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MADAGASCAR

Introduction & Official Language Malagasy refer to themselves and their language as Malagasy. The official name of the country is the Republic of Madagascar. Madagascar is located off the eastern coast of southern Africa in the Indian Ocean along the Mozambique Channel. It is the fourth largest island in the world. It has a population of 14,462,509 as of 1998: 45 percent between 0-14 years; 52 percent 15-64 years; and 3 percent over 65 years. The annual population growth rate is 2.81 percent. Life expectancy at birth is 51.7 years for men and 54.1 years for women. The fertility rate is 5.76 children born per Food and Economy woman. Rice is the staple of the Malagasy diet. It is usually accompanied by some form of kabaka (a protein dish such as fish, meat, chicken, or beans). In some parts History and Ethnic Relations of the island a side dish ( romazava ) made of green leafy vegetables in broth is The Malagasy people are of mixed Malayo-Indonesian and African-Arab common. Generally, side dishes serve to add flavor to the rice rather than ancestry. provide nutrients. Most Malagasy entrees are prepared in one of four ways: fried, grilled, boiled in water, or cooked with coconut juice. Food is generally During the eighteenth and nineteenth century there were 4 main kingdoms: prepared in a kitchen that is physically separated from the main house for fire Merina, Betsileo, Betsimisaraka, and Sakalava. Friction between the Merinas, safety. Meals are served in the house, on the veranda, or on mats placed on the largest ethnic group, and the other ethnic groups during the pre-colonial the ground outside the house. Lunch and dinner leftovers are warmed for period eventually resulted in domination by the Merina Empire. Ethnic groups breakfast the following morning. Breakfast consists of rice and a tea made of that controlled regions outside of the high plateau were classified as a single local herbs or leaves and sweetened with sugar. Water is the usual beverage group called ctiers even though they were made up of unaligned kingdoms. served with meals. Two Merina monarchs were responsible for establishing political dominance over the island: King Andrianampoinimerina and his son Radama I who Agriculture is the basis of the economy providing approximately 80 percent of succeeded him upon his death. Radama I was forward-thinking with an interest exports in 1993, which in turn constitutes 33 percent of the gross domestic in modernizing along western lines. He organized a cabinet and invited the product (GDP). The other two-thirds of the GDP were comprised of industry at London Missionary Society to establish schools. The latter action was to have 15 percent and services at 52 percent. Eighty percent of the labor force was far-reaching effects. Successive Merina rulers embraced or rejected advances employed in the agricultural sector in 1993. The majority of the population made by France to control the island. In 1894 France declared Madagascar a exists at subsistence level growing rice. Just over one-half of the total landmass protectorate, and a colony in 1896. The colonial period was marked by the supports livestock but only 16 percent of land under cultivation is irrigated. vacillating popularity of French influence over Merina elites. Nationalist sentiments against the French emerged resulting in various concessions made Political Life by France to give the Malagasy people greater control. This eventually led to Since independence from France in 1960, Madagascar has been a democratic independence on 20 June 1960. Political tensions between the main Malagasy republic. Currently the president is elected by universal suffrage to a five-year groups (high plateau and ctier) still exists today and are characterized by the term with a two-term limit. The bicameral parliament is comprised of a senate perception that the central government does not meet the needs of the and national assembly. The prime minister is nominate by the parliament and ctiers. Each of Madagascar's presidents has struggled to achieve a viable approved by the president. cultural balance between the acceptance of western ways of life, most notably An unwritten law regarding government relates back to the ctier -high plateau French, and the safeguarding of traditional Malagasy customs. That which has split. It is understood that when a president is elected from one group, then emerged as quintessentially Malagasy in the national sense is a constantly the prime minister will be appointed from the opposing group. evolving product of all of these influences.

Majority of government buildings in the capital and regional urban centers were built during the colonial period showing a French influence. The style of homes built on the high plateau differs markedly from homes found elsewhere due to a heavy reliance on local materials. Homes on the high plateau tend to be multistoried and are constructed of mud bricks that are plastered with a hard drying mud coat that is then painted. Homes in coastal regions are often built on a raised platform in areas with high rainfall and on the ground in drier areas. These homes tend to be much smaller with one or two rooms and are made of bamboo-like materials. The type of materials used signifies a past or present economic status.

village president serves with locally appointed village elders ( rayamandreny antanana ) on a local security committee. This system of government is called the fokonolona and handles all matter of civil concerns allowing for a limited degree of self rule. Gender Roles and Statuses Recent laws have begun to emphasize the importance of equal treatment of men and women in certain spheres. Women are to receive the same wages as their male counterparts for the same work. In the political arena, an increasing number of women from the high plateau are entering politics. Although new laws improve the rights of women, men are still given greater consideration in social and religious roles. Men are generally the primary money earners. Although women frequently engage in petty commerce to supplement their household budget, they rely upon their husband's earnings. Even though men and women are capable of participating in all forms of activities, men focus their efforts on economic and women on household and familial activities. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Traditional, civil, and church-sanctioned marriages are recognized, with one or more types applying in any given case. Regardless of the form of marriage, most unions today are formed by joint consent with the institution of arranged marriage decreasing in frequency. When a family does arrange a marriage, it is generally with the purpose of securing or strengthening familial and social relationships. The institution of men maintaining more than one wife and household varies across the island and is generally accepted. It is estimated in some areas that more than 50 percent of adult men simultaneously maintain two or more wives and households at some point in their lives. Divorce is a common occurrence. By the age of forty, most Malagasy have been involved in several successive marital unions. Nuclear households usually are comprised of a male and female household head and the children from their union. Extended family households usually are comprised of an elder male and/or female household head, their unmarried children, and any number of grandchildren who are fostered to grandparents. When marrying, a woman tends to leave her natal home to live with her husband and his family. Some extended families may live in fenced compounds or clustered housing arrangements that house multiple family units.

Customary inheritance practices pass land and household to male children and The country is divided into six provinces ( faritany ) which serve as the contents of the household such as furnishings and jewelry along to female Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space administrative subdivisions. The provinces are further divided into counties children. Madagascar has a primarily rural population, with fewer people living on the ( fivondronana ), which in turn are divided into villages ( fokontany ). The west coast and more in the high plateau. The most crowded city is the capital, village is the smallest administrative unit, with a state-appointed president Antananarivo. (usually already a state functionary such as a schoolteacher or nurse). The

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Socialization Newborn children are kept inside the house for a period of approximately seven days after birth, at which time a small ceremony is performed to celebrate the "coming out" of the child. It is common for mothers to provide foods such as tea to supplement their breast milk. Primary caregivers for small children are the mother and/or father. However, many children will be fostered to other family members such as a grandparent, an aunt, or an uncle from a few months to a few years or for the child's whole life. Older children in a household are generally assigned the task of looking after younger children when an adult is not available. Children are taught from an early age what they are not allowed to do. Ceremonies specific to childhood that are focused on life events include the first hair cutting and circumcision. An astrologer will be consulted to choose an auspicious date for these ceremonies. Education is compulsory from age 6 to 14. This can be difficult to enforce in more remote areas where children make important contributions to the agricultural work force of the household. . Religion An estimated 52 percent of the people hold indigenous beliefs; 41 percent are Christian (evenly divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant); and 7 percent are Muslim. However, many people hold a combination of indigenous and Christian or Muslim beliefs. Secular Celebrations The first of January is New Year's Day. Memorial Day is celebrated 29 March for those who died in the French Malagasy War of 1949. International Women's Day, when women are honored for their contributions, is 30 March. The third Thursday in May is Labor Day, an important holiday for workers. Madagascar's independence from France in 1960 is celebrated on 26 June. The Celebration of the Dead is held on 1 November and is a day devoted to ancestors and their burial grounds that can involve the building of elaborate tombs. The Arts and Humanities Support for the arts is understandably limited due to the poor economic conditions of the country.

PHILIPPINES
Introduction & Official Language The Republic of the Philippines was named the Filipinas to honor King Philip the Second of Spain in 1543.

The Republic of the Philippines, a nation of 7,107 islands with a total area of Independence was promised after twelve years, with the United States 111,830 square, is located on the Pacific Rim of Southeast Asia. Two thousand retaining rights to military bases. of its islands are inhabited. Luzon, the largest island with one-third of the land and half the population, is in the north. The Japanese invaded the Philippines early in 1942 and ruled until 1944. Filipino forces continued to wage guerrilla warfare. The return of U.S. forces The islands are volcanic in origin. Because the country is volcanic, the small ended the Japanese occupation. After the war, plans for independence were islands have a mountainous center with coastal plains. Luzon has a broad resumed. The Republic of the Philippines became an independent nation on 4 central valley in the northern provinces along the Cagayan River and plains in July 1946. the midlands near Manila, the capital. The highest peak is Mount Apo in Mindanao at 9,689 feet (2,954 meters). Ninety-five percent of the population is of Malay ancestry. The other identifiable group is of Chinese ancestry. Sino-Filipinos are envied for their The weather is hot because of the country's closeness to the equator. The success in business. temperatures are constant except during typhoons. The dry season is from January to June; the wet season with monsoon rains is from July to December. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space The architecture of the islands shows Spanish influence. Spanish brick churches The estimated population in July 2000 was eighty-one million. The average life built during the colonial era dominate the towns. The churches are large and expectancy is sixty-seven years. Four percent of the population is over age different from traditional construction. It is difficult to imagine how the sixty-five. The most populous area is Metropolitan Manila, where eight million indigenous population in the seventeenth century was able to build them. to ten million people live. Traditional houses in rural areas are nipa huts constructed of bamboo and The official languages are Filipino, which is based on Tagalog with words from roofed with leaves from palm trees or corrugated metal. Cinder blocks are the other native languages, and English. Since only 55 percent of residents speak most commonly building material used. Filipino fluently, English is used in colleges, universities, the courts, and the government. Filipinos are proud that their country has the third largest Food and Economy number of English speakers in the world. Filipinos do not consider it a meal if rice is not served. Plain steamed rice is the basis of the diet. Three crops a year are harvested to provide enough rice for History and Ethnic Relations the population, and the government keeps surpluses stored for times of Early inhabitants are believed to have reached the area over land bridges drought. Fish, chicken and pork are usually fried, although people are connecting the islands to Malaysia and China. The first people were the becoming more health-conscious and often choose alternative methods of Negritos. Later immigrants came from Indonesia. After the land bridges cooking. Garlic is added to food because it is considered healthful. All food is disappeared, immigrants from Indo-China brought copper and bronze and built cooked on gas burners or wood or charcoal fires and is allowed to get cold the rice terraces at Benaue in northern Luzon. The next wave came from before it is eaten. Malaysia and is credited with developing agriculture. Table knives are not used. Forks and spoons are used for dining. The food is In 1380, the "Propagation of Islam" began in the Sulu Islands and Mindanao, eaten from a spoon. The traditional method of placing food on a banana leaf where Islam remains the major religion. and eating with one's hands is also used throughout the country. It is acceptable to eat food with one's hands at restaurants as well as in the home. The occupation by Spain and the unifying factor of Catholicism were the first steps in creating a national identity. Filipinos then became interested in Breakfast is served at 6 A.M. and consists of food left over from the night attaining. In the 1890's, the novels of Jos Rizal, his exile to a remote island, before. It is not reheated. Small buns called pan de sal may be purchased from and his execution by the Spaniards created a national martyr and a rallying vendors early in the morning. point for groups seeking independence. The Spanish-American War of 1898 and the defeat of the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay led the Filipino leader Emilio At midmorning and in the afternoon, people eat merienda. Coca-Cola is very Aguinaldo to declare independence from Spain. The United States paid twenty popular. Lunch is a light meal with rice and one other dish, often a fish or meat million dollars to the Spanish for the Philippines under the Treaty of Paris. stew. Fish, pork, or chicken is served at dinner with a soup made of lentils or Aguinaldo did not accept United States occupation and fought until the Filipino vegetables. Fatty pork is a favorite. Portions of small cubes of browned pork fat forces were defeated. In 1902, the Philippines became an American territory. are considered a special dish.

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Lchon, a suckling pig that has been roasted until the skin forms a hard brown crust, is served at important occasions. The inside is very fatty. Strips of the skin with attached fat are considered the best pieces. The importance of the host and the occasion are measured by the amount oflchon. served. Blood drained from the pig is used to make dinuguan. Sticky rice prepared with coconut milk and sugarcane syrup is wrapped in banana leaves.

marry, and engagements of five to seven years are not uncommon. A woman who reaches the age of thirty-two without marrying is considered past the age for marriage. Women believe that marriage to a wealthy man or a foreigner will guarantee happiness. Divorce is illegal, but annulment is available for the dissolution of a marriage. Interfaith marriages are rare.

Independence Day on 12 June celebrates freedom from Spanish rule. SinoFilipinos celebrate the Chinese New Year. In Manila, fireworks and parades take place throughout Chinatown. Arts and Humanities The government provides support for institutions such as the National Museum in Manila. Libraries exists in colleges and universities. The Cultural Center of the Philippines in Manila is a center for the performing arts that opened in 1970. It is a multibuilding complex created under the direction of former first lady Imelda Marcos, who encouraged musicians to enter the international community and receive additional training. Nongovernmental organizations preserve the folk heritage of the indigenous groups.

The extended family is the most important societal unit, especially for women. Gin and beer are available for men and are accompanied by balut, a duck egg Mothers and daughters who share a home make decisions concerning the with an embryo. Dog meat is a delicacy throughout the country. home without conferring with male family members. One child remains in the family home to care for the parents and grandparents, their daughter. Family Agriculture, forestry, and fishing are the occupations of 40 percent of the thirty bonds are so close that nieces and nephews are referred to as one's own million people who are employed. Light manufacturing, construction, mining children and cousins are referred to as sisters and brothers. Unmarried adult and the service industries provide the remainder of employment women may legally adopt one of a sibling's children. opportunities. The unemployment rate is over 9 percent. Fifty percent of the population lives below the poverty line. People work seven days a week and Because of the closeness of the immediate family, all familial ties are COLUMBIA take additional jobs to maintain or improve their lifestyle or pay for a child's recognized. Anyone who is remotely related is known as a cousin. education. Eight hundred thousand citizens work overseas, primarily as Introduction & Official Language merchant seamen, health care, household, or factory workers in Saudi Arabia, Socialization With a population of 42.3 million (30 June 2000), Colombia is a nation of mixed Hong Kong, and Taiwan. OSWs send $7 billion home each year, providing 4 Infants are raised by family members. Young children are sent to live with their race. It is estimated that about 75 percent of the population is of mixed percent of the gross domestic product. grandparents or aunts for extended periods. heritage, with 55 percent of thisgroup being mestizos, 16 percent mulattoes, and 4 percent zambos . The other 20 percent of the Political Life Infants spend their waking time in someone's arms until they can walk. They population is of European, African, or Indian ancestry. The country has a republican form of government that was developed during are part of every activity and learn by observation. Infant mortality is high, and the commonwealth period. It contains three branches: executive, legislative, so great care is taken of babies. Helpers and older sisters assist with the daytoSince declaring independence on 20 July 1810 and achieving it in 1819, and judicial. day care of babies. Colombia has changed its name seven times. Regional cultural traditions are diverse, with a broad range of distinct groups that have unique customs, Gender Roles and Statuses Filipinos regard education as the path to upward mobility. Ninety percent of accents, social patterns, and cultural adaptations. In Philippines, gender lines are less important. While families desire male the population over ten years of age is literate. children, females are welcomed to supply help in the house and provide a Colombia is connected to Central America by the Isthmus of Panama. It home in the parents' old age. Women's rights to equality and to share the Religion contains several small islands in the Atlantic, including San Andrea and family inheritance with male siblings are firmly established and are not The Philippines is the only Christian nation in Asia. More than 85 percent of the Providencia, and in the Pacific, the Malpelo and Gorgona islands have been set questioned. The oldest daughter is expected to become an OSW to provide people are Roman Catholic. The rosary is said in the home at 9 P.M. , just aside as natural wildlife reserves. Colombia borders Ecuador and Peru to the money for the education of younger siblings and for the needs of aging family before the family retires for the night. Children are introduced to the statue of south, Brazil and Venezuela to the east, and Panama to the northwest. members. Women are the familial money managers. "Mama Mary" at a very early age. The Atlantic or Caribbean coastal lowlands receive less rainfall than the area along the Pacific. Many industries are located within this area, along with 20 Marriage, Family and Kinship Muslims constitute the largest non-Christian group. They live in Mindanao and percent of the population. The fertile land supports banana and sugarcane Marriage is a civil ceremony that is conducted city offices. A religious ceremony the Sulu Islands but have migrated to other provinces. Muslim provinces plantations along with cattle ranches. Lush rain forest and swamps also is performed. The ceremony is similar to those in the United States with celebrate Islamic religious holidays as legal holidays. Mosques are located in characterize the Pacific lowlands. Because of the abundant rainfall and poor the addition of sponsors. Principal sponsors are friends and relatives who have large cities throughout the country. In smaller communities, Muslims gather in soil quality, few people inhabit this region. positions of influence in the community. The number of principal sponsors small buildings for services. attests to the popularity and potential success of a couple. It also reduces a The official language is Spanish, which was imposed during the colonial period. couple's expenses, since each principal sponsor is expected to contribute a Secular Celebrations All Colombians speak it except some of the indigenous populations in the substantial amount of cash. New Year's Day is more of a family holiday than Christmas. It is combined with Amazonian basin. In major cities, English is used, particularly by the upper Rizal Day on 30 December to provide time for people to go home to their class, but it is not commonly understood or spoken. Outside urban areas, Arranged marriages have not been part of Filipino life. However, men are province. Midnight on New Year's Eve brings an outburst of firecrackers and Spanish is virtually the only medium of communication. expected to marry and if a man has not married by his late twenties, female gunfire from randomly aimed firearms. relatives begin introducing him to potential brides. The median age for marriage is twenty-two. Young professionals wait until their late twenties to

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History and Ethnic Relations Manufacturing exports include textiles, garments, chemicals, and metal The discovery of the country's coastal lands in 1499, followed by Spanish products. Despite rich mineral deposits, Colombia derives less than 4 percent occupation for the next 300 years, indicates the integral role Spain played in of the gross domestic product (GDP) from mining. the region's cultural, religious, and political development. Political Life Unfair practices and decrees by the Spaniards created a desire for The government has an executive branch led by an elected president, a independence. Most traumatic was the practice of encomiendas, an bicameral (House of Representatives and Senate) legislative branch, and a institutionalized system in which Indians were "entrusted" to the care of judicial branch. The president is elected to a four-year term by popular vote Spaniards called Encomienderos .These "caretakers" provided the Indians with and may not be reelected. religious instruction and a livelihood in exchange for their labor. In practice, In the Congress, senators are elected by national vote, while representatives this system amounted to enslavement. are elected by the people in their districts. Members of both houses may be reelected to an unlimited number of terms. Congress meets only twice a year but After several minor uprisings, Colombia achieved independence after the may be called for additional sessions by the president. decisive battle of Boyac on 9 August 1819 under Simon Bolivar, a Creole who joined the patriotic movement in 1810. Gender Roles and Statuses Gender roles have changed with the migration from rural to urban areas, but Past relations with other regional cultures were based on the hierarchical family and household organization is still marked by sexual segregation and a society imposed by Spain, in which the upper echelon of "white" Spaniards difference between male and female goals and aspirations. As a result of enjoyed wealth, power, and prestige while blacks and Indians were at the colonial influence, Colombian society adopted a culture in which men occupy a bottom of the socioeconomic hierarchy. dominant role within the household as breadwinner and disciplinarian and assume responsibility for maintaining family pride and position within the Urbanism,Architecture, and the Use of Space community. But with more women holding higher-paying jobs and occupying The nation's architecture reflects seventeenth century Spanish colonial origins. prominent positions in society, the role of machismo is now less dominant in Regional differences derive from those in Spain. Thus, hints of Moorish and urban centers but is still evident in rural regions. Castilian architecture are evident in many cities. Many areas have had difficulty maintaining older structures, and the climate has destroyed many Baroque Marriage, Family, and Kinship buildings. Arranged marriages are no longer common, especially among the uppermiddle and upper classes, but the members of these groups are encouraged to Newer buildings in larger cities utilize modern styles with adaptations of the marry within their own class. While men and women can date whomever they Baroque style supplemented with wood and wrought-iron elements. wish, they must be accompanied by a chaperone. Before marrying, couples usually court for at least a year. Park space is limited to larger towns and cities that were founded by the Spanish. Members of the lower and middle classes strive to marry someone outside of their class; mestizos, mulattoes, and blacks prefer to marry into white families. Food and Economy Most people, especially in urban centers, are married in the Catholic Church. Most middle-class families eat elaborate meals that reflect Spanish and Upper class people use this religious rite to create powerful family unions. indigenous traditions. A typical meal is identified by size rather than content, Church weddings are expensive and allow families to demonstrate their such as a light breakfast, a substantive midday lunch, and a lighter meal in the financial and social status. Because of the expense, members of the lower early evening. Dinner consists of fresh fruit, homemade soup, and a main dish middle class may opt for a civil marriage. with meat or fish accompanied by rice and/or potatoes. Lower-income people eat a more carbohydrate-rich diet. Meals usually end with a very sweet Socialization dessert, frequently made from panela, a type of brown sugar. Parents encourage a child to behave properly. From birth to adolescence, parents nurture children very carefully, inculcating moral values and raising The economy is dependent on manufacturing and agricultural exports, but this them to respect themselves and their elders. Children are taught right from domestic production relies on expensive imports such as tractors, power wrong, encouraged to be obedient, and informed about the need for higher generators, and industrial machinery. Commercial agriculture stresses education. Obedience to adults, conformity to social expectations, and bananas, cut flowers, sugar, and coffee. In the world's second leading exporter religious devotion are important qualities in a "good" child. of coffee, the economy is sensitive to fluctuations in the market price.

Religion Ninety-five percent of the people consider themselves members of the Roman Catholic Church and attach great importance to Catholic sacraments. More than 85 percent of Catholics in urban parishes attend mass regularly. People in rural areas are said to be more devout than those in the cities, but their Catholicism is different from that of the urban upper and middle classes. In the countryside, Catholic practices and beliefs have been combined with indigenous, African, and sixteenth-century Spanish customs. People pray to a patron saint, who is considered to be more accessible than God. Rural villages have a patron saint who is honored each year with a fiesta. Traces of rural folk religion also are found in urban lower class communities, particularly those with many rural migrants. Secular Celebrations Numerous national holidays celebrate the country and its culture, and many religious holidays are celebrated as national holidays. Important church holidays include the Epiphany (6 January); Holy Week, which includes Easter (March or April); All Saints Day (1 November); the Immaculate Conception (8 December); and Christmas (25 December). Colombia also celebrates the feast days of various saints on both a national and a local level. The Arts and Humanities Art is considered one of the defining features of Colombian culture. The arts are supported through private individuals and foundations The government, through the Ministries of the Interior and Education, also provides substantial support for numerous museums, theaters, and libraries throughout the country. Among the government supported institutes are the National Museum of Colombia, and the Colombian Institute of Culture, both of which support artists while striving to preserve Colombia's rich history. In addition to these traditional institutes, local governments and private transportation companies support local artists by hiring them to colorfully decorate city and town buses.

PORTUGAL
Introduction & Official Language The name "Portugal" derives from a Roman or pre-Roman settlement called Portus Cale (the modern city of Porto) near the mouth of the Douro River. The Romans referred to this region as the province of Lusitania, and the prefix Luso (meaning "Portuguese") is still used in some contexts. Continental Portugal at 35,516 square miles (91,986 square kilometers) occupies approximately a sixth of the Iberian peninsula. Since the majority of

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the population was rural until the 1960s, geography has been an important factor in cultural adaptations and worldview. Romance language with Latin roots, although some words are Arabic in origin. Emerging as a language distinct from Latin and Castilian in the ninth century, Portuguese was made the official language under King Dinis (12791325). Dialects are found only in regions near the border with Spain and are disappearing. Portuguese is a History and Ethnic Relations the First Portuguese Republic, which was replaced by the authoritarian dictatorship of Antnio Salazar in 1926. Salazar formed his New State ( Estado Novo ) in 1932 on a corporatist political model and emphasized God, family, and work as the central values of the national culture. He limited access to higher education and, in emphasizing the Catholic faith, promoted humility, routine, and respect for authority as guiding principles of social life. He also celebrated the rural way of life by sponsoring a national competition in 1938 for the most Portuguese village. The Salazarist regime survived until 1974, when it was overthrown by military men frustrated by the hopelessness of the colonial wars in Africa. The African colonial system was dismantled after 1974. In the late 1980s, Portugal became a member of the European Community, and in 1994, Lisbon served as the European cultural capital.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship The marriage rate rose in the twentieth century. Marriage has generally been class endogamous, and there is a tendency for villages to be endogamous. Households tend to be complex, many of them composed of a threeFood and Economy The cuisine varies by region. The north is known for caldo verde , a kale and generation stem family. Headship of the household is held jointly by a married potato soup generally flavored with a slice of chourio (spicy sausage). Also couple. important are grilled sardines. The traditional bread, especially in the northwest, is broa , a grainy corn bread with a thick crust. In Minho, the Socialization traditional wine is vinho verde , a young wine made from grapes that grow on Socialization is an important aspect of education. A child who is " bem arbors that often serve as property markers. In the northeastern region of educado " has good manners and is respectful toward adults. The Portuguese Trs-os-Montes, fresh and cured pork, is used in a number of dishes. A stew of are indulgent toward their children, who are welcome everywhere. Life cycle mixed meats and vegetables called cozida a` portuguesa originated in this ceremonies for children are in accordance with Catholic ritual. Baptisms are region and has become a national dish. In central Portugal, cheeses are more important events for the extended family. First communion can be an occasion common because of pasturing in the Serra da Estrela and fish (including for a family celebration. octupus, squid, and eel) is abundant. In the south, the most popular soup is a form of gazpacho with bread and smoked pork. A pork and clam stew cooked Religion in a cataplana (a tightly sealed steamer) is the regional dish of the Alentejo. The majority of the citizens are Catholic, nominally if not in practice Olive oil ( azeite ) is used throughout the country.

1970s, new housing and large apartment complexes have been built to accommodate the growing urban population.

Bacalhau (salt cod) has been a national dish since the fifteenth century. 25 April has been an official holiday since 1974, commemorating the Cinnamon is a common flavoring for desserts, such as the traditional rice overthrow of the Estado Novo by the Armed Forces Movement. On 1 May, the pudding ( arroz doce ). Portuguese celebrate Labor Day. Portugal Day (10 June) commemorates the death of Luis de Cames, the national epic poet. 15 August, celebrating the According to 1998 estimates agriculture constitutes 4 percent of the gross Assumption of the Virgin, is observed. 5 October is Republic Day, domestic product, industry 36 percent, and services 60 percent. Twelve commemorating the collapse of the monarchy in 1910. Since 1974 it has Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space percent of the population works in agriculture, 32 percent in industry, and 56 assumed more significance as a national holiday, while 28 May, a urbanization has been fueled by extensive internal migration from the percent in services, commerce, and government. Tourism is an important commemorative day complete with military parades that in the Salazar regime countryside to the cities. component of the service sector. honored the 1926 military coup, is no longer a day of national celebration.

Secular Celebrations

The hallmark of Portuguese architecture are azulejos , glazed ceramic tiles that cover the facades and interiors of churches, government buildings, and private homes. Azulejos were introduced by the Moors. Both geometric and representational patterns are used, the latter often depicting historical events or religious scenes. Vernacular buildings in rural areas use local materials. In the north, traditional peasant houses, often with two stories and a red tubular clay tile roof, were built with thick granite walls. Animals were kept on the ground floor, which also was used for storage. Many of these houses had verandas. All had a big hearth in the kitchen with an overhanging chimney used to smoke hams and sausage as well as to cook and heat. The kitchen is the center of private family space; these houses often also contain a parlor ( sala ) for receiving guests. In the south one-story, whitewashed, flat-roofed houses with blue trim around the windows and doorways are common. This form of architecture evokes the Moorish past. These houses, which are built to keep out the summer heat, have huge chimneys and hearths. Since the

Political Life

Portugal has moved from an authoritarian regime, to a provisional military The greatest art forms are architecture and ceramics. Painting has not been government, to a parliamentary democracy. The president, representing the particularly important. Folk arts are well developed, and craftspeople are executive branch, is elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term and found throughout the country. appoints the prime minister Gender Roles and Statuses Labor force statistics frequently underestimate the participation of women, particularly in the rural economy of the north. Some anthropologists view these activities as the basis of the significant economic and political power of peasant women. Middle- and upper-class women were at one time restricted to the domestic sphere, but this has changed as women have received advanced education and professional training, and full legal equality. Factors such as an interventionist state, low wages, flexibility in the allocation of labor resources of family members, a rigid social structure, and incipient economic and technological development explain the low rate of labor market segregation by gender. Women in the north and the island of Madeira produce embroidered goods that are sold to tourists. Pottery varies in style according to geographic region. Artistic expression is also evident in the items produced for decorating the floats carried in religious processions and in the filigree jewelry made in the Porto region, which also is worn at festivals.

The Arts and Humanities

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