HR Selection & Staffing

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An Written Report Submitted to The Faculty of the Graduate School San Pedro College, Davao City

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In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER IN NURSING

By

KATHREEN GLAIZA YEE MENDOZA

March 17, 2012

or simply HR) is the management of an organization's workforce. or human resources. the next logical step is to fill these jobs/positions with workers. its responsibilities. P. selection. training. assessment. Human resource management function involves the recruitment. Class discussion. and rewarding of employees. my classmates would be able to:      Identify the Elements of the Selection Process Compare the Common Methods Used for Selecting Human Resources Describe Major Types of Employment Tests Determine How to Conduct Effective Interviews Understand How Employers Carry Out the Process of Making a Selection Design Introduction: Human resource management (HRM. descriptions and specification. the master plan is just a mere master plan if the actual process of building does not push through.7). it also must entail a careful and .” (Nortjcraft.. This master plan contains all the needed materials. HR will typically also serve as the company's primary liaison with the employees' representatives.Objectives: That within my 30 mins. In circumstances where employees desire and are legally authorized to hold a collective bargaining agreement. placement. It is responsible for the attraction. and ensuring compliance with employment and labor laws. Staffing “ is the process of supplying a workforce to fill the organizations designed structures. evaluation. Having a thoroughly planned organizational design/structure and a detailed and clear job analysis is comparable to a master plan of a building. After identifying the different jobs. But it is important to take note that filling a position/job is not a simple pick-and-place process. compensation and development of the employees of an organization. while also overseeing organizational leadership and culture. 1994. its different specifications and how it should be built. However.

and hiring as stated in the book by Sison: · · · · · · · · · · · · study the right jobs in the company. 132).effective staffing process so that both the organization and the worker will benefit from it. security clearances etc. Check work experiences. Employing the screening and selecting method varies from an organization to another. This program must be comprehensive and structured to the needs of the organization. record. an organization should have a program for recruiting. write job descriptions and specifications requisition for a new employee recruit qualified applicants sight-screen applicants application form filled out select those who will undergo testing – use a battery of validated test. considering current environmental conditions. Below is an outlined procedure in recruitment. references interview match the applicant with the job do the final selection physical examination. But in order to have a better result in hiring process. Selection Criteria Experience and past performance Education and training Skills . selecting and hiring. hire the chosen candidate Selection is the process by which an organization chooses form a list of applicants the person(s) who best meet the selection criteria for the position available. “Screening” is the process of sifting the good applicants from the host of recruits while “Selection” is choosing the best among the screened applicants (Martires. selection.

Applicants who have crossed the above stages are sent for a physical examination either to the company’s physician or to a medical officer approved for the purpose. * Employment interview: . It is essentially a sorting process in which prospective candidates are given necessary information about the nature of the job and the organization. performance and attitudes of two persons.Initial screening is done to weed out totally undesirable/unqualified candidates at the outset.An interview is a conversation between two persons.Application form is a traditional and widely used device for collecting information from candidates. * Final approval: . At each stage facts may come to light which may lead to rejection of the applicant. * Medical examination: . observational and face to face appraisal of candidates for employment. * Application blank: .The applicant is asked to mention in his application form the names and addresses of two or three persons who know him well.The shortlisted candidates by the department are finally approved by the executives of the concerned department.- Physical and personal characteristics Motivation to do a good Stability in employment with the company Outside factors and external pressures affecting him Attitude towards work. Steps involved in the selection are: * Preliminary interview: . A test is sample of some aspects of an individual’s attitude.Psychological are being increasingly used in employee selection. behavior and performance. Employment is offered in the form of . The application form should provide all the information relevant to selection. * Reference checks: . In selection it involves a personal. It also provides systematic basis fro comparing the behavior. * Selection test: . The selection process consists of various steps.

Can reduce business costs by identifying individuals for hiring. communication skills. the rank. . planning and organizing. etc. promotion rates). At the end of the assessment center. May be viewed positively by test takers who see the close relationship between the test and the job. personality inventories.   Can be costly to create and administer. The following are the commonly used types of tests in the selection of employees: 1.. and analytical skills. For example. Can provide useful feedback to test takers regarding needed training and development. assessment centers often include other kinds of tests such as cognitive ability tests. role-players. the grade. promotion or training who possess the needed skills and abilities.appointment letter mentioning the post.g. The assessment center typically consists of exercises that reflect job content and types of problems faced on the job. assessors.. In addition to these simulation exercises. and job knowledge tests. the raters meet to make overall judgments about peoples performance in the center. individuals might be evaluated on their ability to make a sales presentation or on their behavior in a simulated meeting. The assessment center typically uses multiple raters who are trained to observe. Require more time to administer than most other methods. the date by which the candidate should join and other terms and conditions in brief.g. and evaluate behaviors. Can be difficult to keep calibrated or standardized across time and locations. classify.) to administer than most other methods. Assessment Centers Assessment centers can be designed to measure many different types of job related skills and abilities. Require more labor (e. but are often used to assess interpersonal skills. Advantages    Disadvantages    Have been demonstrated to produce valid inferences for a number of organizational outcomes (e.

Can be cost effective to administer. Can be time-consuming to develop if not purchased offthe-shelf. individuals cannot change their past). specific mechanical tool use). . Does not require skilled administrators. specific job knowledge and specific skills (e. Have been demonstrated to produce valid inferences for a number of organizational outcomes (e.e. creativity. and may include such areas as leadership. Biographical Data The content of biographical data instruments varies widely.. and interests to predict success on the job.g. training.. Some biographical data instruments also ask about an individuals attitudes. work experience. and personality. etc.. personal assessments of skills.   Focus more heavily on behavior demonstration than simply assessing characteristics. Are typically less likely to differ in results by gender and race than other types of tests.e. knowledge of certain software. 2. teamwork skills. Biographical data typically uses questions about education. Use trained raters.   May lead to individuals responding in a way to create a positive decision outcome rather than how they really are (i.. interpersonal skills. turnover.g. they may try to positively manage their impression or even fake their response). Advantages   Disadvantages     Can be administered via paper and pencil or computerized methods easily to large numbers. Do not always provide sufficient information for developmental feedback (i. performance). extraversion. Are typically less likely to differ in results by gender and race than other types of tests.

. These tests . Advantages   Disadvantages       Have been demonstrated to produce valid inferences for a number of organizational outcomes (e. logic.  Are typically more likely to differ in results by gender and race than other types of tests. Can reduce business costs by identifying individuals for hiring. Can be time-consuming to develop if not purchased offthe-shelf. Have been demonstrated to predict job performance particularly for more complex jobs. dependability. promotion or training who possess the needed skills and abilities. reliability. Can be cost effective to administer. 4. Will not be influenced by test taker attempts to impression manage or fake responses. reading comprehension and other enduring mental abilities that are fundamental to success in many different jobs. and pro-social behavior. Cognitive Ability Tests Cognitive ability tests typically use questions or problems to measure ability to learn quickly. Does not typically require skilled administrators. Integrity Tests Integrity tests assess attitudes and experiences related to a persons honesty. performance. Can be administered via paper and pencil or computerized methods easily to large numbers. reasoning.3. trustworthiness.g. Cognitive ability tests assess a persons aptitude or potential to solve job-related problems by providing information about their mental abilities such as verbal or mathematical reasoning and perceptual abilities like speed in recognizing letters of the alphabet. success in training).

Can be administered via paper and pencil or computerized methods easily to large numbers.  May lead to individuals responding in a way to create a positive decision outcome rather than how they really are (i. May be disliked by test takers if questions are intrusive or seen as unrelated to the job. Interviews Interviews vary greatly in their content. 5. and antisocial behavior at work. inventory shrinkage difficulties in dealing with supervision). Well-designed interviews typically use a standard set of questions to evaluate knowledge. Integrity tests are used to identify individuals who are likely to engage in inappropriate. Send the message to test takers that integrity is an important corporate value. Does not require skilled administrators. skills. dishonest.typically ask direct questions about previous experiences related to ethics and integrity OR ask questions about preferences and interests from which inferences are drawn about future behavior in these areas. Can be cost effective to administer. communication skills. abilities. Are typically less likely to differ in results by gender and race than other types of tests. or engage in other counterproductive behavior. and teamwork skills.. performance. and can be used to assess job knowledge.e. they may try to positively manage their impression or even fake their response). but are often used to assess such things as interpersonal skills.g. and other qualities required for the . Can reduce business costs by identifying individuals who are less likely to be absent. Advantages   Disadvantages       Have been demonstrated to produce valid inferences for a number of organizational outcomes (e..

Are often more timeconsuming to administer than paper and pencil or computerized tools. Provide a measure of skills such as oral communication skills not measured via paper and pencil or computerized tools.      May be affected by different kinds of rating errors and biases by interviewers. May be difficult to keep interviewers calibrated and the interview process standardized. A+/Net+ programming.job. Have been demonstrated to produce valid inferences for a number of organizational outcomes. The interview is the most commonly used type of test. Employers generally conduct interviews either face-to-face or by phone. May lead to individuals responding in a way to create a positive decision outcome rather than how they really are (i. Are typically less likely to differ in results by gender and race than other types of tests. promotion or training who possess the needed skills and abilities. . Provide an opportunity for a two-way exchange of information. if properly developed and administered Can reduce business costs by identifying individuals for hiring. May be practically less useful when a large number of individuals must be evaluated because of administration time. Can be costly to train interviewers. Job Knowledge Tests Job knowledge tests typically use multiple choice questions or essay type items to evaluate technical or professional expertise and knowledge required for specific jobs or professions. they may try to positively manage their impression or even fake their response).. Examples of job knowledge tests include tests of basic accounting principles. and blueprint reading. Advantages    Disadvantages     Are expected and accepted by many job applicants. 6.e.

agreeableness.Advantages   Disadvantages      Have been demonstrated to produce valid inferences for a number of organizational outcomes. stress tolerance. and initiative or proactivity. conscientiousness. unless purchased off-the-shelf. promotion or training who possess the needed skills and abilities. Can reduce business costs by identifying individuals for hiring.   May require frequent updates to ensure test is current with the job. Will not be influenced by test taker attempts to impression manage or fake responses. May be inappropriate for jobs where knowledge may be obtained via a short training period. such as job performance. Can provide useful feedback to test takers regarding needed training and development. emotional stability. interpersonal interactions. Personality Tests Some commonly measured personality traits in work settings are extraversion. Personality tests typically measure traits related to behavior at work. . service orientation. Can be costly and timeconsuming to develop. openness to new experiences. Personality tests are often used to assess whether individuals have the potential to be successful in jobs where performance requires a great deal of interpersonal interaction or work in team settings. May be viewed positively by test takers who see the close relationship between the test and the job. and satisfaction with different aspects of work. 7. Are typically less likely to differ in results by gender and race than other types of tests. optimism.

such as strength. Are typically less likely to differ in results by gender and race than other types of tests. Advantages   Disadvantages   Have been demonstrated to produce valid inferences regarding performance of physically demanding tasks. Can reduce business costs by identifying individuals for  Are typically more likely to differ in results by gender than other types of tests. Does not require skilled administrators. Can be administered via paper and pencil or computerized methods easily to large numbers. Can reduce business costs by identifying individuals for hiring.e.. mental disorders) rather than simply to assess work-related personality traits.e.   May contain questions that do not appear job related or seem intrusive if not well developed.e. Can identify applicants who are physically unable to perform essential job functions. Physical Ability Tests Physical ability tests typically use tasks or exercises that require physical ability to perform. May lead to individuals responding in a way to create a positive decision outcome rather than how they really are (i. Can be cost effective to administer.Advantages   Disadvantages      Have been demonstrated to produce valid inferences for a number of organizational outcomes. they may try to positively manage their impression or even fake their response).. These tests typically measure physical attributes and capabilities. 8. a physical disability) rather than simply to assess ability to perform a particular job- . May be problematic for use in employee selection if the test is one used to diagnose medical conditions (i. May be problematic for use in employee selection if the test is one used to diagnose medical conditions (i. balance. and speed. promotion or training who possess the needed skills and abilities..

Can be expensive to purchase equipment and administer. Often not conducive to group administration. May be difficult to keep updated. and by decreasing disability/medical. and workers compensation costs. May require some level of job knowledge and therefore may be inappropriate for jobs where knowledge may be obtained via a short training period. For example. Work Samples and Simulations These tests typically focus on measuring specific job skills or job knowledge. promotion or training who possess the needed skills and abilities. Work samples and simulations typically require performance of tasks that are the same or similar to those performed on the job to assess their level of skill or competence. promotion or training who possess the needed skills and abilities. but can also assess more general skills such as organizational skill. analytic skills. May be expensive to . creating a document in Word. Will not be influenced by test taker attempts to impression manage or fake responses. May be more accepted by test takers due to the obvious link between the test and the job. Can reduce business costs by identifying individuals for hiring. Are less likely to differ in results by gender and race than other types of tests (depends on particular skills being assessed). hiring. 9.    related task. Less likely to be influenced by      Does not assess aptitude to perform more complex tasks that may be encountered on the job. work samples might involve installing a telephone line. May be time consuming to administer. or tuning an engine. Advantages   Disadvantages     Have been demonstrated to produce valid inferences regarding ability to perform the job. insurance. May not assess the ability to learn new tasks quickly. by minimizing the risk of physical injury to employees and others on the job. and interpersonal skills. May be inappropriate or difficult to administer in typical employment offices.

as well as the needs and resources of the organization are matters that influence the consideration over which particular office the newly hired employee is . 2. 144-145) Martirez also suggest the following Factors in Determining Work Assignments 1. 3. Hence the latter should have been screened and selected for the particular position for which he has been requisitioned. or unit where the individual is to be assigned for work. Placement is putting the newly hired worker in the right branch. section. Requisitioning Office. Branch. division. If the organization has a number of branches which need workers.” ( Martires. unit. section or unit where he/she can apply his /her knowledge and skills to the utmost. An evaluation of the correctness of placement is a must to ensure that the worker is utilized to the fullest and that he/she is fully satisfied in the position. After hiring the chosen candidate. Department. Placement is the: “Determination of the specific branch. The specific supervisor or head of the unit that has requisitioned for the worker usually gets the newly hired employee. job rotation should be resorted to at once.  administer. the chosen candidate is placed by the Human Resource Department.  Can provide test takers with a realistic preview of the job and the organization. If wrong placement is identified. division.test taker attempts to impression manage or fake responses. May be time consuming to develop and to administer. Abilities. Division. This consultative process helps preclude or minimize psychological conflict between him and the organization on this particular matter. aptitudes interest and experience of the worker.  Can be used to provide specific developmental feedback. department. department. pp. the newly hired employee is given the option to select the branch where he wants to work especially when the branch assignment involves family transfer. section.

while hiring the wrong employee can make the organization incur loss. Job rotation should be restored to as soon as poor job performance is known to be caused by wrong placement. p. Some Research Results Large percentages of private (95%) and public (87. searching for that high-ability worker is vital for every organization. 390).” Thus. (Northcraft. p. A “research on worker productivity suggest that a high-ability worker will be two or three times as productive as a low-ability worker (Northcraft. while 87. Evaluation of Placement The job performance rating form should include the extent to which the worker has been currently placed. more than what the organization wanted to. “those hired must be trained and socialized so that they can contribute to the organization’s attainment of its goals and accomplishments of its mission … (and) an employee support system that satisfies at least the minimum requirements and needs of the work force must be put in place. Effective staffing does not stop in hiring the high-ability worker and placing him/her in the right job. A review of his records should be made at this time to make sure that the placement is proper.67% do job placement.50 of government agencies render this service. However. achieving high output from a worker does not stop in hiring the high-ability worker.assigned to. selection and placement.7)” Synthesis: The function of acquisition or procurement of human resources includes five aspects: Human resources planning.50%) organizations perform formal screening and selection processes. screening. Neal 1990. recruitement. It . Hiring competent workers can help the organization maximize production. In private organizations. a follow up should be made. Given that the newly hired is a high-ability worker and was placed in the right job. 81. staffing should also include.

professional associations. section or unit where he is most needed and where he can apply his knowledge and skills to the utmost. The steps used in the planning process includes the identification of organization objectives and plans. The less commonly used ones include organization brochures and catalogues. employment and psychological tests. It translates the latter into manpower terms. employment agencies. the projection of available manpower resources.aims to ensure that the organization has the right quantity and quality of people at the right places at the right time. other companies especially competitors. While screening sifts the good applicants from a number of recruits. employees’ families. school records. Factors affecting recruitement are usually the size and funds of the organization. references. division. labor unions. selection gets the best among the screened applicants. clearances and physical examination. Human resource planning anticipates the people requirements of the organization vis-à-vis its goals and plans. External sources include schools. job rotation should be resorted to at once. . management consulting firms. An evaluation of the correctness of placement is a must to ensure that the worker utilized to the fullest and that he is fully satisfied in the position. Recruitment is the search for applicants for actual and anticipated vacant positions in the organization. walk-in applicants. the survey of existing human resources. job descriptions and job specifications. Applicants can be sourced internally and externally. group dynamics and the assessment centers. a matching of the projected manpower requirements of plans with available manpower resources. Placement is putting the newly hired worker in the right branch. executive and technical recruiters. department. general public and office files of past applicants. leasing organizations. The typical screening method consists of the use of common tools and techniques like applicant’s information sheet. and the determination of overstaffing and understaffing levels. If wrong placement is identified. interviews.

Philippines. Human Resource Management.. Tomas D. Martirez. Houghton Mifflin Company: New York. Manila. and James B. Azanza. Human Resource Management. JMC press Inc. Concepcion R. Fisher. Human Resource Management in the Philippine Setting. 1991. New Day Publishers: Quezon City.References: Andres. Quezon City. Human Resource Management.. National Bookstore. . Cynthia D. 2007. 2000. USA. Inc. 2003. Patrick A. Philippines. Shaw.

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