardeidae Ardeidae Ardeidae Ardeidae Ardeidae Ardeidae Ardeidae Ardeidae Ardeidae Ardeidae Ardeidae Ardeidae Ardeidae Ciconiidae Ciconiidae Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Threskiornithidae Anatidae Anatidae Anatidae Anatidae Accipitridae Accipitridae Accipitridae Accipitridae Accipitridae Accipitridae Accipitridae Accipitridae Accipitridae Accipitridae Rallidae Rallidae Rallidae Rallidae Jacanidae Charadriidae Podicipedidae Ardeidae Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Threskiornithidae Anatidae Anatidae Anatidae Anatidae Anatinae Anatidae Anatidae GENUS Tachybaptus phalacrocoracidae Microcarbo Phalacrocorax Ardea Ardea Butorides Ardeola Bubulcus Ardea Ardea Egretta Egretta Ardea Ixobrychus Ixobrychus Ixobrychus Ixobrychus Nycticorax Ciconia Leptoptilos Ephippiorhynchus Threskiornis Pseudibis Dendrocygna Dendrocygna Nettapus Sarkidiornis Elanus Milvus Haliastur Accipiter Butastur Buteoninae Haliaeetus Gyps Neophron Spilomis Amauromis Gallicrex Gallicrex Porphyrio Hydrophasianus Vanellus Porphyrio Botaurus Anastomus Plegadis Platalea Anser Anser Tadoma Anas Anas Anas Anas SPECIES T. ruficollis P. fuscicollis M. niger P. carbo A. cinerea A. purpurea B. virescens A. grayii B. ibis A. alba A. intermedia E. garzetta E. gularis A. insignis I. minutus I. cinnamomeus I. flavicollis I.sinensis N. nycticorax C.episcopus L. dubius E. asiarticus T. aethiopicus P. papillosa D. bicolor D. javanica N. coromandelianus S. melanotos E. caeruleus M. migrans H. indus A. badius B. teesa A. clanga H. leucoryphus G. bengalensis N. percnopterus S. cheela A. phoenicurns G. cinerea G. chloropus P. porphyrio H.chirurgus V. indicus P. cristatus B. stellaris A. oscitans P. falcinellus P. leucorodia A. anser A. indicus T. ferruginea A. acuta A. crecca A. poecilorhyncha A. platyrhynchos BINOMIAL NAME Tachybaptus ruficollis Phalacrocorax fuscicollis Microcarbo niger Phalacrocorax carbo Ardea cinerea Ardea purpurea Butorides virescens Ardeola grayii Bubulcus ibis Ardea alba Ardea intermedia Egretta garzetta Egretta gularis Ardea insignis Ixobrychus minutus Ixobrychus cinnamomeus Ixobrychus flavicollis Ixobrychus sinensis Nycticorax nycticorax Ciconia episcopus Leptoptilos dubius Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus Threskiornis aethiopicus Pseudibis papillosa Dendrocygna bicolor Dendrocygna javanica Nettapus coromandelianus Sarkidiornis melanotos Elanus caeruleus Milvus migrans Haliastur indus Accipiter badius Butastur teesa Aquila clanga Haliaeetus leucorphus Gyps bengalensis Neophron percnopterus Spilornis cheela Amauronis phoenicurus Gallicrex cinerea Gallinula chloropus Porphyrio porphyrio Hydrophasianus chirurgus Vanellus indicus Podiceps cristatus Botaurus stellaris Anastomus oscitans Plegadis falcinellus Platalea leucorodia Anser anser Anser indicus Tadorna ferruginea Anas acuta Anas crecca Anas poecilorhyncha Anas platyrhynchos


57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92

Gadwall Wigeon Gerganey Shovellor Red gested poachard Common poachard White eved poachard Tufted duck Sea up duck Pale harrier Marsh harrier Eastern pergime Indian water rail Spotted crake Coot Curlew Tringa hypoleucos Tringa stagnatilis Gallinago gallinago Calidris temminckii Glareola pratincola Larus brunnicephalus Chlidonias hybridus Gelochelidon nilotica Sterna hirundo Asio flammeus Hirundo rustica Lanius collurio Culicicapa caylonensis Phylloscopus callybita Phoenicurus ochruros Anthus hodgsoni Anthus novaeseelandiae Motacilla cinerea Motacilla alba Motacilla flava

Anseriformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Anseriformes Falconiformes Falconiformes Falconiformes Gruiformes Gruiformes Gruiformes Charadriformes Charadriiformes Charadriiformes Charadriiformes Charadriiformes Charadriiformes Charadriiformes Chardriiformes Chardriiformes Chardriiformes Strigiformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes

Anatidae Anatidae Anatidae Anatidae Anatidae Anatidae Anatidae Anatidae Anatidae Accipitridae Accipitridae Falconidae Rallidae Rallidae Rallidae Scolopacidae Scolopacidae Scolopacidae Scolopacidae Scolopacidae Glareolidae Laridae Stenidae Stenidae Stenidae Strigidae Hirundinidae Laniidae Stenostiridae Phylloscopidue Muscicapidae Motacillidae Motacillidae Motacillidae Motacillidae Motacillidae

Anas Anas Anas Anas Netta Aythya Aythya Aythya Aythya Circus Circus Falco Rallus Porzana Fulica Numenius Actitis Tringa Calidris Glareola Chroicocephalus Chlidonias Gelochelidon Stema Asio Hirundo Lanius Culicicapa Phylloscopus Phoenicurus Antus Antus Motacilla Motacilla Motacilla

A. strepera A. penelope A. querquedula A. clypeata N. rufina A. ferina A. nyroca A. fuligula A. marila C. macrourus C. aeruginosus F. peregrinus R. aquaticus P. porzana F. atra N. arquata A.hypoleucos T.stagnatillis C.temminckii G. pratincola C. brunnicephalus C.hybridus G.nilotica S.hirundo A.flammeus H.rustica L.collurio C.ceylonensis P.collybita P.ochruros A.hodgsoni A.novaesselandiae M. cinerea M.alba M.flava

Anas strepera Anas penelope Anas querquedula Anas clypeata Netta rufina Aythya ferina Aythya nyroca Aythya fuligula Aythya marila Circus macrourus Circus aeruginosus Falco peregrinus Rallus aquaticus Porzana porzana Fulica atra Numenius arquata Actitis hypoleucos Tringa stagnatilis calidris temminckii Glareola pratincola Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus chlidonias hybridus Gelochelidon nilotica Sterna hirundo Asio flammeus Hirundo rustica Lanius collurio Culicipapa caylonensis phylloscopus callybita phoenicuurus ochruros Anthus hodgsoni Anthus novaeseelandiae Motacilla cinerea Motacilla alba Motacilla flava


Some Birds in Region, which are Endangered, Vulnerable and Threatened

Critically Endangered Oriental White-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis) Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus) Vulnerable Greater Adjutant(Leptoptilos dubiu) Greater Spotted Eagle(Aquila clanga) Lesser Kestrel(Falco naumanni) Sarus Crane (Grus antigone) Near Threadtened Darter Anhinga (melanogaster) Painted Stork (Mycteria leucocephala) Black-bellied Tern (Sterna acuticauda



As I have mentioned that the lake is facing drought this year so, I am unable water sample for test. but I have some data of previous which I am mentioning below.
PERCENTAGE OF COVERING AREA: About 50% of the total area is covered in two different seasons. The lake is divided into five sectors. Sector-1 (S1) is represent Jaimanglagarh, S-2 is opposite of Jaimanglagarh, S-3 is Banderi, S-4 is Parora and S-5 is Guabarighat. STUDY OF PHYSICOCHJEMICAL PARAMETER: Air temperature, water temperature, water pH, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, total hardness and in case of soil pH, Organic carbon, phosphate, potassium, nitrogen are considered for study. WATER: Seasonal changes of water quality are also variable. In summer the pH is maximum and in winter it is minimum. Ammonium content is high in winter, nitrate and nitrite is also high in summer. Carbonate hardness is maximum in winter. Dissolve oxygen is more or less same in both winter and summer season. During summer the pH of water is maximum in sector-4 (S-4) and minimum in S-1. Nitrate is higher in S-1 & S-4 and minimum in S-2 & S-3. Nitrite is same at all the sectors. Total hardness is minimum in S-2 and higher in S-3, phosphate content is unchangeable, carbonate is maximum in S-4. Dissolve oxygen is maximum at S-2 and minimum at S-4.


Table: 1.

S 1 7 0 mg/l 40 mg/l 0.01 mg/l 0.7 mg/l 0.2 mg/l 2.1 mg/l 7.2 mg/l 4-7 26C

S 2 8.2 0.1 mg/l 50 mg/l 0.025 mg/l 0.9 mg/l 0.25 mg/l 2.1 mg/l 6.3 mg/l 1-4 26C

Ammonium Nitrate Nitrite Total hardness PO4 Carbonate hardness D.O. Depth Temperature

S 3 7.3 0.2 mg/l 50 mg/l 0.025 mg/l 1.2 mg/l 0.25 mg/l 2.4 mg/l 6.7 mg/l 8-10 23C

S 4 8.5 0.3 mg/l 80 mg/l 0.04 mg/l 1 mg/l 0.40 mg/l 2.9 mg/l 6.2 mg/l 1.5 3.5 27C

S 5 7 0.1 mg/l 65 mg/l 0.027 mg/l 0.7 mg/l 0.25 mg/l 0.25 mg/l 6.6 mg/l 3-6 25C.

During winter pH is maximum at S-4 and minimum at S-3. Dissolve oxygen is maximum at S-3 and minimum at S-4, nitrate is maximum at S-3 & S-4, nitrite is higher at S-3 and S-2 in comparable to S-4 & S-5. Total hardness is higher at S-2 followed by S-3, S-4 and S-5. Phosphate and carbonate hardness of the lake water is maximum at S-4 and S-2 respectively. Table: 2. PARAMETRE

Ammonium Nitrate Nitrite Total hardness PO4 Carbonate hardness D.O. Depth Temperature

S 1 6.5 0.2 mg/l 50 mg/l 0.015 mg/l 1.3 mg/l 0.2 mg/l 3.2 mg/l 6.5 mg/l 6-8 19C

S 2 6.8 0.2 mg/l 35 mg/l 0.02 mg/l 1.3 mg/l 0.2 mg/l 3.2 mg/l 6.5 mg/l 2-5 20C

S 3 6.2 0 mg/l 30 mg/l 0.01 mg/l 1.2 mg/l 0.2 mg/l 3 mg/l 7 mg/l 10-12 22C

S 4 7.2 0.3 mg/l 35 mg/l 0.015 mg/l 1.4 mg/l 0.4 mg/l 3.3 mg/l 6.00 mg/l 2 4.5 23C

S 5 7.0 0.2 mg/l 50 mg/l 0.01 mg/l 1.2 mg/l 0.3 mg/l 3.0 mg/l 6.2 mg/l 4-6.5 22C. 17

The depth of water is also variable, which are represented as follows:

Table: 3. SITES

S2 S3 S4 S5

SUMMER 3 5 ft. 1.5 3 ft. 6 10 ft. 2 3 ft. 4 6 ft.

WINTER 5 6 ft. 4 5 ft. 8 12 ft. 3 4 ft. 6 8 ft.


SOIL: Soil of the lake is usually sandy loam, bottom soil is highly fertile. Soil materials was collected and tested only in winter season. The pH of the soil is maximum i.e. highly alkaline at S-4 and minimum i.e. neutral at S-1. Organic carbon and phosphate are also high at S-4 and minimum at S-1. Available potassium is also high at S-4 in comparable to other sectors. Nitrate and ammonium nitrogen is more or less constant in all other parts except S-4; here it is 8.2 kg/acre and 29.5 kg/acre respectively.
Table: 4.

S1 S2 S3 S4 S-5

pH 7 7.5 8 8.5 7.5

Nitrate Nitrogen 1.8 kg/acre 1.8 kg/acre 4.08 kg/acre 8.2 kg/acre 1.8 kg/acre

Ammonium Nitrogen 5.9 kg/acre 5.9 kg/acre 8.2 kg/acre 29.5 kg/acre 6 kg/acre

Phosphate (P204) 0 9.7 kg/acre 9.7 kg/acre 18.14 kg/acre 9.7 kg/acre

Available Potassium 45.36 kg/acre 45.36 kg/acre 50 kg/acre 68.04 kg/acre 43.36 kg/acre

Organic Carbon 0.5% 0.6% 0.7% 0.9% 0.7%

In kawar lake there are also some common varieties of fishes, insects and molluscs etc. Although the area of the lake has shrinked due to encroachment of land for agricultural and residential purposes which is impacting the organisms adversely, and due to several interventions by human activities to their life cycle some of them are threatened. There was a time when this lake was also economically significant for the local stakeholders as the lake was used for the production of makhana (foxnut) and singhara (water chestnut). The local stakeholder also gets benefit from fishing because the lake is productive and has a wide range of varieties of fishes which is 18 consumed into the local market.


The kawar lake bird sanctuary is also a tourism site which is visit by mostly local people but some time it was visited by foreign tourist. According to status of current kawar Lake No tourist is come now to visit it because the most of the part of the lake is facing drought. The number of migratory birds this year is very low due to water loss in the lake. The tourist came here due to watching the birds in November to march. The site seeing of kawar lake in this time very beautiful due the colorful birds. There is a temple near the side of the lake which is known as jai mangala gadh which is very famous so, the people come here for worship and picnic. Due to these activities lake is also disturbing because it is in the touch of local people and also due to increase in hunting activities the birds are decreasing. The site of jai mangala gadh is also famous as MONKEY ISLAND because there is lot of monkey present and they looks very nice so, the people goes there for picnic. There is also an arrangement of guesthouse for the outer tourist.



The extensive agriculture around the lake is showing the current status of lake. The lake is facing the drought only some water is scattered here and there in patches, where some fishermans were busy in fishing. We have noticed that in last five to eight years the colonization of migratory and other aquatic birds in the small wetlands around the lake, has shown a trend of decrease of the faunistic composition of these birds progressively due to human interference e.g. The local people of the lake is using the lake for agriculture by pesticides and this green revolution possible around the lake has been found to affect the lake ecosystem. It may be the region for the decreasing the number of migratory bird, But if concern on the result of recent year (2010-11), we have found that there is no bird available in this region and also lake has shrieked due to low rainfall in 2010 in that area and the depth of lake is also decreasing in spite of proper care BY FOREST DEPTARTMENT. In the silts there are so many dry weeds and other aquatic plant, which shows that the lake is highly eutrophic in nature.



We have concluded that the current status of lake is very disappointing, the lake is highly eutrophic, migratory and aquatic birds are not coming, the lake is being used by local people for various purposes, the depth of lake is decreasing due to deposition of silt and water holding capacity of lake is decreasing day by day. The most important and noticeable point, which needs greater attentions-the loss of bio-biodiversity of lake at faster rates. It is time policy-makers and scientists woke up to the irreparable destruction taking place in north Bihar. All this requires a comprehensive survey of the wetland areas, identification of biodiversity and potentiality of different species; promoting scientific cultivation of the already cultivated plants, fishes and mollusks; introducing cultivation of potential noncultivated species for food, fodder and medicinal use; strengthening cooperatives, establishing more hatcheries and rehabilitation of old ones for assisting fisher folk and marketing support; and promoting other avenues of employment like need based local agro industries. The best way to protect wetlands is not by legislation but by making people aware of what they stand to lose if this ecosystem perishes. "An awareness generation program should, therefore, be given top priority,' says Mishra. Udhuwa Bird Sanctuary Conservation program taken up by Mishra's Mandar Nature Club is working towards this direction. The general awareness campaign has changed the fate of the sanctuary. Now the people identify themselves with the sanctuary and are keen to participate in various conservation activities. But elsewhere in north Bihar, the picture is not the same


Following suggestions should be considered for the proper management and conservation of the precious resources of the lake:1) The proper care of the lake should be taken by forest department. 2) There must be an awareness program for local people about importance of lake and birds in their daily life. 3) The use of pesticides in agriculture near lake should be banned 4) There must be a program for aware local people about utilization of the lake economically in proper way without harming it. 5) There must be nesting for migratory birds in sanctuary periodically. 6) Hunting and disturbances to the wildlife should be strictly prohibited. 7) Monitoring of all the above activities of suggestions should be done.