A Treasury of Mahayana Sutras

Selections from the Maharatnakuta Sutra

AHffiffi

Translatedfrom the Chinese by TheBuddhistAssociationof the UnitedStates

Garma C. Chang, C. General Editor

The Pennsylvania University State Press University Parkand London

of Association the UnitedStates The Buddhist
Translator: FayenKoo Chief Miao Shu-Lien Translators: Hsu Yang-chu Yi-tzeLiu Ho Kuang-mo Editors: V.S.Brown WalterHsieh JanetGyatso T.C.Tsao

Pubhshed in cooperatior.r with Tl.' In.trtute for Advar.rced Studies of World Ncw York, N.Y. Rcligions

-I-itles in the IASWR Series r{'. 1'" '\

Buddhtst .\lonasticDi.sttplnrc;The SanshritPrattmohsaSiltras of the irzs,br Clharles S. Prebish

B S i t r a c , ft h e P a t l ' o u s o f E a r t h S t o r e o d h u a t t t a : l n e L o L L u u uL . L . u , L ' , ! 7 ' r t p t t a h a) I a s p r H s u a n H u a , t r a n s l a t e d b y ' H e n g C h i n g . , .4ratdra: The Humanization of PhilosophyThrough the Bhagauad GTn, by -f. Antonio de Nicol:is. Srrtptureof theLolus Blossom theFine Dharma, translated by Leon Hurvitz. of

Librarv of Congrcss Cataloging in Publication l)ata Tripitakr. Sutrapitaka.Ratnaktita.English. S c l tc r i o r r s . A trcasurv of Mahivana slttras. . II. Buddhist L Chang, Chcn-chi, 1920Associationof the Unitcd States.III. Title. 82-42776 BQ1752.E5 1983 294.3'85

rstsN0-271-00341-3

Statc Univcrsity Copyright O 1983 The Pennsylvania All rights reserved Designed by Dolly Carr PrinMin thc Unitcd Statcsof Amcrica

Contents

.\cknowledgements Prologue I. ON MAyA aNo MlnacrEs 1 The Prophecy of the Magician Bhadra's Attainmcnt of Buddhahood (Sntra 21)

II. 2 3 ,l 5 6 7 8

ON Eupurvrss Thc Demonstration of thc InconceivableState of tsuddhahood (Sutra 35) FlawlessPurity: A Dialogue with thc Laywomen Gangottari (Sntra 31) How to Kill the Sword of Wisdom (Sntra 36) A Discoursc on Ready Eloquence(Sntra 33) Manju6ri's Discourseon the Paramita of V/isdom (Sftra 46) The Prophecy of tsodhisattvaFearless Virrue's , , Attainmcnt of tsuddhahood (Sntra 32) The univcrsal Dharma-Door to thc Inconceivable(Sntra 10) . 27
V

37 4l 73 100 115 B4

\.:\:: , i r . i : r : r h r r : s t i b l eS t o r c so f W i s d o m ( S n t r a2 0 ) 'f lr' Prc.lctior.rof Manju6ri's Attainment r i B u J d h a h o o d( S f t r a 1 5 ) .. t)r rlIE LIGHToF THETarHAcara

119 164

191
I\-. 1l \'. Ox CoNscIousNESS (Sutra 39) Thc Elucidation of Conscioustress ON VInrue AND DISCIPLINE 13 14 15 16 VI. Bodhisattva Surata'sDiscourse (Sntra 27) Sumati's Qucstions (Sltra 30) The Dcfinitivc Vinaya (Sntra 24) Abiding in Good and Noblc Deportment (Sntra 44) 243 256 262 280 223

ON Punp LaNo 17 lU The Dharma-l)oor of Praising Tathagata Aksobhya's Mcrits (Sntra 6) The Land of lJtnrost Bliss (Sutra 5) ON GENrnar MasAvANA DocTRINE l9 20 21 T h c T r u c L i o n ' s R o a r o f Q u c c n S r i m a l t ( S n t r a4 8 ) The Sutra of Asscmbled Trcasures(Sntra 43) Dialogue with BodhtsattvaInfinitc V/isdom (Sntra 45) MEaNs 427 363 L' 387 415 315 339

VII.

VIII.

ON Srtnrur 22

On the Piramita of Ingenuity (Sntra 38)

Glossary Numcricai Glossary

469 487

Acknowledgements

'.1,

Kuang-Mo Ho and Ms. Tze-Ming Yang bothparticipated the translation in work for .,itt titne. We acknowledge gratitude them. our to The work oJthe U.S. team is greatly apprcciated. The teammembers are: Dr. T. ..tr1,, Mr. D. Fox, Reu. L.Jamspal, Ms. N. A. Larke, Dr. N. Maxwell, ProJ.R. . ,::tnnan, and Ms. L. Zahler. Out of his kindnessand enthusiasm, Dr. C.T. Shen inuited uarious Buddhist ':.'1,?r'-i reuiewcertainchapters the beginning to at oJthe translation work. Thesereuiewers .. Dr. T.W. Berry, ProJ. R.S.Y. Chi, Rev. Jen Ching, Prof. D. Daye, Dr. C.S, ..:r.qe, Dr. Charles Luk, Prof. W. Pachow, Dr. J. Penley, Dr. W. Stablein, proJ. \ Iay, Prof. R. Thurman, Prof. T.C. Tsao, Prof. S.H. Wan, Ms. C. Wu Whang, ::, .ilnal stages work was also reuiewed Dr. J. Gyatso. We aregrateful to allfor the by . , , r , a l u a b lc o m m e n t s . e

)Ir. P.C. Ko prouidedadministrative assistancefor Institute, and Ven.Je Hui the t,',,/ rrs valuableresearch assistance. appreciate We their kindness. ll'e alsothank Drs. W.W. Hsu and H.Y . Li for their inspirationin theJormationof , i't:tttute. I'en. Yin Shun, the renownBuddhistscholar, graciously allowedthe Instituteto use , :.::tliriesof Fu Yen Temple in Hsinchu, We thank hin for his generosity andfor his . .: ;rtlp in interpreting certain passages the translators. Jor

Prologue

Originand Historyof ThisWork
\1any important scripturesof Theravida Buddhism havc been translatedinto Enrlrsh in the past few decadcs.Howevcr, translationsof Mahiya'a sutras remain ..-arce,though interest seemsto have grown rapidly in recent years. To make the :.rjor tcxts of Mahiyana Buddhism availablero readers English, Mr. c.T. Shen of .'t-theBuddhist Associationof the United Stateslauncheda project to rranslare the -hincse Tripitaka into English. His aim was ro introducc to the west hitherto .:'availableMahayana scripturesfor generalreaders,Dharma-seekers, and schoiars .lrkc. A team of chinese scholarsin Taiwan was formed to undcrtakc the transla::on task. Anrong the major Mahayana sutra groups, the Maharatnakita sutra, thc Great '-r'cl-Heap Sutra, hcre rendered A Treasuryof Mahayandsltras, is or-re thc most of ..rlunrinous. It is actually not one s0tra, but a prodigious collection of forty-nine .::rlcrentsutraswhich covcr a manifold range of topics. ln order to provide a broad -':rsPectiveof Mahiyana doctrine, Mr. Shen chose this work as the first to be ::rnslated. Under the lcadershipof Mr. Shen ar.rd Mr. Fayen Koo, the translationof the -:'.rtrc Mahdratnakitasurra, totalling more than a milliorr words, was completed in ':-: tall of 1976. we, the translatorsa'd edirors, then faced a vcry difficult prob:::r: should we publish the sutra group irr its entirety, or selcctthose sitras which ':r nrost useful to gencralrcaders? Aftcr much consideration, we dccidedupon the ,:!er course and selected twenty-two sitras for publication.

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S0tras The Roleof Mahdyana
-':>r:i: :hc rastncssoi Mahayena literature and its subtle and complex doctrines, ::.J --;:r:ril i-nL'tsoithe Mahayanacan be generallysummarizcdunder the topics of ::.r :::i:.r:on and infinity of Buddhahood, and the aspiration for and the path .:,i::-.i :!. rhrt state. Although the infinity of Buddhahood is usually described :'. :..:.:rlYe tcrms such as "inconccivable," "unutterable," "bcyond the reach of :r.,::ir. and the like, it can also be describedpositively, as in the following

The infinity of tsuddhahood is the two-in-one of great wisdom and grcat compassion;thc way that leadsto its realizationis the practice of thosc virtues which are in consonanccwith this wisdom/compassron whole . The bulk of Mahayana sfitras, including thc Maharatnakuta,present wisdom and compassion as their two cardinal themes. Compassion is perhaps easier to understand, for we have ail cxperienced it at one time or anothcr. However, that which is totally transcendent-the "wisdom that goes beyond," or prajnaparamita-is almost impossiblc to explain. How can one understand that which is simuitaneously existcnt and nonexistent, transcendentaland mundane, a state often describedas totally beyond words and thought? To express the inexprcssibicand to enablc man to "catch" that which is totally transccndentor empty, tsuddhism in the courseof history has developcd a great variety of methods. As an example, for the intellectuallyinclined, Madhyamika phiiosophy wipcs out the limited intellect by rejecting and refuting all philosophical views; when vicws are abandoned, the door to the understanding of emptiness will eventually open. For those who revolt against Buddhist cliches and prefer a direct approach, Zen Buddhism provides koan cxcrcises,"shock treatment" (in the form of kicks, blo'"vs, or enigmatic remarks), and serenc reflective meditation. One will thus see penetratingly into one's own mind and thereby awak:n to various degreesof Wu or Satori expertence. The problem is that not everyonc is inclined to Midhyamika or Zcn, and can be mislcading and dangerouswithout propcr guidancc. both these approaches The greatestdanger o[ Madhyamika study is that onc may fall into the extreme vicrv of nihilism, or, with one's hcad stuffed with hair-splitting polemics, become of lnical torvardseverything, including thc basicteachings Buddhism. Eventually this can lead to confusion and a total collapseof faith. Thc method of Nagarjuna and hrs cminent followers was effectivc in some cases,but there also have becn nanv Dharnra-scckcrswho becamc pcdants and at thcir death-bedsfound their study of academictsuddhism. By its proliferating entrre lives rvastcdby excessive pedantr-v,Madhyamika had long ccasedto be a dircct means of liberation; it had

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become an out-oGdate academic discipline with questionable religious and pragmatic values. Concerning Zen Buddhism, no one can dcny its great contribution in bringing thousands to direct realization. Zen is emptiness in action, the living prajnip-ramite. It is hard to find words to praise Zen adcquately. The more one studies and practices Dharma, the more one appreciatesand admires Zen. However, without proper guidance and sufficient preparation, Zen can also be dangerous and futile. By misconstruing a pseudo-experience true enlightenment,one may dcvelop an as unwarranted self-conceit. Zen can also induce a devil-mav-care attitude and one may eventually lose all ground in one's Dharmic efforts. The pitfalls of theseand other Buddhist schools,hou'ever, are not unavoidable; they can easily be eschewedby frequently secking guidance in the sutras. Buddhist sutras are rather plain and evident; they contain straightforward Dharma teaching, often in the form of dialogues, with an occasionalinsertiorr of an allegory to illustrate a specific point. Therefore, they are least likely to be misunderstood. Although we cannot claim that Mahayina sitras are simple enough to be easily r.rnderstood everyone, it is quitc obvious that they arc rclatively easierto underby stand than the literature of Madhyamika and Zen. Furthermore, sutras are the source of all Buddha-Dharmas; all Buddhist schools (including Madhyamika and Zen) look upon thc.sitras as their guidc and final arbiter. This is why we have qiven first priority to the translationofthe sutras.

Special Characteristics the Maharatnakuta of Sutra
lrr rvorking with the Maharatnakita, we obscrvcd the following points: 1. We have found this work to contain a broad coverageof various subjects. The topics discusscd range froin thc monastic prccepts (Vinaya) to intuitive wis:on Q;rajiia),from good deportment to the manifcsrarion of the Tarh,gata's lighr, :rorrr illusion (mayA) and ingenuity @pAya)to the nature of consciousnessand the i'urc Land practice. It can perhaps bc called a small encyclopcdiaof Mahiyana 3uddhism, which should bc useful to generalreadcrsas well as to scholars. 2. Emptiness, or iunyata,is thc oursranding,if nor uniquc teachingof Bud,:irsnr. It is the central pillar of the Mahay-na edificc, and every Buddhist school r.ri its own way of dealirrg with this doctrine. Here in thc Maharatnakuta,we frnd -..rborate discussions emptinessirr diffbrent settings,from diffcrcnt angles,and on .'.:thdifferent interpretations.It is perhapsone of the most claboratedocumentson ,:rptiness in tsuddhist literature. Through the introduction of Prajnaparamit-, and Zen literaturc, the doctrine of emptinessis alrcady familiar i' "lJdhyamika, ::!' West; neverthcless,we belicvc that this book will enhancethe undcrstanding of ::-.r' tcaching of emptincss and its far-reaching significance. 3. Thc modern reader will mosr likely find fault with the Maharatnakuta

\:

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numcrical lists of stereotypedformulas, and excessive ),'": :.r:t:i r!-pctitior.lsness, -\s iar as ltterarv styie is concerned,we are symPatheticto these criti:--'.r.::::.: ,'..:::. L)r: rhc orh.'r hand, it should be noted that nany of theseshortcomings in through repeated .::::=:-. .!r 1earc nor $'ithout value for religious practice,because rnrndiulness,new religious insight can comc forth. It is common :."j:::i;r-il B::jh:.r erpr-riencethat realization can be engcnderedthrough long years of rr:quenr rccrtationof sitras. Therefore, thc purpose of reading a Buddhist sltra is :r.r onlv to grasp its meaning, but also to acquirc religious insight and experiencc. To achievethis one should not just read the sitra once and digest the information thcr.-in.but should read it again and again, even out loud, so that the words of the mind. This is tantamount to sr.itra become totally absorbedinto one's subconscious over the mind and run its courseto reachthe beyond. It is for letting the sutra takc this rcason that the intcntional repetition in Buddhist scripturcs should not be treated entirely as a defect, but rather as a constructive and bencficial method for Dharma practice. who may not be able to appreciatc to Neverthcless, avail the modern readers we have adopted two ways of handling the the volume of repetition in this sltra, text: a. The texts which we felt arc significant and readable were lcft intact. b. We made some deletions in those sutras which have portions that are extremely prolix, repctitious, or insignificant in our vicw. Most of thc deletions involve only a few sentences;in a few casesa page or two wcre left out. All deletions have bcen indicated by the insertion of thrcc ellipsis points in the appropriate hiatus. we 4. In our translation of the Maharatnakuga havc attemPted consistently to offer the closcst English rendcring of the original text. Howevcr, in those cases where a technical term has too broad a meaning to be adcquately representedby an equivalent English term, we have retainedthc Sanskrit word. The readeris urged to consult the glossary at the end of this volume for all Sanskritterms, as well as for a variety of English phraseswhich have a specialmeaning in Buddhism. A numerical glossary has also been provided for thc standardlists of items of Buddhist doctrine.

Texts to A Brief Introduction the Selected
The Jlaharatnakuta corrsists offorty-nine ''\ores Sutra in its present form as found in thc Chinese Tripitaka

sutras.l They are not grouped togethcr in diffcrent scctions

texts, see K. Priscilla Pederscn, 1. For a summary of the history of the Maharatnafrrita of on the Ratndkuta Collection", Journal oJthe Intenntional Association Buddhist Studies, o . V o l . - 1 . N o . 2 ( 1 9 8 i ) ) : 6 t ) - 6 6F o r a n a n a l y s i so f t h e v a r i o u s t r a n s l a t i o n s f t h e c o l l e c t i o n , s e e r R r c h a r d A . G a r d , e d . . B u d d h i s tT e x t I n J o n n a t i o tN,o . 2 0 ( J u n e 1 9 7 9 ) : l - 1 1 ; N o . 2 2 ( D e c e m b c r 19;9):;8; No. 28 (June 1980):!-i1; and following issues.

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according to their contents, nor to a chronological order. Why these sutras are arranged in thcir present sequenceand form remains a ptzzle to us. Wc have consultcd many scholarsbut failed to find a satislactorvanswcr. Our guessis that the forty-nine sutras were collected haphazardlv throughout the agcs without a premeditatedplan or scheme.Therefore, to facilitatecomprchensionwe have taken thc liberty to re-group the selectedtwenty-t\\'o sutras into eight sections according to their contcnts, and a ncw tablc of contentshas bccn providcd to substitutefor the traditional Chincsc arranscmcnt. A few words of introduction to these sutras are siven below.

Section I: On Maya and Miracles
This topic is elucidatedby the story of the magician Bhadra's contest of magic power with the Buddha. The emphasishcrc is that thc Buddha's supcrior powcr is not attained through spells, magic formulas, deity worship, or even meditation power. It is attained, rather, through thc fuil rcalization of illusion (nayQ and the cultivation of virtues and altruistic deeds. The central theme of Mahtyina tsuddhism, the cultivation and perfection of wisdom and compassion, is strcsscdherc.

Section II: On Emptiness
Nine sitras were selectcdto cover this teaching. Emptiness can bc illustrated by one word, e.g., the vowel Al by onc stanza,e.g., the first githt of the Madhyamikakarika; by one shcet of papcr, e.g., the Heart Siitra, or through the innumerable volumcs of Prajn-paramitl literature. The contents and depth of emptincss are rcgarded by Buddhists as all-embracingand inexhaustible,and its teaching is the basis of Madhyamika, Zen, and most other schools of Mahayana. It is our hope that the nine sitras included herein may further understanding and apprcciation of this all-important subject.

SectionIII: On the Light ofthe Tathagata
Anrong the twenty-two sutras presentedin this volume, The MdniJestation Lights o-f rs perhap: the most difficult one to comprehend. The central qucstion is: What is this so-called"light"? Is it simply a certain kind of luminous entity such as rays or beams of light, or is it the spiritual illumination, the so-called "mystical light" rcstifiedto by many mystics?To give an cxact answer is difficult. Noticeably, the lrghts trcated in this sutra seem to denote all thc dynamic aspects Buddhahood, of r.c., thc Sarhbhogakaya and Nirmanakiya, and all merits and functions of Tathaqatahood are cxpressedin terms of light. One even has the impression that all r'ssentialprinciples of Mahayana Buddhism are given in terms of this light. In general, religious experience and achievement are often linked with light. 'illumination,"enlightenment,"revelation,' Words such as and so forth all imply rhat these experiencesare somehow or other related to light. The Old Testament srates that God is spirit and God is light. Buddha Amitabha means'Infinite Light.'

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[ ': ian even qo so lar as to say that in Buddhism, all achievements meditation in ,:. j :rirr,rrrrve-cosnitron practice(iamatha-uipaiyana) be appraiscdby the realizacan ::i:: oi ditGrent krnds or degreesof light. The exact meaning, implication and :::nltlcance ofthc r-ariouslights reported in this shtra are perhapsbeyond our ken lt Fresent.but u'e believe that the material here will be of importance to students oi r.'ligrous srudiesin the years to come.

SectionN: On Consciousness
The readerwill find that the consciousness discussed this sutra is in many ways in sinrilar to the Yogacira idea of the storc consciousness It @layauijnana). is our belief that this s[tra is one of the forcrunncrs or germinal sources of the MindOnly philosophy of the Yogacira school. As is statedhere, "The consciousness is devoid of form and substance, yet it manifests itself by feelings and conception, . . it upholds all the dharmadhatu, . it is fully endowed with the power of rvisdom and can even know events of past lives. Consciousnessis the seed which can bring forth the sprout of various bodily forms as a result of karma. Perception, awareness,conception, and memory are all comprised in the consciousness. ." Here, we clearly seethe precursorofthe store consciousness theory. For those who are interested in the Buddhist view on consciousness,this sutra should be a useful referencc.

Section V: On Virtue and Discipline
Trvo short sitras were selectedto introduce the basic moral codes of Buddhism; both texts are simple and routine. "fhe Dejnitiue Vinaya is a very significant sutra; it expounds upon the fundamental principle and spirit of the Bodhisattva-path and speils out the differenccs between the Bodhisattva's Vinaya and that of the Sravaka. The moral principles of the Mahiyina are also set forth here. Abiding in Good and Noble DeportmentSatra attempts to define the true 6ramana; it also gives detailed descriptionsof various kinds of monks. To most people, thc required standard for thc perfect monk as set forth here may be too rigorous, even frightening, but to those who are seriously interested in leading a monk's life, or in studying monasticism, this sutra may serve as a valuable reference.

Section VI: On Pure Land
ln the Maharatnakuta,there are two surras concerning Buddha's Pure Land; both are included here in our selection. Since the majority of people cannot successfully perforn-r the meditation and intuitive observation practice, nor lead an ascetic monasric Lte, the alternativepath of Pure Land practiceis provided. By the power of the original vorvs of Buddha, such a practitioneris assuredrebirth in a Pure Land, s'hich is not consideredto be a heaven or celestialparadise,but rather an ideal training ground for furthering one's journey toward enlightenment. According to

Pnotocus Buddhist tradition, there arc innumerable Buddha's Pure Lands in the infinite universes. Two samples are described in the Maharatnakuta;onc sutra contains a discussion of Buddha Amitabha's Pure Land in the wcsrern direction, and thc other that of Buddha Aksobhya in the east.

Section VII: On GeneralMahayana Doctrines
The True Lion's Roar of Queen Srtmala Sutra is a short but quintessential text covering many important teachingsof Mahayana Buddhism. There are already several translations of it in English. Some passages this sfrtra are extremely in obscurc. We hope that our translation and notcs will facilitatc further studics of this text. The Sitra oJ AssembledTreasures the original Raunkita Surra. It gives is various admonishments to the followers of Mah-yana, expounds on thc right observationof the Middle !?ay, and discusscs various kinds of 6ramanas. the Dialogue with Bodhisattua Injnite Wisdom.This sutra defines the rranscendental bodhicitta, deliberates on rhe mcrits and achievement of the ten stages, and describesthe various visions acquired by the Bodhisattvas in the ten successive stages.

Section VIII: On the Paramita of Ingenuitg
Upaya (fiffi) is difficult to translate into English propcrly. It has bcen rendered as skillfulness,ingenuity, expediency,and so forth, bur none ofthese rranslarions can cover the broad implications of the word. In this sutra, the basic meaning and specific implications of upaya are discussed.Since the advanced Bodhisattvas have all perfected their up-ya, how can they ever make any mistakes or blunders? A mcaningless or accidental act by an enlightened Bodhisattva is unthinkable. Hence, the author of this sutra is compclled to explain every deed of Gautama Buddha teleologically. When a religious leader is deified, new problems ensue. This is perhaps universal. Wc believe that this sutra will be highly interesting to those who are interested in the comparative study of religions and in the history of thc development of Buddhist thought. Garma C.C. Chang University Park, Pennsylvania

On Maya and Miracles

I

&fiffiffireffi;d€

The Prophecy the Magician Bhadra's of Attainment Buddhahood of

Thus havc I hcard. Oncc the Buddha was dwcllins on Mount C.air.tui, n... Rajagrha, accompanied by twelve hundred fifty great monks whci were Arhats known to ali, and five thousandBodhisattva-Mahisattvas who had achievedgreat, miraculous powers to perfornr magical feats at will; had achieved the Realization of the Nonarising of Dharmas; and had acquired dharalis. Thcy were led by BodhisattvaLion, BodhisattvaLion Wisdom, BodhisattvaWonderful Sandalwood, Bodhisattva Subduer, Bodhisattva Great Subduer, Bodhisattva Superior Light, Bodhisattva Revealing Light, Bodhisattva Dignified Light, Bodhisattva Adorncd with Light, Bodhisattva tsright Enlightenmcnt, Bodhisattva Assembly Leader, BodhisattvaSubduer of SentientBeings, all thc Bodhisattvasof thc Worthy Kalpa, Bodhisattva-Mahasattva Maitreya, the Dharma Princc MaijuSri, and others. They were surrounded by the Four Great Deva Kings: Sakra; Brahmt, nraster of the SaheWorld; and incalculable numbers of gods, dragons,yaksas, asuras, gandharvas, k i n n a r a s ,m a h o r a g a s a n d s o f o r t h . l . The Tathagata, the !?orld-Honorcd One, was renowned throughout the world as the Tathigata, the Worthy One, thc Supremely Enlightencd One, rhe One Perfect in Learning and Conduct, the Well-Gonc One, the World-Knowcr, the Unexcelled One, the Great Tamer, the Teacher of Gods and Humans, the Buddha, the World-Honorcd One, the All-Knowing One, the All-Seeing Onc. Hc had achieved the ten powers, the four fearlcssnesses, four kinds of unimpeded the understanding, and the cighteen unique qualitics of a Buddha. He had grear kindness and great compassion, possessed the five kinds of eyes, and was perfect in all Sutra21, Taishoshinshudaizokyo31t),pp. 486-492; translated into Chinese by Bodhiruci.

:

L)\ \1-lr'.r .rsu Mrnacrls

: - : : : : : . r - r l L r l r s ; b r l r f i ' t o a d m o n i s h p e o p l e ,t o t e a c ht h e m t h e D h a r m a , a n d t o . ' : , . - i : - - : , : : , - :p o , . . ' c r s . l 1 ser H: r.rr,rlJ on a hair's tip a billion-world universe,with ali its earths,cities, he :-'.:,j '.,.:. rr..s. iorests, Mount Sumerus, oceans,rivcrs, and celestialpalaces; =... --'-rlj rnakc rhe universeremain uplifted in spacewithout tilting or moving at than one kalpa, or as long as he wishcd. ..- :,--:rr;.. kalpa, n-rore -\r that time, thc king, ministers,brihmins, lay devotees,and subjectsin the -'::'. ..iRalagrha all held the Tathagatain grcat csteemand respectfullyoffered him 'ntst food, clothing, bedding, and medicine. :i: beverages, In that city livcd a magician named Bhadra, who was well versedin heteroJor doctrines, skilled at using spclls, and was the foremost magician in thc city. Evcrvone in thc kingdom of Magadha was bewitched by him and believedin him, cxcepr those who had realizedthe truth, and the laymen and laywomen of right taith. Learning of the merits and reputation of the Tathagata, the magician thought, "Now, all the peoplein this city revereme, exceptSramarla Gautama,3 who has not been converted to my way. I should go challenge him to a contest. If he yields ,vct by to mc, I will be even more respected thc pcoplc in the kingdom of Magadha." At that timc, thc good seedsthe magician had sown in his previous livcs r""'erematuring, and by thc blessing of the Buddha's awesome, virtuous power, Bhadra left the city of R-jagrha for Grdhrakuta. There he saw the light of the hundreds ofthousands ofsuns; the handsomeface ofthe Buddha, which surpasscd Buddha, which was like a full noon; the pcrfcct body of the Buddha, which was as well proportioned as a banyan tree; the white hair between the Buddha's eyebrows, which was as pure as a brilliant pearl; and the Buddha's eyes, which werc deep bluc, likc a blue lotus flower. The top of the Buddha's head could not be seen he even by thosein the Brahma Heaven. With his purc voice of sixty qualities,a was prcaching the Dharma to the multitude. Although the magician saw the extraordinary, awe-inspiring majesty of the Tathagata,he remained arrogant. He thought to himself, "l should test him now. If he is the All-Knowing Onc and thc All-Secing One, he will know my intention." With this thought in mind, he approached the Buddha, prostrated himself with his head at the Buddha's feet, and said, "May the Tathagata accept my meager offering tomorrow. " Seeing that the time had come for the good roots of the magician and thc othcr scnticnt beings in the city of Rijagrha to mature, thc World-Honored One acceptedthe invitation in silencefor the purpose of brir-rging those good roots to maturitr'. When the magician saw that the World-Honorcd One had acccptcd his inr-itatron.hc thought, "Gautama does not know my intention; he is definitely not an All-Knou'ing One." Then he bowed and took his leave. was in the assembly at that time and saw The Venerable Maudgalyayana5 u'hat had happened.He approachedthe Buddha and said to him, "Bhadra intends

Bnaora's ArrarNnENr oE Buoonanooo

5

to deceive the Tathigata and the monks. May the World-Honored One decline his invitation!" The Buddha told Maudgalyiyana, "Do not think in this way. Only those who have desire, hatred, and ignorancc can be deceived, but I eradicatedthose defilementslong ago, for I realizedthat not a single dharma ever arises.I have been firmly abiding in right action for many kalpas.Hos' can anyone deceiveme? "Now, you should know that the magiciandoesnot pcrform real magic, but the Tathagata does. Why? Becausethe Tathagata realizeshere and now that all dharmas are illusory. Even if all senticntbeings were as skilled in n-ragic Bhadra, as all their magical powers combined could not compare with those of the Tathagata, even if their powers were multiplied by a hundred, a thousand, or anv anlounr, numcrical or figurative." The Buddha asked Maudgalyiyana, "What do you think? Can thc magician magically produce a billion-world univcrse and magr.rificentlyadorn all of it?" Maudgaly-yana answered,"No. " The Buddha said, "Maudgaly-yana, you should know that I can magically produce magnificently adorned worlds, as numerous as the sands of the Ganges, inside a hair's tip, and even this does not exhaust thc Tathigata's miraculous powers. "Maudgalyayana, you should know that there is a great wind wheel6 callcd Brcakcr that can break a billion-world universe to pieces. "There is another wind whcel called Great Hurricane that can ruin worlds and then rebuild them. "There is anothcr wind wheel called Propellerthat can revolve worlds. "There is another wind wheel called SccureAbiding that can blow as high as the Akanistha Heaven. "There is another wind wheel called Scatterer that can whirl awav and scatterMount Sumeru, the Black Mountain, and othcr mountains. "Therc is another wind whecl called Fierce Flame that can blow ficrce flames up to the Brahm5 Fleaven during the raging conflagration at the end of a kalpa. "There is another wind wheel called Qucncher that can qucnch the raging conflagration at thc end of a kalpa. "Therc is another wind whecl called Cool that can causea cloud to cover a billion-world universe. "There is another rvind whecl called Universal Downpour that can pour down heavy rains on thc worlds during the raging conflagration at the end of a kalpa. "Moreover, therc is a wind whecl called Drying Up that can dry up rhe sprcadingflood at the end of a kalpa. There are so many wind wheels that I could not finish enumerating them even if I spoke until the cnd of this kalpa. All this, Maudgalyayana,you should know. "What do you think? Car.rthe magician dwell securely in any of these wind rvheels for a moment?"

ON MAva auo MInacrr,s Maudgalyayanaanswered,"No." The Buddha told Maudgalyayana,"The Tathigata can walk, stand, sit' and lie undisturbedin the wind wheels. The Tathagatacan also put those wind wheels lnro a mustard seed and display their motions without the mustard seed either erpanding or contracting, and without the wind wheels in the seed obstructing ca;h other. Maudgalyayana, you should know that the feats of magic accomplrshedbv the Tathagatahave no limit." When the Venerable Mah-maudgalyayana and the assembly heard the Tathaqara s u'ords, they were all overwhelmed by wonder and awe. They all bowed dorr'n bcfore the Buddha and exclaimed in unison, "Because we have now met the great Teacher who has these awe-inspiring miraculous powers, we arc greatly blcssed. One who has an opportunity to hear of the wonderful miraculous powcrs of the Tathagata, the World-Honored One, and generates profound faith and understanding will certainly gain great blessings and bring forth a vow to attain supremc enlightenment. " That evening, the magician tshadra went to the lowliest and dirtiest place in the city ofRajagrha and conjured up a very spacious, levcl, square site for teaching the Dharma, adorned with banners and canopies of colored silk, pcrmeated with the fragrance of flowers, and covered by a jewelled tent. He also magically produced eight thousand rows of jewelled trees. under cach jewelled tree was a lion-throne. There were also numerous splcndid cushioncd seats. As offerings to the monks, he further produced by magic hundreds of courses of the most delicious food and drink, and five hundred servants dressed in whitc, ornamented clothing. 'When these magical feats had bcen performed, the Four Deva Kings came to the site and told thc magician, "In order to make offerings to the Tathagata tomorrow, you have nagically produced these innumerable, beautiful things. tsecause of this, you have achicved great mcrit. Now, in order to help you make offerings to the Tathagata, we wish to produce by magic a second site for teaching the Dharma. Will you allow us to do so?" Hearing this, the magician felt curious, and he gave them permission at once. Thereupon, the Four Deva Kings magically produced myriads of wondcrful ornaments, twice as many as the magician had produccd. Thcn Sakra, king of gods, together with thirty thousand of his celestial subjects,came to the site and told the magician, "I, too, wish to adorn the site, you are making offerings to the Tathegata."Astoundcd, the magician gave because hrm permission, too. Thereupon Sakra, for the sake of the Tathagata, magically produced a hall as splendid as the palacc in the Heavcn of the Thirty-Three. He and other beautiful, celestial also magically produced p-rijata trees,kovidara trees,T trces, arrangedin orderly rows. Secing all thesc, the magician exclaimed in wonder and felt remorsc. He q'ished to v"'ithdraw the things he had conjured up, but thcy remained as they n'ere, i.n spite of all his spells. "This is very strange," he thought. "In the past I But now I cannot could at will make my magrcalproductions appearor disappear.

Bnalna's Atrarunarxt or BuooHanooo make thesego away! This is surely because they are offerings for the Tathagata. " Reading the magician'sthoughts, Sakratold him, "yes, indecd. It is bccause of the Tathigata that you cannot make your magnificent teaching site disappear. Therefore, yo' should know that if one bri'gs forth even a single thought of the Tathtgata, that good root will eventuallyact as a causeibr that person'sattainmcnt of parinirvina. " When he heard Sakra say this, the magician r1.as verv glad. The nexr morning, he went to the Tathagataand said, "World-Honored One , now I have finished making all the preparations.Plcasebe so kind as to come." Thus, on that morning, thc V/orld-Honored One put on his robc, took up his bowl, and went into the city of Rijagrha ro thc magician's teaching sire, together with the asscmblythat respcctfullysurroundedhim. The heterodox, the brahmins, and others in the kingdom of Magadha who wanted the Tathagatato be deceivedby the magicianall came to the srtehoprng to sec that occur. At the same time, many monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen also came, becausethey all wanted to see the miraculous feats of the Tathagata and to hear him preach in a lion's roar. Then thc Tathagata,by his miraculous powers, causedthe magician, Sakra, and the Four Deva Kings to seethe world-Honored one simultancouslyat eachof the places they had adorncd. Seeing this, the magician cast away his arroganceand pride. He approached the tsuddha, prostratedhimself at his feet, and said, "world-Honored one, now I repent and confess my wrongdoing in thc presenceof thc Tathagata. Blinded by ignorance, I have tricd to deceivethe Buddha by conjuring up various nragnificent adornments. Although I now feel remorseful, I cannot makc my magical creatlons " disappear. The world-Honored one told the magician, "All sentient beings and marerial objects are illusory, like magic, conjured up by karma; all the monks arc also illusory, likc magic, conjured up by the Dharma; my body is arso illusory, like magic, conjured up by wisdom; a billion-world universe is also iliusory, rike magic, conjured up by all senticnt beings as a whole; all dharmas arc illusory, like magic, conjured up by combinationsof causes and conditions. "Now you should offer to these people one by one the beverages and food you have produced by your magic." Thereupon, the magician, the Four Deva Kings, Sakra. their rctirues, and their magically produccd servants offered thc beveragesand food to the tsuddha arrd the Samgha. Thcy provided fully for everyonein thc assenrbly. Then Mahaka5yapa spoke in verse:

"Food is illusory: Rccipients,too, are illusions. When a giver comprehends their cquality, His giving may be called pure."

\

()\ \1.rr.\ .rNl Mtnacrls spoke in verse: \1.;.h:nraudgalvivana "Seatsare illusorY: Thosc seateduPon them, too, are illusions. When a giver comprehendstheir equality, His giving may be called Purc." Sariputraspokc in verse: "Servantsare illusorY: The minds of those served,too, arc illusions. When a giver comprehends this truth, His giving may be called Pure." Subhlti spoke in vcrse: "Do not sec giving as giving, Nor regard rcceiving as receiving. If a giver can do this, His giving may be callcd Purc." Ananda spokc in verse: "Gifts are empty, like sPace, And no recipicnt can bc found. .When a giver is detached from bodv and mind, His giving is purest." : Bodhisattva Banner of Light spokc in verse "All dharmas are illusory, Like the adornmcnts Conjurcd up by the magician. of But this is bcyond the awarcness fools." Bodhisattva Adorned with Light spoke in versc: "Scats and trees are all produccd By an illusory mind. What difference can there be Between an illusory mind and empty space?" Bodhisattva Lion spoke 1n vcrse:

BnaonR's ArrarNuENr or BuooHaHooo "A jackal is fearless Before it hearsthe lion's roar, And growls and howls among the trees. But once it hearsthe lion's roar, It will be at a loss to hide or run. I t i sj u s t s o w i t h t h e m a g i c i a n : Before he met the Tathigata, He boastedto the heretics Of his superiority over the tsuddha. Though the magician can conjure up ob.jects, His magical power is limited. Not so with the magical power of the Buddha, Which can never be exhausted; No god or demon Can know its bounds." Bodhisattva Lion Wisdom spoke in verse: "To know that food, drink, Scrvants,and thosc who partakc Are all illusory, like magic, Is the best offering of all." BodhisattvaMaitreya spoke in verse: as a fire is intensified When oil is poured upon it, So the World-Honored One's magic Is magnificd by comparison with the magician's." Bodhisattva ManjuSri spoke in verse: "All virtuous deeds done in this assembly Have never come into being; So it is with all dharmas: Empty, and passedinto nought In the forever unobtainable Dast."u 'Just

9

At that time, the World-Honored One, in order to bring Bhadra the magician to maturity, magically produced an elder approaching the assembly. The man asked Bhadra, "What are you doing here?" The magician answered, "l am making offbrings of food and beverages to S.amanaGautama."

1fl

ON MAYA aNo Mtnacles

The elder told him, "Do not say that. Right now, the Tathagata and the nronks are taking thc food offered to them in the palace of King AjitaSatru." Thcreupon, by the miraculous power of the Buddha, the magician was able to see the Tathagata and the monks feasting there. Then the World-Honored One rnagically created a second cider, who also askedthe magician, "What are you doing here?" The magician answered,"I am making offerings to SramanaGautama." The second elder said, "Do not say that. Right now, the Tathagataand the monks are begging for food in the streets where the heterodox believers live. " By the miraculous powcr of the Buddha, the magician was able to see the Tathagata and his venerablc followers making the rounds of the streets begging for food. Then the World-Honored One produced magically a third clder, who told thc magician, "Right now, thc Tathagatais teachingthc wonderful Dharma to the four kinds of devotees in the gardcn of Jiva, the most promincnt physician." Thereupon, by the miraculous power of thc tsuddha, the magician was able to sec the Tathigata there. Then the World-Honored Onc crcated by magic a 5akra, who canre to the magician and said, "Right now, the Tathagata is tcaching the Dharma to the assemblyin the Heaven of the Thirty-Thrcc. " The magician again saw the Tathaof gata, this time teachingthe essence the I)harma to a host of gods. Hc also beheld thc Tathigata, endowed with thc thirty-two auspicioussigns and thc eighty minor oncs, sitnultaneouslypresentamong the trees, flowers, and lion-thrones;amid the walled strcctsin thc city of Rtjagrha; foliagc; upon countless and in houses, halls, and other superior places. He also saw himself, in all the placcsrvhere the Tathigata was, repenting and confcssinghis wrongdoings. Then the magician saw nothing except thc tsuddha everywhere. He was with joy, whereupon he attained the Samadhi of the Recollection of overrz,'helnred
the -ljuddha'

Coming out of samadhi, he joined his palms toward the Buddha and spokc

"In the past, my conjurations Were thought to bc unexcellcdin thc world, But now I sce they cannot compare With even a tiny part Of the miraculous powers of the Buddha. Now I know how inconceivable Are the Buddha's miraculous powers. He can at will produce Manifested tsuddhas as innumcrable As the sands of the Ganges. All the Tathigatas that I see Have the same auspicioussigrrs.

-Bnaora's ArraruntNr

or Buoonauoot

11,

mc #ilf:J:J,1"";li;*n:sh'w
I wish to make offerings To [one of] thcse Tathigatas. May the World-Honored One tell mc Which will lead me ro reap the supreme fruit.

t

Ordinary people who do not esteemthc Buddha V/ill forfeit peace and happincss. Now, in the presencc the World-Honorcd One. of I confessI have committed The sin of foolishly resting rhe Tathagata. I hope this misdeed will be forevcr annulled. May Brahm-, Sakra, and the asscmbly All bear witness for me: In ordcr to deliver sentient beings, I nou' make a solemn vow to strive for bodhr. I s h a l lc n l i g h t e na l l b e i n g s With the light of wisdom; I shall give them the nectar of Dharma, And fill thc entirc world with it. How can a sensiblcperson not aspireto bodhi When he seesthe Buddha perform Such miraculous feats, Hears his pleasantwords, and witnesses His wonderful deedsand unimpeded wisdom? May the World-Honored One show me The way to bodhi and all purc deeds. Pray show me the [superior] devotion Which is beyond Srivakas and Pratyekabuddhas. In what should one abide whcn practicing the Dharma? ,,' How can one always win respect and offerings? How can onc be dignified in dcmeanor? How should one remove doubts and regrets, / 1 Seek wide lcarning tirelessly, And firmly establish oneself in it? FIow can onc teach others the true Dharma And causethem to delight in it? How can onc teach without Expecting material rewards? ..-t

;

,

-

a.

12

ON MArA aNo Mrnaclls Hon' can one be grateful and return favors? Hos' can one always be -\ permanent friend of selltient beings? Hos' can one avoid bad company And associatc with good friends? Hog' can one meet Buddhas And make offerings without wearincss? i What are thc right subjcctsof study 'l '' And how can onc csteemand sanctify them? 'What are the essential elementsto produce samldhi? ,i How can one achieve a mind In harmony with thc truth, And cast away the mind In discord with thc truth? How can one acquirc right thought? How can onc be free of timidity and wcakness And become invulnerableto demons? How How What What should one contcmplatethe meaning of the Dharma? can one never forsake senticnt beings? is to bc preserved? should be embracedwithout clinging?

How can onc practiceright action And be endowcd with ingcnuity? ' I i^ I How can onc cultivate kindnessand compassion, Achieve miraculous powers, Realizcunimpedcd eloquence, A n d a c q u i r ed h i r a r r i s ? How And How How How And can one attain the realizationof the Dharma truthl() obtain pure eloqucnce? should one abandon what must be abandoned? can one penctratethc profound doctrines? can one fulfill vows and aspirations, gain nonregression from thc paramitis?

I am willing to practicc All Dharmas with diligence. May thc Honored One of great compassion Explain them for me." Thc World-Honored Onc answeredin verse

Bnaona's ArratNnrNr or Buoonasooo "lf one knows that all dharmas Are like magic and illusions, He is able to produce magically The bodies of ten billion Buddhas And delivcr beings in millions of lands, J u s t a s b y m a g i c B h a d r ac a n c o n ; u r eu p Various things out of nothing. Things do not ariseor cease; Nor do they abidc, comc, or go. The same is truc of thc monks And the transformationbodiesrr of Buddhas; They neither come into being nor perish, Nor attain nirvana. A1l thcsc arc the Tathigata's Inconceivable miracles. Troops mounted on elephantsor horses Conjurcdup by r magician Arc mistaken for real By confused sentient bcings. In truth, thesemounted troops Hlvc no cnrity Jnd tlo rrotarisc. h Similarly,tsuddhas avc no rcalappcarancc: They neither go nor come. Those who hold a view of a self Wrongly conceivean idea of the Buddha. One cannot contemplate the Tathagata According to appearance, caste, Birthplacc, or purc voicc; Nor can one discriminateBuddhas By thc mind or consciousncss. Thc Dharma-body of thc Buddhas Transccnds all time. It is by naturc frcc of all forms And beyond all categories dharmas. of Magically produced Tathlgatas By nature do not arise; Nor have they aggregates, entrances, elements.l2 or They do not dcpcnd on anything. Similarly, the Dharma-body of the Buddhas Cannot bc sccn with the five kinds of eyes.

13

1-+

C)x MAyA aNo Mtnacns Ii vou claim you seea Buddha, You seeno Buddha at all. i ' Seethe Buddha as you seethc unseeable; See him like the trace of a bird flying in thc sky The Buddhas you see And the others you do not Are equal and like empty space. They are identical, Utterly indistinguishable. All Tathagatas arc undifferentiated In their merits of discipline, meditation, wisdom, liberation, And thc knowledge and views Derived from liberation.l3 T h e y a l l a b i d ei n e n r p t i n e s s And are detachedfrom all dharmas. T h e y a r c i l l u s o r y ,l i k e m a g i c , Without a nature, and do not arise. To make offerings to one Tathagata Is to makc offcrings to countless tsuddhas, For the Dharrna-body of all Buddhas Is everywhere equal and undifferentiated. Thereforc, all tsuddhas can confcr Great blcssings and benefits. Making offerings to any Tath-gata, [Real or magically produced,] Will yield great fruit. Since all Tathagatas have realized The equal, pure Dharma-nature, Thcy are one. without any difference. You askcd which is the truc Buddha; Cast asidc your distractedmind And heed my words. Abide in the wisdom of right mindfulness And observe all dharmas: Nothing arises at all, But dharmas are mistaken for real. If form arose,then it would cease. T a t h a g a t a s o n o t a r i s ei n a n y w a y , d

Bnaola's ArrarNntNr or BuooHanooo And have never in the past ariscn; Thereforc, they will not ceaseto be. Contemplate the Tathigata in this u'ay-l Seehim as you do the unseeable, Then will you find that the Buddhas vou sec Abide nowhere. Upon the five.aggr"g"tes ) Do all ordinary men depend. Contemplate thc aggregatcs As you do the Buddhas! Then will you find That Buddhas, dharmas, and sentientbeings Have as their form thc absenceof form; Thcy depend upon nought. If you take such a view, You will soon realizc enlightenment. No dharmas in truth cxist; They arise from false discrimination. Causes ancl conditions are cmpty rn essence, For they lack a self which acts. Onc who comprehcnds this Will comprehend the unsullied, pure Dharma, And seeTathagatas with the clear I)harma-eye."

15

',

When the magician had heard this, he achicved the Rcalization of Com','Lance with the Dharma Truth. Also, fivc thousandsentientbeings brought forth :upreme bodhicitta,laand two hundred Bodhisattvasreachedthc Realizationof thc \onarising of Dharmas. After the world-Ho'ored one had taken his mcal, he again spokc in verse in \)rdcr to fulfill the magician'swish: "Giving without discriminating A thing given, a giver, or a recipientl5 Is perfect giving." Then Ananda said to the Buddha, "World-Honored One, wc hopc that the Trthtgata, with his miraculous powers, will help the magician to make the magnillcent things he has magically produced rcmain for seven days." At the request of the assembly, thc Tathigata caused that teaching sirc to r!-main well adorned for a full seven days.

76

ON MAyA AND MTRAcLES

Then thc Tath-gata, surrounded rcspcctfully by the monks, great tsodhiand so forth, rcturncd to Mount Grdhsattvas,gods, dragons, yaksas,gandharvas, I)harma to the assembly. rakuta to teacl-r thc Later, thc nragiciancame to the Buddha again. He prostratedhimsclf with his head at the Buddha's feet, circumambulated him three times to thc right, s'ithdren' to onc sidc, and said, "World-Honored Onc, pleaseexplain the Bodhiso samva-path that those who study and practiceindustriously may rapidly arrive at the bodhi-sitc." Thc tsuddha said, "Listen attentivelyand think well about this. I will explain it to you." The magician said, "Yes, World-Honored One, I will listcn with joy." Thc Buddha said, "Good mall, there are four things that constitutethe path of a Bodhisattva. By practicing them, a Bodhisattva will rapidly arrive at the bodhi-site. What are the four? (1) Never to retreat from or lose bodhicitta; (2) nevcr to forsake sentient beings; (3) to scck all good roots without beconing wcary or satiated; and (4) most vigorously to protect and uphold the truc Dharma. "Furthermore, there are four things which only Bodhisattvascan practice, and which Sravakasand Pratyekabuddhascanrlot practicc. What arc thc four? (1) (2) (3) (4) To cultivatc cliryinal6without hoping to bc rcboru in thc dhyanahcavens;17 to be ablc to rccognizc the profound doctrines; to havc grcat compassionfor sentientbeings;and to teach the Dharma without hindrance by using various kinds of eloquence. "Furthcrmore, therc are four things that can causea Bodhisattvato become a permanent fricnd of scntient beings. What are the four? (1) To wear the great armor of paticncc; (2) to benefit sentient beings without expecting any reward; (3) never to regressfrom great compassion;and (4) never to forsake evcn thosc who often annoy and hurt him. "Moreover, there arc four things that can causea Bodhisattva to meet Buddhas. What are thc four? (1) To bc mindful of Buddhas constantlyand single-nrindedly; (2) to praise the merits of the Tathagatas; (3) to be completcly flawlessin observing the preceptsthat havc been taken; and (,1) to makc grcat vows with supreme aspiratlon. "Furthermore, there are four things that are the essential elementsto produce samadhi. What are the four?

Brraona's AnarxurNr i1) To stayaway from noisy crowds; 12) to dclight in quietude and pcacc; (3) to bc mcntally undistractcd;and (-l) to increascone's good roots.

or Buotsanoou

17

"Moreover, thcrc are four things that a Bodhisatrvashould cultivate wcll in :-i:r ro have right thought. What are the four? 1) To suffer willingly the pain of sarirsara innumerablt kalpas, evcn for for the sake ofonly one sentientbcing; (2) to know the different naturesand characters ofthc scnrienrbcincs before rcaching them the Dharma to rid them of afflictions; (3) to eradicatcall cvil, cultivatc all virtues, subdue the army of demons, and realizesuprcmc enlightenmcnt;and ('1) to teach, with one pure voicc, the esscnce the Dharma to the countless of sentientbeings in a billion-world universc. "Furthcrmore, there arc four things that can frec a Bodhisattvafrom cowardrce and weakness,and make him invulnerablc to demons. What are the iour? (1) (2) (3) (4) To view all dharrnasas illusory, like n.ragic; always to be in harmony with rhc truc, right wisdom; to make no distinctionsamong dharmas;ancl to bc clctachedfrom all forms.

"Moreover, therc are four things that can causea tsodhisattvato havc rngenuity. What are the four? (1) To placc beforc all other vows thc vow to attain enlightcnment, and ro causeeven dcfiled personsto advancetoward suprcmc enlightcnment, let alone those with virtuous minds; (2) to vicw all scntient beings, evcll thosc who hold wror-rgviews, as worthy to rcccive the Dharma; (3) to understandthat no dharma has a self-naturc;and (4) to cultivate liberation without beins atrachedto samidhi. . . . "Furthermore, thcrc are four things that can causea Bodhisattva to obtain Lrnimpeded cloqucnce.What are the four? (1) (2) (3) (4) To follow thc meaning of thc doctrine, nor the lcttcr; to cor-rformto the Dharma, not to any person; to realizc that all dharmas are beyond words; and to teach untiringly, using the words that convey the ultimate truth.

"Furthermorc, there are four things that can cause a Bodhisattva not to : cqrcssfrom the paramit-s. What are the four? (1) tsy ingenuity, ro mastcr all paramitasby mastcring one piramita; (2) by ingenuity, to know all scntient beings by knowing one senticnt being;

18

ON MAyA aNP Mlnactrs (3) by ingenuity, to realize the purity of all dharmas by realizing the purity of one dharma; and (4) by ingenuity, to undersrand all Buddhas by undcrstanding one Buddha. Why? Becausethings are not different in nature'"

when the Buddha taught thesc fourfold doctrines of a Bodhisattva, Bhadra the magician gained the Realization of the Nonarising of Dharmas. In ecstasy, hc rosc up in midair to a hcight o(s3v-e1 pi]m Jl.,e-s\ Then the World-Honored One smiled fiiciously, emitting fronr his face innumerable lights, which illuminated all Buddha-lands and thcn returned and entered the toP of his head. Seeingthis, VenerableAnanda thought to himsclf, "There must be a reason for thc smile of the tsuddha, the Worthy One, the Supremcly Enlightened One." Thereupon, he rose from his seat,barcd his right shoulder,knelt on his right knee' joincd his palms toward the tsuddha, and askedhim in verse:

"Omniscicnt, Honored One, You are renowned throughout the three rcalms' Your awe-inspiring virtue and wisdonl Are inconceivable. You have already reached The meritorious shore of enlightenment' Wtt"t is the reason for your smile just now? The sentient beings of the fivc planes of existencc In the tcn directions Differ in thcir mcntal activities And in thcir inclinations, But the Tathigata fully knows them all. Why did you smile just now? The many wonderful voices uttercd By humans and al1 eight divisions of divinitres Cannot comParc in cxcellencc With the siightcst sound Of thc pure voice of the Tathagata. The lights of the World-Honorcd One Illuminatc all the countless tsuddha-lands Throughout the ten dircctions. The brilliance of the sun, thc moon, Bright pcarls, and Brahma Cannot bearcomParison With the brillianceof the Tath-gata.

, I I

Buaona's ArlatNnrur

or Buoonauoon

You understandthc profound doctrine of emptincss So that you hold no view of a sclf, A personalidentity, or a sentientbeing. You abandon the extrcme views Of existence and noncxistence. You knou' well that past, prescnt, and futurc Are like the moon mirrored in water. Now, who movcs toward the supremc vchiclc. Inherits the Dharma, exrendsthc Buddha's lineaee. And is reborn in the vastness thc ThreeJeu'cls? of Please explain thc reasonfor your smilc. The lights of the Tathagata'ssmile Move differently According to which vehicle they concern. If they vanish into the knec or shouldcr, They concern Srivakas or Pratyekabuddhas. Just now you emitted immcasurablelights, All of which enteredthe top of the Tathagata'shead. Whosc attainmcnt of enlightenment Will the Supremc One among gods prophesy?"

The V/orld-Honored Onc asked Ananda, "Do you seeBhadra?" Ananda answered, "Yes, I do." Thc Buddha told Ananda, "This good man will become a Buddha, called :"thegata King of Miraculous Feats,the Worthy One, the SupremelyEnlighte'ed r:re. He will dwell in the Land of Great Ador'ment aftcr 'inety-two thousand :..-ps56r,r. passed,during the Kalpa of Skillful Reforming. "The pcople of his Buddha-land will be prosperous,pcaceful,secure,rich, ,:-J happy. The land there will be level, and as sofr as corton, with flowcring trees .::j tiuit treesgrowing in orderly rows. Bannersand preciouscanopieswill adorn '.-.,: land. and musical instruments of all kinds will sound spontaneously.Every:::rc a wonderful fragrancewill pcrmeatethe air. Food and drink will appearas - n as the need of them comes to a pcrson's mind. All thc enjoymcnts and i-.ssities of lifc will be cxactly the same as those used rn thc Heaven of the :::rr'-Three. Becauscof the rnany magnificent adornmentsin that tsuddha-land, ' ,.rl1 be called the Land of Great Adornment. The pcople therc u,,ill all abide in . . \lahiyana with deep, firm faith. "TathagataKing of Miraculous Featswill live for ten thousandyears,and his '-.: l)harma will last in that world for ten billion years. At the point of entering ,:::rrr'ina,l8 hc will prophesy Bodhisattva Renowned's attainmcnt of suprcme ::htcnment, saying:'You will be the next Buddha [of this land] in your future

ON MAyA aNo MtnacLrs lite. and r.ou rvill be callcd Tathigata SurpassingAll, the Worthy Onc, the Suprcnrclv Enlightcned Onc. "' from midair, Havir.rgheard thc Tathagatathus prophesy, Bhadra desccnded fect, and said, "Now I take refuge prostretedhimsclf with his head at the Buddha's in the Tathigata, the Worthy One, the Supremcly Eniightened Onc; and also in Then he earncstlyagain and again.re and the monks." This he repcated rhc Dharn-ra "The Buddha, the World-Honored Onc, sees that suchncssallows of no ::id. disrinctions,and saysthat all dharmasare identicalwith suchtress-undifferentiated, nonarising, and inactive. I say tht: same about my preperfect, indistinguishable, s c n t t a k i t t go f r e f u g c . " r Thcrcupon VenerabieAnanda said to Bhadra, "If your taking refugc is idenas tical with suchness, the Buddha has taught, thcn you must have obtained something from the Dharma-nature of the Buddha. Have you not done so?" Thc magician answcred, "I myself am the Dharma-natureof the Tathagata. Why? Thc Tathagata and I are not two, not differcnt, becauscall dharmas are means that all dharmas are in nature undifferentiated.So is it suchncss.Suchness with sentient beings. Venerable sir, you shouid know this: when we speak of nonduality, wc mean that nondiscriminationis nonduality. Why? Becauscit is the wisdom of the -Buddhato know that all dharmas are namcs only." Venerable Ananda approachedthc Buddha and said, "How strangt-it is' World-Honored Onc, that Bhadra has such wisdom and eloqucncc!Previously, he deluded and confused thc rvorld with his magic, but now he is doing so with his wisdom." The Buddha askedtshadra, "Good man, are you really doing that?" tshadrasaid, "l delude and confuseothersjust as thc tsuddhadoes. Why do I say so? Becauscthe Buddha, the World-Honorcd One, says that there are scntient beings and life, though actuallyno self exists.This is most dcluding and confusing to the world. Also, thc Tath-gata speaksof coming, going, and sarhsira,though he has known cver sincc he realizcd supreme cnlightenment that there are no such In dharmas as coming, going, or sarhsara. my opinion, thc Tathegatais thc only onc who grcatly deludcsand confusesthc world."2{) The Buddha said, "Good man, well said, well saidlJust as you havc said, the BudChas, Tathagatas,say that thcre are sentient beings and so forth, in order to conform to conventions, even though they know that there is actually no sclf, going, or coming. There is no dharma that can be callednirvana, cither. sarirsara, However, in order to Icauseothcrs to] realizethe Dharma leading to nirv-na, they discourseon nirvana." Having heard this, Bhadra approachcdthe Buddha and said, "l wish to lcave the household lifc to become a monk." Then the World-Honored Onc told B o d h i s a t t v a - M a h a s a t t v a M a i t r c y a , " Y o u should shave off this good man's beard and hair and confer upon him the full ordination."

Bsaona's ArratNurNr or Buotnanoot

21

In accordance with thc Buddha's instructions,BodhisattvaMaitreya allowed Bhadra to leavc the household lifc and fully ordained him. After becoming a monk, Bhadra said to the Buddha, "World-Honored one, this renunciation of the household life is only so in appcarance; it is not true renunciation of the household life. Only the Bodhisattvas rvho detach rhemselves from all appcarancesand remain in the three realms to bring scntient beings to maturity can be said to have truly renouncedthe householdlifc."21 When this was spoken, five thousandsentientbeings brought forth supreme bodhicitta, and their minds were liberated from all defilements. Then Ananda said to the Buddha, "World-Honored One, what shall we call this Sutra? How shall \rre accepr and uphold it?" The Buddha told Ananda, "This sutra will be called 'The Prophecy of the Magician Bhadra's Attainment of Buddhahood,'or'The Doctrine of the Gradual Realizationof Bodhi.'22 Sentientbeings who desireto seethe Tath-gata and to do thc Buddha's work for others in the future should acccpt, read, and recite this sitra and cxplain it extensivcly to others. V/hy? Becauseto do so is to see the Tathagata rrrd do the Buddha's work for others. Thereforc. Ananda. to uphold, read. recite, and circulatc this sutra is to pity, benefit, and gladden senticnt beings. Those who aspire to advance toward suprcnre enlightenment should also study and practice rhis sutra diligcntly. This sutra can cause [the seed of] suprcme enlightcnment to gcrminate and to grow. Therefore, it can also be called 'The Discourse on rhe Gcrmination and Growth of [the Seed of] Bodhi.' It should bc known that tsuddhas abide within those who accept and uphold this sutra, let alone within rhose who study and practiceit properly." Then Bhadra said to the Buddha, "World-Honored One, this sutra is also --alled'The Revelation of Good Roots.'Why? Becauscnow rhat I have heard this .utra from the Buddha, all good roots are revcaledto me."23 When the Buddha had taught this sitra, the entirc assembly of Venerable -\nanda, Bhadra, gods, humans, asuras,gandharvas,and so forth were jubilant ..r'er what the Buddha had taught, acccptedit with faith, and began to pracriceir '.-.'ithvcneration.

NOTES
l . F o r e x p l a n a t i o n s f n a m e s , S a n s k r i tw o r d s , t e c h n i c a lt e r n r s .a n d t y p e s o f b e i r r g s , s c e o . r 5 s a r v . o r n u m b e r e d g r o u p s , s e eN u m c r i c a l G l o s s a r y . F 2. Anything in the univcrse can be rcgarded as a miraculous feat. Here, bcsides the .'ldrng of magical powers, thc other two deeds of the Buddha-admonishing people and

22

ON MAyA aruo Mlnaclts

teaching the Dharma-are also said to be miraculous abilities. Thcse three deeds arc called thc three kinds of tniraculous feats of the tsuddha. 3. A narnc of Sakyamuni Buddha. 4. The Buddha's voice is said to have sixty-four attributes. Thcy are listed in full in Mahayana Sftra ( 4Bff&.tst*ffi Esoteric ), and includc liquid, soft, agrecthe Inrorrteiyabfu a b l c , p l e a s a n t ,c l e a r , I i k e a l i o n ' s r o a r , l i k e a p c a l o f t h u n d e r , e t c . a 5 . L i s t c d i n t h c G l o s s a r ya s M a h l m a r . r d g a l y a y a n( ' G r e a t ' M a u d g a l y i y a n a ) ' K i 5 y a p a ' too, is sometimes called Mah5ka5yapa, and is so listed in thc (ilossary. 6. A wind wheel, in mythological tsuddhist cosmology, is a vast circle of air or "rvind" upon which eachworld rests. 7. Plrijita is a flowering tree which blooms in Srkrr's gardcn. Kovidtra is another k/nd of flowering tree. 8. Literally, "Aiways equalto the past." s 9 . T h i s s a m i d h i i n v o l v e s t h r e e k i n d s o f d e v o t i o n : t o c o n t e n r p l a t c i n g l e - m i n d e d l yt h e B u d d h a , t o c o n t e m p l a t er e a l i t y ( t h e D h a r m a - b o d y ) s i n g l c a u s p i c i o u sp h y s i c a l f o r m o f t h e mindcdly, and to invoke the Buddha's name single-mindcdly. Thc achievement of this s a m l d h i l e a d st o a m e n t a l s t a t ew h e r e i n a l l t h e B u d d h a ' s b o d i c s a r e r e v c a l e da s o n e r e r l i t l 10. I)harma truth: the suchnessor enlptiness of all dharnras 'incarnatcd body'; Skt. Nirmanakaya):one of the three 11. Transformation body (or, B u d d h a , n o t a r n a g i c a l l yp r o d u c e d B u d d h a . S c c N u m e r i c a l ( ) l o s s a r y , " t h r c c bodies of the bodiesofthe Buddha." 1 2 . S e c N u m e r i c a l ( i l o s s a r y , " f i v c a g g r e l l a t c s , "" t w e l v c e n t r a l l c c s , " a n d " e i g h t c c n e l e m c n t s . " S e ea l s o G l o s s a r y , " a g g r e g a t c . " 13. Sometimcs these arc called "the five factors of the Dharrra-body," does not refer to the Dharnrakiya of thc Mahayana. 1 4 . S e eG l o s s a r y , " b o d h i c i t t a . " which here

1 5 . S e eN u m e r i c a l G l o s s a r y , " t h r e e w h c e l s " =Ei& . 1 6 . W e r e n d e r E a s ' d h y a n a ' n o t ' s a m a d h i ' , h e r c a n d e l s e ' w h e r eF o r = s t a n d 'samadhi'. T h e r e a s o n sa r e a s f o l l o r v s : we use in a . A l t h o u g h E a n d = f f i a r e a l m o s t i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e M a h l y a n a s u t r a s ,t h e y a r e n o t 'thc four (the four dhyanas of form) as so in every case. No translator rerrdcrs EEFE 'the four samadhis without (thc four lormless dhyanas) as samidhis of form', or E{ft68 Therefore, for the sake of convention and uniformity, we distinguish the two terns. form'. =m in different Although in some sutras the santc "trance" may be rcferred to as i€ and placcs, we leave the rcsponsibility to such sltras thcmselves, and wc do not assunle thc liberty of changing our rendering at wiil. b. If we conpare the eight Hinayana dhyanas *'ith the mystical, dynamic Mahiyana samidhis, we find a vast difference between thc two. To point up this distinction, we use dhyana for E and samadhi for =ffi c. From the etymological viewpoint, there is also a difference. Dhyana is derived from 'to 'to c o n t e m p l a t e ' ,o r ' t o m e d i t a t e ' .T h e r e f o r e , muse', S a n s k r i t r o o t d h y a ,w h i c h m e a n s the t h e e i g h t H r n a y a n a " t r a n c e s " s h o u l d b e t r a n s l a t e da s d h y a n a s ,n o t s a n l i d h i s . T h e d h y i n a s denote specific meditational states, while the samldhis of Mah-yina have various dynamic tunctions. Ch. fllFE.re'he )' d. The fifth of the Bodhisattvas'six paramitas(Skr' dhyana-parunita, 'the piramiti of dhyana'. No trans'the paramitt of meditation', or simply 'the piramita of samtdhi'. Since E is an abbreviation of lator so lar has translated this as i s t r a n s l a t e da s

Bnaona's ArrarNnarxr or Buoonanooo
# 8 , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t w e s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e e s t a b l i s h e du l c i n r e n d e r i n g a l l t r 'samadhi'. not

23

as,dhyina',

e. The fifth paramit-, dhyana-paramita, translated in Tiberan as bsam-gtan dhyana) is (: t y i p h a - r o l - t u p h y i n - p a , n o t a s t i i t - i t e - ' d : l n ( : 5 x n . r ; 6 h | ) g y i p h a - r o l - t up h y i n - p a . T h i s i s a n o t h e r r e a s o n t o t r a n s l a t ef f i E o r f t a s ' d h y - n a ' b u t n o t a s ' s a n t i d h i ' . T o a v o i d l a t c r c o m p l i c a t i o n sa n d p o s s i b l em i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s\,\ , c t r a n s l a t et h e s et w o t e r m s o n t h e b a s i so f t h i s p r i n c i p l e . M r . M i a o i s f u l l y a w a r e o f t h i s p r i n c i p l c , b u t d i s a g r c e s ' i t h r t s a p p l i c a t i o ni n C h a p t e r u 1 2 . S e e " A D i s c o u r s eo n R c a d y E l o q u c n c e " b e l o w , n o t e 2 . ( G . C . ) 1 7 . A c c o r d i n g t o B u d d h i s t t r a d i t i o n , a t t a c h m e n tt o t h e b l i s s o i r l e d i t a t i o p c a n l c a d a n.rcditatdr to rcbirth in thc dhyana hcavens. Birth in the heavens is nor to be sought for s e v e r a lr c a s o n s .O n e c a n n o t g a i n s u p r e m c e n l i g h t e n m e n ti f o n c i s a g o d i n h e a v c n . F u r t h c r rllore, the rewards of good karma and the power of rncditationwill sonredar, e cxhausted, b and thc god must then suffcr the agony of dcath and possible rebirth in miserablc states. F i n a l l y , a w i s h f o r b i r t h i n t h e d h y i n a h e a v e n s i s c o n t r a r y t o t h c s e l f l e s si d e a l s o f t h e Mahiy-na. (V.S.B.) 18. Literally "nirvina." 1 9 . T h e o r i g i n a l r e a d s , " i n c a l c u l a b l eh u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d so f m i l l i o n s o f t i m e s . " 2 0 . E r n p l o y i n g s p c e c ha s s k i l l f u l m c a n s , t h e B u d d h a s p o k e m a n y s u t r a s ,w h i c h s h o u l d onlv be taken as "the fingcr that points to rhc rnoon," nor the nroon itself. The Buddha said, ''I h a v c n o t t a u g h t a s i n g l e w o r d d u r i n g t h e f b r t y - . i ' e y e a r so f n r y l ) h a r n - r a r e a c h i n g . " T h e p srttras oftcn admonish us to rcly on nrcaning rather than on merc words. (See Numerical ( i l o s s a r y , " f o u r r e l i a n c c s . " )R e a d c r ss h o u l d b e a r i n m i n d t h a t i t i s n o t t h e r v o r d s thcmselves i ' u t t h c a t t a c h m c t r tt o w o r d s t h a t i s d a n g e r o u s .T h e c r u c i a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e s u t r a sa s a f i n g e r l.ointing to the moon should bc upheld. (V/.H.) 2 1 . I n t h c M a h a y i n a , a l a y m a n n r a y b e ' s a i dt o h a v e " r c a l l y l e f t t h e h o u s c h o l dl i f c " i f a c ' d o c s w h a t i s t a u g h t r n t h i s p a s s a g e .V r m a l a k r r t i , t h e l a y m a n w i t h g r e a t w i s d o m a n d rrqenuity, is an illustriousexample. 2 2 . B h a d r a t h e m e g r c i a nf i r s t a t t a i n e dt h c S a m i d h i o f t h c R c c o l l e c t i o no f t h e B u d d h a , :rcn thc Realization of Con.rpliancer,vitl.r l)harma Truth, and finally the Rcalization of tl.re thc \ o n a r i s i n g o f D h a r n r a s , w h e r e u p o n h e r e c c i v e dt h e t s u d d h a ' sp r o p h e c y o f h i s a t t a i n m e n t o f i l u d d h a h o o d .( [ / . H . ) T h i s p a s s a g e u g g e s t s h c g r a d u a l r e a l i z a t i o n p p r o a c h .I t i s r n 1 'o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e a d e r s t a ' ; l o u l d t t o t r e g a r d t h e s o - c a l l e d " i t r s t a n t a n c o u s " e a l i z a t i o na s s u p e r i o r t o t l i e g r a d u a l . W e . r ' i r o u l c l b e a r i n m i n d t h a t m a n y Z c n B u d d h i s t s s t r i v c f o r i n s t a n t a n e o u s e a l i z a t i o na l l r l - r c i r r .:\!-s and get nowhere. Thus, thc gradual approach is perhaps rnore solicl, steady, and :rr,Jtical. With rcgard to rhc rlrur ctJ-prqifiA, instantancous rcalization (ffi6) nray be ntore : ; r , r r o u g h a n d " s u p c r i o r " t o t h e g r a d u a l a p p r o a c h ;b u t f r o r n t h c p r a g m a t i c v i e w p o i n t , t h c : r : J u a l r p p r o a c h s e e m st o b e p r c f c r a b l e .F u r t h e r r n o r e ,t h c t h r e e r c a l i z a t i o n s J h a d r aa t t a i n e d l , r c o f a v e r v a d v a n c e ds t a g c . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e R e a l i z a t i o no f t h c N o n a r i s i n g o f l ) h a r r n a s i s . : r p p o s c dt o b e a t t a i n e do n l y b y B o d h i s a t t v a so f t h e c i g h t h s t a g c . ( ( i . C l . ) 2 3 . I n a n c a r l i e rp a r t o f t h e s t l t r a ( p . 4 ) w e f i n d : " T h e t i m c h a d c o m e f o r t h e ' g o o d r o o t s : -t h c m a g i c i a n . to rnature" .

II
On-E*ptiness

2 #ffix+€
The Demonstration the Inconceivable of

State Buddhahood of

Thus have I heard. Once the Buddha was dwelling in the garden of AnithapiTdada, in the Jeta Gro,oe near-5.rarr.ii"r..o-panied by one rhousand monks, ten thousand Bodhisattva-Mahrsattvas, and many gods of the Realm of Desire and the Realm of Form. At that time, Bodhisattva-Mahisattva Mafrju5ri and the god Suguna were both present among the assembly. The World-Honored One told Manju5ri, "You should explain the profound srate of Buddhahood for the celestial beings and the Bodhisattvasof this assembly." Manju6ri said to the Buddha, "So be it, World-Honored One. If good men and good women wish to know the state of Buddhahood, they should know that it is not a state of the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, the body, or the mind; nor is it a state of forms, sounds, scents, tastes, textures, or mental objects. WorldHonored One, the nonstate is the state of Buddhahood. This being the case, what is the state of supreme enlightenment as attained by the Buddha?" The Buddha said, "lt is the stateof emptiness,because views are equal. It all is the state ofsignlessness, becauseall signs are equal. It is the state ofwishlirrn.r., becausethe three realms are equal. It is the state of nonaction, becauseall actions are equal. It is the state of the unconditioned, because all conditioned things are equal." Manju6ri asked, "World-Honored One, what is the state of tire unconditioned?" The Buddha said, "The absence of thought is the state of the unconditioned."
Sitra 35, Taisho 310, pp. 56G"571;translated into Chinese by Bodhiruci.

28

ON EnprtNrss

ManjuSrr said, "World-Honored One, if thc statesof the unconditioned and so forth are thc state of Buddhahood, and the state of the unconditioncd is thc If absenccoi thought, then on what basis is thc state of Buddhahood expressed? thcn therc is nothing to be said;and sincc there is nothing to there is no such basis, be said. norhing can be expressed.Therefore, World-Honored Onc, the state of in tsuddhahoodrs inexpressible words." "Maniu6ri, where should the statc of Buddhahood be The Buddha asked, sought?" Manju6ri answered,"lt should be sought right in the dcfilementsof sentient by bcipgs. Why? Because nature thc defilemcntsof sentientbeings are inapprehensible. [Realizationo1-lthis is beyond the comprehensionof Srivakas and Pratyckabuddhas:therefore, it is calledthe stateofBuddhahood." The Buddha asked Maniu5ri, "Does thc srate of tsuddhahood increaseor decrease?" nor decreases." "It neithcr incrcases Thc Buddha asked, "How can one comprehcnd the basic naturc of thc defilements of all sentient bcings?" ,Just so nor decreascs, by their as thc state of Buddhahood ncither incrcases nor decrease." nature the defilementsncither increase The tsuddha asked, "What is the basic nature of the defilements?" ,,The basic nature of the defilementsis the basic naturc of the state of Buddhahood. World-Honored Onc, if the nature of the dcfilements wcre diffcrent from thc naturc of the state of Buddhahood, thcn it could not bc said that the the nature of thc defilcBuddha abidesin the equality of all things. It is because that the Tathagatais said to ments is the very nature of the state of Buddhahood abide in equality." The Buddha askcd furthcr, "ln what equality do you think thc Tathagata abides?" "As I undcrstand it, the Tathagata abides in cxactly thc same cquality in which those sentientbeings who act with dcsire,hatrcd, and ignorancc abide." The Buddha askcd, "In what equality do those senticntbeings who act with the three poisons abide?" and wishlcssness." "They abide in the equality of emptiness,signlcssness, how could thcrc be dcsire, The Buddha asked, "Manju6ri, in enptincss, hatrcd, and ignorancc?" Manju6ri answcred, "Right in that which cxists thcre is emptiness,wherein desire,hatred, and ignorancc are also fourrd." The Buddha asked, "In what existenceis therc emptincss?" "Emptiness is said to exist [only] in words and language' Becausethere is 'Monks! emptiness,there are desire,hatred, and ignorance.The Buddha has said. Nonarising, nonconditioning, nonaction, and nonorigination all exist. If these did not exist, then one could not speak of arising, conditioning, action, and originathere are nonarising,nonconditioning, nonaction, tion. Therefore, monks, because and nonorigination, one can speak ofthe existenceofarising, conditioning, action,

TnE INcoNcervanrr Srarr or Buoonanooo

29

and origination.' Similarly, World-Honored One, if thcre were no cmpriness, signlessness, wishlessness, or one could not spcak of desire,hatred, ignorance, or " other ideas. The Buddha said, "Man3u5ri,if this is thc case,then it must be, as you said, that onc who abides ir-rthe defilemcnts abides in empriness." ManjuSri said, "World-Honored One, if a meditator sccks emptinessaparr from the defilcments, his search will be in vain. Hovg could there bc an emptiness that differs from the defilements? If he contemplates thc defilements as emptiness, he is said to bc cngagedin right practice." The Buddha asked, "Manjuiri, do you detachyourself from the dcfilements or abide in thcm?" ManjuSri said, "All defilements are equal [in reality]. I have realizcd that equality through right practice. Thereforc, I neither detach myself from thc defilements nor abide in them. If a Sramanaor brahmin claims that hc has overcome passionsand seesother beings as defiled, he has fallen into thc two extrcme vrews. What are the two? One is the view of cternalism, maintaining that defilements exist; the other is the view of nihilism, maintaining that dcfilements do nor exist. 'World-Honored One, he who practiccs rightly secsno such things as self or other, existenceor nonexistence. Why? Becauschc clearly comprchendsall dharmas." The Buddha asked, "Manju6ri, what should onc rely upon for right practice?" "He who practicesrightly relies upon nothing." The Buddha asked, "Docs he not practiceaccording to the path?" "If he practicesin accordancewith anything, his practice will bc conditioned. A conditioned practiceis not onc of equality. Why? Bccauscit is not exempt from arising, abiding, and perishing." The Buddha asked Manjuiri, "Are there any categorics in the unconditioned?" Mairju6ri answered, "World-Honored Onc, if there wcre categories in the unconditioned, then thc unconditioncd would be conditionedand would no lonser bc the unconditioncd." The tsuddha said, "Ifthc unconditionedcan bc realizedby sainrs,thcn there is such l thing as the unconditioned; how can you say there are no catclloricsin "Things have no catcgories, and the saintshave transccndcd categories. That rs why I say thcre are no catcgories." The Buddha asked, "Manjuiri, would you not say you havc attair-red sainthood?" Manju6ri askedin turn, "World-Horrored ()ne, supposcone asksa magically 'Would produccd person, you not say you have attainedsainthood?'What will be his rcply?" The Buddha answered Manju6ri, "Onc cannot spcak of the attainment or nonattaillment of a magically produccd person." Manju6ri asked, "Has the Buddha not said that all things are like illusions?"

30

C)rvEiuPlINnss

The Buddha answcred, "So I have, so I have." "li all rhings are like illusions, why do you ask me whcther or not I have a t t a i n e ds a i n t h o o d ? " The Buddha askcd, "Manjuirr, what cquality in the three vchicleshavc you ? realizc'd " "l havc realizedthe cquality of thc stateof Buddhahood." The Buddha askcd, "Havc you attaincd the statc of Buddhahood?" "lithe World-Horrored One has attainedit, thcn I havc also attainedit." Thereupon, Vencrable Subhnti askcd ManjuSri, "Has not the Tath-gata attained thc stateof Buddhahood?" Manju5ri askedin turn, "Havc you attainedanything in the stateof Sravakahood?" Subhnti answered, "The liberatiorrof a saint is ncither an attainment nor a " noltattainment. "So it is, so it is. Likcwise, the iiberation of the Tathigata is neither a state nor a nonstate." Subhuti said, "ManjuSri, you are not taking carc of the novice Bodhisattvas in teaching the Dharma this way. " Manju6ri askcd, "Subhlti, what do you think? Supposea physician, in taking care of his patients, does not give thcm acrid, sour, bitter, or astringent medicines.Is he helping them to rccovcr or causingthem to dic?" Subhnti answercd, "He is causing them to suffer and dic instead of giving them peaceand happiness." Manjuiri said, "Such is the cascwith a teachcrof the Dharma. If, in taking care of others, he fcars that they might be frightened, and so hidcs from them the profound meaningsof the Dharma and insteadspeaksto them in irrelcvant words and fancy phrases,then he is causing sentient beings to suffer [birth,l old age, and dcath, insteadofgiving them health, peacc,bliss, and nirvina." disease, When this Dharma was explair-red,five hundred monks were frced of atof t".h-.rlt to any dharma, wcrc clea,rsed dcfilcments, and wcre liberated in mind; eight thousand dcvas left the taints of the mundanc world far behind and attained the pure Dharma-eye that seesthrough all dharmas; sevenhundred gods resolved to attain supreme enlightenment and vowcd: "In the future, wc shall attain an cloquencelike that of Manju(ri. " Then Elder Subhnti askcdManju5ri, "Do you not explain the Dharma of the o S r a v a k a - v c h i c lte t h c S r i v a k a s ? " "l follow the Dharmas of all the vehicles." or Subhuti asked, "Are you a Sravaka,a Pratyekabuddha, a Worthy One, a Supremely Enlightened One?" "l am a Sravaka,but my undcrstandingdoesnot come through the speechof others. I am a Pratyekabuddha,but I do not abandon great compassionor fear anvthing. I am a Worthy One, a Supremely Enlightened One, but I still do not give up my original vows." Subh0ti askcd, "Why are you a Srivaka?"

"

Tur INcoNcuvasrr Srart or BuooHaHooo

3l

"Because I cause sentient beings to hear the Dharma they have not heard'" "Why are you a Pratyekabuddha?" ,,BecauseI thoroughly comprehend the dependent origination of all dharmes"Why are you a Worthy One, a Supremely Enlightencd One?" "BccauseI reahzethat all things arc equal in the dharmadhatu." ' Subhuti asked, "Manjudri, in what stagedo you reall.vabide?" "l abide in every stage." Subhlti asked, "could it be that you also abide in the stage of ordinary people?" Manju6n said, "I definitely abide in the stageof ordinary people " Subhuti asked, "With what esotcricimplication do you say so?" "I say so because dharmas arc equal by nature." all Subhnti asked, "If all dharmas are equal, where are such dharmas as the Bodhisattvas,and Buddhas established?" stagesof Srivakas, Pratyekabuddhas, "As an illustration, consider thc empty spacein the ten Manjuiri answcred, directions. Pcople speak of the eastcrn spacc, the southern space, thc western space,the northern spacc,the four intermediatespaccs,the spaccabove, the space below, and so forth. Such distinctions arc spoken of, although the cmpty space itself is devoid of distinctions. In like manner, virtuotls one, the various stagesare in established the ultimatc emptirlcssof all things, although thc cmptinessitself is devoid of distinctions. " Subhuti asked, "Have you entercd the realization of sairrthood and been from sarhsara?" forevcr separated "I have entcred it and emerged from it." Subhnti asked, "Why did you emerge from it after you entered it?" Manju6ri answered, "Virtuous onc, you should know that this is a manifestation of thc wisdom and ingcnuity of a tsodhisattva.He truly cnters the realizathen, as a method to save from sarhsara; scparated tion of sailthood and becomes. senticnt beings, he cmerges from that realization. Subhnti, suppose an exPert archer plans to harm a bitter enemy, but, mistaking his beloved son in the wildcr'l havc dor-re ncss for the enemy, he shoots an arrow at him. The son shouts, nothing wrong. Why do you wish to harm me?' At once, thc archer, who is swift-footed, dashestoward his son and catchesthe arrow beforc it does any harm. and PratyekabudA Bodhisattva is like this: in order to train and subduc Sravakas dhas, he attains nirvina; howcver, he emcrges from it and docs not fall into That is why his stage is called the the stagesof Srivakas and Pratyekabuddhas. " Buddha-stage. Subhuti asked, "How can a Bodhisattva attain this stage?" Manju5ri answered, "If Bodhisattvas dwell in all stagesand yet dwell norvhere, they can attain this stage. "lf they can discourse on all the stagesbut do not abide in the lower stages, they can attain this Buddha-stage. "lf they practice with the purpose of ending the afflictions of all sentient

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beings, but [rcalizc] therc is no ending in the dharmadhitu; if they abidc in the unconditiolcd, r'ct perform conditioned actions;if they rcmain in sarhsira,but regard rt as a qarden arrd do not seek nirvana before all thcir vows are fulfilled-then t h c r c a r ta t ( a i r t)h i s s t a g c . "li thcv realizecgolessness, bring scntient beings to nraturity, they can yet this stage.2 attair-r '.li thev achieve the tsuddha-wisdom yet do not gencrateanger or hatrcd tos'ard thosc rvho lack wisdom, they can attain this stagc' ,'lf they practice by turning the Dharma-wheel for those who seck the Dharna but make no distinctionsanong things, they can attain this stage. ,,Furthcrmorc, if tsodhisattvas vanquish dcmons yet assumc the appearancc of the four demons, they can attain this stage." of Subhnti said, "ManjuSrr, such practices a Bodhisattvaar(rvery difficult for any worldly being to bclievc." ManjuSri said, "so it is, so it is, as you sry. Bodhisattvaspcrform deedsin the mundanc world but transcendworldly dharmas." subhnri said, "Manju6ri, pleasetcll me how they transccnd the mundane world." constitute what wc call the mundane ManjuSri said, "Thc five aggregates world. Of these, the aggregateof form has the naturc of accumulatedfoarn, the of apillregate fceling has the nature of a bubble' thc aggregatcof conceptionhas the nature of a miragc, the aggregateof impulsc has the naturc of a hollow plantain, has and the aggrcgateof consciousness the nature of an illusion. Thus, onc should know that the cssentialnature of the mundanc world is none other than that of foam, bubbles, mirages, plantains,and illusions; in it thcre arc neithcr aggrcgates nor the names of aggrcgatcs,neithcr sentient bcings nor thc namcs of scntient world. Such a right beings, neither the mundane world nor the supranrutrdane is understandingof the five aggregates called the supreme understanding.If one attainsthis suprcnle understanding,then he is liberated,as hc Iactuallyl always has bcen.3 If he is so iiberated, he is not arrachedto mundanc things. If he is not thc attachedto mundanc things, hc tratrscends mundane world. ,,Furthermore,Subhnti, thc basic naturc of thc five aggregatcs empttncss. is t n a t u r e i s c m p t i n c s s , h e r ei s n e i t h c r ' l ' n o r ' m i n e . ' I f t h e r e i s n e i t h c r ' l ' n o r If that ,mine,' there is no duality. If therc is no duality, thcrc is ncither grasping nor abandoning. If there is neither grasping nor abandoning, thcrc is no attachmcnt. the mundanc world' Thus. frec of attachmcnt, one transcends and conditions. bclong to causcs "Furthermorc, Subhnti, thc five aggregates and conditions, they do not belong to oncselfor to others. bclong to causes Ifthev If thcv do not belong to onesclfor to others, they havc no owner. If they have no o\\,ncr, there is no onc who grasps them. If there is no grasping, thcre ls no Just as a hand contention, and noncontcntion is thc practiceof religious devotees. in empty spacetouches no object and meets 1o obstacle,so thc Bodhimovilg sattvas u'ho practice thc equality of emptincss transcend the mundanc world.

THr lNcoNcuv,csrr SurL rtr lluoosanooo

-]3

"Moreover, Subhnti, bccausc the elemcntsof the fivc aggrcgates all nrcrgc in the dharmadhltr.r,there are no rcalms. If there arc no rcalnrs,there arc no clcnrcnts of earth, watcr, fire, or lir; thcrc is no ego, scnticnt bcing, or lifc; no Realnr of I)esire, Realm of Fornr, or Rcahn of Formlessncss; rcalnr of thc conditioncd or no realm of the unconditioned;no rcalrn of sarirsiraor realnrof nrrvina. When tsodhisattvascnter such a domain Ifrcc of distinctions], thcv do not abide in anything, though thcy rcmain in the nridst of worldly bcinss. Ii thcv do not abide in anything, they transcendthc nrundanc world." When this Dharma of transccndingthe world was explained, trvo hundred monks becamc detachcd from all dharrnas, ended all their defilen'rents,and became liberated in mind. Onc by one they took off thcir upper garner)ts to offer to ManjuSri, saying, "Any pcrson who does not havc faith in or understand this doctrine will achieve nothing and realize nothing." Then Subhuti asked these monks, "Elders, have you ever achievedor realized anything?" The monks replied, "Only presumptuous pcrsons will claim they have achievedand realizedsomcthing. To a humble religious devotcc, nothing is achieved or rcalizcd. Hou', then, would such a person think of saying to himsclf, 'This I have achieved; this I have realized'?If such an idea occurs to him, thcn it is a demon's deed." Subhuti asked,"Elders, accordingto your understanding,what achievement and realizationcauscyou to say so?" The monks replied, "Only thc Buddha, the World-Honored One, and Mairju6n know our achievcmcntand realization.Most virtuous one, our understanding is: those who do not fully krrow thc nature of suffering yet claim that suffering should bc comprehendedare presunptuous. Likewise, if thcy claim that the cause of suffering should be cradicated, that the cessationof suffbring should be realized, and that the path lcading to the cessationof suffering should bc followed, they are presumptuous.Presumptuousalso are those who do not really know the nature of suffering, its cause,its cessation,or the path leading to its cessation,but claim that thcy know suffering, havc eradicated thc cause of suffering, have realized the cessation of suffering, and have followed the path lcading to the cessation of suffering. "What is the nature of suffcring? It is the very nature of nonarising. The same is true concerning the characteristicof the causeof suffering, thc cessationof suffering, and the path leading to the cessationof suffering. The naturc of nonarising is signless and unattainable. In it, there is no suffering to be known, no cause of suffering to be cradicated, no cessationof suffering to be realized, and no path leading to thc ccssationof suffering to bc followed. Those who are not frightcned, terrified, or awcstricken upon hearing theseNoble Truths are not presumptuous. Those who are frightened and terrified are the prcsumptuousoncs." Thereupon, the World-Honored One praised the monks, saying, "Well said, well said!" He told Subhnti, "These monks heard Manju5ri explain this profound

34

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Dharma during the era of Ka6yapa Buddha. Because they have practiced this profound Dharma before, they are now able to follow it and understand it immediatelr'. Similarly, all those who hear, believe, and understand this profound teachingin rlv era will bc among the assemblyof Maitreya Buddha in the future." Thcn the god Sugula said to Mafijuiri, "Virtuous one, you have repeatedly tauqht thc l)harma in this world. Now we beg you to go to the Tusita Heaven. For a long tine, the gods thcre have also been planting many good roots. They they are n'ill be-able to understandthe Dharma if they hear it. However, because pleasures[of their heaven], they cannot [leave their heaven and] attached to the conle to the Buddha to hear the Dharma, and consequently they suffbr a great loss" . Mair.juSri immediately pcrformed a miraculous feat that caused the god Sugurra and all others in the assembly to bclieve that they had arrived at the palace of the Tusita Hcaven. There thcy saw gardens, woods, magnificent palacesand mansions with sumptuous tiers of railings and windou's, high and spacioustwentystoricd towers withjewelled nets and curtains, celestialflowers covering thc ground, various wonderful birds hovcring in flocks and warbling, and celestial maidens in the air scattcring flowers of the coral tree, singing verses in chorus, and playing merrily. Seeing all this, the god Suguna said to Manjuiri, "This is cxtraordinary, Manju6rrl How have we arrived so quickly at the palaccof the Tusita Heaven to teachus the Dharma?" seethe gardcnsand the gods hcrc?Manju5ri, will you plcase "Son ofhcaven, you did not lcave the assembly Elder Subhuti told Sugula, or go anywhere. It is Manju6ri's miraculous feat that causesyou to see yourself in the palaceof the Tusita Heaven." The god Suguna said to the Buddha, "How rarc, World-Honored One! ManjuSri has such a command of samadhi and of miraculous power that in an instant he has causedthis entire asscmblyto appearto bc in thc palaceof the Tusita Heaven." The Buddha said, "Son of heaven, is this your understanding of Manju5ri's miraculous power? As I undcrstand it, if ManjuSri wishes, he can gather all the as merits and magnificcnt attributesof tsuddha-lands numerous as the sandsof the Gar"rges and cause them to appcar in onc Buddha-land. He can with one fingertip lift up thc tsuddha-landsbelow ours, which arc as numerous as thc sands of the Gangcs, and put them in the empty spaceon top of the Buddha-landsabove ours, u.hich are also as numerous as the sands of the Ganges. FIc can put all the water of thc four great oceansof all the Buddha-lands into a single pore without making the aquatic bcings in it Gel crowded or removing them from the seas.He can put all the Mount Sumerus of all the worlds into a mustard seed, yet the gods on these rnountains will feel that they are still living in their own palaces.He can place all sentientbeings of the five planesof existcnceof all the Buddha-landson his palm, and causethem to seeall kinds of exquisitematerial obiectssuch as those available

Tnr. IxcoNcrrvaslr Srarr or Buoonagooo

35

in dclightful, magnificcnt countnes. He can gather all the fires of all the worlds into a picce of cotton. He can use a spot as small as a pore to eclipsecompletely every sun and moon in every Buddha-land. In short, he can accomplishwhatever he wishes to do."a At that timc, Papiyan, the Evil One, transfornied himsclf into a monk and said to the Buddha, "World-Honorcd Onc, we r".ish to see Manju6ri perform such miraculous feats right now. What is the use of saying such absurd things, which nobody in the world can bclieve?" The World-Honored Onc told Manju5ri, "You should manifest vour mlraculous powcr right before this assembiy." Thereupon, without risrng from his seat, Manju6ri entered the Samadhi of Perfect Mental Freedom in Glorif ing All Dharmas, and demonstratedall the miraculous featsdescribedby the Buddha. Seeingthis, thc Evil Onc, thc mcmbers of thc asscmbly,and the god Sugula all applauded these unprecedented deeds, saying, "Wonderful, wonderful! Because of the appearanceof the Buddha in this worid, we now have this Bodhisattva who can perform such miraculous feats and opcn a door to the Dharma for thc world." Thereupon, the Evil One, inspired.by Manju6rl's awesome power, said, "World-Honored Onc, how wondcrful it is that ManjuSri possesscs such great, miraculous powcrl And the mernbcrs of this asscmbly, who now undcrstand and have faith in the Dharma through his demonstration of miraculous feats, are also marvelous. World-Honorcd One, cven if there were as many demons as the sands of the Gangcs, thcy would not bc ablc to hinder thcsc good men and good women, who understandand believein the Dharma. "1, P-piyan the Evil One, have always sought opportunitics to oppose the Buddha and to create turmoil among sentient beings. Now I vow that, from this day on, I will never go nearer than onc hundrcd leagues away from the place where this doctrine prevails, or where people have faith in, understand, cherish, receive.read. recite. and teach it. "However, World-Honored One, some of my kindred are determined to distract the devotees' minds so as to destroy the Dharma of the Tathagata. I will chant the following dhirali so that devotces can vanquish thcse demons. If good men or good women read, write, and recite this incantation, or teach it to others, the celesiial demons will benefit and will, in return, causc the teachers of this Dharma to feel joyful in body and mind, to precticc vigorously, to possess unimpeded eloquence and dharanis, and not to lack services,food and drink, clothing, bedding, or medicine." Thcn hc uttercd the incantation:

AMALA VIMALE STHITATVE AKALAVANIRJITASATRU JAYE JAYAVATI BHUTAMATISAME SvRNnTI APHUME BUSUME ADHIRE AGEMAKHE KHAKHEYISILE AGAMEPHULELA PHULAPHULE PHASUME SUSUVA DHID-

..TADYATHA

36

ON EuprrNrss HIRE ANAVANATE STHITATE KRITARATE KRITABHIDHYE PIROCATANA SADDHARMABHANAKOSYA SUTRATRASYA D H A R I K A A B H R A B U G A T AI V A S U U R V N S V A H A . " 5

Then. Papiyan said, "World-Honored One, if good men or good women accept this dharali wholeheartedly and chrnt it with conccntration, they will be protected by gods, dragons, yakgas, gandharvas,asuras, garudas, kinnaras and mahoragas,and no evil demons will be able to take advantageof them." When Papiyan the Evil One spoke this incantation, quakes of six kinds occurred in the billion-world universe. The World-Honored One then told P-piyin the Evil One, "Wonderful, wonderful! You should know that your eloquence is a manifestation of Manjujri's mrraculous power. When Manju6ri was revealing his miraculous power and Papiyin the demon was chanting the dharali, thirty-two thousand gods resolved to attain supreme enlightenment. . . . When the Buddha finished tcaching this s[tra, the god Suguna, Elder Ananda, and all the humans, gods, dragons, gandharvas,asuras,and so forth, were jubilant upon hearing what the Buddha had taught.

NOTES
1. Our text rcads, "Because I cause sentient beings to believe in and awaken to the dharmadhltu." Howcver, this is irrelevant to the above qucstion. We have adopted another version here (Taisho 340, p. 109), also translated by a tsodhiruci (who may have lived more than 100 years before this Bodhiruci, or pcrhaps is the same person). 2 . T h i s r e n d e r i n g i s b a s e do n T a i s h 6 3 4 0 , p . i 1 0 3. This refers to the doctrine of original or inherent Buddha-nature which states that we are all in an enlightened state-sarhsara is nirvana-but that our cnlightenmcnt is obscured by veils of passionsand ignorancc, so we are not aware of it. When one first becomes enlightened, he is usually astonishedat thc lact that he has not realized anything new. He has been in the enlightened state all the timc. That is why certain Mahiyana sutras and Zen texts say that at the time of Buddha's enlightenment, he exclaimed, "How strange this is! All sentient bcings are already enlightened, yet are not awarc ofit." ofManju6ri's realization ofthe nonob4. These incredible feats are the consequences structing aspectof emptiness (iinyatfl. One who has reachedthis stage is free of the bondage of timc and space;therefore, hc is able to pcrform miraculous feats. 5. This matltrais transliterated lrom the Tibetan text, Peking cdition, which the editor fi1ds is clcarer lor translitcration than the Chinese. Thc Chinesc rendering of thc Sanskrit s m a n t r ar s n o t b a s c d u p o n a t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n y s t e m o r a l p h a b e t ,b u t u p o n t h e p r o t r u n c i a t i o no f Chinese characrers.It is extremely difficult, if not well-nigh impossible, to accurately recons t r u c t t h e S a n s k r i tl r o m t h e C h i n e s e . ( G . C . )

L@wfre 3 ,Eiry
Flawless Purity: Dialogue A with the Laywoman Gangottara

Thus have I heard. Once thc Buddha was dwelling in thc garden of Anathapildada, in theJeta Grove neai Sravasti.'Atthat time, a laywoman namcd Gangortara came from her dwelling in Srdvastito seethe Buddha. Shc prostratedhersclf with her hcad at the Buddha's feet, withdrcw to one side, and sat down. The World-Honorcd Onc asked Garigottari, "Where do you come from?" The laywoman asked the Buddha, "World-Honorcd Onc, if someone werc to ask a magically produced being whcre he came from, hor,r'should the qucstion be answered?" The World-Honored One told her, "A magically produced being neither comes nor goes, neither is born nor pcrishes;how can onc speak of a placc from which he comes?" Then thc laywoman asked, "ls it not true that all things are illusory, likc magic?" The Buddha said, "Ycs, indeed. What you say is true." Gangottari asked, "If all things are illusory, like magic, why did you ask me where I came from?" The World-Honorcd One told her, "A magically produced bcing does not go to the miserableplanesof existcnce,nor to heaven;nor does he attain nirvina. Gangottara,is that also true of you?" The laywoman rcplied, "As I see it, if my own body were different from a magically produced one, then I could spcak of going to thc good or miserable planes of cxistence, or of attaining nirvana. I see no difference, though, betwecn

Sutra31, Taisho310pp. 5,{9-550; translated Chinese Bodhiruci. into by

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ON EiupltNrss

my bodv and a magically produced one, so how can I speakof going to the good or nriserrblc planes,or ofattaining nirvina? "Furthermore,'World-Honored One, nirvina's very nature is such that it is not reborn in thc good or miserableplanes,nor docs it cxpcricnceparinirvana. I percel\'ethat thc same is true of my own naturc." -Ihe Buddha askcd, "I)o you not seekthe stateofnirvana?" Gaigottarl asked in turn, "If this qucstion were put to one who had never conre into bcing, how should it be answered?" Thc tsuddha replied, "That which has ncvcr come into being is nirvina " itself-. Gangottaraaskcd, "Are not all things identical with nirvina?" The tsuddha replied, "So thcy arc, so they are." "World-Honored One, if all things are identical with nirvana, why did you 'Do you not seck the stateof nirvina?' ask me, "Furthermorc, World-Honored One, if a magically produced being asked 'Do you not seek the state of nirvlna?' what another magically produccd bcing, u'ould the answer be?" The World-Honored One told hcr, "A magically produced being has no mental attachments[and thus seeksnothing]." Gangottare inquired, "Does the Tathagata'svery question stem from some mental attachmcnt?" Thc World-Honorcd One told her, "l raisedthe questionbecause there are in this assembly good mcn and good wonen who can be brought to maturity. I am free of mental attachments. Why? tsecausethe Tathagata knows that even the let namds of things are inapprehensible, alone the things themselvesor those who seek nirvana." Gangottara said, "If so, why all the accumulation of good roots for the attainment of enlightenment?" [The Buddha replicd,] "Neither Bodhisattvasnor their good roots can be because the Bodhisattvas'minds there is no discriminativethought in apprehended, as to whether they are accumulatinggood roots or not." 'no Gangottaraasked, "What do you mean by discriminativethought'?" The World-Honored One answered, "Thc absenceof discriminative thought cannot be understood or grasped by means of thinking. Why? Becausein the state fof no discriminative thought], even thc mind is inapprehensible, let alone the mental functions. This state, in which the mind is inapprehensible,is called inconceivable.It cannot be graspedor realized;it is neither pure nor impure. Why so? Because,as the Tathegata always teaches,all things arc as empty and unimpeded as " space. why does the WorldGangottari inquired, "lf all things are like empty space, Honored One speak of form, feeling, conception, impulse, and consciousness; the the twelve links of dcpcndent originaleighteenl elements;the Itwelve] entrances; tron; the defiled and the undefiled; the pure and thc impure; sarhslra and nirvina?"

Flawrrss Punrrr

39

The Buddha told Gangottarl, "When I speak of a 'self,' for example, although I express the concept by a word, actuallv the naturc of a 'self is inapprchensible. I speak of form, but in rcality the naturel of form is also inapprehensible, a'd so it is with the other [dharmas], up to nirvina. Just as we cannot find watcr in mirages, so we cannot find a nature i' tbrm, and so it is with the others, up to nirvlna. "Gangottara, only a person who cultivatespure conduct in accordance with the Dharma, pcrceiving that nothing can be apprehe.ded, dcse-rr-es be called a to real cultivator of pure conduct. Sincethc arrogant say thar thcv have apprehended something, they cannot be said to be firmly established genuinc purc conduct. in Such arrogant pcople will be terrified and doubtful when thcy hear this profou'd I)harma. They will be unable to liberaterhemselves from birth, old age, sickness, death, worry, sorrow, suffering, and distress. "Gangottari, after my parinirvana,there will bc some peoplc able to spread this profound Dharma, which can stop the rounds of sarirsara. However, some fools, becauscof their evil views, will hate those Dharma-masr(.rs, and will contrive to harm thcm. Such fools will fall to the hells for that." Gangottaraasked, "You speakof 'this profound Dharma which can stop the r o u n d s o f s a r h s i r a . ' W h a td o y o u m c a n b y ' s t o p t h e r o u n d s o f s a r h s a r a ' ? " The World-Llonored One replicd, "To stop rhe rounds of sarirsara [to is pcnetratcl reality, the rcalm of the inconccivable.Such a Dharma cannot be damaged or destroyed. Hence, it is called the Dharma that can stop the rounds of " sarirsara. Thcn the World-Honored One smiled graciously and emitted from his forehcad blue, yellow, red, white, and crystallinc lights. Thc lights illuminatcd all thc numerous lands, reaching as high as the Brahma Hcaven, thcn returncd and enteredthe top of the Buddha's hcad. Seeingthis, thc VenerableArranda thought to himself, "The Tath-gata, the Worthy One, the Supremely Enlightened One, docs not smilc without a reason. " He rose from his scat, uncovcrcd his right shoulder, knelt on his right knee, and joined his palms toward the Buddha, inquiring, "!(lhy did the tsuddha smile?" The Buddha rcplicd, "l recall that, in the past, a thousand Tathigatas also taught this Dharma hcre, and cach of those assemblies was also led by a laywoman named Gangottart. After hcaring this Dharma preachcd, the laywoman and all the assembly left the houschold lifc. Iln time,] they cnrered thc nirvina without rcsloue. Ananda asked thc Buddha, "What name should bc siven to this srltra and how should 'vveaccept and uphold it?" The Buddha said, "This sfitra is called'Flawlcss Puriry,'and you should acceptand uphold it by that name." During the preaching of this sutra, seven hundred monks a'd four hundred nuns were liberated from defilements forever and their minds were set free. At that time, thc gods of the Realm of Desire magically produced various

40

ON EiuprrNess

flowers and scattercdthenr upon the Buddha, saylng' kinds oi s.onderful celestial r.viththe Tathigata on "Rare indced is this laywoman, rvho can converscfearlcssly to countlessBuddhas, and cqual terlts. She must have scrved and made offbrilgs qood roots of every kind in their presence." plar-rtcd Aitcr thc Buddha had filished spcaking this sitra, the laywoman Garigottarl and all rhe gods, humans, asuras,gandharvas,and so forth wcre jubilant over thc tsuddha's teaching. They acceptcdit with faith, and bcgan to follow it with vcneratiorl.

NOTES
1 . T h e w o r d ' n a t u r e ' h e r c i s a t r a n s l a t i o no f t h e c h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r f f i , w h i c h i s m o r e ' s i g n " ' a t t r i b u t e " ' c h a r a c t c r i s t i c "' a p p e a r a n c e "' f o r m " e t c . H o w c v e r , i n often rendercd as 'nature'' is certain sutras, f,El sometimes also uscd to nlcan fl, which is properly translatcd as 2. Whethcr the Gangottari refcrred to herc is the sarne individual as the Gangottara prescnt during the prcaching of this sutra is not clear from the text. Though she could bc anothcr person with thc samc namc and similar karma, it is likcl-v that shc is the same pcrson' The question mry arise, "l[ Gangottara lcft thc household life and entercd nirvtna without r e s i d u el o n g a g o , h o w i s i t t h a t s h e a p p e a r sh e r e a s a l a y q u e s t i o n e r ? " According to thc Hinayina doctrinc, this question is almost impossible to answer, since that tradition assertsthat ifone cnters nirvlna without residuc, one ncver rcturns to thc world. In Mahayina, howevcr, thc occasion of a Dharma prcaching is looked upon as a drarna which may bc replaycd again and again, and a person rvho has entcrcd nirvallJ nlay reappear in a body to bcnefit sentient beings. T h e M a h a y a n a d c s c r i p t i o n o f n i r v a n a , c a l l c d " n o n - a b i d i n g n i r v a ' ] a , " s t a t c st h a t i t i s possible to achicve libcration and yct remain in the world for univc-rsal salvation. Such a p e r s o n a b i d e s n e i t h c r i n s a r h s l r an o r i n n i r v a n r . H o w e v e r , t h e n o n a b i d i n g n i r v i n e o f M a o h a y l n a i s n o t c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o t h c H r n a y a n au n d e r s t a n d i n g f n i r v a n a . T h i s i s c l e a r l y d e m o n in strated by the famous story of thc "tsuddha's silence" (see Ag4i-Vatthagottdsuttd, l'B' Co, 1957), vol 2, pp 162-167) (London: Luzac & Horner, trans., The MfuldleLength Sayirr3-r when hc refuscd to answer the qucstion whethcr after parinirvina therc exists a being which i s c o n s c i o u so f t h a t s t a t c . T h u s , e v e n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e B u d d h a ' s t e a c h i n g i n t h c P a l i t r a d i tions, one cannot say nirvana is annihilation, or that he who cnters nirvana will Ilcver rcturn to the world. The Buddha gavc neithcr an alfirnlative nor a ne€lative answer to this problem. (G.C.)

4 #{*HX?€
How to Kill with the Swordof Wisdom

I
Thus havc I heard. Once the World-Honored One was dwelling on Mount Grdhrakhta near the city of Rajagrha,accompanied sixty-two thousandgreat monks, by all of whom posscsscd grcat virtue arrd wcre cndowcd with miraculous powcrs. T h e m o n k s w e r c l c d b y c c r t a i ng r c a t S r a v a k a s . Also in the assemblywere forty-two thousandBodhisattva-Mahisattvas, led by Bodhisattva Maiiju6ri, Bodhisattva Lion Banner, Bodhisattva Maitreya-.Qodhisattva Avalokite6vara, Bodhisattva Mahasthamaprapta,Bodhisattva Kingpf Great Eloquence, . and othcrs. Also in thc assemblyat that time wcrc sixty thousanddevas,led by thc Four Dcva Kings; the deva kings of the Heavcn of the Thirty-Three; and Brahml, master of the Sahi World. Present, too, wcre the devas Well-Abiding Mind, Virtue, and Great Ease, leadcrs of thirty thousand devas who had long been abiding in the tsodhisattva-path;twenty thousand asura kings; and sixty thousand great dragon kings, all of whom had also been abiding in thc Bodhisattva Path. In addition, innumerable gods, dragons, yaksas, monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen joined thc assembly. When the World-Honored Onc, surrounded by the assembly of countless hundreds of thousands, was teaching the Dharma, Bodhisattva-Mahasattva Maiiju6ri, in his dwclling place, had entered the Samidhi Devoid of Contention and Mind, remaining quiet and motioniess. Then Manju5ri rose from the samadhi with a calm mind, and at once six quakesloccurred in innumerable Buddha-lands in the ten directions. Sutra36, Taisho310,pp- 571-592; translated Chinese Dharmagupta. into by

A'

ON EnprrNrss

Risine fronr the samadhi, Manju6ri thought, "In [each ofl those infinite, innumerable u'orlds, only one Buddha, a Tathigata, a Worthy One, a Perfectly as EnlightenedOne, appears,and such a onc appears rarely as the blossoming of an udumbara flos'er. Thereforc, the Tath-gatas, the Worthy Ones, the Perfectly Enis lightened Ones, are most extraordinary in the worlds and their appearance very unusual, The Dharma they teach can end rebirth and [sarhsaric] cxistenceand lead ultimate quiescence nirvina; this is inconceivable, of apart from discriminato the rion, very profound, incomparable, and difficult to comprehend or fathom. If Buddhas did not come into the worlds, sentientbeingswould bc unable to hcar the Dharma explained, and their sufferings would be interminabie. Thcrefore, now I should go to seethe Tathtgata, thc Pcrfcctly Enlightcncd One, and ask him about the l)harma, so that scnticnt beings may achievegood roots, and so that all those rvho tread the Bodhisattva [-path] may havc no doubt about thc very profound, inconceivableBuddha-Dharmas and may attain the cnlightcnmcnt of the Buddha. Sincethe sentientbeings in the SahaWorld arc full of desire,hatred, and ignorance; do not perforn-rwhite dharrnas;arc obtusc, deceitful, insetrsitiveto shane, arrogant, and conccitcd; kccp Buddhas at a distance;and disobey the Dharma and thc Sarhgha, I should cause them to hear the very profound, wonderful Dharma cxplairredso that they may acquirc thc clcar wisdom-cye."l Manjuiri thought furthcr, "Now I should call together a host of Bodhisattvas from the ten directions, so that all of thcm may hear the wonderful Dharmadoor cxplaincd by the Tathagataand attain the realizationof profound Dharma." With this thought, Manju6ri entercd the Samidhi of Adorning all with Undefiled Illumination. While in this samadhi, hc emittcd a great light which illuminated tsuddha-lands the eastas numerous as thc sandsof thc Ganges,so that all in and inexpressiblywonderthose lands becamemild, lustrous, clean,clcar, spotlcss, ful. The light also illuminated worlds in the other nine dircctions: in thc south, the west, thc north, the four intermediate directions, the zenith, and thc nadir. As a result, all the dark, seciuded places, cliffs, forests, great and small mountains . becamebright, limpid, and transparcnt. At that time, all the Buddhas teaching the l)harma in thc worlds in the ten directions as numerous as the sandsof the Gangeswere askcd by thcir respective disciples,"World-Honorcd One, why does this great, auspiciouslight appcar in the world? World-Honored One, we have never heard of or secn such a pure, 'World-Honored One, what light is this, which causcsus to be oversubtle light. whclmed by great joy and to be pure in mind? What is this light which also frees sentient beings from desire, hatrcd, ignorance, and other defilements, so that they stop doing evil? Worid-Honored One, who emits this light and by whose power does it appcar here?" When the disciples2asked these questions, their WorldHonored Ones kept silent and gave no answcr. At that time, in the worlds in the ten directions, all kinds of sounds, such as of humans and the sounds of devas, dragons, yaksas, gandharvas,asuras; nonhumans: of eleohants. horses. and other animals were hushed. The sounds of

TnE Swonl or Wrsooir.

43

wind, fire, water, seawaves, ntusic, and the singing of hymns wcre also hushed by the power of the Buddha. All was in silence. Thcn, the disciples of the Buddhas in the worlds in the ten directions askcd their respective Buddhas again, "'fi/orld-Honored one of great kindness, may you, in order to show pity for and givc peace, happiness,and benefit to all devas and humans, explain ro us the origin of this light and why it can ilruminate all Buddha-landsl" The Buddhas in [the worlds ofl the tcn directio's gave the samc a'swer, in thc same purc voice which is possesscd all the Tathagatas,as numcrous as the by sands of the Ganges, of the worlds in the ten dircctions. They all answeredas if only one Tathagataspoke. when the Buddhas answcred their respectivedisciples in this wondcrful voicc, all tsuddha-lands quaked; hundreds of thousands of m.usical instrumcnts of devas, humans, and asurassounded simultaneouslyand spontaneously. At that timc, the Buddhas, the World-Honored Ones in thc ten dircctions, told their respectiveattendants and disciplcs, "Good men, you should nor ask about these things. why? Because the occurrence of this light is beyond the comprehcnsionofall Sravakas and Pratyckabuddhas; speakofit, all humans, devas, ifl and asuraswill become confusedand lost. Thcrcfore, you should not ask about it. If Buddhas, the Tathigatas, account for this light, they will say, 'This light can causeand fulfill inconceivable, supcrior good roots [ofsentient bcingsl. Also, from these ir-rconceivablc, superior good roots can arisc such practicesas the peramitas of giving, discipline,paticnce,vigor, meditation, and wisdom.'All such practices [as thc paramitis] are causedby this light and are also accomplished by it. Therefore, cvcn if wc Buddhas, Tathigatas, praisethe merits of this light for lessthan a kalpa or for an entire kalpa, wc cannot praise them all. Moreover, since this light is cultivated through such good roots as kindness,compassion, joy, and equanimity, it can causcbliss." Then, the disciplesof the Buddhas [of thc innumerable worlds] in the ten directions rnade thc same carnestrequest again and again, saying, "May the worldHo'ored one explain to us the occurrence of this light in ordcr to comfort, benefit and show sympathy for all devas and humans, as well as to bring to maturity the good roots of Bodhisattvas!" when those Bodhisattvas had made this requcst, all thc Buddhas, the worldHonored ones in the tcn directions, told their respectiveattendant disciples, "Good men, you should listen attentively. I am going to explain it to you." The disciples said, "Yes, World-Honored One, we shall listen with pleasure." Thereupon, the tsuddhas told them, "Good men, there is a world named Sahe. In that world, there is a Buddha named Sakyamuni rathagata, the v/orthy One, the World-Honored One. He has appeared in a world of the five depravities. The sentient beings there are afflicted with desire, hatred, ignorance, and other defilements; they feel no respect and know no shame or remorse, and

44

ON EuprtNnss

most of their dceds are evil. However, Sekyamuni Buddha was able to attain supreme enlightenmentin such a depravedworld. Now he is teachingthe Dharma to the people around him. "Good men, in that world, there is a Bodhisattva-Mahasattva named Maflju6ri, rvho is a great disciple of Sekyamuni Tathagata.He has great virtuc; he is fully endou'ed with wisdom; he strives with vigor and courage; he possesses a!\'csomemiraculous powers; he can causeother Bodhisattvasto acquireJoy, to complete their Dharma practices, to increasctheir power, and to strive courageously and diligently; he understands well all expressionsof the Dharma; he has reachedthe other shore3of unhindered wisdom; he has complctcly achieved unhindered eloquencgi he has a free command of dharalis; and he has alrcady achieved all the inconceivablcmerits of a Bodhisattva. Now hc is going to ask Sakyamuni Tathagata, the Worthy One, the Perfectly Enlightened One, about a very profound Dharma-door, in order to cause other Bodhisattvas to achieve good roots and to cause those who follow the Bodhisattva-vehicle to sccure all the inconceivable Buddha-Dharmas. Now, good mcn, Manju5ri emits this light to call countless Bodhisattvas together from [the innum rable worlds] in thc ten directions, so that thcy may acquire the superior Dharma. For this reason, Manju6ri emits this great light to illuminate all Buddha-lands." The disciples of the Buddhas in the worlds of the ten directions asked their respective Buddhas again, "World-Honored One, in what samadhi does ManjuSri abide so that he can emit this light?" The Buddhas in the ten directions told their rcspective attendant disciples, "Good mcn, Mafrju6ri has entered the Samddhi of Adorning All with Undefiled Illumination to give forth this light." The attendant Bodhisattvas said to their respectiveBuddhas furthcr, "WorldHonored One, we havc never before seen a light so pure, a light that can make body and mind so joyful." The Buddhas said to the Bodhisattvas,"Is he not going to call together a host of Bodhisattvas to teach them how to practice the Dharma? Is he not going to summon a host of Bodhisattvasand explain a subtle sutra to them?". . . The Bodhisattvas said to their respective Buddhas, "World-Honored One, now vue wish to go to thc Sahi World to visit Sakyamuni Tathagata;we will pay homage and make offcrings to him and attend him; and we will ask him about the meaning o[ the truth. We wish to see Maflju6ri and the other BodhisattvaMahisattvas as well." Thereupon, the World-Honored Ones said to the Bodhisattvas,"Good men, you may go, as you wish. You should know it is the timc." After bowing down with their hcads at their Buddhas' fcct, countless hundreds of thousands of [millions ofl billions of trillions of inconceivable, incalculable, immeasurablcmyriads of Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas the worlds] in the tcn Iin directions disappearedfrom their respectivelands and reappearedin the SahaWorld as quickly as an able-bodiedman strctchesand bends his arm. All of them came to

Tnr Swono oE Wtsoov

15

the World-Honored One, Sekyamuni Tathagata, the Worthy One, the Perfectly Enlightened One; somc came scattcringvarious kinds of fragrant things, such as perfumed ointmcnt, powdcred incense,and fragrant garlands;some canle strcwing Iiowers, such as blue lotus flowers, rcd lotus flowers, s'hitc lotus flowers, . . . and of so forth; some came uttcring hundredsof thousands the nrost wonderful sounds; some came extolling the merits of thc Buddhas in one. r'oicc hcard all over the billion-world universe. With so many kinds of magnificcnt Iofferings], thcy came to thc World-Honorcd One. Slkyamuni Tathigata, the Worthr-One, the Pcrfectly Enlightened One. arriving from [thc u'orlds in] rhc tcn When thosc Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas directions gatheredin the SahaWorld, all the scntientbeings in this billion-rvorld universe, including the beings in the planes of hell-dwellers, aninals' hungrv ghosts, and thc domain of Yama, bccame tranquil, physically and mcntally peaceful and h"ppy, and frcc from desirc, hatred, ignorance, and other poisonous mentalities,such asjeaiousy, deceit,arrogance,and ill temper. All those scntientbeings became kind and extremcly joyful. Why? Becauscof the awesonle, miraculous [blessing]power of thc great Bodhisattvasfrom Ithe worlds in] the ten dircctions. Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas from thc ten directions When the infinitc . they bowed down arrived at the dwelling-placeof thc World-Honored One, with their heads at the Buddha's fcet and circumambulated him three times to the in right. Then, they asccnded midair and enteredthe Samldhi of Invisibility. When on they wcre in the samadhi,sitting cross-legged hundredsof thousandsof various wondcrfully colored large lotus flowers, . . . thcy hid themsclvcs from view and did not appearagain. askedthe Buddha, "World-Honored One Then the VenerableMahaka6yapa of great virtue, why is thcre such a subtle, wonderful light in the world? Why do signs suddenly appear?" such clear, unpreccdcntcdar,rspicious 'lKa6yapa,'you should The World-Honored Onc answered Mahaka5yapa, of thc conrprchension this rcalm is bcyt-rnd Why? Because not ask thesequestiorrs. Srivakas and Pratyekabuddhas.If I speak of the meaning of this light, all thc humans, dcvas, and asuras will be afraid, doubtful, and confused. Thereforc, you should not ask." Mahak-5yapa cntreated the Buddha further, "May the World-Honored One of grcat kindness explain the profound occurrencc of this light to benefit and comfort all devas and humans.". "Ka(yapa, now Manju6ri is in Thereupon, the Buddha told MahakaSyapa, the Samadhi of Adorning All with Undefilcd lllumination, and, becauscof the power of the samadhi, he is emitting this light to illuminatc Buddha-lands more numerous than the sands of the Gangcs in the ten directions, calling countlcss tsodhisattva-Mahtsattvasto thc Sahi World. Thcy have already arrived here, bowed down with their hcads at my feet, and made threc circumambulations to my right. Now they havc ascended in midair to the hcight of a palm trce, sitting crosslegged on thrones of lotus t'lowers.

46

()N ElrprrNrss

"Ka(,vapa,bccauseall thosc Bodhisattva-Mahtsattvas are in the Samadhi of Invisibilitr'. no Srivaka or Pratyckabuddhacan sce them; only Buddhas and great ." Bodhisatsas rvho abide in that realm can do so. Mahlka5-vapaasked the Buddha further, "World-Honored One, what achieveattain, what good roots should he cultivate, ments should a Bodhisattva-Mahasattva and l'hat mcnts should hc acquire in order to enter the Samidhi of Invisibility?" The tsuddha answered KaSyapa,"If a Bodhisattva-Mahlsattvaachievesten things, hc can acquire thc Samidhi of Invisibility. What are the ten? (1) (2) (3) (4) To bc gentle, peacefui,and to abide dccply in right laithl nevcr to forsake any sentient being; to achievea mind of great kindncss and great compassion; to understand al1 dharmas while rcmaining unattached to thcir forms; (5) nevcr to grasp dclusively for any Buddha-Dharmas,in spite of his aspiration to seek them all; (6) not to aspirefor the wisdom of Sravakas Pratyckabuddhas; or even (7) to be capableofrenouncing ungrudgingly all mundane possessions, body and life, let alone other things; (8) not to be contaminated by or attached to conditioncd dharmas, although he may undergo countlcss afflictions in sarhslra; (9) to cultivatc the immeasurabiepiramitas of giving, discipline, patience, vigor, mcditation, and wisdom without making distinctionsamong them; and 'l (10) always to think, will establish all scntient beings in thc pursuit of and yet without conceiving any notion of Buddha's enlightenment . c n l i g h t e n m e n o r s c n t i e n tb e i n g s . ' t Ka6yapa, the fulfilment of these tcn things enables a Bodhisattva-Mahtsattva to obtain the Samadhi of Invisibility.". . . Then the Venerable Mahak-Syapa said to the Buddha again, "World-Honorcd Why? Because One, now we are vcry eagerto seethose Bodhisattva-Mahlsattvas. it is a rare opportunity to erlcounterthem." The tsuddha said to Kadyapa, "You should wait until Manju5ri arrives. Thos" Bodhisattvas will rise fiom the samidhi, and after that, you may sce them. hundreds of thousandsof samadhi Ki6yapa, now that you have acquiredcountless doors,a you should concentratcyour mind to discover where those BodhisattvaMahasattvasabide, how they behave,and what they are doing." As soon as he received the instruction of the Buddha, MahakaSyapaentered twer-rtythousand differcnt samadhi-doors by the awesome miraculous powers vested in him by the Buddha and by his own miraculous Powers, trying to disthose Bodhisattvaswere and how they behaved. [He thought,] "Are cover rn'here thel' walking? I cannot see them walking. Are they standing?I cannot see them standing. Are they lying down? I cannot seethem lying down. Are they sitting? I cannot see them sitting. What is more, I do not know "l'hat they are saying, what

Tnr Swono or Wrsool,t

47

activitics they are engaged in, where they come from, or where they are going." He thcn rose from the samidhis and approachcd the Buddha, saying, "It is strange, World-Honored one! It is strange, World-Honored One! I entered twenty thousand samadhi-doorsto seck those Bodhisattvas,but I did not seeany of thcm. World-Honored One, cven those Bodhisattvas, who have not yct realized allknowing wisdom, have obtained such a wonderful samadhi.What could be said of thosc who havc attained supreme enlightenment! World-Honorcd Onc, it is absolutely impossible for thc good mcn and good women who have witnessed this miraculous feat not to bring forth supreme bodhicitta promptlv. World-Honored One, even the Samadhi of Invisibility is so powerful that it is beyond ny compreh c n s i o n .l e t a l o n eo t h c r . I s u p e r i o r ls a m i d h i s . " s The Buddha told KaSyapa, "lt is so, it is so, just as you say. Even Sravakas6and Pratyekabuddhascannot comprehcnd this realm, lct alone other sentient beings.". . .

II
At that time, ccrtain leading devas in the assembly,such as Well-Abiding Mind, \ffonderfully Tranquil, and Humility, accompanied by nine billion six hundred million devas, all of whom followed thc Bodhisattva-path, wcnt togcther to MaijuSri's dwelling placc. Whcn they arrived at his door, they made Seven circumambulations to the right, and thcn causcd celestialflowcrs of the coral tree to rain down. The flowcrs raining down spread out in space to form a floral net, [and high, shapedlike a prcthcn accumulated,forming a floral] platform ten leaguesT cious stupa. Manju6ri picked up the floral platform and offered it to the World-Honored One, and thcn, by his miraculous powers, he causcd the spaceover all thc lands in the billion-world universe to bc spread with floral nets. The radiancc of the flowcrs illuminated the whole billion-world universe, making it become clear and bright throughout. Thcrc also rained down cclestialflowers of thc coral tree. Then Bodhisattva-Mahisattva MairjuSri, graceful and serene, cmcrged from his dwelling. By his miraculous powcrs, he further causcd a wonderful thronc made of the seven treasures to appear spontaneously in that placc, a throne most majestic and bcautiful. After adjusting his robe, ManjuSri took his seat on the precious throne with a solemn look. As soon as he saw that Manju6ri had been scated on the prccious throne, the deva Well-Abiding Mind bowcd down with his head at Manju5ri's feet, and then stood to one sidc. The other devas all did the samc. At that time, ManjuSri thought, "Today, who can discuss the profound Dharma with me in the presence of the World-Honored One? Who can be the Dharma-vessel to take in statements that are inconceivable: statements that are

4t{

Or.r E,vprlNlss

most dilficult to realize;statementswithout a location,nbeyond attachrnent,and very proinexpressiblc, which are inapprehensible, plar--u'ords;statements be1'orrd c . s s f o u r r J .t r u e . u n h i r r d e r e d.,r n di n d e s t r u c t i b l e :t a t c n t c n t c o n c c r n i n g m P t i n c s ss i g n stf,tclncntsconccrnttrgsuchncss,reality, and the dharand rvishlcssrless; lessness. madhatu; statemcnts that arc intangible, and caunot be graspcd or abandoncd; statcmentsconcerningthe Buddha, the Dharma, and thc Sarhgha;statencnts concernrngthe fullnessof wisdom, the equality of thc three realms, the unattainability of all dharmas, and thc nonarising of all dharmas; statemcntsof the lion;q statements of valor; statementswhich arc no statemcntsat all? Who can hcar these statemcnts?" ManjuSri continued thinking, "Now, among the devas hcrc, only WellAbiding Mind has made offerings to many Buddhas, attained the realization of the hc profound Dharma, and fuliy acquiredeloquence; alone can discussthe mcaning of reality with me in thc prcsenceof thc World-Flonored One." With this thought, Manju5ri said to Well-Abiding Mind, "Son of hcaven, have already attained thc realization of the profound Dharma and fully acyou quired unhindercd eloquence.Shall we now go to sce the World-Honored One to discussthe profound, subtlc doctrines?" Well-Abiding mind answcrcd Manjuiri, "Great sagc, I would only discuss [thcse doctrines] with a person who does not speak to mc, nor givc me any discourse,question mc, or answcr me; or elsewith a person who saysthat there is no Buddha, Dharma, or Sarhgha,that the thrcc vehiclesshould be put to an end, that there is neither sarirsira nor nirvdna, that dharmas neithcr combine nor scatter, that nothing is revealed or generated, that no sound is uttered, and that all words should be put aside." ManjuSri said to Well-Abiding Mind, "Son of hcaven, I would speakto one can take in my Idiscoursc]without hearing, without rcading, without recltn'ho ing, without accepting,without upholding, without thinking, without remcmbering, without grasping, without abandoning, without percciving, without knowing, and without listcning to my words or explaining thcm to others.l{)Why? Bccause the bodhi of all Buddhas is originally beyond ali letters, without mind and apart from the mind, and devoid of enlightenment. Though enlightenment ts spokun of with arbitrary names, thc names are also empty." Well-Abiding Mind continued, "Great sage, now pleasediscourscto thcsc devas. They are willing and happy to hear whatever you say." ManjuSri said, "Son of heaven, I rvill not discourseto those who like to listen, nor to those who accept what they have hcard. Why? Bccausethosc who likc to listen and those who accept a discoursearc attached. To what erc they They arc attachedto a self, a personalidentity, a senticnt being, a life, attached? and a person. Bcing attachcd, they accept what thcy have heard. It should be knorvn that those who acccptwhat they have heard abide in thrcc kinds of bonds. What are thc three? Thc view of a self, the view of a sentient bcing, and the view of dharmas. Son of heaven, you should know that those who hear the Dharma

Tsp. Swonr or Wrslor'r explaincd without being bound by thcsc threc viervs abidc in three kinds of purity. What are the three? Not to see, distineuish. thrnk of, or pcrccivc orreselffas a hcarer]; not to see,distinguish, think of, or pcrccivr-sonreoncas a teacher;and not to see, distinguish, think of, or perceivcsomcthinq as bcrnq taught. These are the thrcc kinds of purity. Son of hcavcn, if a person is able to hear irr this way, hc hcars with cquality, not with incquality." Well-Abiding Mind praised Manju5rr, saying, "Wtll s.ritl. q'cll said! How wonderfully you have spoken! Great sagc, those who can speak thuslv u'ill certainly not rcgrcss." Maiijr-r5ri said, "Stop, son of hcaven! You should not rhnk clclr,rsivelv and discriminativcly of the regression a Bodhisattva.Why? Becausc of iia iJodhisatn'a evcr regresses, will ncvcr bc ablc to attain sllprcmc cnlightennrcnt. Whr'? Ilehe causeirr bodhi thcre is no such thing as rcgressior-r." At this, Wcll-Abiding Mind askcd, "Great sagc, if so, from rvhat docs rcgrcssionarisc?" Manju6ri answered, "Son of heaven, rcgrcssionarisesfrom dcsirc, hatred, and ignorancc; from cravirrgfbr cxistpnce; from ignorancc up to birth and dcaththc twclvc links of dependentorigination; front causcs,vrc\\'s, namcs, and forms; tronr thc Realm of L)csire, the l{calm of Fornr, and thc Rcaln-rof Formlcssncss; fronr thc dccds of a Srlvaka and thc dccds of a Pratyckabuddhalfrom discrimination, attachnrcnt,signs, and clinging to signs; fronr the vicw of nihilism and thc view of eternalism;from grasping and abandoning;lronr the thought of a scl1,thc: thought of a senticnt bcing, the thought of a life, thc thought of a pcrson, and the thought of a pcrsonal identity; from thinking, bondage, and pcrvcrsion; from thc vicrv of a sclf and the sixty-two views bascd on the vie\4'of a sclf; lrom the [fivc] covcrs; from thc [fivel aggrcgates,the [twclvc] entrances,and the [eightecn] clcnrents; from thc thought of thc Buddha, thc thougl.rt of thc Dharma, and the thought of the Sarirgha; and from such thoughts as: 'l shall becomc a Buddha,''l 'l 'l shall tcach thc I)harma,' shall dcliver senticntbcings from sarirsara,' shall dcfcat . l e m o n s , ' a n d ' I s h a l l a c q u i r cw i s d o m ! ' T h c r c f o r e , s o n o f h c a v c n ,i f o n e d o e s n o t discriminate thc Tath-gata's ten powers, four fcarlessnesses, cighteen unrque and qualities;his roots, powers, enlightcnment,and path;ll . and docs nor discrimirlete those who discriminateand rcgrcss-then hc is said to be nonrcgrcssing." Well-Abiding Mind asked Mairju(ri furthcr, "Clrear sagc, if so, holr' can a Bodhisattva achievenonrcgrcssion?" MaiijuSri answercd, "Son of heaven, you should knou' that nonrcgression ."vithemptincss, can bc achicvcd fronr being conversantwith thc Buddha-u.isdon-r, s'ith signlcssncss, with wishlcssness, with suchness, with thc l)harma-naturc, with reality, and with equality." Wcll-Abiding Mind said, "Grcat sage,according to what .vou say, discrimination and nondiscrimination arc not differcnt. Whv? Becausc thcv both arise from thinking and discrinrination.In this scnsc,regressionmay be spoken of." Thcn hc asked furthcr, "Is regressioncxistent or nonexistcnt?"

50

ON EnlprINEss

Marlr-r(ri answered,"Rcgressionis neithcr existcnt nor nonexistent'" Well-Abiding Mind asked, "Grcat sagc,if so, how can one rcgress?" \1ar1u5rr answcrcd, "To regard regressionas existent and to regard it as lonerisrcnr arc both delusory grasping, pcrverted grasPing,and devious grasping. I reter to regression in such a scnse that I do not grasp for [its existcnce or ponerisrcnce,] nor do I not grasp. The so-calledrcgressioncannot be said to be erisrent or nonexistent. Why not? Becausewhcther you say that regressionis you fall into error. Why? Becauscto exrsteltror say it is nonexistent,in both cases cxists is to err on the extremc of eternalism,while to say that sf,\' that regrcssion rcgressioncioesnot cxist is to err on the cxtremc of nihilism. Thc World-Honored One says that onc should abide neither in eternalismnor in nihilism; that things shouid bc regardcd neithcr nihilistically nor etcrnalistically. as "Son ofheavcn, if, in the way I havc describcd,onc considcrs[regression] Son of heaven,this is the his vicw is ncither nihilistic nor eternalistic. unreal, ther Dharma-door of a Bodhisattva'sInon-] rcgression." When this doctrine was spoken, ten thousand devas achieved the Realization of the Nonarising of Dharmas.

III
Well-Abiding Mind said to Mairju5ri, "Great sage,now wc may go togcther to see the Tath-gata, prostrate ourselveswith our heads at his fect, hear from him docin trines wc have not yet hcard, and raisc our questiot1s accordanccwith thc Dharma. " ManjuSri said, "Son of heaven,do not attachyourself discriminativelyto the Tathigata !" Well-Abiding Mind asked, "Grcat sage,where is there any Tathagatato be attachcdto?" Manju(ri answercd, "He is hcrc now." Well-Abiding Mind asked, "lf so, why do I not seehim?" Manju5ri answered, "Son of hcaven, if you can sec nothing now, you rcally see the Tathagata." Well-Abiding Mind asked, "If the Tathagata is hcre now, why do you warn me not to be attachedto him?" Manju5ri asked, "Son of heavcn, u'hat is here now?" Wcll-Abiding Mind answered,"The realm of voidncss."r2 Manju6ri said, "It is so. Son of heaven, the Tathigata is no other than the all realnr of voidness.Why? Because dharmas are equal, like voidness.Voidness is the Tathigata and the Tathagatais voidness. Voidness and the Tathigata are not r\\'o; they are not different. Son of heaven, he who wishes to see the Tathagata

Tnr Swono or Wrsoon

5l

should contemplatein this way. If hc comprehendsReality as it is, he will find that nothing in it can be discriminated." Then, by his miracuious powcrs, Bodhisattva-Mahisattva Mafrjusri produced from nothing thirty-two square, multistoried,jeu'eled halls furnished with imperial carriagcs.. . . In the halls, there wcrc u.onderiul preciouscouchescovercd with cxquisitc garrnents. On each couch sat a rnagicallv produced Bodhisattva ' possessing the thirty-two auspicioussigns of a grcar man.1 Having manifcstcd these magnificent things, Manju6ri left to see the Buddha, together with the magically produced Buddhas and Bodhisattvassirting on their lotus seats in jc'"veledhalls furnishcd with imperial carriages.Having made seven circumambulationsto the right of thc Buddha and his monks, they all leapt into midair and illuminated thc assembly at the Dharma-sirer+n,ith their lights. Thcn they stood to thc four sides. Though Manju5ri had set out later than Well-Abiding Mind, he hafl suddcnly arrived at the Buddha's dwclling-place earlicr than the deva. Well-Abiding Mind asked,you takc to arrive here so quickly?" Manju6ri answered, "Son of heaven, even those who make offerings and pay homagc to Tathlgatas as numerous as the sands of the Ganges cannot sec my going and coming, advancing and stopping." . . .

N
The Venerable Sariput.a asked the Buddha, "World-Honored One, who has caused this auspice?Who can cause . the magically produced Bodhisattvas sitting on the lotus seats,and also those in the jeweled halls furnished with imperial carrrages, to emit great lights illuminating the assembly, and cause such incalculable billions of devas and innumerableBodhisattvasto come to ioin us?" Thc Buddha answeredSariprtr.. "The awesomemiraculou, powers of Manju5ri cause these wonderful, magnificent things to appear and the multitudinous Bodhisattvasand devas to garher rogether. Why? Sariputra,because Manju6ri and the deva Well-Abiding Mind have led a great assembly here in order to ask me about the Dharma-door called the Samadhi of Defeating Demons, and how the inconceivable, profound Buddha-Dharma can bc fully achieved." Then Sariputra asked the Buddha, "World-Honored One, if so, why do I not see Manju5ri in the assembly?" The Buddha answercd Seriput.r, "Wair a momenr. Manju6ri has gone to cause all the demon kings and their subjects and palacesto undergo great ruin and deterioration. His miraculous feats are awesome and rnagnificent. He is about to come back, and you will see him yourself." Meanwhile, ManjuSri had entered the Samadhi of Defeating Demons. Be-

ON EuprrNrss in causcof the pou,er of this samadhi,ten billion demon palaccs the billion-world and seemedabout to fall univcrse inrmcdiately becamedilapidated,old, and dark, ro rurn. After undergoing these changes,thc demons' palaccslost their splcndor and n'cre no longer liked by the demons. The demons saw thcir bodies bccome dull. dccrepit, r".eak, and cmaciated,and they had to waik with staffs; and the celestialnaidensl5 were transformed into old hags. Seeingthcsc Ichanges],all the and the hair on their bodics stood on end. Thcy each denrons lelt vcry distresscd, thought fearfuliy to themsclves,"What bizarre events and inauspicioussigns are these occurring inside and outside of my body? Has the hour of death comc and hcralding the destructton mr, karmic reward bcen spent?Arc thesethe catastrophes of the vu'orldat thc end of thc kalpa?" Whcn the demons were thinking in this way, Manju5ri again uscd his miraculous powers to magicaliy produce tcn billion devas who appearedbcfore the demons and told them, "Don't be worricd and afraid! Thcsc are not misfortunes befaliing you, nor do they signify the end of the kalpa. Why? There is a nonrcgressing, grcat Bodhisattvanamed Maiju6ri, who has great, awcsomc niraculous powers and excels worldly beings in virtue. Now he is entcring the Dharma-door callcd the Samadhi of Defeating l)emons. It is bccauseof the awesome power of that Bodhisattva'ssamadhi that all thesethings take place,not for other reasons." When the magically produccd dcvas said this, all thc demon kings and their subjectsbecamc morc learful on hcaring . . . the namc of BodhisattvaManju6ri; all shook violently. and all of their palaces of thcm trcmbied and fclt i.nsccurc, Thereupon, the demon kings begged the magically produced dcvas, "May you be so kind as to saveus from dangcr!" The magically produced devas said to thc dcmons, "Do not be afraid! Do not be afraidl Now you had better go quickly to see Sakyamuni Buddha, the 'World-Honored that Buddha, the Tathigata, is very kind and Onc. Why? Because compassionate;sentient bcings will be easedof their worries and suffi:rings and bc given pcacc and happiness if thcy go to take refugc in him when thcy are afflicted with mclancholy and fcar." sudHaving uttcrcd thcse words, the magically produced dcvas disappeared dcnly. At that timc, all thc demon kings and thcir subjectswere ovcrjoyed at what and wcak that the rrlagicallyproduced dcvashad told them. Although so emaciated they arrivcd at they had to waik with staffs,thcy all wished to go. Instantaneously, the placc where Sakyamuni Buddha was and said in unison, "World-Honorcd One r,vith great virtue, may you protect and savc us from the pain and pcril of this bizarrc catastrophe!May you protect and savc usl We would rathcr acccpt the names of hundreds of thousands of millions of billions of Buddhas than hear as BodhisattvaManjuSri's name alonc. Why? Because soorl as we hear thc namc of Bodhisattva Manju5rr mentioncd, wc feel gready terrificd, as if we werc going to d i e ." why do At this, the World-Honored One said to thc demons, "Papiyans,16 you say this? Whatever Bodhisattva Manju6ri teachcsis berreficial senticnt beto

Tnr Swonu or Wrsuou

53

ings. Hundreds of thousands of [millions of I billions of Buddhas never acconplished this in the past, nor arc thcy doing it at present,nor '"vrllthey do so in thc future. It is Manju6ri alonc who has done, is doing. and will do this grcat feat for After he has brought sentientbeinqs to nraturity, he leadsthcm sentientbeings.17 to liberation. Why do you, who are not distrcsscd terrifled cvcn when hearing or '\l'c the names of hundreds of thousandsof Buddhas, sar' arc horrified whcn wc suddenly hear the name of Manjuiri'?" The demons replied, "World-Honorcd One, rl'e utrcr thcsc n'ords becausc we arc ashamedarrd afraid to becomc old and weak. World-Honorcd C)ne. from now on we takc rcfugc in you, thc PerfectlyEnlightcncd Onc. Mal vou be so kind a s t o r e s t o r eu s t o o u r o r i g i n a l . r p p c a r a n c e l " The Buddha told them, "Wait a moment. Whcn Manjuiri rcrurns, he rvill rid you of your shamc." Having riscn from his samadhi, Manju(ri returned to the Buddl-ratogether with incalculablehundreds of thousandsof devas,Bodhisattva-Mahisattvas, dragons, yaksas,gandharvas,asuras, and so iorth. On arrival, thcy bowed down with their heads at thc Buddha's fcct, made three circunrambulations his to right, and ther.r stood to onc sidc. Thc World-Honored Onc askcd Maii.lu6ri, "Manjuiri, did you enter thc Samidhi of l)cfcating I)cmons?" 'lYes, Marijudri answered, World-Honorcd Onc, I dicl so for somc timc." The -Buddha asked, "MaiijuSri, from what Br.rdclhadid y<-ruhear this sarrradhi? How long did it takc you to cultivatc and achicvc it?" Manyu(ri answercd, "World-Honored Onc, bcforc I brought forth bodhicitta, I had heard this samadhi liorrr a lluddl.ra." Thc Buddha askcd, "Mairjuin, what $,as the name of that Buddha, that World-Honorcd Onc, who explaincd this samadhi to you?" Manju6rr answered, "World-Honored Onc, I rcmcmbcr that countlcss,inconccivable,incalculablcnumbcrs of kalpas ago, there r.vas Buddha namcd Taa thagata Fragranccof thc Coral Trcc Flowcr, the Worthy Onc. He explaincd thc Samadhi of l)efeating Dcmons when he appcarcdin the world. I hcard it therr for thc first time." Thc Buddha askcd Maniuiri, "How can one cultivatc and achievc this santaonl a

ManjuSri pcrforms twenty l)cmons.

answered,

"World-Honored

Onc,

if

a tsodhisattva-Mahlsattva

things to perfection, he can achievc this Samadhi of Dcfiatins

What arc thc trventv?

(1) To dcnounce desire and destroy thc mind of dcsrrc; (2) to dcnounce hatred and destroy thc mirrd of hatrcd; (3) to denouncc ignorance and destroy thc nrind of ignorance; (,1) to denounccjcalousy and dcstroy the nrind ofjealousy; ( 5 ) t o d c n o u r - r c ea r r o g a n c c a n d d e s t r o y t h c m i n d o f a r r o g a r r c e ;

5.1

ON EuprINess i(rt to clenounccthe [fivc] covers and destroy the mind blockcd by the fivc co\' crs: to rir-rlouncebuming passionsand destroy thc mind alflictcd with burn1I1q passlolls; S to denounccthoughts and destroy the thinking n'rind; tlr to dcnouncevicws and dcstrov the mind holding to vicws; ,11))ro dcnounce discrimination and destroy thc discriminating mind; 111) to (12) to (13) to (14) to denouncegrasping and dcstrov the grasping nrind; denounceattachmentand dcstroy the attachednrind; denounceforms and destroy thc ntind attachcdto forms; dcnounce thc cxistenccof dharmas and destroy the mind that belicvcs

in the existenccof dl-rarnras; (i5) to dcnouncetherIvicw thatl dharmasare pcrmancnt and destroy the mind that bclievesin thc permanenccof dharmas; (16) to dcnoutrcethc [view of thel anlrihilation of dharmas and destroy thc mind tl.ratbelicvcs in the anr.rihilationof dharmas; and dcstroy thc mind attachedto the (17) to denouncc the [fivc] aggregates [fivc] aggregatcs; (18) to denouncc the Itwelvc] cntrancesarld dcstroy the mind attachedto the Itwclvc] cntrances; (19) to denouncethc [eighteen]elemcntsand destroy thc mind attachedto the [eightecn]clcments;and (20) to denouncc the thrce realms and destroy thc mirrd attachedto the three rcalms. World-Honorcd One, a Bodhisattva-Mahisattva who fulfils thcse twenty deeds r v i l l a c h i e v et h i s s r m . r d h i . "Furthermore, World-Honored One, a Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who cultivatcs four things to pcrfection can achievcthis sanradhi.What arc thc four? (1) To be purc and gentle in mind and dccd; (2) to be simpie, honest, and straightforward; into thc rcalizationof (3) to be mentally attachedto llothing and to penetrate the profound l)harma; and (4) to be able to give everything, intcrnal and extcrnal.l8 "Furthermorc, World-Honorcd Onc, a Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who accomfour things can achievethis samadhi. What are the lbur? p[shes rlt (2) (3) (1) d T o h a v ea p e r f e c t l y c e pm i n d : r " to spcak honestly; to enjoy living constantlyin a sccludedplacc; and to be unattachedto forms.

"Furthermorc, if a Bodhisattvaaccomplishes four things, hc can achievethis samadhi. What are the four?

THe Swono or Wrsoou (1) (2) (3) (4) To associate closely with virtuous friends; to bc content always; to sit alone in meditation; and not to takc pleasurein noislzcrowds.

55

"Furthermore, if a Bodhisattvaaccomplishes four thir-rgs, can achievethis he samadhi. What are the four? (1) (2) (3) (4) To cultivate ernptiness and give up ego; to cultivate signlcssness and be detachcd from all srgnsl to cultivate wishlessness and get rid of all wishcs; and to abandon all possessions. ."

At this, the Venerablc Sariputrasaid to the Buddha, "How extraordinarv it is, world-Honored onc, that Maiiju(ri couid achievc the Sarnadhiof l)efeating Demons long, long ago and, by thc power of this samidhi, can cause papiyins [demon-kings] and thcir dcmon subjecrsto become so dccrepit, grayhaired, and weak in appearanceand r,',.i11." The Buddha said to Sariputra. "What do you think? Do you say that Maiijusri has madc o'1y thc dcmons of this billiom-world universe so dccrepit?Sariputra, you should not think in this way. Why? tsecause, Si.ip,tt.a, now all the other dcmons in the tsuddha-landsas nLlnlcrousas thc sands of the Gangcs in thc tcn directions arc dcbilitatcd, too. This is conrpletely due to Mafrjusri's awesome porvcrs." Then the World-Honored Onc told ManjuSri, "Manju5ri, now withdraw vour rniraculouspowers and restorc the demons to thcir original appearance." Whcn he rcceived thc instrucrion of the Buddha, Manjuiri askcd the dcmons, "Kind sirs, do yor.rreally dctest this appearance yours?" of The dcmons answcred, "Yes, great sage." Manju5ri said to the demo's, "If so, 'ow you should detest desire and not attach yourselvcsto the three realms." The dcmons said, "Yes, great sage.Aftcr we hear your good teachings,how dare we disobey?May you use a little of your awesomc miraculous powcrs to free us from this shamc and painl" Thcrcupon, Manju5ri withdrcw his miraculous powers and restorcd the denons to their original appearancc, that they bccame as magnificcnt as beforc. so Then, Manju6ri said to the demons, "Papryins, take your eves for examplc. What is the eyc? What is the thought of the cyc? Where is rhe atrachment of the eyc, the form of the eye, the entanglemc'r of thc cye, thc hindrance of the cye, the notion of the eyc, the cgo of thc cye, the reliance of the eyc, thc joy of the eye, the piay-words of the cyc, the cgo-objects of thc eye, the protection of the eye, the impression of the cye, thc grasping of thc eye, the abandoningof the eyc, the discrimination of thc eye, thc contenplation of the eye, the achievementof the eye, the arisi'g of the eye, thc cessationof the cye, and so on, including the coming and going of the eye? All these notions cherished

56

Or EuprtNpss

irr I'our rnincls bcconre dcnronic decds and obstructions of your reahn. So it is g'ith thc r..lr.r)osc,totlguc, body, and mind; forms, sounds,odors, tastcs,textures, All thesc notions chcrished in your mind bcconte dcnrotric deeds ap.l r.lharnras. and obsrructionsofyour realnr. You should knou. thern as thcy really are. ''Furthernrorc,Ptpryans, al1your cyes arc not cyes; thcy are no eycs' Thcrc i: 1o thouqht of the cyc, no attachmentof the cyc, po form of thc cyc' ' ' [and so onl. These dharmas are beyond your rcalm. You cannot be master of them; you have no nlethod and no powcr to copc with thcm frecly; they are bcyorrd your erasping. So it is with the car, nosc, tongue' body, and mind; fornrs, sounds, odors, tastes, texturcs, and dharmas-all thcsc you should ktrow as thcy rcally " are. whel Manjuiri had explained this doctrirre in thc assembly, tctl thousat'rd dcmor-rkings cngendcred supremc bodhicitta and eighty-four thousand demon subjccts wcre frccd from defilcments and acquired the clcar Dharnra-eyc'

V
T'hcn the Vcncrable MahakiSyapasaid to the Buddha, "World-Honorcd Onc' we Why? tsewill ask Manju(ri to allow us to see those Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. cause,World-Honored One, it is a rare opportunity to encoulltcrsuch lireat sagcs." The World-Honorcd One told Mairju5ri at once, "You should know that everyone in this asscmblyis now yearnirrgto seethe physicalfornrs of thc Bodhisattva-Mahlsattvaswho have comc hcre from the tcn directions. Now it is time for you to show them to us." Having rcceived the instruction of the Buddha, Manju5ri told Bodhisattva Dharma Whcel, Bodhisattva Moonlight, Bodhisattva Exorcising Demons, Bodhisattva Wonderful Voice, Bodhi3attva Undcfiled, Bodhisattva Ultimate Quiescence,Bodhisattva Choicc, Bodhisattva Roaring of the Dharma King, and countlessother Bodhisattva-Mahesattvas,"Great sages,now you should rcveal yourselvcs in yorrr respectivc palacesand manifcst the forms and shapcsyou havc in your own lands." Aftcr Manju6ri had said this, the Bodhisattvas rosc from thcir samadhi and revcaled their physical forms for the whole assembly to scc. Sonle of the Bodhisattvas' physical forms wcre as big as Mount Sumeru. Some wcrc eighty-four thousand leaguestall. Somc were onc hundrcd thousandleaguestall; some. ninety thousand, eighty thousand, sevcnty thousand, and so on down to ten thousand ten one hundred leagues onc thousand leagucs leagues.Some werc and so on down to one league. Somc of thc Bodhisattvas'physical leagues forms were the height and size of the people in the Saha World. At that time, the billion-world universe was so fully occupicd by the great

Tur Sworl or Wrsnou

57

crowd that [it appcarcdto havc] no vacant space.not cvcn thc sizc ofthe head ofa stick. All the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas the univcrsc rvcrc cndowed with subiimc in mcrits, profound wisdom, and awe-inspiring pou'er. Bl thcir miraculous powcrs, they cmitted grcat lights to illuminate countless hundrcds of thousandsof Buddhalands in the ten directions. Then Manju6rr rosc lrom his scat, adjustedhis robe, bared his right shoulder, knclt on his right knee, joined his palms torvard thc lluddha, and said, "World-Honored One, now I wish to ask thc Tathagara.the Worthy C)ne, the Pcrfcctly Er-rlightcncd Onc, sonre questions.Will thc World-Honort'd Onc pcrnrit me to do so?" Thc Buddha told Manju5ri, "Thc Tathagata,thc Worthv One. thc Pcrfcctly Enlightened One, permits you to ask your questions.Hc will cxplain rhe ansq.ers t o y o u t o r e s o l v ey o u r d o u b t s a n d g i v e y o u j o y . " . . . ManjuSri thcn asked, "World-Honorcd One, what is a Bodhisattva-Maht'Bodhisattva'?" sattva?What is the nreaning of The Buddha rcplicd to Manju6ri, "You ask what is a Bodhisattva l-Mahe'Bodhisattva.'A sattval and what is the mcanirrgof Bodhisattva-Mahisattva1sonc rvho can understandand rcalizc all dharmas. Manjr.rSrr, dharmas, all of lvhich thc arc rcalizcd by a Bodhisattva, are spokcn of by mere rvords. Manju6ri, thc: Bodhisattvarealizes that the eye is by rlatureempty and, in spitc of this realization, h c n e v e r h a r b o r sa n y s u c h t h o u g h t a s : ' I c a n r c a l i z c[ t h c e y e l . ' l - i k e w i s e ,h e r e a l i z c s that thc car, nose, tongue, bodv, and mind arc cmpty by naturc, arrd in spitc of this rcalization,hc never harbors any such thought as: 'I can realizcthcm.'Hc also realizesthat fornr is by nature empty, and in spite of thc rcalization, hc ncvcr 'I thinks discriminatively: can realizc [fornrJ.'Likcwisc, hc rcalized that sounds, odors, tastcs, tcxturcs, and dharmas are by naturc cmpty, and irr spitc of this rcalization, hc never thinks discrimirratively:'I can realize thcm.'These are the rvays in which a Bodhisattva realizes dharmas. all "Furthermore, Manjudri, horv docs a Bodhisattva-Mahasattva realizedesirc, I-ratred, and ignorance?Hc realizesthat dcsire is causcclbl discrinrination; that hatrcd is causcdby discrimination, and that ignoranceis causedby discrimin.rtion. Hc also rcalizes that discrinrination itself is cmpty, nonexistcnt, devoid of anything, be;'ond play-words, incxpressible,and unrealizablc.Thcse are thc ways rn r.vhicha tsodhisattvarealizes dharmas. all "Manju5ri, how docs a Bodhisattva-Mahisattvarellize thc thrcc realms?He rcalizcsthat the Realm of Desire is without a self and a pcrsorralidentity, tl-ratthe Realm of Form is without action, that the Realm of Formlcssrrcss cnrpty and is r.ronexistent, that the three realmsare remotc and far arva,v and him].2('Thesc Ifrom are the ways in which a Boclhisattva rcalizesall dharmas. "Furthermorc, Manju5ri, how does a Bodhisattva-Mahisattvaundcrstand the deeds of scnticnt bcings? He undcrstandsthat somc sentient bcings act from dcsirc; some from hatrcd; some from ignorance; and some equally from desirc, hatrcd, and ignorancc. After he undcrstands and rcalizcsthis, he revealshis knowl-

5u

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and converts thcm, causing thcnl to achieve cdge to sentient beings, then teaches liberation. Thcse are thc ways in which a Bodhisattvarealizcsall dharmas. "Morcover, Manju5ri, how docs a Bodhisattva-Mahasattva understand all beings by knowing that thcy are only all beings?He understands sentient sc-rlrient nanres:that, apart from thc names, therc is no senticnt being; that, therefore, all being and one sentient being is no scnrienrbeings are no othcr than one sentiet-rt orhcr th.ln all sentient bcings; and that, therefore, scntient beings are not senticnt berngs. If hc can practice nondiscrimination in this way, the tsodhisattva-Mahisattva rcalizesall dharmas. "Furthcrnrorc. how does a llodhisattva realizeall dharmas?lfa Bodhisattvaall Mahisattva can realizcthe path of enlightennlcnt,he realizes dharmas.".

VI
Manju(ri askedthe Buddha, "'World-Honorcd One, the Buddha has spokerrof the initial generationof bodhicitta.2lWhat do you mean by Bodhisattva-Mahasattva's the initial gcncration of bodhicitta?" The tsuddha answered,"If a Bodhisattvaviews the threc rcalms as equal and gives rise to all thoughts, hc is said to bc initially generating bodhicitta. Manju5ri, of this is called the Bodhisattva'sinitial Fieneration bodhicitta." Buddha further, "Worid-Honored Onc, as I understand Manju6ri said to thc the doctrinc taught by the Buddha, for a Bodhisattva, thc generation of desire in his mind is the initial generation of bodhicitta; thc generation of hatred in his mind is the initial generation of bodhicitta; the generatiotr of ignorance in his mind is the initial generation of bodhicitta. World-Honored Onc, are these not the initial generationof bodhicitta?" Thcn, the dcva Well-Abiding Mind said to Manju5ri, "Great sage,if a Bodhisattva's generation of desire, hatred, and ignorance is called the initial generation of bodhicitta, then all the ordinary people in bondage are to be called tsodhiordinary pcople have always sattvaswho have generatcdbodhicitta. Why? Because and ignorancc-in their minds, been generating the thrcc poisons-dcsire, hatred, from the [beginninglcss]past until now." Manju6ri said to Well-Abiding Mind, "Son of heaven, you say that ordinary peoplc have always been gencrating the thrce poisons in their minds, from the past until now. That is not true. Why not? Because, their minds bcing weak and inferior, ordinary people cannot generate desire, hatred, or ignorance. Only Buddhas, World-Honorcd Ones, Arhats, Pratyekabuddhas,and Bodhisattvas who have attained the stage of nonregrcssion can generate desire, hatred, and ignorance; ordinary people cannot do so."22 Well-Abiding Mind said, "Great sage, why do you now say such things, which may causethe assembly to feel ignorant and to fall into a terrible rrraze?"

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Then, Manjuiri asked Well-Abiding Mind, "Son of heaven, what do you \ I think? When a bird flying about in the sky leavcs no rrace in empty space,is it i generatingmovement or not?" Wcll-Abiding Mind answered, "We cannot sav that it is not generating movement." Manju6ri said, "It is so, it is so. Son of heaven,in this sensc,I say that only Buddhas, Sravakas,Pratyekabuddhas, and nonregressineBodhisattvascan generate desire, hatred, and ignorance.23 Son of heaven, you should knorv that to rely 'To on nothing is generationand that to be attachedto nothing is senr.ratiorr. rely on nothing and to be attachedto nothing'is an expression ofnothinsness, rvhich is callcd generation. It is an expressionof nondiscrimination,2a which is callcd generation. It is an exprcssionof nonproduction, which is called generation. It is an expression of insubstantiality, which is called generation. It is an expression of noncntity, which is called gcneration. It is an expression of no coming, which is called gcneration. It is an expressionof no going, which is called gcneration. It is an cxpression of nonarising, which is called generation. It is an expresslon of no entanglement, which is called generation. It is an expression of no realization, which is called generation. It is an expression of no contention, which is called generation. It is an expression of no thinking, which is called generation. It is an expressionofindistructability, which is calledgeneration.It is an expression of inexpressibility, which is called generation. It is an cxprcssion of unbreakability, which is called generation. It is an cxpression of wordlessness, which is called generation. It is an expression of no clinging, which is called generarion. It is an expression of no abiding, which is called generation. It is an expression of no graspi'g, which is called generation. It is an expression of no abandoning, which is called generation. It is an expression of no eradication, which is called generation. Son of heaven, you should know that this is the Bodhisattva's initial generation ofbodhicitta. "Son of heaven, if a Bodhisattva who brings forth bodhicitra does not atrach himself to, nor think about, nor see, nor know, nor hear, nor recognize, nor grasp, nor abandon, nor engender, nor eliminate any dharma, he has truly brought forth bodhicitta. "Son of heaven, if a tsodhisattva-Mahisattva can thus rely on the dharmadhatu, equality, reality, and ingenuity, he will generare desire, hatred, and ignorance. Ifhe can definitely rely on these, he will generatethe eye, ear, nose, rongue, body, and mind; and will generate the attachment to form, feeling, conception, impulse, and consciousness.In this way, he will gcnerate all views; he will generate ignorance and craving for existence;he will generatethe twelve links of dependent origination; he will generate the five sensuous desires; he will generate attachment to the three realms; he will generate the view of 'I'; he will generate the view of 'mine'; he will gcnerate the sixty-two views based on the view of ,I'; he u'ill generate the thoughts of the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sarirgha; self and others; earth, water, fire, air, space, and consciousness; will generate the four he

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hc s,rong vie$'s: he rvill gcneratcthe four abodcsof consciousness;2s will generate and the ten the the cight er.ors,26 ninc afflictions,27 he tlve co\-L-rs; will generate the cvil deeds. "So1 of heaven,I say briefiy that Bodhisattvas all should generate discriminaall objectsof discrimination, all modes of exprcssion,all forms, all pursuits' trons. all aspirations,all attachments, all thoughts, all idcas, and all hindratrccs.You ofthis, ifyou are able should know them as they really arc. Son ofheaven, because atrachyourself to or think of thesedharmas, you truly gcneratethem. "28 r-rotro The World-Honorcd Onc praiscd ManjuSn, saying, "Wcll said' well said, ManjuSri! It is exccllent that you have fully cxplaincd for these Bodhisattvas the meaning of the initial gcneration of bodhicitta.2eM"i]justi, it is becausein the past you made offerings to innumerablc tsuddhas, world-Honorcd ones, more numerous than the sandsof the Gangcs,that you can do this now " The Venerable Sariput." asked the Buddha, "World-Honored O'e, is the Bodhisattva's initial gencration of bodhicitta, as explaincd by Manju6rr' equal to and not different from thc Bodhisattva's later] attainment of the Rcalization of the N o n a r i s i n go f D h a r m a s ? " l t ' The Buddha answered, "It is so, it is so' just as you say Slriputra, in the 'Manavaka, you will bepast, Diparhkara, the World-Honorcd Onc, predicted, come a tsuddha namcd Sakyamuni Tathlgatr, the Worthy Onc, the Pcrfectly i e E r r l i g h r e n e ( ) n e , a f t c r i n c a l c r r l a b ln u m b e r so f k r r l p a sr r t h e f u t u r e . ' S i r i p u t r a . a t d I achicvedthc Rcalizationof the Nonarising of Dharmas without parting that time, from [such a srare of] mind. Thcreforc, Sariputra, you should know that the Bodhisartva's initial generation of bodhicitta is exactly what Manju6ri has said it is, and not something else." Manju5ri said to the Buddha, "world-Honorcd onc, as I understand the ofbodhicitta] are the initial gencradoctrine taught by thc tsuddha, all Igenerations accordingto what the World-Honored One has Because, tion of bodhicitta. Why? said, the initial generationis no generation,and no generationis thc Bodhisattva's initial generation of bodhicitta. " When this doctrine was spokcn, twenty-threc thousand Bodhisattvas attained the Realization of thc Nonarising of Dharrnas; five thousand monks endcd thcir dcfilenents and achicvcd liberation; and six billion devas werc freed from filth and acquircd the clcar Dharma-eyc. Then MahakaSyapasaid to the Buddha, "world-Honorcd onc, IVlanju6rican do such a difficult deed as explaining this very profound Dharma-door for the grcat bencfit of many scntient bcings." Manju6ri said to KaSyapa,"Virtuous Kasyapa, actually I have ncver done is no anyrhing that was difficult to do. Why? Because deed31 done; nothing was, 1s, Mahaki5yapa, I do not perform any deeds,nor or will be done. For this reason, leave any decds undone. Ki6yapa, I do not delivcr sentientbeings from sarirsara, nor do I let them remain in bondage. Why? Becauseall dharmas are nonexistent.

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Ka(yapa, why do you say in the prescnccof thc World-Honorcd One that I can do what is difficult to do? Mahiki6yapa, I do nothing; thcrcforc, bc carefulnot to say that I can do what is ditficult to do. Mahaka(vapa.I really do not do anything. Not only do I do nothing, but Tathagatas,Pratvekabuddhas, and Arhats also do nothing. Mahak-6yapa, who can do what is difficult to do? Correctly spcaking, only children and ordinary pcrsons can do what is dittrcult to do, and onc who says so is callcd an able speaker. Why? Becauseno Tathaqata acquires,has acquircd, or will acquire anything. Srlvakas and Pratvekabuddhas do not acqulre anything, cithcr. Only ordinary pcoplc acquireall things." At this, Mahtkadyapa askcd Manjudri, "Grcat sagc, u'har do lluddhas not acquire?" Manju5ri answcrcd, "Buddhas do not acquirea sclf, nor a personalidenritv, nor a sentientbeing, nor a life, nor a person, nor a view of nihilism or eternalism, nor the [five] aggrcgates, nor the [twelve] entranccs, nor the [eightccn] elements, nor name and form; Ithey do not acquirel the Realm of Desire, Form, or Fornlessness; [they do not acquire] discrimination, nor contemplation, nor mindfulncss, n o r a n y t h i n g a r i s i n g f r o m c a u s c s . o r p e r v c r s i o r r ltt h e y d o n o r a c q u i r c l d c s i r e . n hatred, or ignorance;[they do not acquirel this cra or ar]y orhcr era, nor the'l' or 'mine.'In short, thcy do not acquirc any dharma whatsoevcr. Virtuous Ka6yapa, not a singlc one of all the dharmas can be acquircd or lost. Thcre is no bondage and no liberation; no attachment and no rclinquishmcr-rt; approaching and no no dcparturc- Thus, KaSyapa,should you undcrstand this Dharma-door. tsuddhas, thc V/orld-Honorcd Ones, attain nothing, while ordinary people, who acr agatnsr the Dharma and lack learning, attain cverything. Thereforc, ordinary people can do what is difficult to do, not tsuddhas, Pratyekabuddhas, Arhats. This is or called the action ofordinary people." Ka5yapaasked further, "What do ordinary peoplc do?" Manju5ri answered, "They hold thc view of nihilism and the view of crerr-ralism; become contaminated and attached;rely upon someont: or somcthiltg; remcmber and think of the past; grasp and abandonthings; wield all play-words; and discriminatethings as superior or inferior and act accordingly.Thcrcfore, Virtuous Ka6yapa,the Buddhas, the World-Honored Ones, do not do anything. Thcv have not done, Co not do, and will not do anything. Only ordinary pcople can do rvhat is ditllcult to do." Then Manjuiri asked thc Buddha, "World-Honored onc, r.vhatis thc socalled Realizationof Nonarising? World-Honored Onc, r.vh,v it also called thc is Realizationof the Nonarising of Dharmas? How can a Bodhisatn'a achicve this realization?" The Buddha rcplied to Manju5ri, "Actually, not a sinslc pcrson achicvcsthc Realizationof the Nonarising Iof Dharmas] amid the dharmasrvhich arise.To say that onc has achievcdit is nothing but words. Why? Bccausethe dharrnasthat do not arise are unattainablcand beyond perccption, so that the Rcalization lof thc

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T'o attain is not to attain; there is nothing Nonarisinql of Dharmas is unattainable. ro artain or to lose-this is calledthc attainmcnt of the Realizationof the Nonarisrng ot ])harmas. ''Furtherrnore, MairjuSri, the Realizationof the Nonarising of Dharmas is to rralize in this r.vay: no dharma ariscs; no dharma comcs; no dharma gocs; no dharnra has a self, no dharma has a mastcr; no dharma is graspcd; no dharma is abandoned;no dharma can be found; no dharma is real; all dharmas are supreme; all dharmas are equal to the supreme;all dharmasare incomparable;all dharmasare uncontaminated, like spacc; all dharmas are free from dcstruction, apart from nihilism, undcfilcd, bcyond purity, empty, signless, and unsought; all dharmasare apart from desire,hatred, and ignorance;all dharmas are no other than suchness, the Dharma-naturc, and reality. Thus should one rcalize that all dharmas are beyond discriminatiorl,responsc,menrory, play-words, contcmplation, action, and power, and that all dhannas are fragile, false, and dcceptive,Just like illusions, dreams, echoes, shadows, reflectionsin a mirror, [hollowl plantains, foam, and bubbles on water. In that which is realized,there is nothing to be realized. The realization is neither a dharma nor a nondharma; it is only by words that the realizationis spoken of, yet thesewords are also irrappreherrsible, being devoid of basic nature. "If, concerning the realization thus explained, a Bodhisattva-Mahisattva has faith, understanding,and aspiratior-r; free of doubt, bewilderment, fear, horror, is vacillation, ar-rddepression; normally feels all kinds of sensationsthrough contact without conceiving that there is a body or an abiding place; then, Man3u5n, he attainsthe Realizationof the Nonarising of All Dharmas. He attainsit also because there is no thought whatsoeveracting [in his mind]." Then Manju6rr asked the Buddha, "World-Honorcd One, what is the socallcd realization? Is not that which cannot be damaged by external objects called realization?" At this, Well-Abiding Mind asked Manju6ri, "Great sage, what is that which cannot bc damagcd by external objects?" ManjuSri answcrcd, "Son of heaven,what damagesthe eye?Good forms and bad forms damage the eye. Just as forms damage the eye, so sounds damage the ear; [cdors, the nose; tastcs,the tongue; textures, the body;] dharmas, the mind. Son of heaven, if a Bodhisattva sccs forms with his eyes, he will not be attached to, indulge in, discriminate, conceptualizc, cravc, or abhor the forms, bccausc hc knows that they are empty by nature. He has no thought of forms, so he is not hurt by thcm. The same is true with the other sense-objects, including objects of the mind. "Son of heaven, if a Bodhisattva is neither bound to nor hurt by his six he senses, abidesin the Realizationof the Dharma. Abiding in the Realizationof the Dharma, he will do away with discrimination of all dharmas; he does not discriminate or think of them as arising or nonarising, defiled or undefiled, whole-

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some or unwholesomc, conditioned or unconditioned, mundane or supramundane. This is called the Realizationof the Nonarising of Dharmas." When this doctrine was explained, sixty-three thousand sentient beings engendered supreme bodhicitta and twelve thousand Bodhisattvas acquired the Realization of the Nonarising of Dharmas.

VII
Well-Abiding Mind asked Manju6ri further, "Great sage, if people comc to you and ask to be fully ordaincd as Sramanas,how do you answer them? How do you teach them thc way to lead a monastic life? How do you confcr the precepts upon them and teach them to keep the precepts?" Manju6ri answered, "Son of heavcn, if pcople come to me to renounce the houschold lifc, I teach them by saying, 'Good mcn, now you should not vow to leave the household life. Ifyou do not vow to leavc thc household life, then I shall teach you the true ways to lead a monasticlife.'Why? Because, son of heaven,one who secks to lcavc thc household life is [unwittinglyl attached to32 the Realms of Dcsirc, Form, and Formlessness. is also attachedto the five sensuous He plcasures of the world, to karmic rcwards in the futurc, and so forth. If good people seek sornething, thcy will not realize the L)harma-truth, and as a result they will apprehcnd thc mind. On the other hand, son of heaven, if people grasp nothing, they will realize the Dharma-truth, and as a result thcy will not apprehend the mind. Not perceiving the mind, they will not need to leave the houschold life; having no need to leavc the household lifc, thcir intention to leavc the household lifc will not arise; having no intention to leavc thc household life, they will not vow [to leave the household life]; not vowing [to leave the household lifc], thcy will give rise to nothing; giving rise to nothing, they will put an cnd to suflcring; putting an end to suffcring, they will achieve ultimate exhaustion; achieving ultimatc exhaustion, they will achicve nonexhaustion; achieving nonexhaustion, they will bc bcyond exhaustion. What is beyond exhaustion is empty Son of heaven, this is what I teach those good men. space.33 "Furthermore, son of hcaven, if peoplc come to me and ask to leavc the household lifc, I teach them, saying, 'Good men, do not vow to leave the houschold life. Why not? Bccausethe vow docs not arise and cannot bc made. Do not think otherwise and still intcnd to make such a vow.' "Furthermore, son of heaven, if pcoplc come to me and ask to leave the 'Good household life, I teach them, saying, mcn, if you do not shave your beard and hair3anow, you have truly left the household lifc."' At this, Well-Abiding Mind asked Manju6ri, "Great sage,why do you say this?"

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Manju5rr ansrvered,"Son of heaven, thc World-Honored Onc has said that there arc no dharmas to bc severedand rcnounced." \\'ell-Abiding Mind askcd further, "What is not to be severedand rcnounced?" Nlanju5ri answered, "Son of hcavcn, forms are not to be severedand renounced. nor arc feelings,conccptions,impulses, or consciousness. "Son of heavcn,if someonethinks, 'Only after I shavcmy beard and hair arn I a (ramana,'you shouid know that hc abidesin the notion of a self. Becauschc abidcs in the notion of a self, hc docs not perceivc cquality. Also, bccausehe pcrceives a sclf, he perceivcs a scnticnt being. Becausc hc pcrceives a sentlent he bcir-rg, perceivesbeard and hair. Bccausehe perceivcsbcard and hair, hc cngendersthc thought of shaving. "Son of hcavcn, if one does not pcrceive the form of self, hc does not pcrceive the form of other. As a result, hc is not arrogant. Becausche is not arrogant, he does not hold the view of a self. Bccausche doesnot hold the vicw of a self, hc does not discriminate. Becausehe does not discriminate, he does not waver. Becausehe docs not waver, he does away with play-words. Becausche docs away with play-words, he graspsnothing and abandonsnothing. Bccausehe grasps nothing and abandons nothing, he is free of action and inaction, severancc gathering and nonseverancc,scparationand combination, dccrcascand itrcrease, thought and mindfulness, spccchesand words. Thus, he abides and scattcring, sccurcly in the truth." Well-Abiding Mind askcd, "Grcat sagc, what is the meaning of thc truth?" Manjudri answered, "Son of heaven, the truth is no othcr than voidncss.15 Thus, voidncss may be calledthe truth. Voidncss is said to be thc truth becauscit and incrcasc.That [dharmas arc] is without bcginning and end, without decreasc is by naturc is the truth. Suchness the truth. The dharmadhatuis the truth. cmpty Reality is the truth. Thus, such a truth is no truth [at all]. Why? In the truth there is nothing to be obtained;thcrcfore, it is said to be no truth [at all]." Then MafljuSri said to Well-Abiding Mind, "Son of hcavcn, if pcople come 'Good men, if you to me and ask to leave the householdlife, I teachthem, saying, can be unattached to a monastic robe now, I shall say that you have truly left thc household life.' " Well-Abiding Mind asked, "Grcat sage,why do you say this?" Mafrju6ri answered, "Son of heaven, Buddhas, the World-Honored Oncs, are attached to nothing. One should not grasp or be attached to anything they teach.". At that time, Well-Abiding Mind asked Manju6ri, "Great sage, who is a monk who practices meditation?" Manju6rr answercd, "Son of heaven, if a monk sclects one practice from all Dharma-teachings, that is, the doctrine of nonarising, and thoroughly complies u'ith it, he is said to truly practice meditation. Moreover, [if he knows that] therc is not a single dharma that can be grasped, he is said to practice meditation. What does he not grasp? He does not grasp this era or that era, the three realms, and so

THr Swonl ot- Wtsnon on, including ali dhannas. IAbidnrg in] such cquali6', he is said to practiccmeditation. Son of hcaven, if one who practicesnlcditation docs not respond to any dharma, neithcr unifying hinrself with it ltor scparatinshimsclf fron-rit, hc is said to [trulyl practicemcditation." .

VIII
Well-Abiding Mind asked Mairju6ri, "Grcat sagc, will you allos. tnc to cultivatc purc conduct Itogethcr with you]?" Manju5ri answered, "Son of heavcn, I shall givc you pcrmission to do so if you do not set your nrind on practicing, secking, or pursuing." Well-Abiding Mir.rd asked, "Great sage,why do you say this?" Manju6ri answcred, "Son of heaven, if there is action, purc conduct can be of; spoker-r if there is no action whatsoever,how can thcre be anythirrg callcd pure purc conduct? Furthermorc, son of heaven, if there is something apprehensible, how can therc bc apprehensible, conduct can bc spoken of; if thcrc is nothing anything cailcd pure conduct?" Wcll-Abiding Mind asked,"Great sagc,arc you not cultivating purc conduct now?" Mairju6ri answcrcd, "No, son of heaven, I am not cultivating any pure thc so-calledpurc conduct is not purc conduct; beconduct. Why not? -Becausc causcit is not pure conduct, I call it purc conduct.". Manjuiri continued, "Son of heavcn, now, if you can takc the livcs of all sentierlt beings without using a knife, a cudgel, a large stick, or a stonc, I will cultivate purc conduct with you." Well-Abiding Mind asked, "Grcat sage,why do you say this?" ManjuSri answercd, "Son of heavcn, regarding sentientbcings, what do you think of them?" Well-Abiding Mind answercd, "l think that senticnt beings and all other dharmas are nothing but names and arc all concoctcdby thoughts." M-anju5risaid, "Son ofheaven, I thereforesay that now you should kill the thoughts of a self, of a personal idcntity, of a senticnt being, and of a lifc, eliminating the thoughts cvcn of thesenames. You should kill in this way." Well-Abiding Mind asked, "Great sagc, what instrunrent should one usc to kill [in this way]?" ManjuSri answered, "Son of heaven, I always kill with the sharp knifc of wisdom. In thc act of killing, one should hold the sharp knife of wisdom and kill in such a manner as to have no thought of holding the knifc or of killing. Son of heaven,in this way, you should know well that to kill thc thoughts of a self and a sentientbeing is to kill all senticntbeings truly. [If you can do that,lI will give you permissionto cultivate purc conduct [with me]." . . .

bt)

ON EnrpuNrst

ijt /.t

IX

Ctt&: *
Y1 fo

At that tinc. in the asscmbly there were five hundrcd Bodhisattvas who had acl'uelcd the four dhyanas and thc five miraculous powers. Thesc Bodhisattvas u'ere imnrersed in dhyana, whether sitting or standing. They did not slanderthe Dharma, though they had not yet acquired the realizationof the Dharma-truth. thc miraculous power of knowing their past livcs, these Bodhisattvas Posscssing perceived their past evil karma-killing their fathers, mothcrs, or Arhats; dcstroying Buddhist temples or stupas;or disrupting the Sarhgha.Becausethey clearly perceived their past evil karma, they were always obsesscd by profound misgivings and remorse, so that they could not realize or Pcnetrate the profound I)harma. It was becausethcy discriminateda self and were unable to forgct their past transgressions that they could not achievc the realization of the profound Dharma. At that time, in order to rid those five hundrcd Bodhisattvas of mental discrimination, the World-Honored One inspircd Manju5ri with his miraculous power; as a result, Manju5ri rose from his seat, adjustedhis robe, barcd his right hand, advancedstraight toward the Worldshoulder, and holding a sharp sword ir-r Honored One to kill him. Hurriedly, thc Buddha said to Maiijudri, "Stop, stop! Do not do thc wrong thing. Do not kill me in this way. If you must kill me, you should first know the best way to do so. Why? Bccause, MaiijuSri, from thc bcginning there is no self, no others, no person; as soon as onc pcrceivesin his mind the cxistenceof an ego and a personalidentity, he has killed me; and this is called killing." Having heard the Buddha say this, the [five hundrcd] Bodhisattvasthought, "All dharmas are illusory, like magic. In thcm thcre is no seli no pcrsonalidentity, no sentient being, no life, no person, no human bcing, no youth, no father, no mothcr, no Arhat, no lluddha, no Dharma, no Sarhgha.There is neither killing nor killer; how can there bc falling [to the miscrablc planes of existencc]becauseof killing? Why is this so? Now, Manjuiri is wise and intclligent, and his unrivaled wisdom is praised by the Buddhas, the World-Honorcd Oncs. He has alrcady achievcC the unhindered realization of the profound Dharma, made offerings to countless . . . billions of myriads of Buddhas . . comprehcndcd well and in detail all tsuddha-Dharmas,and can discourseon those true doctrines.He [used to] have equal respcct for all Tathagatas.But now, he suddenly camc to kill thc Tathagata 'Stop, stopl Manrn'ith a sword, and the World-Honored Onc told him hurricdly, ju6ri, do not kill me! If you must, you should know the best way to kill mc.'Why? Becauseif therc were any real dharma that could come into existence through the combination of various elements, so that it could be called Buddha, Dharma, Sari-rgha, father, mother . . , and if these dharmas could definitely be grasped, then they could never be demolished. Actually, all dharmas are without substance or entity; they are nonexistent, unreal, delusive, perceived through wrong views, and

Tlqq"

'.*''o" n":*tf&"ffi s.;'-.

Tnr Swono or Wtsootr.t

o/

empty, like magic productions. Thcrefore, there is no sinner and no sin. Wherc is the killcr to be punished?" Having contemplatedand undcrstood this, the [fivc hundred] Bodhisattvas immediately achievedthc Rcalizationof the Nonarising of l)harmas. Overwhelmed with joy, they ascendcd in midair to the height of seven palm trees one upon another. and sooke in vcrse: "Al1 dharmas arc like magic; They arise from discrinrination. None of them can be found: All of them are empty. of .Becausc our pervcrted, delusivethoughts And our ignorant, ego-graspingminds, 'We broodcd over the most wicked A m o n g o u r p a s tk a r m a s . We committed grcat offenses tsy killing ficlds of blcssingsParents, Arhats, and monks Thcsc arc vile transgrcssiorrs. For these evil karmas, Wc should undergo great pain. Senticnt beings caught in the net of doubt Will be rid of their rcmorse and bewilderment When they hear the Dharma explained. The One with Great Renownl6 Has extracted poison from us And resolved all our doubts. We have bcen enlightened to the dharmadhatu And know that no evils can be found. ingenuity Thc Buddha posscsscs And understands well our thoughts. Hc skillfully ferries sentient beings over sarirslra, And frees them from the bondaee ofdoubts. Where are the Buddhas? Where are the Dharma and the Sarhgha? Nowhere can they be found! From the beginning, Thcrc are no father and mother, And Arhats are also empty and quiescent. Since there is no killing of them, How can there be retribution for that deed?

68

ON Enprtxrss Ali dharmas by nature do not artse, Likc magical Productions. Manju(ri is a person of grcat wisdom, Who has penetratedto thc dharmas' source Wielding a sharPsword, He rushed to kill the Tathagata' The sword and thc tsuddha Are of one nature, not two; Both are devoid of form and do not arise. How can there bc killins?"

When this subtle Dharma-door of rvielding thc sword was spokcn, six quakes occured in tsuddha-landsin the tcn directions, as numerous as thc sands of the Ganges. Mcanwhile, in thc Buddha-lands in the ten directions, all thc tsuddhas werc teaching the l)harma before thcir assemblies.Thc Buddhas' attendant disciplcs rose from their seatsand asked their respectiveBuddhas, "World-Honored One, who performed thc miraculous feat that causedthe grcat earths to quake?" Thc Buddha in the ten directionsanswercdtheir rcspcctivedisciples,"Good men, there is a world named Sahi. In that land, there is a Buddha namcd Sekyanruni Tathagata, the Worthy One, thc Pcrfectly Enlightened One, who is now teaching the Dharma. In that world, there is an eminent Bodhisattva-Mahtsattva named ManjuSri, who has not regressed from supremc cnlightenmcnt since the remote past. In order to dispel thc nental attachmentof some novice Bodhisattvas, h e h i m s e l f . w i t h a s h a r p s w o r d i n h a n d . r u s h c dt o k i l l S a k y a m u n iT a t h l g a t a a s a means of revcaling thc profound Dharma. It is for this reason that the grcat earths of quaked. Because this sword of Wisdom, that Buddha, thc World-Honored One, thc profound Dharma to causcincalculablc myriads of sentient beings to explained acquire the clear Dharma-cye, to achicvc mental liberation, or to attain the realization of the profound Dharma, so that they all abide securely in [thc pursuit ofl bodhi. " When performing this great miraculous feat, thc World-Honored One, by power of ingenuity, causedall the novicc Bodhisattvasin thc assembly who the had few good roots, as well as the sentient beings who had not partcd with discrimination and who wcre attached to forms, not to sec Manju5n wielding the s w o r d . n o r t o h c a r t h e d o c t r i n ee x p l a i n c d . ' r ' At that time, the VcnerableSiriputra eskcd Manju6ri, "Great sage,now you have pcrformed the most wicked karma. You attempted to kill the great Teacher of gods and humans. When this karma comes to maturity, what retribution will you receive?" M a n l u i n a n s w e r e dS a r i p u t r r ." l t i s s o . v i r t u o u so r r c .j u s t a s y o u s a y : I h a v e performed such a wicked karma. Howevcr, I really do not know how I shall receive any retributiott. Setip.tt.r, in my opinion, I shall undcrgo it just as a

Tue Swono or Wrstou the magically produced beirrg does whcn his illusory karma ripcns. Why? Because magically produced being makes r-rodiscrimination and has no thoughts, and all lct dharmas arc illusory, like magic. Furthermorc, Saripr-rtra, me ask you somcthing, and you may answer as you like. What do vou think? I)o you think that you have really sccn the sword?" Sariputraanswcrcd, "No." detlnitclv cxists?" Manju6ri asked, "Are you surc that the evil karn-ra Srripnt." answered,"No. " Manju6rr asked, "I)o you definitcly pcrccive a retribution tor th:rt cvil karma?" Sariputra answercd, "No. " ManjuSri said, "Thus. Sariputra. sincc there is tro sword and no karnra or retribution, who performs that karnra and who will undcrgo the karnric retribution? Yet vou now ask me what rctribution I will reccivc." Seriputraaskcd, "Great sage,why do you say so?" ManjuSri answered,"ln my opinion. there is no such thing as the ripening of a karmic result. Why? Becauseall dharmas are devoid of karma, karmic results, rcsults." and the ripcning of karn-ric

X
Thc World-Honorcd One said to ManjuSri, "Manju6n, onc lr'ho hcarsthe explanation of this sutra, this profound Dharma-door, is t'tot differcnt from onc u,ho lives at thc time when a tsuddha appearsin the world. Manju5ri, otre who hears this sfitra explained is not different from onc who realizestl-refruit of a Strcan-enterer, of a Oncc-rcturner, of a Nonrcturner, or of an Arhat. Why? Becausethis sutra is not diffcrcnt from suchtress. "Manju5ri, onc who bclicvesand understands this sutra aftcr having heard it explained is not diffcrcnt frorn a lJodhisattva in his last cxistctrcc, who will withsitting on the bodhi-sitc undcr thc bodhiout lail attain supreme enlightcnn.rcnt path of thc Buddhas, the tree. Why? Becausethis l)harma-cloor is thc csscr-rtial !?orld-Honorcd Ones, in thc past, present,and futurc." At this, Manju6ri said to the Buddha, "World-Honored One, it is so, rt is so, just as thc Buddha says. This sutra is not diffbrcnt lrom emptincss, signlcssness, and freedom suchness, thc dharmadhatu,reality, cquality, libcratior-r, wishlessncss, from passions." Thcn, Manjuiri contirrued,"World-Honorcd OIre, may thc Tathagataprotect and maintain this profound l)harma-door so as to causethis sutra to prcvail in the world lbr five hundrcd ycars in the [coming] Last Era, so that all thc good nren and good wonlen then will bc able to hear it!" When Manjuiri made this request, cotlntlcssmusical instrumcnts sounded in spontancously the billion-world univcrsc, all the treesburgconcd spontaneously,

l0

ON EnprtNlss

and all rhc tlorl'ers bloomed. Also, six quakes occurred in thc billion-r"'orld uni(,rcat lights r,vere emitted to illuminate thc rvhole billion-world unlvcrse so r-ersr'. brightlr that sunlight and moonlight wcre outshone and scenno nlore. Then. Maiijuiri askcd the Buddha, "\il/orld-HorrorcdOtre, docs this unusual auspl6c portend that this l)harma-door will last forcver and prcvail all over the s'orld in the future?" solely The Buddha rcplied, "It is so, it is so. This good omcn is nranifested ro shos'that this sutra will iast forever and prevail all over thc world.". After the World-Honorcd One had f-inishedteaching this sutra, Man1u5ri, Wcll-Abiding Mind, thc Bodhisattvasfrom the ten dircctions, all thc devas, the Vcnerablc Seriputrr, the Vencrable Mahika5yapa, the monks. all the gods, humans, asuras,dragons, ghosts, spirits, and so forth were ovcrjoyed at hcarilg what the Buddha had taught. They acceptcd it u'ith faith and bcgan to practice it with veneration.

NOTES
. See Numerical Glossary, "flvc kincls of eyes." A Strcam-enterer acquires the clear emptiness of Dharrna-cye, the enlightcne.d vision ll'hich clearly seesthe I)harma-truth-thc all dharn.ras.An Arhat or a Pratyekabuddha acquires thc clcar wisdom-eye, which enables hin to redlize or pendrate the l)harma-truth. The differencc between the two is in their degree of profundity, not in thcir naturc. 'srivakas'. 'l)isciplcs' A s i n d i c a t e db t ' l o w , m a n y o f t h e o here is not a trans.lation f 2. d i s c i p l e sa r e B o d h i s a t t v a s . 'discithe Chincsc text alternately reads In this and many of the following passages, 'attendants', , ples', o r ' a t t e n d a n t d i s c i p l e s 'W e h a v e n o t a d o p t c dt h e t e r n l ' a t t e n d a n t s ' h o w e v e r . . 3 . . S e ea l s o " s i x p a r a m i t a s " i n t h e N u n t e r i c a l G l o s s a r y . ' 4. lsuch samidhis are called samidhi-doors becauscthcy lead to the countless samidhis of Buddhas. (See Ta Chih Tu Lun, Chap. 22) w 5 . T h e o r i g i n a l t e x t r e a d s :" W o r l d - H o n o r e d O n e , t h e B o d h i s a t t v a - M a h i s a t t v a s h o can achievc thc Samadhi of lnvisibility are nevcr apart lrom this wonderful samidhi in spite o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y w e a r t h e a r m o r o f v i g o r i n o r d e r t o s a v e a l l s e n t i c n tb e i n g s . " A n o t h e r rendering is: "World-Honored One, Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas who can acquire thc Samidhi o f I n v i s i b i l i t y , a l t h o u g h t h e y i n t e n d t o b e v i g o r o u s a n d s a v ea l l s e n t i c n tb c i n g s , s h o u l d n e v e r be apart from this wondcrful samadhi." Both translations do not fit the context. Thus we have herc adoptedBodhiruci's version (Taisho 341, p.119). a. Mahakisyapas a Sravakr. i w , 7 . W e t r a n s l a t e h e S k t . y o j a n aa s ' l e a g u e s ' b e c a u s e c c a n n o t f i n d a n e x a c t e q u i v a l e n t . t A y o . i a n as s a i d t o b e t h e d i s t a n c eo f a d a y ' s m a r c h f o r t h e r o y a l a r m y . i 8. I.e., inapprchensible. 9. In thc Chinese tradition, Maiiju6ri is symbolically associatedwith the lion. He is 'I

Tsr Swono or Wrsoorra

71

usually portraycd as riding a lion in Chincsc art. Thc lion symbolizes intrepidity, which ariscs fron wisdom. In Part IX below, Manju6ri, n'ho is the cmbodimcnt of the wisdom of all Buddhas, dauntlessly wiclds the sword of n'isdonr. " 1 0 . O r i g i n a l l y t h i s s c n t c n c cw a s t r a n s l a t e d : S o n o f i r e a v e n ,I w o u l d s p e a kt o o n e w h o can tlke in my Idiscourse] without hearing, reading, recitinq. .lcccpting, upholding, think." From thc vicwpoint of i n g , r e m e m b e r i n g , g r a s p i n g , a b a n d o n i n g ,p e r c e i v i n g ,k n o u ' i n s . l i t e r a r y t r a n s l a t i o n , t h i s i s p r e f e r a b l ea n d l e s s c l u n l s y . H o * e v e r . t i o n r a r e l i g i o u s o r y o g l c viewpoint it is better to repeat each negation, so that a devoted readcr can mcditatc on emptiness while he reads the sutra. Thus our original translation u oulcl scrvc rvcll as a c o n c e p t u a ln e g a t i o n o f t h c a c t i o n sl i s t c d ; h o w e v e r , i t f a l l s s h o r t o f b e i n s a n r e d i t a t i v ed e v i c e t o p r a c t i c ee m p t i n e s s .( ( ; . C . ) 1 1 . N a m e l y , t h c f i v e r o o t s , t h c f i v e p o w e r s , t h e s e v e n f a c t o r s o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t ,a n d the eightfold noble path. 12. Or, "the realm of space," 1 3 . T h a t i s , t h e t h i r t y - t w o a u s p i c i o u s i g n s o f a B u d d h a o r a u n i v e r s a lm o n a r c h . s 1 4 . T h e p l a c ew h e r e t h e D h a r n a i s t a r . r g h t . 15. Refers to the female demons who live in the Sixth Hcaven, which is the dwellinq p l a c eo f c e l e s t i a l e m o n s . d 16. Pipiyan is the namc'of the demon king who rules the Sixth Hcavcn, thc highcst heavcn in the Realnr of l)esire of a snrall world. Here the olural form rcfcrs to all dcmon kings in thc billion-world universe. 1 7 . T h i s s t a t e n l e n ti s a n e x a r n p k :o f h o w , i n n r y o p i n i o n , t h e s u t r a sa r e s y m b o l i c a n d peclagogical,ancl shoulcl not bc intcrprcted literally. Manjudri, who cmbodics thc wisdom of all tsuddhas, is shown here as being of r.norebenefit to sentient beings than is thc Buddha. The reason for this seeming ovcrstJt(-nrcnt is to stress the fact that only the transcendental wisdom of prajiripiratnita, which ManjuSri embodies, can conquL.rdcmons, and not magical f o r m u l a s , s p e l l s ,o r o t h e r t h a u m a t u r g i c a lt e c h n i q u e s .( G . C . ) ManjuSri has been referred to as the "mother" of the Enlightened Ones in the three periods of timc. In a sutra called " ff ffif$ " the Buddha says, "l owe it to Mafiju6ri that I now b e c o m e a B u d d h a . I n n u m e r a b l eB u d d h a s i n t h e p a s t h a d b e e n M a n j u 5 r i ' s d i s c i p l e s , n d t h o s e a w h o w i l l b e c o m e B u d d h a s i n t h e f u t u r e a l s o o w c t h c i r c n l i g h t e n n l e n tt o h i s a w e s o m ep o w e r . Just as childrcn in thc worlcl havc their own parents, so Manju6ri assumesparenthood on the tluddha-path. " 18. Following each list oF four is thc statement, "Fulfillment of these four things enables a Bodhisattva-Mahasattva to achievc this samidhi." We onrit this reoetition lor brevity's sake. 'Deep 19. m i n d ' s c c m s t o i m p l y t h e d e e p a s p i r a t i o nf o r t h c D h a r m a , t h e a s p i r a t i o nl o r profound, supreme Buddhahood. 2 0 . T h e t w o C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s) E f f i m a y b e t r a n s l a t e da s ' f a r a p a r t . ' T h e y a r e t r a n s 'detachcd' in othcr placcs. In this context, however, it scems to bc morc appropriate 'remote to render them as and lar away'; taken in this sense,they imply that thc thrcc realms lated as are something forcver inapprehensible. 21. Here, the "initial generation ofbodhicitta" bodhicitta (ffi**E,L'), tion ofbodhicitta by a beginner tsodhisattva22. Dcsirc, hatred, and ignorance are utterly enrpty ofany self-entity. For this reason, as Maiiju6ri explains below, only thosc who have true realization of emptiness can "generate" probably refers to the transcendental s h a r e db y B o d h i s a t t v a si n t h e t c n s t a g c s .I t d i f f e r s f r o m t h e g e n e r a -

l2

ON EupnNrss

t o r e x p c r i c r r c e h c t h r e c p o i s o n s ( o r a n y o t h c r d h a r m a s )a s t h c y a r e - a s c n t p t . vo f s c l f - n a t u r c . 1' t O r d i n a ; r ' p e o p l c v i c r v a n d c x p e r i e n c ct h c t h r e c p o i s o n s o n l v i n t h e i l 1 r - s o 1a s p c - co f t h o s e o c l h r r n r a s .r s a p p r r c n t l y s e l f - c x i s t e n tc n t i t i e s . B u t w h e n a c o n r p l c t c i c l e n t i f i c a t i o n f d e s i r e , a h a t r . - c l . n d i q n o r a n c el v i t h c m p t i n c s sh a s b c c n m a d c , o n c c a l ) a t t l t a t n l o n l c l l t e x p c r i c n c et h . t h r r ' c p o i s o n si n t h e i r b a s i cn a t u r e . ( V . S . R . ) 1 3 . T h o s e w h o h a v c r c a l i z e dc n t p t i n e s sd o i n d e c d c n c o u n t c r t h e p o i s o n s ( h e r c c o n r p a r e - dt o t h e m o v e m c n t o f a b i r d i n t h c s k y ) , b u t t h e v d o s o w h i l c d u ' e l l i n g i r r e n r p t i t r e s s ( c o n r p a r e dt o " l e a v i n g n o t r a c c i n e m p t y s p a c e " ) . s , 2 . 1 .N o t h i n g n c s s , n o n c l i s c r i n r i n a t i o na n d s o f o r t h a r c a l l a p p r o x i m a t ec h a r a c t e r i s t i co f e m p t i n e s s ,t h c d y n a r n i c f u n c t i o t r o f w h i c h " g e n c r a t e s "e l l d h a r m a s . a a 25. The abodcs of consciousncss re thc objectsrvhich thc consciousncss bidcsitr, and clings to. Thc other four aggrcgates-form, feeling, conce'ption,and impulsc'relies on, f,rethe fortr rhodcs of coltsciottsncss. 2 6 . T h c o p p o s i t c so f t h c c i g h t i t c . m so f t h c c i g h t f o l d n o b l e p a t h : w r o t r u v i e r v , w r o n g thought, and so forth. 27. The ninc activitics (somctimes givcn as tcn) which thc tsuddha suflercd in this i world, for example, practicing asceticismor six ycars, returnittg u'ith alt cntptv borvl aftcr , b c g g i n g f o r f o o d i n a v i l l a g c , c r c . F o r d c . t a i l ss e e" o n t h e P i r a n r i t a o f l n g e n u i t l " ' ( c l h a p . 2 2 ) . 2 8 . M a f r j u i r i ' s r e m a r k h e r e a p p c a r st o n u l l i f y a l l g o o d a n d c v i l ' r i g h t a n d w r o n g , Dharma ancl non-I)harrla. and so forth, and thus to invalidate all tht- usual Ruddhist tcachi n g s ; h o w e v e r , f r o n r a h i g h e r v i c w p o i n t o f t h o r o u g h e m p t i n c s sa n d t h o r o u g h e q u a l i t y , i . c . , c t h c t o t a l i s t i ca t - o r l e - n l e n to f a l l i n o n e a n d o n c i n a l l , t h e r c m a r k i s a n i n e l u c t a b l e o r o l l a r y o f t h c r : m p t i n c s sd o c t r i n e . I f o n e c a n t n r l y u n d c r s t a n dt l r c p r i l r c i p l e o f " f o r l r t i s e n r p t i n e s sa n d s h e m p t i n c s s i s f o r n r , " h e s h o u l d a l s o b c a b l e t o r " r n d c r s t a ntd a t a l l p a s s i o n - d e s i r ea r c b o d h i i t s e l f - , n d t h a t t h c v i r t u o u s a n d t h e e v i l , t h e g o o d a n d t h e b a d , c t c . , a r e u l t i n r a t e l ye q u a l a n d a a t - o n c . H e r e , w e m a y w i t n e s s h o u ' T a n t r i c p h i l o s o p h y r s a n a t u r a l o u t c o l ' t l eo f t h e e m p t i n e s s d o c t r i n e -( G . C . ) l 2 9 . T h i s , w c h e l i e v e , r e f e r s t o t h c i n i t i a l g c n c r a t i o n o f t h c t r a r t s c e n d c n t ab o d h i c i t t a of the first stage. 30. Thcrc are different opinions as to at what stagc (0hrlnri)l Bodhisattva achievesthc Ilcalizationof the Nonarising of Dharmas; some tcxts sev the first, but most texts say the h c i g h t h . T h e p a s s a g c e r e o b v i o u s l y i m p l i e s t h e c i g h t h s t r g e. O n c b c s i n s t o a b i d e i n t h e f i r s t stage when he initially generatcsthc true or transcendentalbodhicitta. 31. Literally, "dharmas." T 3 2 . B a s e do n B o d h i m c i ' s v c r s i o n ( T a i s h o 3 4 1 , p . 1 ' 2 7 ) . h e o r i g i n a l r e a d s" s e e k s . " 3 3 . F o r m o r c e x p l a n a t i o n ,s e e " T h c M a n i l e s t a t i o no f L i g h t s " ( C h a p . 1 1 ) 34. Literally, "sevcr and rcnouncc." 35. Litcrally, "ernpty spacc." 36. That is. the Buddha. 37. In order to protcct profouncl doctrincs lrom being clistorted, and to protcct ccrtf,ill sentient beings from gravc rnisunderstanding, thc Bucidha sometimcs docs ttot revcal particu l a r t e a c h i n g s t o t h o s e s c n t i e n t b c i n g s w h o a r c n o t y e t a b l c t o u l r d c r s t a n c lt h c n l . S u c h doctrines arc called "csoteric."

MffiTfr. ffiffi#€
Eloquence on A Discourse Ready

I
'I'hus havc I hcard. Once the Buddha was dwelling in the gardcn of Anithapir]dada in the Jeta (lrove near Sravasti,accompanicdby the thousandgrcat monks. Except thcy wcrc all Arhats. Having cndcd all thcir defilernents, fbr Ananda, those n-ronkS suffcrcd any afflictions. Thcy were at easewith everything. Thcy had no longer donc what they had sct out to do, laid down thc heavy burdcn lof sarhsira], aud broker-rthe tics of existence. Through right acquircd benefit for thcr-nseives, and from ignorance. liberation, both from passions knowlcdgc, they had achicvcd minds, likc great elephant kings, were subdued. They were mcntally free; their Thcy had reachedthc othcr shore and had entcredthc cightfold liberation. all Also in the asscmbiy were twelve thousand Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas, had attained nonregression and adorncd [with merits] and kno.uvn to all, who would achicvc Buddhahood in thcir ncxt lives. Among thcm were Bodhisattva Precious Hand, Bodhisattva Treasury of Virtuc, Bodhisattva Adorncd r'"'ith Wisdom Bodhisattva Wish-Fulfiller, Bodhisattva Avalokite5vara,Dharma Prince Voice, Dharma Prince InconceivablcLiberative Manju6ri, Dharma Prince Pleasant Deeds, Dharma Prince Unobstructed Contcmplation of A1l Dharmas, Bodhisattva BodhisattvaNo Deluded Views, Maitrcya, BodhisattvaGiver of Lighthcartcdness, Bodhisattva No Dcluded Deeds, Bodhisattva Exempt from Miserable Realms, Bodhisattva Free of Darkness, Bodhisattva Free fronr All Covcrs,l Bodhisattrra Adorned with Eloquence, Bodhisattva Awcsomc Wisdom and Prccious Merit, Bodhisattva Golden Flowcr of Brilliant Virtue, and Bodhisattva ljnobstructcd Thousht.
i S u t r a 3 3 , T a i s h o 3 1 0 p p . 5 5 G 5 6 4 ; t r a n s l a t e d n t o C h i n e s eb y N i e h T a o - c h e n .

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One morning, eight great Srtvakas and eight grcat tsodhisattvas,wearing monastrcrobes and holding bowls, enteredSrlvasti to bcg for food. They were: the the Virtuous Si.iput.., the Virtuous Maudgalyayana,thc Virtuous MahakaSyapa, Virtuous Subh[ti, the Virtuous Purnamaitr-yanrputra,the Virtuous Revata, the Virtuous Aniruddha, the Virtuous Ananda, Dharma Prince Mairju(ri, Bodhisattva No Deluded Views, BodhisattvaPrcciousForm, BodhisattvaExcmpt from Miserable Rcalms, Bodhisattva Free from All Covers, Bodhisattva AvalokiteSvara,Bodhisattva Adorned with Eloquence, and Bodhisattva No Deluded Deeds. On the it u.ay, each of thcm had one thought in his mind and discussed with thc others. The Virtuous Se.ipt.t.t said, "When I reach Srivasti to beg for food, I will cnter a dhy-na2 that will cause all the scnticnt beings in the city to hear the four noble truths." The Virtuous Maudgalyayana said, "When I reach Sravasti to bcg for food, I will cnter a dhyana that will causeall the sentient beings in the city to bc frcc from . demons' influence " The Virtuous Mah-kiSyapa said, "When I reach Sravastito beg for food, I will enter a dhyana that will causc all the sentient beings in thc city who give me food to receiveendlcssrewards until they achievenirvana." The Virtuous Subhnti said, "When I reach Sravastito bcg for food, I will cntcr a dhyina that will causethe sentient beings in the city who see me to be and to suffcr no more." rt-born in heavenor as hurnans, to enjoy all pleasures, The Virtuous Purnamaitr-yaniputrasaid, "When I reach Srlvastr to beg for food, I will cntcr a dhyina that will causeall those in the city who follow wrong paths, such as brahmacarinsand naked ascetics, acquireright view." to The Virtuous Revata said, "When I rcach Srivastr to beg for food, I will cntcr a dhyana that will cause all the sentient beings in the city to enjoy the " pleasureof nondisputation. Thc Virtuous Aniruddha said, "When I reach Sravastito beg for food, I will enter a dhyana that will cause all the sentient beings in thc city to recognizc thc retributions for karmas committed in past lives." The Virtuous Ananda said, "When I reach Srivastr to bcg for food, I will enter a dhyana that will causeall the sentient beings in the city to remembcr all the Dharma thcy have learned." Dharma Prince Maijuirr said, "l will causcall the doors, windows, walls, implements, trees, branchcs, lcavcs, flowers, fruits, clothes, and necklacesin the city of Sravasti to make sounds [teaching] emptiness, signlcssncss,wishlessness, of egolessness, nothingness,avoidanceof play-words, and the absence self-entity." Bodhisattva No Deluded Views said, "l will causc cverything seen by the scnticnt beings in Sravasti who deserve supreme enlightcnmcnt to become a Buddha-image, and in this way I will cause them to attain supreme enlightenment without fail. " Bodhisattva Prccious Form said, "I will cause prodigious quantities of the of seven treasuresto appear in the housesof all the people in Sravasti.regardless " caste.

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Bodhisattva Exempt from Miserable Realms said, "l will causethe sentient beings in Sravasti who arc dcstined to fall to the miserable planesof existencc [after death] to undergo slight sufferings in their prcsent lives [instead] and to be liberated quickly. " Bodhisattva Free from All Covers said, "l wrll causcthe sentient beings in Sravastito completely rid thcmselvcsof the five covers." Bodhisattva Avalokite5varasaid, "l will causethc imprisoned sentientbeings in Sravasti to be freed quickly, thosc who arc about to bc killcd to be saved, and those who are frightened to become fearless." Bodhisattva Adorned with Eloquence said, "I will cause all the sentient beings in Sravasti who see me to obtain eloquence, so that they can exchange qucstions and answcrs in wonderful verse." Bodhisattva No Deluded Deeds said, "I will cause the sentient beings in Sravasti who see me to have no delusive vicws and to attain supreme enlightenment without fail." Discussing their thoughts in this manner, the eight Sravakasand the eight Bodhisattvasarrived at the gate of Sravasti. At that time, King Prasenajit'sdaughter, named Pure Giving, was living in the city. She was extraordinarily beautiful, though only eight years old. It was the cighth day of thc sccond month, the day on which thc star Pusya3appeared. Carryirrg a bottle of water in her hand, she went out of thc city together with five hundred brahmins to bathe the deva-image. When the five hur-rdredbrahmrns saw the monks standingoutside the city gate, they all considered the sight inauspicious. Then the oldest of the five hundred brahmins, a man named Brahma who was one hundred twenty years old, told Pure Giving, "These monks are standing outside the gate. This is inauspicious; we had better go back to the city and not meet4them. If wc meet them, it is not good for our sacrificial rites." Thereupon Pure Giving spoke in verse to the brahmin; " l hese men are all passionless And most worthy of praise. They can wash away all evils From vast numbers of sentient beings. These men are pure and immaculate, For they thoroughly know the four noble truths; But followers of wrong paths are impure , Shrouded in delusion and ignorance. Innumerable rewards will accrue To those who makc offerings to The Honored One among gods and men, The field of blessings. 'Whatever is planted in this field Will yield an inexhaustible harvest

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ON EuprtNlss h'r thc three rcalms. Thc tsuddha, pure and pcrfcct in discipline, Riscs unsullicd from the mundane mirc. Hc lives in thc world as a skillful hcalcr, Curing and saving sick scntientbcings. In the world, thc Buddha is suprcme; He is the king of all Dharmas, A u d t h c s c m c n a r c t h c B u d d h a ' ss o n s . ' Some have attainedArhatship; Others perform the Bodhisattvas'decds. How can thc wise avoid thcm? Those who perform such wondcrful deeds Deservc the acclaim of the world. Thesc wise men have long practiccdgiving. Brahmaclrin, respectthcm, And surely all will go wcll. Let us'praiscthesemen Who arc cndowed with a supcrior appearance. [)urc in mind, they arc our cxcellentfields of blessir-rgs. Brahmaclrin, believc rny words, Arrd you will be.loyful and free of worry." The Ioldcst] brahmacirin said to Purc Givirrg in vcrsc: "Do not think likc a fool or an idiot! when pcrforming sacrificialrites. Shun 6ramanas) should not come closc A scekerof happiness To onc who is tonsurcd and dressedin a monastic robc. Your parentswill not approvc of this, And we, too, fccl shame for you. I f y o u i r r t e n dt o g i v c t h c n r t h i r r g s . T h a t i s a l s on o t a u s p i c i o u s . Plcase,respectnot these monks." Purc Giving said to the brahmacirin in verse: I "Werc I to fall to a niscrable realm, My parents,retinuc, wealth, jewels, Or even my own courageand hcalth Could not savc mL. Except for thesemen of awcsome virtuc, Who could rescueme?

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I)tscounss oN Rtaoy Er-oqulNcl To honor the Buddha, Dhanna, and Sarhgha, I will givc up life and limb. Thcrc is but one path to fbllou': To veneratcthe ThrceJer','els."

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Then thc Iclderly] brahmacarinaskedPurc Givi'rg, "You have nevcr seenthe Buddha or the Sarirgha,nor have you heard thc l)harma. Hor,"'can vou have such laith in them?" Pure Giving replicd to thc brahmacirin, "Sevcn days altcr I u'as born, rs I lay on a gold-legged bcd in the lofty palacc, I saw fivc l.rundredgods t1r'ing in thc air, praising the countlcssmerits of the tsuddha, thc Dharma, and thc Sarhgha.I heard their cvery word. Then a god, who had 'ever sccn the Buddha or the sarirgha or heard the l)harma, asked thc other gods, 'What is the Buddha likc?' percerving nry owrl thoughts, and wishing to give joy to the god who had asked the question, the other eods answeredin vcrse: 'T'he

hair of the tsuddha is rcddish-blue, Clcan, glossy, and curling to the right. His face, like a full moon, is the color Of a hr.rndrcd-pctalled lotus flower. The snow-white singlc hair betwccn his eyebrows Spiralsto thc right; To all it is delightful to bchold. His brows curvc over his eycs. Likc black bccs surrounding bluc lotus flowers. His jaws are like those of a lion; His cycs rove like thosc of a king of cattlc; His lips are thc color of a bright rcd gourd; His teeth are white, closc, cven, As ordcrly as a line of flying gccse. His tongue is so broad atd long, It could cover his face. He spcaks with pcrfect clarity; His voicc givesjoy to all who hear it. It rescmblesthc song of a peacock, A swan, a lute of lapis lazuli, A kinnara's bell, a kalavinka bird,6 A cuckoo, ajivajivaka bird,7 Or a musical instrument of any kind. His roar is like that of a lion; He soundly refutcs all arguments I

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Ott Emprtnr.ss And eradicatcsall defilements. His truthful words shatter cvcry wrong vlew' Encirclcd by an assemblY' Hc can resolve all queriesand doubts' Never erroneous,but gcntle and flexible, He gladdens and convinccs the audiencc' Steering clear of the two extremes' the middle way' Correctly he teaches ' He speaksin an cver-pleasantvoice, To the delight of all who hear him; He ncver flattcrs or distorts, And from his sPeecheach hearer Derivcs an understandingof his own' The Buddha's rvords are adorned with wisdom, Like a garland woven of wonderful flowers' His His His His neck is round; arms arc long and straight; paims arc flat and clearly marked with whcel-signs; fingers, long and slender, nails. Have coPPer-colored The Buddha's bodY is sturdY, well-rounded; Balanced, ar-rd His waist is slender, Incurving like that of a lion; His navel, decP and round' His malc organ is retractcd, Like that of a stallion. ' Like a mountain of gold, his bodY Is as robust as that of a dragon or an elephant' From each pore a hair grows, Pointing upward and spiraling to the right' He has evcn hipbones and calves like a dccr's' His ankles gcntly curve, with bones firmly joined' His soles are fully rounded and clearly marked With wheels of a thousand sPokes.'

,,Brahmacarin, at rhat time, the gods in the air praised the Tathegata thusly. 'The Tathagata, the worthy one, ferries all sentient beings over to They also said, the other shore. Hc protccts them with great kindnessand compassion'like a great king of healers. He is not affected by aversion or attachment, just as a lotus is not

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soiled by the mire from which it grows. What we have menrioned is only an insignificant fraction of the merits of the World-Honored One.' "Brahmacarin, seven days after I was born, I hcard of the true merits of the World-Honorcd One. From that time on, I havc not slcpt, and I havc not felt at all the stir of desire, hatrcd, or annoyance. From that rimc on, I have not been attached to my parents, brothers, sisters,rclatives, u'ealth, treasures,necklaces, clothes, citics, towns, gardens,or pavilions, or even nv own body and lifc. I have been doing but one decd: remaining mindful of the Buddha. I go to any place where thc Tathagatais teaching the Dharma, and listen attentivcl\'.8I absorb and remember all he tcachcs,never missing a singlc sentence lr,'ordor in meaning. in Brahmacirin, I seeBuddhas, World-Honored Oncs, day and night. Brahmacirin, I never get tired of contemplating the tsuddha, never fr:el satiated with hearing the Dharma, and never becomc weary of making offerings to the Sarhgha." When Pure Giving had thus praised the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sarhgha, all the five hundred brahmins, including the cldest, Brahma, brought forth suprenrebodhicitta. Thcn, Pure Giving got down from her carriagc and walked toward the llodhisattvas a'cl Sravakas.whcn she reachedthem, shc bowed with her head at the feet of each one. Thc' shc approachcd the Virtuom Sa.ipr:t.r with great respect,and st..d bclbrc him, saying, "l am a girl; my intclligcnceis shallow and rny alflictions grcat. I am unrestrained, indulge in rncan things, and am dominated by dcvious thoughts. May thc Virtuous Se.iputra, out of compassion,explain the sr.rbtlc,wonderful Dharma for me, so that afte-rhearing it, I may have benefit in thc long night and cxperiencegreater peaceand happincss." As she was speaking thus, King Prasenajitcame_ Hearing Pure Giving's words, the kirrg askeclher, "Yor,r lack no pleasures;why do you look sad?Why do yoLr not sleep,or cnjoy the amusementsof thc-world?" King Prasenajit thcn spoke in verse to his daughter:

"You are as fair as a celestialmaiden; After bathing, you anoint yoursell, Arrd put on pcrfumed clothes; Y o u h a v e n e c k l a c e a n d c v c r y p r c c i o u so r n a m c n r s Why arc you so sad you cannot sleep? Your country is rich and repletewith treasures; Your parents' authority is absolute; 'What troubles you, that you do not slecp? You arc beloved by your kin And adored by the people, And I am a glorious king. Why, then, are you nor happy?

q{)

E\lprtNrss C)r'What have You sccn or heard That makcs You so melancholY? Oh. r'vhatis it that You wish? tell me." Please Thereupon, Pure Giving answeredher fathcr itl versc: "Leading a householdlifc, Your MajestY, do You not fcel elements,and sensc-orgat'ts') That the aggrcgatcs, Are all fragile? is Mundane existence like a magic trick; Life flccs past without a momerlt's pause' How can one slcep well after taking poison? How can one be joYful whcn dYing? How crn onc expcct to live whilc falling from a clifP So it is to dwcll in the world of appcarancc' If a pcrson lives among scrpcnts' How can hc slecPor lust? The lbur clemctrtsare like poisonoussnakes; from thcnl? How can onc derivc pleasure 'Whcn surrounded by enemics,and hungry, How can one be haPPY? When surrounded by hostile nations' How can you, my fathcr, be at ease? the World-Honorcd Onc, Ever sincc I sar.v I rcsolved to becornca Buddha. Your Majesty, never have I sccn or heard .Ihr, a Bodhisattva rclaxes his effbrts for an instant "l()

1 1

II
Then Pure Giving said to Sarip.rtr", "Virtuous one, I r,l'ant to ask you onc qucstion; may you take pity or1me and explail the answer to mc. Thc World-Honored One says that you stand first in wisdom. Is this wisdom conditioncd or utrcondiIfit is conditioned, it is illusory and deceptive,not rcal. Ifit is an unconditionecl? dharma, it does not arise, and a dharma which does not arisc docs not tior1ed originate. Bccause it does not originatc, virtuous ol1c, your wisdom does t-tot " cxist.

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Sariputrawas renderedspcechless. The Virtuous Maudgalytyana asked Serip.rt.", "Virruous onc, why do you not answer Pure Giving's qucstion?" Sariputra replied to Maudgalyayana,"This maiden does not ask about conditioned things. She inquires about the ukimate trurh.rl The ultinratc trurh is bevond spcech.Therefore, I cannot answer in words." Then Pure Giving said to Maudgalyayana, "Virruous one, the WorldHonored Onc says that you stand first in the wiclding of miraculous powers. Virtuous one, whcn using your miraculouspowers, do you have senticntbeiugsin n-rindor dharmas in mind? If you have senticnt beings in mind, r'our miraculous powcrs cannot bc real, because scntient beings are unreal. If you have dharnrasin nrind, considcr that dharmas do not change [by thcir ultimate naturcl. Since thev Llo not change, Iall dharmas, including your miraculouspowers,]are unattainable; bcing unattainable,they are bcyond discriminations." Thc Virtuous Maudgalyayanawas also renderedspeechlcss. Mahaka6yapa askedMaudgalyayana,"Virruous onc, why do you nor answer PrrreGiving's qucstion?" Maudgalyiyana replied, "This maidcn's questionabout miraculouspowers is ':.rscd not on discrimination, but on the Tathagatas'cnlightenment,which defies .,--rron and discriminat'ion.It cannot be answercdin words." Thcn Purc Giving said to Mahiki6yapa, "Virruous one, thc World-Honorcd L)nc sx.vsthat you starrd first in the practice of austerities.Virtuous one, aftcr =::arningthe eightfold libcration, if you accept-or for an instant think of acccpt:::r-ofterings from sentient beings out of compassion for them, how do you .::::ncl to repay such favors? Do you repay then with your body, or with your ::.:nd? If you fintcnd to] rcpay them with your body, you certainly cannot do so, :. : the body is ncutral by naturc, and is not differerrtfrom grasscs, trees, walls, :..,.. c,r gravel. If you [intend to] repay them with your mind, you also cannot do .. . tor the mind charrges incessantly from momcnt to moment. Bcsidcsbody and ::'.:rJ. there is only thc unconditioncd. If all that remains is the unconditioned, .,. rcpa,vs ho the favors?" MahakaSyapa was also rendercdspeechless. The Virtuous Subhnti asked Mahaka6yapa,"Why do you not answcr Pure ' : ' .n g ' s q u e s t i o n ? " Maheka5yapa replied to Subhuti, "This maidcn's questionis about the reality : -:larrnas.It cannot bc answercdin words." Thcn Pure Giving said to Subhuti, "Virtuous onc, rhe World-Honored Onc :r\'s rhat you stand first among those who do not cngage in disputes. Docs the i'rlctlcc ofnondisputation have the nature ofexistcnce or the natllre ofsuchness? lf YOLr silv it has the nature of suchness, consider that suchness charactcrizcdby is tt.tthcr arisirrgnor cessation. What is characterized neither arising nor ccssatlon by .;nnot be-diflerentiatcd.l2Whrt cannot bc differentiatcdis suchncss itself. What is such'essirsclf is devoid of action. what is devoid of action is bevond specch.what

Ow EltprtNrss i-r bcvont'l speechis inconceivable.What rs inconceivabletransccndscxpression.If \.1; -il\ nondisputation has the nature of existencc,consiclcrthat existenccis by r;.ili;:i rlluson' and deceptivc. What is illusory and deceptiveis not practiccd by s.lrlrts. T1-re Virtuous Subhnti was also rendercd speechlcss. asked Subhuti, "Why do vou llot :llls\\ierPurc GivPurrrarnaitrayantputra lng s qLlestion?" replicd to P[rnamaitrayaniputra, "It standsto reason that I should Sr-rbhhti is kecping siler-rt my only dciight. Furthcrmore, this sav nothing in reply, bccause rnaiden'squestion is about the Dharna which is apart from play-words. Vhatever ans\l/crI may give will bc wrong. To say nothing about the nature of l)harma is the practicc of nondisputation." "Virtuous one, thc WorldThen Purc Giving said to Purnamaitrayanrputra, the l)harma teachers.Whell you Honorcd One says that yott stand first anlong teach, do you tcach the doctrine that there arc statesand rcalnrs, or thc doctrinc that thcrc are l1o strtes or rcalms?Iiyou teachthat there arc statcsand rcalms, you only ordinary peoplc teach that arc the same as an ordinary pcrson. Why? Because thcrc are statcsand rcalnts. In this regard, you do not go beyond thc doctrinc ofan ordinary pcrson. If [you teach] thc abscnceof statcsatrd realms, [you teach that] nothing exists.If nothing cxists,how can you be callcdthe first among the Dharma ? teachers " Prlrnamaitriyaniputra,too, was rcndcred speechlcss. "Why do you not answcr Thc Virtuous Rcvata asked Pirr]amaitrayar]iputra, Pure Giving's qucstion?" Purnamaitriyanrputra replied to Revata, "This maiden docs not ask about conditioncd things, but about thc ultimate truth. The ultimatc truth is bcyond speech.Thereforc, there is no way to answcr." Thcn Pure Giving said to Revata, "Virtuous one, thc World-Honored Onc says that you stand first among thosc who Practicemeditation. When you Practice nrcditation, do you rcly on your mind or not? If you rely on your mind to enter nreditation, thcn your mcditation is unrcal, since your n-rind is unreal, like an ilLrsion. If you enter mcditation without relying on your mind, then such external trces, branchcs,leaves,flowers, and fruits should also be ablc to objects as grasscs, achicvc meditation. Why? Bccausethey too have no mind." The Virtuous Revata was also rendcredspecchless. The Virtuor.rs Aniruddha askcd Revata, "Virtuous onc, why do you t-rot answer Pure Giving's qucstioll?" l{evata replicd to Aniruddha, "This maiden's question bclongs in thc tsuddha's domain. A Sravakacannot answcr her." Pure Giving said further, "Arc the l)harma of Buddhas and the l)harma of Sravakas dilfcrent? lf thcy were diffcrcnt, then thc unconditioned would be split practicethe unconditioned.An unconditioneddharma into tu.o. All saintsand sages does not arise. If it does not arise, it is not dualistic. If it is not dualistic, it is

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is itself, for suchness not dualistic. Therefore, Virtuous Revata, how can suchncss say that?" ).ou Then Pure Giving said to Aniruddha, "Virtuous one, the World-Honored One saysthat you stand first among those who have the dcva-eye.Virtuous one, is an object seen with thc deva-eyc cxistcnt or noncxistcnt? If .vou regard what you seeas existent, then you take the view of eternalism.Iivou reqard what you seeas nonexistent, then you take thc view of nihilism. Apart fron-r the two extiemes, vou see nothing." The Virtuous Aniruddha was also rendcredspeechless. The Virtuous Ananda asked Aniruddha, "Virtuous one, n'hv do 1'ou not answer Pure Giving's qucstion?" Aniruddha rcplied to Ananda, "This maiden's question is aimcd at destroying all arbitrary terms; therefore,it cannot be answeredin arbitrary terms." Then Pure Giving said to Ananda, "Virtuous one, the World-Honored One savs that you stand first among the learned. Is your knowledge that of the real rlcaning of things, or that of words? If it is knowledge of the real mcaning of things, consider that the real meaning is beyond speech.What is beyond speech cannot be known through the auditory consciousness. What cannot be known through the auditory consciousness cannot be expressed speech.Ifyour knowlby .'dqe is that of words, [it is meaningless,for] the World-Honored One says that one should rely on the ultimate meaning of a discourse, not on mere words. 'fherefore, Virtuous Ananda, you are not iearned, nor do you understand the r,rltrmatc meaning." The Virtuous Ananda, too, was renderedspeechless. Dharma Prince Manju6ri asked the Virtuous Ananda, "Virtuous onc, why lo vou not answer Pure Giving's question?" Ananda answered, "This maiden asks about the learning which has nothing ro do with words; thcrcforc, it cannot be explainedby words. She inquires about :quality. Equality is not the mind, bccauseit has nothing to do with mental tunctions. This doctrine is beyond those in the stageof learning;13 how can I say rnvthing about it in reply? It is in the domain of thc other shore reached by Tathigatas, the Dharma Kings."

III
I:cn Purc Giving said to the Dharma Prince ManjuSri, "The World-Honorcd One ...r's that \,ou stand first among thc Bodhisattvas of profound understanding.Is . -.ur understandingprofound because you understandthe profundity ofthe twelve :::ks of dependent origination or becauseyou understand thc profundity of the ..-:rnrate truth?l4 If it is because you understandthe profundity of the twelve links . :-Jependent origination, consider that no sentient being can fathom the profundity

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of the trvelve links of dcpendent origination.t5 Why? Becausethe twelve links of dcpendent origination neither come nor go and cannot be known by the visual, The twelve links auditorr', olfactory, gustatory, tactile, or mental consciousnesses. oi dependent origination are not activc phenomena. If your understanding is protound becauseyou understand the profundity of the ultimate truth, consider that the profundity of the ultimate truth is no profundity, nor is there anyone to i a p p r e h e n dt . " ManjuSri said to Pure Giving, "My understanding is [said to be] profound becauseI know] the profundity of the beginning point of all things." Pure Giving said to Manju5ri, "The beginning point of all things is not a point; therefore, your knowledge is nonknowledge." Manjudri said to Pure Giving, "lt is because the inapprchensible can be rcalized by nonknowledge that I can speak of the beginning point of all things." Pure Giving said to ManjuSri, "The inapprehensible defies spccch; it transcends the means of speechand nothing can be said about it." Manju5ri said to Pure Giving, "What is said is said in arbitrary words." Pure Giving said to ManjuSri, "Thc enlightenment of Buddhas transcends words and speech,hence it is inexpressiblc." No Deluded Views, "Good man, you Then Pure Giving said to tsodhisattva 'Whcn by I rcach Srivasti, I will causeeverything seer.r the sentient beings in said, the city who deserve supreme enlightenmcnt to bccornc a Buddha-image, and in this way I will cause them to attain suprcmc cnlightcnment without fail.' When you see the Tathigata, do you see him by his physical body or by his Dharmabody? If you see him by his physical body, then you do not see the Buddha, for 'Thosc who scck me by form or sound hold wrong the World-Honored One says, views;tnthey do not [really] seeme.'If you seethe Tathigata by his Dharma-body, [you do not seehim, either, forl the Dharma-body is invisiblc. Why? The Dharmabody is beyond the reach of vision and hcarirrg, and is intangible; therefore, it cannot be seenor heard." Bodhisattva No Deluded Views was renderedspeechless. Bodhisattva Precious Form askcd Bodhisattva No Deluded Views, "Good man, why do you not answer Pure Giving's question?" BodhisattvaNo Dcluded Views replied, "Pure Giving asksabout the Dharma apart from entity. The Dharma apart from cntity is inexprcssible. Therefbre, I do not give an answer." Pure Giving said, "Good man, I do r-rotask you about the l)harma apart from cntity. The Dharma apart from entity cannot bc put into a question. When 1'ou have complcted your learning, you will be able to answcr my question without hindrance."17 Thcn Pure Giving said to BodhisattvaPreciousForm, "Good man, you said, 'When I reach Sravasti, I will causeprodigious quantities of the seven treasuresto appear in the houses of all the people in Sravasti, regardlessof caste.' Is your thought of giving treasuresto people defiled with attachment or not? If it is defiled

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rvith attachmcnt, you are thc same as an ordinary pcrson. Why? tsccauseordinary people have attachment.If there is no attachment,there is no giving of treasures." Bodhisattva PreciousForm was renderedspeechless. Then, Pure Giving said to Bodhisattva Exempt from Miscrable Realms, ''Good 'Whcn man, you said. I r c a c h S r a v a s t r I w i l l c e u s ct h c s e n t i e n tb e i n g si n . the city who are destincd to fall to the miserable planes of existence [after death] to undcrgo slight sufferingsin their presentlives [instead]and be libcrated quickly.' Now, the Tath-gata says that karmas are inconceivable. Can inconccivable karmas be eliminated quickly? To say that they can be eliminated contradictsthe Tathagata'swords. Ifthcy cannot [evcn] bc known, then how can you causethe people to suffer slight pain and have their karmas eliminated quickly? If .vou could climinate a karma, you would be the master of a masterless dharna [i.e., karma]; you u'ould also be capableof not eliminating it."r8 Bodhisattva Exempt from Miserable Realms said to Pure Giving, "By the power of nry vow, I can causethe people to suffer less for their karmas and to have their karmas eliminated quickly." Pure Giving said to Exempt from MiserableRealms, "All dharmasare suchnessby nature; they cannot be affectcdby thc powcr of a vow." .BodhisattvaExcmpt from Miserable Realms, too, was rendcrcd speechless. Then, Ptrre Giving said to Bodhisattva Frcc frorn All Covcrs, "Good man, 'l vou said, will causcthc scnticnt beings in the city of Srivastr to completely rid themselvesof the five covers.' You thirrk that, after entering dhy-na, you can c:ruse the sentientbeings not to be cnvclopcd in thc 6vc covcrs. When you are in dh,vina,is it you or others who achievefreedom?If it is you who achievefreedom, vou cannot impart it to others, as no such dharma is accessible another. Then, to hos. can you rerrove the five covers of others whcn you cntcr dhyana? If it is othc-rswho achicvc frccdom. thcn vou cannot benefit them at all." Bodhisattva Free from All Covers said to Purc Giving, "I can do that becauseI put kindnessfirst." I'urc Giving said to Bodhisattva Free from All Covers, "All Buddhas practrcc kindncss. Good rnan, is thcrc any Buddha who is not worried about the five covers of sentient beings? However, there still arc scnticnt bcings afflicted by the B l l ' i rc j c o v e r si n s o r r r e u d d h a - l a r r d s . " l ' l Bodhisattva Free from All Covers was rendcrcd spccchlcss. Thcn Purc Giving said to Bodhisattva Avalokiteivara, "Good man, you 'I ..rid, will causcthc irnprisoncd scnticnt bcings in tht- city of Sravastito be ficcd quickly, those who are about to be killed to be saved, and those who arc frighttncd to become f,earless.'Now, concerning fear [and fearlessness, ctc.], do you cling to thosc ideas or not? If you do, [you are not diflerent from] an ordinary person, who also clir-rgs them. Thcrefore, this cannot be. If you do not cling to to rhese ideas, you cannot give [the pcople fearlessness]. you cannot givc thcm If how can you remove Ifcarl from thcm?" tearlessness, Bodhisattva Avalokiteivara was rendcrcd soccchlcss.

u6'

ON ErlprrNEss

Bodhisarn'a Adorncd with Eloquencc asked Bodhisattva Avalokite(vara, "Good nran. u-hv do you not answer Purc Giving's question?" replied, "This mardcn does not ask about things Bo.lhisattvaAvalokiteSvara therefore, I can give tto answcr." that arl:e ancice'asc; Pure Giving asked Bodhisattva Avalokite5vara,"Can one ask about things rh.rrncrthcr arisenor ccase?" repliedto Purc Giving, "Concerning what neither BodhisattvaAvalokiteSvara nor ceases, there is no word or specch." rnscs Avalokiteivara, "Whcrc thcrc arc no words, Pure Giving said to tsodhisattva oncs coin arbitrary words without attachnerlt. Just as l)harma-nature is thc rviscunobstructcd, so the wise ones are not obstructcd by r.r'ords." Then Pure Giving said to Bodhisattva Adorned vr''ithEloqucnce, "Good 'l you said, will causethe sentientbcings in the city of Srlvasti who see me man, in to obtain eloqucnce so that they can exchange qucstions and ansr.vers wonderful this eloquenceyou intend to give, docs it arise verses.'Good natr, conccrning f f r o m a w a r e n c s so r f r o m p a s : i o n l ?l f i t a r i s e s r o n r a w a r c n e s si.t i s n o t q u i c s c c n t , l and watchfulness.If it arisesfrom as all conditioncd dharmas arisefrom awareness passion,then what you give is illusory." Bodhisattva Adorned with Eloquence said to Purc (iiving, "This was my vow when I first brought forth bodhicitta: I wished that all those who saw mc would obtain cloqucncc so that they could exchange questions and answers tn " marvelous vcrscs. Pure Giving askcd Bodhisattva Adorncd u,ith Eloquence, "Good man, do you still havc with you the vow that you madc whcn you first brought forth bodhicitta? If you do, you cntcrtain a view of eternalisrn.If you do not, you callnot give eloquenceto people. Therefore, your wish is useiess." Bodhisattva Adorncd with Eloquencewas renderedspeechless. No Dcluded Deeds, "Good man, yott Then, Pure Givirrg said to tsodhisattva 'I said, will causethe sentient beings in Sr5vastiwho see me to havc no deiusive without liil.'Does this enlightcnment vicws and to attain suprenle enlightenmer-rt exist or not? If it exists,it is a conditionedenlightcnmetrt,aud you hold an extreme vicw. If it does not exist, it is illusory, and you hold an extrenle view just the same " replicd to Purc Giving, "The propcr name Bodhisattva No l)eluded L)eeds2o for bodhi is wisdorn." Pure Giving asked BodhisattvaNo Deludcd Dccds, "Does this wisdom arise but or not? If it arises,it is not thc product of proper cor-rtemplatior-r a conditioned known to ordinary peoplc. If it does t-totarisc, for that reasonit cannot awarclless exist; if it does not cxist, it cannot bc distinguishedIas supreme enlightcnment]. Therc are no such distinctionsas thc bodhi ofBodhisattvas, the bodhi of Srivakas, the bodhi of Pratyekabuddhas,and thc bodhi of Tathagatas. Ordinary people discriminate about bodhi, while the wisc do not." Bodhisattva No l)eluded Deeds was renderedspccchless.

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and the grcat Thcn, thc Virtuous Subhuti said to thc othcr virtuous Sravakas SriBodhisattvas, "Virtuous or1cs,we had better go back. Wc need not go int<-t vasti to beg for food. Why? What Pure Givine says is thc Dharma-food of the rvise. TodaJt, wc can enjoy Dharma-food and do g'ithout a nreal." Pure Giving said to Subhuti, "It is said that all dharmas are devoid of superiority or inferiority. Among such dharmas, tbr u'hat clo you go begging? Virtuous one, the doctrinc of transcendingplay-u'ords is thc practicc of a monk. I)o not delight in play-words. The doctrine of transccnding plav-rvords is the doctrine of nonreliancc, beyond tl-redomain of thosc u.ho relv on things. Saints and sagcspracticeit without regrcssion." the fir'c hur-rdred Therr the cight plrcatSrivakas;the eight great Bodhisattvas; and othcrs brahmins, including the eldest, Brahma; Purc Giving; King Prasenajit; s'ent together to the Buddha. Whcn thcy arrived, they bowed down r'vith thcir heads at the lluddha's feet, circumambulatcdhim three tinres to the right, u.ithonc side, and sat down. Pure Givirrg made seven more circumambularlrcrv t<.1 rions, bowcd down with ircr hcad at thc Buddha's feet once again, stood with hcr p l l r n s j o i n c d . a n d a s k e dr h e t s u d d h ai t t v e r s c : l l

"I ask thc Pccrlcss,Honored Onc, The Worthy One of infinite renown, Thc L)nc who bestows thc arnbrosial joy: What is thc tsodhisattva-path? Seatedundcr a bodhi-tree, How can onc subclue demons, thc torturcrs? . May the Most Compassionate, Honored One Explairr thc practices compatiblewith bodhi. . . . How does one cultivate Pure, *'ondcrlul, supcrior samadhis? IIow can one who practicesthe Dharma Acquirc rniraculouspowers? Now I entrcat thc World-Honored One 'l'o explain to us the right practice. . . . How can one acquire excellent fcaturcs, And bc cndowed with wealth and wisdom? . How can onc lcarn to recall The past livcs of self and others?. The World-HonorcdOne is omniscicnt And knows thc past, present,and future. May the most wise, Honored One of the World Explain the practicesof a Bodhisattva."

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ON EuprINsss

Then the World-Honored One praisedPure Giving, saying, "Excellent, excellent! In ordcr to give peace,happiness,and benefit to sentient beings, and extend pity to humans and gods, you ask the Tathagata questionsabout the practicesof great Bodhisattvas. Listen attentively and think well about what I say. I will explain the various answersto you." Purc Giving and the whole assembly said in unison, "Yes, we will listen " with pleasure. The World-Honored One then said, "If a Bodhisattva achievesfour things' he can conquer demons. What are the four? (1) Not to resent or envy others' gains; (2) not to sow discord among people; (3) to persuade as many sentient beings as possible to plant good roots; and (4) to be kind to all beings."22 To repeat this doctrine, the World-Honored One spoke in vcrse: "Be free of rcsentment and envY; Sow not discord anong others; Tcach many scntient beings To plant roots of virtue; Cultivate a heart of great kindness That extends to all in the ten directionscan subduedcmons." . One who so oractices The tsuddha continued, "lf a Bodhisattva achievcs four things, he can acquirc samadhis. What are the four? (1) To abhor sarhs-ra; (2) constantly to delight in solitude; (3) to strive perpetually for progress; and (4) to accomplish his undertakings skillfully. To repeat this doctrine, the World-Honored One spoke in verse: "To dislike all forms of rebirth; To live alone, like [the single horn] Of a rhinoceros; To be vigorous, as a good person should be; And to accomplish one's endeavorsThe wise who can achieve these four superb things Are close to bodhi.

I)rscounsr oN Rranv EroqutNcE . Onc who seeksthe supremc Dharma And lives with a tranquil mind Can acquirc various q1-qlidhis And realizethe supreme bodhi, Which is in the domain of Buddhas."

89

The Buddha conrinucd, "Pure Giving, if a Bodhisattvaachievcsfour things, he can acquire the power to perform miracles. What are thc four? (1) (2) (3) (4) To feel lightnessin body; to feel lightness in mind; to be attached to nothing; and to regard the four elcmentsas space."

Then the World-Honorcd One spoke in verse to rePeat this doctrine: "The wise are light in mind As wcll as light in bodY. They arc dctached from everything ' And rcgard the four elementsas siacc' Having achicvcd these four things, By their power to be anywhere At will, instantaneously, They can appear In billions of lands in space, And makc offerines to all the lJuddhas therc." four things, The Buddha continued, "Pure Giving, if a Bodhisattvaachieves are the four? he will obtain exquisitc fcatures. What (1) To eradicate the fllth ofpassions and avoid actionsofanger; (2) to enjoy cleaning the stipas and templcs of Buddhas, and offering them beautiful ornamcnts; (3) to maintain a respectabledeportment, kecp the prccepts at all times, and givc greetings first; and (4) not to mock Dharma tcachers,but to regard thcm as World-Honorcd Ones." The World-Honorcd One spoke in verse to repeat this doctrine: "Be not angry with others, And renounceimpure deeds. Cleansc the templcs of the Vy'orld-Honored Ones, And respectfully offer them precious decorations.

9()

ON EuprrNlss Ah.vays observe thc pure PreccPts, And be thc first to give greetings. Hinder not the l)l-rarmateachcrs, But rcspcct them as if they were Buddhas. lf you perform thcse fcrur good actions, You are callcd a valiant otre,2'l Atrd will havc the most cxcclletrtfcaturcs, To tl.redelight of a1lwho seeyou.".

four things, Thc Buddha continued, "Purc Giving, if a Bodhisattvaachieves lic q,ill acquire grcat wisdom. What rrc the four? (i) Not to bcgmdge the Dharma to others; (2) to explain to others how to eliminate faults, so that thcy may bc frce of misg'ivingsor rcgrcts; (3) to persuadethosc who strivc hard for progrcssnot to stop their cxcrtions; and (,1) to clelightir-rpracticing thc doctrinc of cmptincss." Thcrr, to repeatthis doctrine, thc World-Honorcd One spokc in verse: "Bc not miscrly with thc true l)harma; Teach othcrs, and thus rcnlove Their rnisgivings and rcgrets; Give constant guidancc to seutientbcings; Follow the practiccsof cmptiness Taught by the Buddhas. person who cnjoys pcrformitrg these four dccds A 'uvise Can gainlwiidom and renowii... Understanding well the words of Buddhas, Hc rvill soon becomc an Honorcd One Among humans and gods." four things, Thc Buddha continucd, "Pure Giving, if a tsodhisattvaachieves hc will be able to rccall his own past livcs and those of others. What arc the four? (1) (2) (3) (4) To hclp forgctful peoplc to recall what they have learncd and recited; always to speak in a pleasantvoice, giving othersjoy; always to give thc Dharma, without ncglect; and so to entcr dhy-nas with skill, as thc boy Sudhanadoes,24 that one may bc nirvina." and proceedtoward liberatcd from sarhsara

The World-Honored Onc spoke in vcrse to repeat this doctrine:

I)rscounse oN lkaoy EloqutNce "To causcothcrs to remember what they forget, To speak always in a pleasantvorcc, To be tirelessin tcaching thc Dharnra, And to cultivatc dhyinas constantl\'One who accomplishcs thesc four thinss Will be able to recall events Countlesskalpasin thc past, And soon apprehcndthe Buddha's don'rain.".

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Then Purc Giving said to the Buddha, "World-Honored One, I shall follow all the Bodhisattvas'practicesyou have taught. If I fail to follon' even one of the practicesthat the World-Honored One has taught, then I will be deceiving the tsuddhas now teaching thc Dharma in the ten directions." Thereupon, thc Virtuous Maudgalyayanasaid to Pure Giving, "How darc vou make a iion's roar in front of the Buddha! Do you not know that thc practiccs of a Bodhisattva are difficult to follow? No one can ever attain supreme enlighterlment in a female form." Pure Giving said to thc Virtuous Maudgalyayana, "Now I will make a sinccrc dcclarationin thc prcscnccof the Buddha: if I shall unfailingly become a tsuddha, a Tathagata, a I'crfcctly Enlightened One free of clinging, a WorldHonored One, a Tcacher of Gods and Humans, ther-rby virtue of my sincere declaration, may the billion-world universe quake in the six ways, without disrurbing the sentient beings therein. If all my life I can follow the Bodhisattvas' practices that the World-Honored One has taught, may cclcstial flowers shower irom the sky, nray hundreds of thousar-rds instruments give forth music sponof taneously, ar-rdmay I be changed from a girl into a boy of sixteen, all becauseof " this sinccrc dcclaration. As soon as Pure Giving made this sincere declaration, the billion-world universe quaked in the six ways, celestial flowers showered from the sky, hundreds of thousands of celestial instruments gavc forth music spontaneously, and Purc Giving changcd from a girl into a boy of sixteen. Then thc Virtuous Maudgaly5yar.rabared his right shoulder, knelt on his right knec, joined his palms toward the Buddha, and said, "World-Honored One, r-row I pay homage to all the Buddha's Bodhisattvas, whether they are novices or already at the bodhi-site. How marvelous, World-Honorcd One, that this maiden can have such awcsome merits and miraculous powers to make great declarations and fulfil them right away!" The Buddha said to Maudgalyayana,"So it is, so it is, just as you say. All Bodhisattvas, whether they are novices or already at the bodhi-site, are worshipped by gods and humans as the stipas and temples of the Buddha. Surpassing all Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas, thcy are the unexcelled fields of blessings for humans and gods."2s

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Aftcr that, the World-Honored One smiled graciously and, as all Buddhas do when they smile, emitted from his mouth green, yellow, red, white, violct, and crystalline lights. The lights illuminated innumerable, boundless Buddha-lands, outshining the brilliance of the palacesof gods and demons, and the lights of suns and moons. Then the lights rcturned and enteredthe top of thc tsuddha'shead. Seeingthis, the Virtuous Ananda rose from his seat,adjustcdhis robe, bared his right shoulder, knelt on his right knee, joined his palms toward the Buddha, and spoke in verse:

"ln a voicc like that of dragons, gods, or Brahmi; Like a lion's roar, thc song of a kalavinka bird, Or a peal of thunder, You eradicatedesire,hatred, and ignorance, Giving joy to those who hear. May the One who has the ten powers Explain the causeof his smile. The six quakeshave disturbed not a soul, And the rain of celestialflowers Brought joy to all who beheld it. The World-Honored One vanquishcs Followers of the deviant paths, jackals. Just as a lion subdues May the World-Honored Onc tell us why he smiles. The reasor-r The brilliancc of a trillion suns, moons, and pearls; The brilliancc of gods, dragons, and BrahmaAll are outshone by thc purc lights Emanating from the mouth of Sakyamuni Buddha. The [singlc] curled hair between his eyebrows Is as soft and impcccable As a cclcstial garment, A n d s h i n e sl i k e a j a d e - w h i t c 2 tm o . r n . Thc whitc hair glows with a light Illuminating countless Buddha-lands. May thc Buddha explain the reason for this light. The World-Honored One's teeth arc spotless,clean, Even, well-aligned, close, and whitc as snow. From the Buddha's mouth emanatelights: Green, yellow, red, white, violet, and crystalline.

Drscounsr oN Rraov Eroqunxcr Worlds may decay, And suns and moons may fall; Heaven and earth may be filled, Leaving no spaceto move; Fire may change into water, And water into fire; And the great ocean may dry upBut the Tathtgata's words \Vill remain forever truc If all the sentientbeings In the ten directions at Became Pratyekabuddhas the same instant, Each with millions of different questions Accumulated through billions of kaipas; And if they came together to the Tath-gata To question him simultaneously, Each in a different language, Thc Tath-gata could rcsolvc Their innumcrablc doubts, And arrswcrall therr qucstions Immediately, in one voice. The Supreme, Honored One Who has achicvcdwisdom, Arrived at the other shore, Adorned himself with all-knowing wisdom, A n d a c q u i r e dt h e t h i r t y - t w o a u s p i c i o u si g n s t And grcat, awcsomc rnc'1i15May he explain why he smiles, And whose Buddhahood he will prophesy. This all gods and humans wish to hear. May thc Tath-gata cxplain why hc smilcs."

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Then the Buddha asked Ananda, "Did you see Bodhisattva Pure Giving shakethe billion-world universeby her sinceredeclaration?" Ananda replied to the Buddha, "Yes, I did." The Buddha said, "Since she resolved to attain bodhi, Bodhisattva Pure Giving has performcd deedsleadingto supremeenlightenmentfor eighty thousand incalculablekalpas. Bodhisattva Purc Giving had been treading the Bodhisattvapath for sixty kalpas whcn thc Dharma Prince Manju5ri resolved to become a Bodhisattva. Ananda, to match thc mcrits and magnificent attributes of BodhisattvaPure Giving's [futurcl Buddha-land,it would take all the merits and magnif-

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ON E,tuprINlss

rcent attnbutes of thc [futurel Buddha-landsof thc cighty-six thousand great Bo. d h r ' r t r r . r : . i r r c l u d i n gM a n j u : i r i" r 7 Thereupon, the Virtuous Maudgalyayanasaid to Bodhisattva Pure Giving, "\-rrruous nraidcn,2s you resolvcdto attain supremecnlightenmentlong ago. Why tlo vou not changefrom a fcmale into a malc?" BodhisattvaPure Giving said to Maudgalyayana,"The World-Honored One savs that vou stand first in the achievementof miraculous powers. Why do you r.rotchange from a male into a female?" The Virtuous Maudgalyayanawas renderedspeechless. "One docs Bodhisattva Purc Giving said to thc Virtuous Maudgaly-yar.ra, not attain suprcmc enlightenment by mcans of a female body, nor a male onc. Why? Bodhi docs not come rnto being; thcrcfore, it is beyond attainment."2e

V
Then ManjuSrr, Prir-rceof the L)harma, said to the tsuddha, "How extraordinary, World-Honored ()ne, that -tsodhisattval'ure Giving can understand well the cxtremely profound Dharma and fulfil all her aspirations the power of her vows!" by Thc Buddha told Manju(ri, "It is so, it is so, just rs you say. Bodhis:rttva ['urc Giving has cultivatcd thc samadhi of cmptincss30undcr six billion Buddhas, and the Realization of thc Nonarising of Dharmas undcr cight billion Buddhas. She has asked three billion tsuddhas about the profound Dharma. She has offered clothing, food, and drink to eight billion lluddhas, and questionedthem about the of Sarnadl-ri the Seal of Ready Eloquence for Differer-rtOccasions"Furthcrmorc, Marrju6ri, suppose a good n1ar1 a good women, for the or sake of bodl-ri,gives away precious treasures enough to fill Buddha-landsas numerous as the sandsof the (ianges. His or her merits are no match for those of one who accepts, practices, reads, recites, and circulates this s[tra, and explains it widely to others. Even writir.rgdown this sutra will result in thc highest, supreme merits, let alone practicirlgit as taught. Why is this so?Because person who does a so can acceptand kecp thc Bodhisattvas'practices leading to bodhi." Manju6ri askedthe tsuddha, "World-Honored One, what should we call this sltra? How shall we uphold it?" The BLrddha told Manju6rr, "This sutra should be called 'A I)iscourse on Ready Eloquence for Different Occasions,'or'A m a d h i . ' Y o u s h o u l du p h o l d i t t h u s . " l)iscoursc on the Door to Sa-

When the Buddha had spokcn this sutra, eight trillion senticnt beings, including gods and humans, resolved to pursuc suprcme enlightenment without regression. Thcn Bodhisattva Adorned with Eloquence asked the Buddha, "WorldHonored One, whcn will tsodhisattvaPure Giving attain supremeenlightenment?"

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The Buddha told Bodhisattva Adorned rvith Eloqucncc, "Good man, Bodhisattva Purc Giving, after she makes oiflrings to more tsuddhas for several kalpas, will bcconre a Buddha named Tathlgata King of Pure Light, the Worthy One, thc Perfectly Enlightened One, the Onc Pcrtcct in Learning and Conduct, the Well-Gone One, thc World-Kno\r'er, the Unexcelled One, the Great Tamer, the Teacher of Gods and Humans, the tsuddha, the Worlcl-Honored One. Hcr [futurc] world will be called ImmeasurableMerits and Glories. In it there will bc no Sravakas or Pratyckabuddhas.It will be rnore splendidlv adorned than any cclcstialpalacc." Hearing in person the Tathagata'sprophecy of hcr att.rinrncntof suprcmc BodhisattvaPurc Giving, her mind purc, was ovcrjovcd. Shc leapcd enligl-rtenment, into thc sky to a height of eight billion palm treesone above another, and emitted a grcat light which illuminated hundreds of thousandsof Imillions ot'l billions of Buddha-lands. Ovcr thc Worid-Honorcd One, the light was transformed into genrs. At cighty-four thousandpreciouscanopiescmbellishedwith various celestial that momcnt, by hcr immcasurablc nriraculouspowcrs, Bodhisattva Purc Giving paid honragc to countlcss Buddhas in thc tcn directions and olfcrcd thc canopics to them. After that, shc returned to the tsuddha and stood to one side. Aftcr hcarirrg thc prophccy of Ruddhahood bcstowed on Bodhisattva Pure Giving, and sccing her miraculous fcat, thc fivc hundrcd brihmins, including thc eldest, Ilrahr-r-rl,dar-rced with ioy and irr unison extollcd thc tsuddha in verse:

"Onc who rcspcctsthc Buddha Will gain the greatest benefit in the world. C)ne who rcsolvcs to attain supremc cnlightcnmcnt Will become a tsuddha, with the highcst wisdom. Wc did t'vil irr orrrprst livcsi Therctbre, we have been born I u f t a n r i l i ew h o h o l d w r o n g v i e w s . s Whcn wc saw thc Buddha and thc Sarirgha, We uttered abusivewords againstthcm. 'Wherr we saw the worthy sons of thc Buddha, W c s a i d t h c y w e r e a r ri n a u s p i c i o u s i g h t . Now, we sincerely repcnt Such vcrbal transgrcssions. If we had not seenthe Tathlgata, The Most Honored One among gods and humans, Wc would havc rcccivcd thc human form in vairr And taken food for humans to no avail. We, together with Pure Giving, Went out to offer sacrifice to the shrine.

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Ott EuprtNrss When she saw the Buddha's sons, She praised them with veneration. Hearing her praisethem so, We reproached her as a fool. Then we questioned her, 'Have you ever seenthe Buddha?' She said in reply, 'Seven days after I was born, I heard the gods extol the tsuddha'sname.' Her praises of the Tathagata Did not differ from the truth; Thus, upon hearing them, Wc made the supreme decision To seek unexcelled bodhi. Hearing the name of the Buddhal We were awakened to our past karma. At once, we came to salute The Savior of the World And to seek the supreme DharmaAfter we made homage to the Buddha, We listened to the uncxcclled Dharma. We see that the Honored Immortal among humans Has forever parted from all sufferings, And that thc Dharma taught by the tsuddha Can truly deliver worldlings [from sarhsara]. We will learn the Dharma, Becauseit is unexcelled. We will listen to the practices of a Bodhisattva, Becausewe wish to obtain the Buddha-Dharma. We should also follow these practices, So that wc may realize the Buddha's path. You have discoursed on the essentials Of the Bodhisattva-pathto emancipationl W., too, will tread this path So that we may win The world's respectand admiration."

I I '

Knowing their sincere desire, the Buddha smiled graciously. Thereupon Ananda said to the Buddha, "Pleasetell us why you smile." The Buddha said to Ananda in verse:

I ) t s c o u R so N R r n o y E r o q u r N c l r "All thesebrahmins, including Brahmt, I Will successively, the same kalpa, in Attain supreme enlightcnment. In their past lives they have made Offerings to five hundred Buddhas. Hereafter, duc to their marvclous deeds, They will seebillions of Buddhas. For eight billion kalpas, No adversitics will befall them. In each ofthese kalpas, They will seebillions of Buddhas; Then they will become Supremc, Honored Ones among gods and humans. Ihey will have the same namc, 'Pure Light,' And an idcntical life span: Eight billion years. Their lands, too, will be the same, Each with a Sarhghaof eight billion bcings. They will deliver countlessbeings; Having benefited the worlds thus, Thcy will enter nirvana, And rcalize ultimate quiescence. "

q7

I I

When the Buddha had spokcn this sutra, Bodhisattva-MahlsattvaPure Giving, .Brahm5, thc brahmaclrins, and peoplc in the assembly, the five hundred Bodhisattvas,King Prascnajit,thc great Srivakas, humans, nonhumans, and the eight divisiorrs of divinitics all rejoiced grcatly in the tsuddha's teaching.

NOTES
. The five covers (scc Numerical Glossary). 2. Thc Chinese text reads E . Dissension should be noted concerning prof. Garma Chang's decision (seeChapter 1, note 16) to translate € hcre as 'dhyana', bccausetwo other Chinese versions (Taisho 338, p.89;339, p.98) use lffi , a transliteration of 'samtdhi', in thc sameplace. (S.L.M.) 3. A star in the constellation Cancer. 4. Literally, "see." 5. This term usually is reserved for Bodhisattvas, but here it is applied to the group of . Srivakas and Bodhisattvas. 'l

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6 . A k . r l . r v i r i k a r r d i s a b i r d d c s c r i b c da s h a v i n g a m e l o d i o u s v o i c c , a n d i s f o u n d i n b s t h c ' r a l l c ' r o i t h c H r m a l a y a s .I t i s s a i d t o s i n e i n t h e s h e l l b e l o r e h a t c h i l r g . -. . \ - 1 i r ' . r 1 i v a kb i r d i s s a i d t o b c a b i r d r v i t h t u ' o h c a d sa n d a s w c e t s i n g i n g t o n e . a I T h r s r p p e a r s t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e e a r l i e r s t a t e n l c n tt h a t P u r c ( ) i v i n g h a s n e v e r s e e nt h c B u . l d h r . H o u c v c r , s h e i s e v i d e n t l y s p c a k i n g h c r e i n t h e s e l r s eo f r c v c l a t i o n , o r s . ' e i n g t h e B u . l J h . r r n l p s v c h i c s t a t e . a s i s i n d i c a t c db c l o r v . 9 L r t e r a l l v , " e n t r a n c e s , " i . c - . , t h c s i x s e n s e - o r g a t rr n d t h c i r s i x o b j c c t s . ( S e e N u s r n c r i c a l( i l o s s a r y , " t w c l v e e n t r a n c e s " ) . q 1 0 . A l t c r n a t e t r a n s l a t i o no f t h i s l i n c : " T h a t a B o c l h i s f , t t \ ' r o c s a s t r a y f o r a n i n s t a n t . " W 1 1 . S e e " T h e I n e x h a u s t i b l e r s d o n r - S t o r e s "( C h a p t c r 9 b c l o u ' ) , n o t e 1 3 . 12. Litcrally, "is equal." i 1 . 1 . r r r o n gt h c c i g h t S r a v r k r , r p p c . r r i r r gr r t h t s : r t r r a .A t t r t t d . t . t r ' t l t c o t t l v u n c w h o A h a d n o t a t t a i n e dA r h a t s h i p , a n d s o * ' a s s t i l l i n t h e s t a g eo f l c a r n i n g . 1 4 . G e n e r a l l ys p e a k i n g ,t h c t w c l v e l i n k s o f d e p e n d e n to r i q i n a t i o n r e f e r t o p h e n o m e n a , ancl thc ultimate truth to nounrcna, but since in the ultimatc sensethc-v are not different, to penetratc and lully understanclonc is to fully rcalizc-the other. The Prajiripirarniti litcrature is full of tl-riskind of dialogue to foster the comprehension of nondistinctions rvithin distinctions, and vicc versa, to reveal thc dccp-rooted clinging to dichotorly within the mind, and t o i n d u c e d e v o t c e st o ' j u m p " t o a h i g h e r p l a n c o f u n i t y o r n o n d i s t i n c t i o n . ( G . C . ) 15. Or: "Considcr that thcrc arc no scntient treingsor twelve links of dcpendcnt origination which constitutc scntientbeings." The Tibetan tcxt hcrc is much simplcr and rnore dircct: "lf it is bccausc the profundity of depeldent gencration is profound that you are [ s a i d t o b e l p r o f b u n d , [ c o n s i d e rt h a t ] t h e r e i s n o d e p e n d e n tg e n e r a t i o na t a l l ! " ( G . C . ) 16. Literally, "extreme views." 17. Herc is a clear statement concerning enlightencd beings who can answcr any w q , u n e x p c c t e do r a b s t r u s e u e s t i o na b o u t e m p t i n e s s ,s u c h n e s so r t h e I ) h a r n . r a - b o d y i t h o u t t h e s l i g h t c s th r s i t a t i o r ro r h i n d r a n c e ,a s m a y b e w i t n e s s e di n n t a n v Z c n s t o r i e s . 1 l J .A l t c r n a t e t r a n s l a t i o n :" l f y o u c o u l d e l i m i n a t ea k a r m a , y o u w o u l d b e t h e m a s t e ro f d t h c n r e s t c r l c s s h a r r n a s .I f a k a r n r a c a n b e e l i r n i n a t e d .t h e n i t c a n a l s o n o t b e e l i m i n a t e d . " T h i s p a r a g r a p hp o i n t s o u t t h e e b s u r d i t y o f e l r r n i n a t i n go r n o t e l i r n i n a t i n ga k a r m a , b y s . q u o t i n g t h c l a t h l i g a t a ' s t a t e n l e n tt h a t k a r n r a sa r e i n c o n c e i v a b l e N o o n e c a n b e t h e m a s t e r o f what he does not know. To eliminate or not to elinrinate sonlething inconceivable is to take a l o n g , a i r . r r l e s s o t i n t h e d a r k , m a k i n g n o s e l l s ea t a l l . ( S . L . M . ) sh 19. This sentLrncc from a diffcrcnt Chincsc vcrsion (Taisho 339, p. 102), in which is thc prcccding qlrcstion clocs not appcar. 20. The Chinese here reads "No paragraph. 21. Wc havc dclctcd many of the qucstions in this section. Sonre were not answered in the full Chinese text; answers to others were deleted in our abridgcmcnt proccss. 22)\Ve have omitted the restatement of the category (e.g., "These four will enable a Bodhisattva to defeat demons") which appearsat the end ofcach paragraph. 23. I.e., a grcat Bodhisattva-241'sudhana is the name of an important character in the AuatainsakaSutra.Although t h i s n a m e i s t h e s a m e , i t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r i t r e l e r s t o t h e s a m e c h a r a c t e r .( G . C . ) 25. The original text reads: "They are the unexcelled fields ofblessing tor all Sravakas Deluded Views," which is thc name of anothcr

lJodhisattva who spoke earlier. We have changed the narne in accordancewith the preceding

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H a n d P r a t y e k a b u d d h a s . " o w c v e r , f o l l o w i n g t w o d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o r r s( T a i s h o 3 3 8 , p . 9 6 ; 3 3 9 , p . 1 0 6 ) , w e h a v e a d o p t e d t h e p r c s e n tt r a n s l a t i o n . 26. Some varieties ofjade are pure n'hite. 27. Here the sltra eulogizes the futurc Buddha-land of Pure Giving as being superior to nr.any future Buddha-lands, including that of Manju5ri. Horvevcr, in the sutra "The P r e d i c t i o n o f M a i i j u S r i ' sA t t a i n n e n t o f B u d d h a h o o d " ( C h a p . 1 t i ) . M a n j u d r i ' s B u d d h a - l a n d i s a l s o p r a i s e da s s u p e r l a t i v e .T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o ns h o u l d b e r c g a r d c d a s O r i e r ) t a lh y p e r b o l e . I t i s a n e x a m p l e o f h o w o n e s h o u l d n o t t r e a t f i g u r e s o r f i g u r a t i v e e x p r e s s l o n sn M a h i y a n a s u t r a s i a s p r e c i s e ,b u t r a t h e r a s r h e t o r i c a lo r s y m b o l i c e x p r e s s i o n so r a p e d a g o g i c a l u r p o s c . ( G . C . ) f p 2 8 . L i t e r a l l y , " G o o d m a n . " T h i s m a y b e b e c a u s e u r e G i v i n e c h a n s e dh e r f o r n t i n t o P that of a boy, but Maudgalyiyana's question here indicates she has probablv returncd to her female lorm. 29. This explanation improves upon the persistent idea in many Mahavana sutras (inspired by Hinayana notions) that only a man can attain full Buddhahood and that a u'oman must change into a male to become fully cnlightened. Here it is advanced that Buddha is far beyond such discriminations as male or female; thus, male-oriented descriptions of the Buddha, such as the thirty-two signs, are expedient and not to be misunderstood as de'scribing the l)harma-body of a Buddha, which defies sex or any other characteristic.Furthermore, as the goddess says in the Vimalaklrti S[rra, "While women are not women rn reality, they appear in the lorm of women. With this in mind, the Buddhe said, 'ln all things, there is neither nraie nor fenrale."' In Tantrism, or Vajrayina, the malc-dominated Buddhist attitude changed further. Tantric yogis follow a set of prcccpts that prohibit belittling women in any way. Tantric Buddhas, moreover, are very frequently shown in embrace with their consorts, who are fully cnlightcncdlcmalc Buddhas. (V.S.B.) 3 0 - T h e s a r n i d h i o f c m p t i n e s s :o n e o f t h r e e s a m i d h i s . T h c o t h c r t w o a r e t h e s a m a d h i of signlessnessand the sam,dhi of wishlessness(cf. Numerical Glossary, "three doors to " libcratron ) -

#@ 6 *.ffiiinffq
on Discourse the Paramita Manju6ri's of Wisdom

I
Thus have I hcard. Once the Buddha was dwelling in the garden of Anithapildada, in the Jcta Grove near Sravasti, accompanied by one thousand great monks. in Also preser-rt the asscmbly were tcn thousand Bodhisattva-Mahisattvas, all of whom had adorned themselves with great mcrits and wcre abiding in the stage of nonrcgression. Among the great Bodhisattvas were Bodhisattva Maitreya, Bodhisattva Manju(ri, tsodhisattva Unhindcred Eloquence, and tsodhisattva Nevcr Abandoning Vows. ManjuSri came from his lodging One day at dawn, Bodhisattva-Mahtsattva place and stood outside thc door. Then VenerableSarito the Buddha's dwelling putra, Venerable Purnamaitrayanrputra, Venerable Mahamaudgalyayana, Venerable Mahtka5yapa, Venerable Mahakrtyiyana, Vencrable Mahakausthila, and other great Sravakas also came from their respective lodgings to thc Buddha's dwelling place and stood outside the door. When the Buddha knew that the entire assembly had gathered, he came out of his dwelling, arrangedhis seat, and sat down. Then hc asked Siriputra, "Why do you stand outside the door at this early hour?" Seriprt., replied to the Buddha, "World-Honored One, it was Bodhisattva ManjuSri who came and stood outside the door first. I camc later." Then, the World-Honored One asked Manju6ri, "Did you really come here first in order to see the Tathaeata?" into by translated Chinese Mandra. Sltra 46, Taisho310pp. 650-657;

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ManjuSri replied to the Buddha, "Yes, World-Honored Onc. I did come here to see the Tathtgata. Why? BecauseI rvish to bcncfit sentient beings with right contcmplation. I contemplatethc Tathagataas characterized suchness, by by nondistinction, by immobility, by nonaction, bv neithcr arising nor ceasing,by neither existing nor not existing, by being located neithcr in some placc nor elsewhere,by being neither in the three phascsof rime nor orherwise, by being neithcr dualistic nor nondualistic, and by having ncithcr purin' nor impurity. I benefit sentientbeings with such right contemplationson the Tathigata." The Buddha told Manju6ri, "If you can see the Tathlgata in this rvay, your mind will neither cling nor not cling to anything, and it will neither accumulare nor not accumulateanything." Thcn Sariputrasaid to Manju6ri, "It is very rarc for one to be ablc to seethe Tathagata in such a way as you dcscribe-to see thc Tathagata for the sake of all sentient beings, with one's mind dctached from sentient beings. [It is also very rarcj to tcach all sentientbeings to pursue nirvlna, with one's own mind dctached from the pursuit of nirvana; and to don great adornnrentsl for thc sake of all sentientbeings, with one's own mind dctachedfrom thc sight of adornments." Thcn Bodhisattva-Mahesattva Manju(ri said to Siripurra, "Yes, indeed,what you say is true. It is very rare for one to don great adornments for thc sakeof ali scnticnt bcings, without ever having the notion of scntientbeingsin his mind. The rcalm ofsentient beingsneither increases nor decrcascs spite ofhis donning great in adornmcnts for all sentient beir-rgs. Suppose one Bucldha dwells in a world for a kalpa or more; and supposean infinitc numbcr of such Buddhas, as innumerableas the sands of thc Ganges, succeedone another in dwelling in that Buddha-land, eachfbr a kalpa or more, to teachthe Dharma day and night without interruption, and to ferry ovcr to nirvana sentient beings as innumerable as the sands of the Ganges-stiil, the realnr of sentientbeings will ncither ilcreasc nor decrease. is It also true that if the Buddhas in all the Buddha-landsin the ten directionsteach the l)harma, and each fbrries over ro nirvana senticnt bcrngs as innumerable as the sands of thc Ganges, the realm of sentient beings will still ncither incrcasc nor decrease. Why? tsecause senticntbeings arc dcvoid of anv definitive er-rtity form. or Thcrcfore, the realm ofsentient beings neither incrcascs nor decreases." Siriputra asked Manju6ri, "If the realm of sentient beings ncither increases nor decrcascs, why do Bodhisattvas,for the sakc of sentientbeings, scck supreme enlightenment and constantly give discourses thc Dharma?" on Manju6ri said to the Buddha, "Since sentient bcings are empty in nature, Bodhisattvas do not seek supreme crrlightenmentor rcach sentient beings. Why? Because nothing in the Dharma I tcach is apprehcnsible." Then the Buddha askedMafrjuirr, "lf no senrierltbeing cxists, why is it said that there are sentientbeings and the realm of scntientbeings?" ManjuSri answered,"The rcalm of sentientbcings is by naturc identicalwith the realm ofBuddhas." Then the Buddha asked, "Docs the sentientbeings' realm havc a scope?"

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beings' realm is idcntical in scopc with the Mairju(rr answercd, "Thc sentier-rt " B u d d h a ' sr e a l n r . Then thc Buddha asked,"I)oes thc scopeofthe senticntbeings' realm have a locanon?" " ManjuSri answered, "The scopc of the scntient bcings' realm is inconceivable. abide anywhere?" of Then the tsuddhaaskcd,"l)ocs the rc-alm sentientbeings Mairju6ri ansu,crcd,"scntient bcings abidc norvhcrc,.lust likc space." The Buddha askcd MairjuSri, "If so, how should onc abide in thc paramiti of u'isdom whcn cultivatine it?" ManjuSri answercd, "Abiding in no dharma is abiding in thc paramiti of wisdom. " Thc tsuddha asked ManjuSri further, "Why is abiding in. no dharma called abiding in thc ptramita of wisdom?" Manjuiri answcrcd, "Becauscto have no notion of abiding is to abide in the p-ramita of w'isdom." The Buddha askcd Maiijudri further, "lf onc thus abidcs in the paramita of or wisdom, will his good roots increase decrease2" the plramiti of wisdonr' his good MafijuSri answcrcd, "lf onc thus abidesir-r dharma; nor will the paramit- of nor will ar-ry roots will not incrcascor clecrcase, in or wisdorn lllgpgasc decrease rratureor charactcristic. "World-Hon<lred Onc, one who thus cultivatcsthe p;ramitt of wisdom will not reject the dharmas of ordinary people nor cling to the Dharma of saints and in sages.Why? Bccause thc light of thc piramiti of wisdom, there arc no dharmas to ciing to or rcjcct. "Moreovcr, one who cultivatesthc piramita of wisdorn in this way will not dclight in nirvana or detestsarhsira.Why? Ilccausehe rcalizcsthere is no sarirslra, let alone rejection of it; and no nirvlna, let alone attachmentto it. "One who tirus cultivatcs the peramita of wisdom will see ncithcr defileor mcnts to rcjcct nor merits to cling to; for him, no dharma incrcases decreases. in Why? Bccausesuch a person realizcsthere is no increaseor dccrease the dharrnadhitr,r.Worlcl-Honored One, only onc who can do so can be said to cultivate t h c p l r a n r i t ao f w i s d o n r . is "World-Honored One, to set:that no dharme ariscsor ccases to cultivate t h e p J r a m i t ao f w i s d o n r . is "World-Honored One, to sec tirat no dharma increases decreascs to or cuitivate tl-rep-ramita of wisdom. "World-Honored One, to aspire to nothing ancl to see that nothing can be graspedis to cultivatc thc paramit- of wisdom. "World-Honored Orre, to sceneither bcautv nor ugliness,to think of rreithcr uor renunciationis to supcriority nor inferiority, and to practiccncither attachnrent cultivatc the paramita of wrsdom. Why? Becauseno dharma is bcautiful or ugly, no for all dharmas are devoid of charactcristics; dharnra is supcrior or infcrior, for all clharmasare equal in nature; no dharma can be grasped or rejected, for all dharnrasabidc in reality."

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The Buddha askcd ManjuSrr, "ls not the Buddha-l)harma superior?" ManjuSri answered, "I find nothing supcrior or infcrior. Thc Tathagatacan testify to this, since he himself has alrcady rcalizcd thc cn'rptincss all dharmas." of Thc tsuddha said to Manju6ri, "So it is, so it is. Thc Tathagata, thc Suprcnrely Enlightened One, has directly realizedtl-re enrptincssof dharnras." Manju5ri asked the Buddha, "World-Honored Onc. in cmptincss, is thcre any :upcriority or infcriorityto bc fourrd?" The Buddha said, "Exccllcnt, cxceilent!Mairju6n, u'h.rt vou sav is thc true l)harma! Thc uncxccllcd is thc Buddha-Dharma." 'Just Manju5ri said, as thc Buddha says, the unexccllcd is the tsuddhal)harma. Why? Bccauscthc inapprchcnsibilityof dharmasis callcdthc uncxccllcd." Manju5ri continued, "He who cultivatcsthc p-ranita of rvisdonr in thrs u'av docs not think hinself able to practicethc Buddha-Dharma. If a pcrson does not considcr thc paramita of wisdom as a Dharma with which to cnlighten orclinary pcoplc, or as the lluddha-Dharnra, or as an advanccd Dharma, that pcrson is cr"rltivating thc paramita of wisdom. "Furthermore, World-Honored One, when cultivating thc p5ramita of wisdonr, onc finds rrothing to discriminateor contenplate." Thc Buddha askcdManjuSri,"l)o you not contemplate the Buddha-Dharma?" Manju(ri answcrcd, "No, World-Flonored C)ne.If I contcntplated I would it, l1()tseeit. Furthermore. ()ne should r-rotmake such distinctionsas 'the dharmas of o r d i n a r y p c o p l e , ' ' t h el ) h a r n r a o f S r a v a k a s , ' a n d ' t h eD h a r n r ao f P r a t y c k a b u d d h a s . ' Tiris is callcd thc uncxccllcd Buddha-Dharma. "Furthermore, if a person, when cultivating the paramita of wisdom, has no notion of ordinary pcoplc, nor a notion of Buddha-Dharma, nor docs hc pcrccrvc a fi.rcd cntity in anything, that personis really cultivating thc paramita of wisdom. "Furthcrmorc, if a pcrson, when cultiv;ting thc pirarnita of wisdom, docs not secthc l{calnr of l)csirc, the Realm of Form, thc Realm of Fornrlessr.rcss, thc or realrrrof ultimate quiescence, because seesno dharnracharactcrizcd complete he by cxtinction, thcn that pcrson is rcally cultivating the pararnitaof wisdonr." "Furthcrmorc, if a person, when cultivating thc paramita of wisdon-r,perccivcs ncithcr thc onc who docs favors nor thc one who returns favors, and thus has no discrimination in his mind in dealing with thc two, that pcrson is rcally cuitivating thc piramiti of wisdom. "Furthermore, if a person, whcn cultivating the p-ramitl of wisdonr, does finds neither any tsuddha-l)harma to grasp not see any piramita of wisdom, ar-rd nor any dharmas of ordinarv pcoplc to rcject, that persorris rcally cultivating the paramita of wisdom. "Furthermore, if a person, wherr cultivating the paramita of rvisdom, secs neither any dharma of ordinarv people to be extinguishcd nor any BuddhaDharnra to bc rcalized,that pcrson is rcally cultivating the paramit- of wisdom." Thc Buddha told ManjuSri, "Exccllcntl It is excellentthat you can explain so wcll thc attributcs of thc profound piramita of wisdom. What you say is a sealof the Dharma learncd by Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. ."

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Thc Buddha told Manju6ri further, "A pcrson who is rlot frightened when hc hears this Dharma has not merely plantcd good roots in the lands of one thousand Buddhas; he has been planting good roots in thc lands of hundrcds of ." thousandsof [millions of] billions of Buddhas for a long timc. "World-Honored One, now I v"'ill continue to Manju5ri said to the Buddha, erplain the paramita of wisdom." The Buddha said, "You rnay proceed." Manju6ri said, "World-Honorcd One, whcn cultivating thc paramit- of wisdom, one does not see any dharma in which one should or should not abide, nor like Tathagatas,he sces does he sce any state to cling to or reject. Why? Because, of no stateof any dharma. He docs not seeeven thc states Buddhas, let alone those or of Sravakas,Pratyekabuddhas, ordinary people. He clings ncither to the conceivable nor to thc inconceivable. He does not see the varicty of dharmas. In this ." emptinessof dharmas. manncr, hc realizedby himself the inconceivable The Buddha asked Manju6ri, "To how many Buddhas havc you given offerings?" ManjuSri answered, "The Buddhas and I are all illusory. I sec neither a giver nor a receiverofofferings." Thc Buddha askecl Manju6ri, "Are you not now abiding in the Buddhavehiclc?" ManjuSri answered,"As I think about it, I do not seea singlc dharrna. How could I abide in the Buddha-vehicle?" The Buddha askcd, "Manju5rr, have you not attainedthe Buddha-vehicle?" Manju6ri said, "Thc so-callcd Buddha-vehiclc is only a nanle; it cannot be attainedor perccivcd.Ifso, how can I attain anything?" The tsuddhaaskcd,"ManjuSri, have you attainedthe unobstructcdwisdom?" Manju5ri answered, "l am the unobstructed. How can the unobstructcd attain the unobstructcd?" Thc Buddha asked, "Manjudri, do you sit on thc bodhi-site?" Manjuiri answered, "No Tathagata sits on thc bodhi-site; why should I alonc sit on the bodhi-site? Why do I say this? Becauseby dircct pcrccptiorl I know clcarly that all dharmas abide in reality." The tsuddha askcd, "What is reality?" ManjuSri answered,"Dharrnas such as the vicw of a self2 arc rcality." The Buddha askcd, "Why is thc view of a self reality?" MaiijuSri answered, "As to the reality of thc view of a self, it is neithcr real nor unreal; neithcr comes nor gocs; is both self and nonself. Hence, it is called reality.".. . Manju5ri said to the Buddha, "One who is not afraid, horrified, confuscd, or regretful at hearing this profound paramitt of wisdom secsthc Buddha.". . .

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Then Sariputra said to the Buddha, "World-Honored One, the pararniti of wisoirrovice Bodhisattvas." dom spoken by Manju(ri is bcyond the comprehensiot.t Manju6ri said, "lt is incomprchcnsiblenot onll' to novicc Bodhisattvas,but who have alrcadv donc s'hat thcy set out to also to Sravakas and Pratyckabuddhas do. No one can comprchcnd a teaching like this. Why? tsecauscthcrc is really nothing knowablc about bodhi, which defiessccing, lcarning, attaining, thinking, arising, ceasing,speaking, and hearing. Thus, being empty and quiescentby nabeyond realizationand comprehcnsion,and devoid of shape turc and charactcristic, or form, how can bodhi be acquircd by anyone?" Seriputr" asked Manju5rJ,"Does the Buddha not realizesupreme enlightenment through thc dharrnadhltu?" the Manju6ri answered,"No. Sariputra.V/hy? .Because World-Honored One is the dharmadhatu itself. lt is absurd to say that thc dharmadhitu realizes the in dharmadhitu. Serip.rt.r, the nature of the dharmadhitu is bodhi. Why? Because, thc dharmadhatu, therc is no trace of sentientbeings and all dharmas arc empty. 'fhe emptincss of all dharmas is bodhi, becausethey are not two and are not diffcrent. "Sa.ipnt.a, where there is rro discrimination, there is no knower. Wherc there is no knowcr, there is no speech. That which is bcyond spccch is neithcr existent nor noncxistcnt; ncithcr knowable nor unknowable. So is it with all dharn-ras.Why? Because no dharma can bc idcntificd, whcthcr by location or by ." specificnaturc. Then thc World-Honored One asked Manju5rr, "You call me thc Tathagata. I)o you really think I am thc Tathigata?" ManjuSri answered, "No, World-Honored Onc, I do not think you are the Tathagata. Thcrc is nothing about suchnessthat distinguishesit as suchncss,nor is of Why? Ilecause the Tathathere a Tathagata's wisdom capable knowing suchness. gata and wisdom are not two. Emptiness is thc Tath-gata; thcrcfore the Tathagata is only an arbitrary name. How, then, can I regard anyone as thc Tathegata?" The Buddha asked, "Do you doubt the Tathagata?" Manju5ri answered, "No, World-Honored One, I pcrceivc that the Tathigata has no definitc nature; that he is neither born nor perishcs. Therefore, I have no doubt whatsoever." The Buddha asked Manju5rr, "Would you not say that the Tathagatanow appearsin the world?" Manju5ri answered, "If the Tath5gata appears in the world, all the dharmadhatu should also appear." The Buddha asked Manju5ri, "Would you say that Buddhas as innumerable as the sands of the Ganges have entered nirvana?" Manju6ri answered, "All Buddhas have one characteristic:inconceivability."

ON EraprrNrss that havc one characteristic, The Budclhasaid, "So it is, so it is. All Buclclhas " oi inconccivabilitv. -\'Ianju(n askcd the Buddha, "World-Honorcd ()r'rc,clocsthe Buddha stay rn tht n orld nou'?" T h c B u d r l h aa n s w e r c d ," l t i s . o , i t i s s o . " r other Buddhas as Mair.lu(risaid, "lf thc tsuddhastaysin the r'r'orld,so shor.rld innunrerable as the sands of thc Ganges. Wh1'? Bcc:ruseall Bucldhashave one bv inconceivability.That rvhich is charactcrized ittconcervidcntical characteristic: If ability clocsnot arisc or cease. thc luture Buddhas \\'crc to appcar in thc world, thcre is all othcr tsuddhaswould appear,too. Why? BecausciIr the itrcot.rccivable no past, prcscnt, or futurc. Howevcr, scntient bcings pronc to grasping still say that a Buddha appearsirr the rvorld or that a Buddha cntcrs trin'lua." The tsuddha said to Mairju(ri, "This can be utrdcrstood bv thc Tathigata, thcsc three kinds of pcople Why? Because Arhats, and nonrcgrcssingBodl-risattvas. can hcar this profound Dharma without slandcringor praising it." Manju(ri said to thc Buddha, "World-Honored ()nc, rvho could slander or praisethis inconccivablel)harma?" Thc Budclha saiclto Mairjuiri, "The Tathagatais inconccivable,and so arc ordinary pcoplc."1 "World-Honored ()ne, arc ordinary pcoplc also askecl thc Buclclha, Mafr.1u(ri inconceivablc?" Why? Bccauseall The tsuddira alrswercd,"Yes, they are also ir-rconccivable. minds are inconceivablc." ManjLr6risaid, "lt-, as you say, both thc Tathtgata and ordinary people are incorrccivable,then thc coulltlessBuddhas who have sought nirvlua have worn thcmsclves out for nothing. Why? Becausethe inconceivablcis nirvlna; thcy arc identical, not different." Manju5ri colltinucd, "()nly those good men and good wonlell who have closcly with virtuous fricnds for a lorlg timc cultivatcd good roots arrd associated can undcritand that ordinary people, as well as the Buddhas, are inconceivable." The Buddha asked Manju6ri, "Do you wish to treat the Tathlgata as the bcings?" supreme onc among sentie-nt Manju(ri answercd, "I do wish to trcat the Tathigata as forcmost among " scntient bcings, but no attribute of senticntbeings is apprehensiblc. The Buddha askcd, "L)o you wish to treat thc Tathagataas thc one who has attainedthe inconccivablcDharma?" Manju5ri answcrcd, "I do wish to trcat the Tathagata as the one who has attainedthe inconccivableDharm!, but therc is no Dharma to be achievcd." Thc tsuddha asked Manju5ri, "l)o you wish to trcat the Tathagata as a teacherof the Dharma who convcrts sentientbeings?" ManjuSri answered, "l do wish to trcat the Tath-gata as a teachcr of the Dharma who converts scntierltbcings, but the Dharma teacherand thc listenerare Why? Becauscthey both abide in the dharnradhatu,and in both inapprehensiblc. the dharmadhatu scntient beings are not different from one anothcr.".

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The tsuddha asked. "Do you enter the Samidhi of thc Inconceivablc?" Mairju5rr answered."No, World-Honorcd Onc.I am thc inconceivablc.I do not sce any mind capableof conceivinganything; so. hou,'canit be said that I enter the Samidhi of thc Inconccivable?when I first brought forth bodhicitta, I did rntend to cnter that samadhi.Howevcr, as I rcflect on it norv, I seethat I enter that samadhi really without thinking about it. Just as, aftcr lonq practice,one bccomes a skillful archer able to hit thc target without thinking about it, so, as a result of long practice,I am one with the Samidhi of thc Inconccivableat all tin'rcswithout thrrrking about it, though I had to concentratcmy n-ri'd on one objcct when I startcd to learn that samidhi. " Sa.iput.a askcd ManjuSri, "Are therc other superior, wo.derful samadhisof ultimate quiescencc?" Manju6ri answered,"lf there were a Samadhiof the Inconceivable, thc' vou might ask whcther or not there are other samadhisof ultimate quicscence. Howcvcr, according to my understanding, evcn the Samadhi of the Inconceivableis inapprchensiblc; how could you ask whether or not there are other samadhisof ultimate quiescence?" Se.ip.,tt" asked, "ls thc Samadhiofthe Inconceivable inapprehensible?" Mafrju(ri answered, "A samadhi which is conceivable is apprehensible,while a samadhi which is inconceivablcis inapprehensible.In fact, all sentient beings have achievcd the Samidhi of the Inco'ceivablc. why? All minds are nonminds, [and to have no mindJ is cal]ed thc Samidhi of the Inconceivablc.Therefore, the characteristics all sentientbeings and those of the Samadhi of the Inconceivable of are identical and not different." The Buddha praised ManjuSri, saying, "Excellent, excellent! Becauseyou have bcen planting good roots and cultivati'g purc conduct in Buddha-lands for a long time, you are able to discourse on the profound samadhi. Now you are abiding securclyin the piramita of wisdom." Manjusri said, "If I can give this discoursebecause abide in the piramita of I wisdom, thcn I have the concept of exisrenceand abide in the concept of a self, if I abide in the conccptsof existenceand a self, then the paramita of wisdom has an abodc. Howevcr, to think that the ptramita of wisdom abides in nothingness is also thc concept of a self, and [abiding in nothingncss]is also called [having] an abode. To steer clear of these two abodes,so'e should abide in nonabidanccas tsuddhas do, and dwell sccurely i' ultimate quiescence, the inconceivablestate. Only this inconccivablestatc is calledthe abode of the piramita of wisdom. " . Manju6ri continued, "The realm of the Tathagara and the realm of a self are not two. He who cultivatcsthe paramita of wisdom with this understandingdoes not seek bodhi. why? Bccausedetachmenrfrom thc notion of bodhi is rhe paramiti of wisdom. " . Then the Buddha said to Maheka6yapa, "As an illustration, the budding on a pirijita tree in the Heaven of the Thirty-Three givcs great joy to the gods there, becausc it is a sure sign that the tree will soon come into bloom. Similarly, the budding of faith and undersranding in monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen

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s'ho have heard the teachingof the piramita of wisdom is a sign that all BuddhaDharmas s'ill soon blossom forth from thesepcrsons. "lf there are monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen in thc future who, after hearing the paramita of wisdom, acceptit with faith and rcad and reciteit without resret or confusion in mind, you should know that thcy have heard and accepted this sutra in this assembly,and that thcy will also be able to ciaborateon this sutra and crrculateit among people in cities and villages. You should know that thcy be r.r'il1 protectcd and remcmbered by Buddhas. "Those good men and good women who believe and delight in this profound p-ramita of wisdom and have no doubt about it, have lcarncd the doctrine long ago from past Buddhas and planted good roots in their lands. For example, if a pcrson who is stringing beads suddenly comes acrossan unexcelled,rcal wishfulfilling pearl and is jubilant, you should know that he must have seen such a pearl before. Similarly, KaSyapa, if a good Inan or a good \\'omen, whilc learning other doctrines, suddcnly hears the profound piran'riti of u'isdom and behe comesjubilant, you should know that it is bccause or she has heard it before. If there are sentient beings who can faithfully accept and take great delight in the peramitt of wisdom when they hear it, it is bccausethose pcrsons have associated with countlcss Buddhas and learned the piramita of wisdom from them prcviously. "To illustratc furthcr, if a person who has previously seena city or a village hears another pcrson praising the lovclincss and charm of its gardens, ponds, springs, flowers, fruits, trees, and its male and female citizens, he will be greatly delighted. He will then urge the person to rclate again the various adornments of its gardens and parks, flowcrs, ponds, fountains, sweet fruits, various treasures, and other cnjoyablethings. When the listencrhearsthesethings dcscribeda second time, hc will be exhilarated again. Now, all this is becausehe has scen that placc before. Similarly, if there are good men and good women who, after hearing the paranritl of wisdom from somconc, acccptit with laith. take pleasurcin it. enjoy hcaring it untiringly, and furthcrmorc urge that pcrson to rePeatit, you should know that those persons have heard ManjuSri explain this profound paramiti of wisdom before.". . . Manju6ri then said to the Buddha, "World-Honored Onc, the Buddha says signless, and ultimately quiesccnt.If a good man or that all dharmasarc actionless, a good woman can understand this truth corrcctly and explain it to others as taught, he or she will be praiscd by Tathagatas.What that person says will not conflict with thc nature of dharmas, but will be the teachingof the Buddha; it will be the radiance of the p-ramita of wisdom and the radiance of all thc BuddhaDharmas, which result from the penetrationof reality, the inconceivable." The Buddha told Manju6rr, "When I was practicing the Bodhisattva-path in the past, I had to [learn the p-ramiti of wisdom to] cultivatc good roots; I had to learn the p-ramita of wisdom in order to abide in the stagc of nonregression and achieve supreme enlightenment. Good men and good women should also learn the p-ramiti of wisdom. One who wishes to achicvc the thirty-two auspicioussigns . . . should learn the peramitt of wisdom. .

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"One who wishcs to know that all dharmas are equally comprised in thc dharmadhitu, and thereby to free his mind from all obstructions,should lcarn the p i r a m i t ao f w i s d o m . "Onc who wishes to extend kindnessto all sentier)tbcings without rcstriction and without entertainingany notion of sentientbeinqs should learn the pararniti of wisdom. "One who wishes to know what is right and u'ronq. to obtain the ten to powcrs and the four fcarlcssncsses, abide in the tsuddha's u'isdom, and to acquire unimpeded cloqucnceshould learn the piranrita of uisdonr." Then Manju5rr said to thc Buddha, "World-Honored One, in n'rv opinton, not bcneilcial, noninapprehensible, the true Dharma is unconditioned, sigrrless, arising, nonccasing,noncoming, rrongoing, and without a knowcr, a pcrccrvcr,or a doer. Neither the p-ramiti of wisdom nor its state can be seen, realized, or not realized;the paramita of wisdom is dcvoid of mental constructionsand disnor inexhaustible; them there is no in crimination.6Dharmas arc ncither exhaustible people, no Dharma oI Srivakas, no Dharma of PratyckabudI)harma of ordir-rary d h a s , a r d n o l ) h a r m a o f B u d d h . r st:h c r c i s n c i t h c r a t t a i n m e n tn o r n o n a t t a i n m e n t . ncither the renunciationofsarhsararror the realizatiorr ofnirvina, neither the conccivable nor the inconccivablc, ncithcr action nor nonaction. Thc characteristics of Dharma being such, I do not scc why anyonc should lcarn thc piramit- of "rl.rsdom. Mairju6ri asked the Buddha, "World-Honorcd Onc, why is thc paran'rit-of s.isdonr so called?" The Buddha answered, "The pararniti of wisdom has no bound or border, nanc or nrark; it is beyond thor,rght; containsno refuge, flike a sea]without an it island or a sandbar;in it there is no offenseor blessilig,light or darkness;it is as indivisiblc and limitlcss as thc dharrnadhitu. That is why it is callcd thc piranriti of ',visdonr. lt is also callcd thc sphcrc of action of a grcat Bodhisattva. [Thc so-calledsphere of action isJ ncithcr a sphcrc of action nor a sphcrc of nonaction. All that belongs to thc Onc Vchiclc is callcd thc sphcre of nonaction. Why? Because itl thcrc is no thought and no activity."T lin Manju6ri askcd thc Buddha, "World-Horrored One, what should one do to ecquire s'ipremc cnlightcnmcnt quickly?" "lf one follows thc teaching of the pararniti of Thc tsuddha ans'uvcrcd, n'isdom, one can acquire suprenlc enlightenment quickly. Furthcrmorc, thcrc is thc Single l)eed Samadhi: a good man or a good woman who cultivatcs this sarnadhiwill also quickly acquirc suprcmc enlightcnnrcnt." Manju5ri asked, "World-Honored One, what is the Singlc Decd Samadhi?" of The Buddha answcrcd, "To mcditatc exclusivelyon the oneness the dharm:rdhatuis calicdthe Singlel)eed Samldhi.* Thosc good mcn or good womcn who rvish to cntcr this samadhi should llrst listcn to discourscson thc piramita of rvisdom and cultivate it as taught. Then they can cntcr this samidhi, which, like the dharmadhatu, is nonrcgrcssivc, indcstructiblc, inconceivablc, unobstructed, :rnd sigr-rless.

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"Those good mcn or good women who wish to cntcr thc Singlc Dccd thoughts, not cling to the Sanradhishould livc in seclusion,cast away discr,rrsive concentratcthcir minds orr a Buddha, and recite his name appcar,ncesof thir-rgs. The1, should kccp thcir bodies erect ancl, lacing the direction of sn'rqle-mindcdly. that tsuddha, nreditateupon him continuously. If thc,vcan maintain mindfulnessof they will be abic thc lluddha r,vithoutinterruption liom momcnt to nlonlcnt, tl-rcn to scc all thc tsuddhasof the past, present,rrd futurc rieht in cach momcnt.'Why? arc Bccauscthe nrerits of bcing mindful of one tsuddl-ra as innumcrable and boundlcss as those of bcing nrindful of countlesstsuddhas,tor thc inconccivableteachAll Buddhas achievc suings of all Buddhas are idcntical and undifferentiatecl. and all arc cndou.cd q'ith urcalculable prcme enlightenment by thc sanresuchness, nrerits and immeasurableeloqucncc. Thcrcforc, one rvho enters the Single Deed Samadhiknows thoroughly that Buddhasas innuncrablc as thc sandsof the Ganges are indistinguishablcin the dharmadhatu. "Ar-nongall the Srivakasrvho hcar the Buddha-Dharmr, Ananda has achieved the highest lcvcl of nrcnrory, dhara'li, cloqucncc, and wisdoml still, his achievemcnt is limitcd and measurablc.Howevcr, onc u'ho has attained thc Single Deed Samidhi will thoroughly, distinctlv, and rvithout any hindrancc undcrstandevery Dharrna-door explaineclin thc sutras. His wisdonr and cloqucncc will ncvcr be on exhaustcd cvcn if hc discor.rrscs thc l)harrna day and night, and Auanda's crr.rditiorr anclcloqucncc cannot cqual one hundretlth, or cven one thousandth part 'How shall I attain the Single Deed o1 his. A grcat Boclhisattvashor:ld think: Samadhi, thus gaining inconccivablemerits and immeasurablerenown?"' Thc tsuddha continued, "A great Ilodhisattva sl.rouldkccp the Single l)ecd Samadhi in n-rir-rd always strive energcticallytbr it without cver becoming lax and or lazy. Thus, learning gradually, he will be able to enter the Single l)eed Samidhi, and thc inconccivablcnrcrits attaincd thcrcby will bear witncss that he has entered it. However. those rvho slandcr or disbelievethc true l)harma and thosc will not bc ablc to cntcr that who are hindered by evil karma or gravc of-fcnscs
s:rlradhl.'
,, lrr

"Furtherrnorc, Mairju6ri, as an illustration, suppose a pcrson who has acquircd a wish-fulfilling pearl shorvsit to an cxpert in pcarls. Thc cxpert tclls him that he has acquirccla pricclcss,rcal wish-fulfilling pcarl. Thc owncr thcn rcquests thc expert to polish it for him r'''ithout darnagingits lustcr. Altcr bcing polished, lirll, translucerlt lustcr. Similarly, Manju(ri, if a good man or the pearl shinesr,'u'ith a good wonran cultivatcs thc Singlc Dccd Sarnidhi, he or shc u'ill penctratethe phcnomena of all dharmas without obstruction, and i.vill gaitr inconccivablenrerits and inrmeasurablcrcnown r.vhilcthat samidhi is cultivated. "Manju6rr, just as thc sun can illurninatc all placcs without losing its own all brilliance, so onc who has acquircdthc Singlc I)ccd Samidhi can posscss merits, lacking nonc, and illuminatc the Buddha-Dharma. "Mairju(ri, all the I)harmas I tcach arc of one taste-thc'taste of detachment, liberation, and ultimate quicsccncc.What is taught by a good mall or a good

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\\'onrar1 who has acquircd the Single l)ced Sanradhiis also of ong 6251g-thetaste of detachmer-rt, liberation, and ultimate quicscence-and is uncrringly consistcnt u'ith thc truc Dharrna. "Manju6ri, a great Bodhisattva rvho has acquired thc Singlc Decd Samadhi has fulfilled all thc conditiot-ts conducivc to his su'itt attainnent of suprcme rnlightcnnrent. "Furthcrmorc, Manju(ri, if a creat Bodhisatn'a sccs 'cither divcrsrry nor r,urityin thc dl-rarntadhittr, will quickly attain suprcme enliqhtennrcnt.He who he knorvs that the charactcristics supremc cnlightenrnclltare inconceir.able of and that rhcrc is no rcachingBuddhahood in Ithc attainmcnt o1-] bodhi rvill ss'iftlv attarnsuprenlc cnlightenllrcnt. He q'ho bclievcsand recognizes without fear or doubt that ell dharnrasarc the Buddha-Dhanna '"vill swiftly attain suprenrecnlightcnnrent." Manju6ri askedthc Iluddha, "World-Ho'ored O'e, does one attain supremc cnlishtenmcnt swiftly by such causcs?" Thc Buddha said, "Sr.rpremc enlightennlcnt is achicvcd neithcr by a cause nol rlot by a causc. why? Becausc thc realm of the inconceivablc is acquired ncrthcr by a causcnor llot by a causc. "lf a good ntan or a good woman does not relax his or hcr efforts after ircaring this discourse,vou should know that hc or she has planted good roots in thc latrcls past tsuddhas.Therefbrc, if a nronk or a nun is not frightened aftcr he of or shc hears this profound parar'rti of wisdom, he or she has rcally left thc houschold lifb to follow thc Budclha. If a layman or laywornan is not horrified tt1'rtltl hearitrqtltis proforrnd phrarnitl of r','isdom,hc or shc has found a true refuge. "Mairju6ri, if a good rlan or a good wonlarl docs'ot practicc this profour-rd of r..rrar-niti r'visdom, hc or she is not follovn'irrg the tsuddha-vehicle. Just as all rrrcdicinalhcrbs rely on the grcat carth for llrowth, Mairjusri, so do all the good r()otsof a grcat Bodhisattva dcpcnd on thc ptramit5 of wisdonr for growth lcading t0 suprcnle cnlightenmcnt." 'I-he' Manju5rr asked thc Buddha, "World-Hor.roredO'c, in which city or r illaec of this world should tl.risprofound p-ramiti of wisdorn bc taughtr" The tsuddha replicd to Mairju(rr, "lf a'yo'c- i'r this asscmbly, after hearing rhr- tc'achingof the piranrita of wisdom, vows to conform constantly to thc piraIrrit:rof wisdorn in futurc livcs, l-rcwill in his futurc lives bc able to listen to this :urr:l as a rcsult of this laith arrd understanding.You should know that such a f.crson u'ill not bc born with srnall good roots. Hc will bc able to accept the rcachingof this sutra and rcjoice whcn l-rearing . . ." it. ManjuSri said to the Budclha, "World-Ho'ored Onc, if nr.nks, 'u's, laynlcl1, or laywomen conle to ask nrc, 'why docs thc Tathlgata discourscon the 'All the tcachir-rgs thc l)l-rarnraare bcof F:lranritaof wisdonr?', I will ansr.',,er, 'oncl clisputc. Thc Tathigata discourseson thc p-ranrit- of wisdom bccausehe clocsr.rotscc any dharma that can conflict with rvhat he tcaches,or any sentrent L.cinqswho catr undcrstand the pirarnita of rvisdom with their [discriminative nrindi or consciousncss.'

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ON Ell.prrNEss

"\lorcover, World-Honored ()nc, I will furthcr cxplain ultimate reality. \\'hr'? Bccausethe phenomenaof all dharmas are conrprisedin rcality. An Arhat has no supcrior Dharma. Why not? Because the Dharnra of an Arhat and that of an ." ordlnarv person arc ncithcr thc samc nor diffcrcnt. ManjuSri continucd, "If pcoplc wish to lcarn the piramitl of wisdom, I will 'You listcncrs should not think of anvthins or attach yoursclvcs to tell thcm, anvthing, nor should you think that you are hearing or acquirir-rg something. You should be as free of discrimination as a nragicalll,produccdbcing. This is the true tcachingof the Dharma. Therefore, you listeners should not cntcrtain the notion of duality, should not abandonvarious vicrvs to cultrvatethc tsuddha-Dharma,should not grasp the Buddha-Dharma, and should not rclect the dharmas of ordinary peoplc. Why? Bccausc thc Dharma of thc Buddha ancl thc dharrnasof ordinary people are both characterized emptiness,u.hererntherc is nothing to be grasped by or rejected.' If people ask nre about thc p-ranrit- oi rvisdom, that is how I will answer; that is how I will console them; that is what I r','ill advocatc. Good mer-r and good women should ask me about this and abidc bv mv answer without regression.They should know that I tcach thc charactcristics dharmas rn acof cordanccwith thc paramiti of wisdom." 'I'hcn the World-Honored C)ne praisedManju(ri, saying, "Excellent, exceljust as you say. A good man or a good wonlan who wishcs to scc lerrt! It is Iluddhas should learn this paramita of wisdom. One who wishes to associate with lluddhas closcly and makc offcrings to them properly should lcarn this ptramita of wisdom. "Onc who wishcs to say, 'Thc Tathagatais our'World-Honored One' should 'The learn this plramiti of wisdom; one who says, Tathagatais not our WorldHonored One' should also learn this piramita of wisdom. "One who wishes to attain suprcme enlightenment should learn this pararnita of wisclorn; onc who clocs not wish to attain supreme enlightenmcnt should also lcarn this paramit- of wisdon. "One who wishes to accomplish all samtdhis should lcarn this piramita of wisdom; onc who does not wish to accomplish any samidhi should also lcarn this paramita of wisdom. Why? Bccausc samidhi is not diflerent in nature from nonartion, and no dharnra comcs or gocs. ." The Buddha said to Manju5ri, "If monks, nuns, laymcn, and laywomcn rvish to avoid falling into the miserable planes of cxistcncc, thcy should lcarn this paramita of wisdom. If a good nlan or a good woman accepts,practices,reads, and rccitcs only a four-linc stanza[of this paramita of wisdom], and explainsit to others in accordancewith reality, he or she will without fail attain supreme enlightenmerrtand will live in a Buddha-land. "Thc Buddha approvcs of onc who is not afraid or fcarful whcn hcaring this paramita of wisdom, but instcadhas faith in it and undcrstands Thc paramitl of it. u'isdom is the Dharma-seal of the Mahtyina dcmonstratcd by thc tsuddha. If a good man or a good woman learnsthis Dharma-seal,hc or she will rise abovc the

I)rscounsr oN THL PAn,lvrrA or Wtslou

l lJ

miscrablc planesof existcnce Such a pcrson rvill not tbllorv the paths of Srlvakas . or Pratyekabuddhas, becausc or shc will have transccrrded hc Ithose pathsl." Then thc Thirty-Thrcc Deva Kings, led bv Sakra.scartcred upr.n the Tathasata and Manjusri wonderful cclestialflowers, such as bluc lotuscs, whitc lotuses, opened white lotuscs, and tlowcrs of thc coral tree; cclcstialsandalwood rnccnse, other kinds of powdered incense, and various trcasurcs.Thc clevasalso playcd celestialmusic, all as offerings to the Tathigata, to Marlu(rl. .rnclto thc piranrita o t ' w i s d o m . A f t e r m a k i n g t h e o f f c r i n g s .S . r k r a a i d ." M . r r I o t t c r rI r c r r r h i s p . r r a n r i r a s oi wisdom, the Dharma-seal!May the good nrcn and good *'onren r' tl-ris r.vorld alu'ayshave opportunities to hcar this sutra, so that thcy may surclv belier.cin and understand the tsuddha-Dharma; accept, practice, read, rccite, and cxplain it to others; and thus be uphcld by all gods." Then the Buddha told Sakra, "K.ruiika, so it is, so it is. Such good rncn and qood womcn will surciy acquirc the enlightcnment of tsuddhas.". Whcn the Buddha had finished teaching this sutra, rhe grcat Bodhisattvas ar.rd the four kinds of devotccswho had heard this ptramitt of wisdonr bcgan to practiceit with greatjoy and vcncration.

NOTES
1. That is, virtucs which "adorn" a grcat Bodhisattva. 2 . L i t e r a l l y ," t h e v i c w o f a b o d y . " 3 . T h e t c x t r c a d st h u s , b u t t h e r e n r a y b c a t c x t u a l c o r r u p t i o n h e r e . L o g i c a l l y , i t s e e n r s b c t t c r t o r e n d e r i t a s : " T h e B u d d h a a n s w e r e c l',N o . " ' H o w c v c r , s i n c et h c B u d d h a c a n a l s o b e r c f r r t c c l .M r n j u S r i s f t - r l l o w i n g5 r J r e n r e r ) r : p p r o p r i r t c . is '1. In this and the following four paragraphs, the Buddha and Maiijuiri expound thc d i s c o v e r y , a c c o r d i n g t o t h c M a h a y a n a t r a d i t i o n , t h a t t h c B u d d h a r . n a d ew h e n h e a t t a i n c d e n l i g h t e n m c n t , v i z . , a l l b e i n g s h a v c r h e s a n r cn a t u r e , w h i c h i s t h a t o f B u d d h a h o o d . 5 . T h a t i s , e t e r n a l i s ma n d n i h i l i s m , u s u a l l y r e l c r r e d t o a s t h c r w o e x t r e n l c s . 6 . M a i r j u 6 r i h a s h c r c r e s t a t e dt h e e s s c n c c f t h i s s h t r a . o 7. The Tibctan version of this passagc rcads qr.ritediflerently lrom thc Chinese, as tollows: M a f r j u s r i a s k c c l l . r cB h a g a v a n ," w o r l d - H o n o r c d o n c , r v h y i s t h c p i r a n r i t a o f u , i s d o p r t so called?" T h e B u d d h a s a i d , " M a n j u 6 r i , b e c a u s ci t n e i t h c r r r i s e s n o r c e a s c s ,i t i s c a l l c d t h e p - r a m i t l o f w i s d o m . I t i s q u i e s c e n tl r o n r t h c b e g i n n i n g r v i t h o u t p r o d u c t i o n o r a c t i o n , b c c a u s e t h e r c i s n o t h i n g w h a t s o e v c r i n i t . T h a t w h i c h i s d e v o i d o f a n y c x i s t e n c co r b e i n g i s c a l l c d t h e p a r a m i t a o f w i s d o m . A l l D h a r m a s a r e - i n t h c l r c a l m o f a c t i o n ;t h i s l llacr] itsclfis the r e a l m o f a c t i o n o f a B o c l h i s a t t v a - M a h i s a t t v aT o a c t i n t h i s n r a n n c r i s t o c n t c r t h e r e a l m o f . a c t i o n o f a B o d h i s a t t v a - M a h i s a t t v a .T h c n o n s p h c r eo f a c t i o n i s t h c s p h e r e o f a c t i o n o f a l l v e h i c l e s .T h i s i s w h y i t i s c a l l c d t h e n o n s p h e r eo f a c t i o n . " ( G . C . )

11-+

()N ElaprrNrss o l . . - { l r . n l r t c t r a n s l a t i o n : " T o m c d i t a t c w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o no n t h c o n e e s s e t r c e f t h e

.l::inrlhrru

r s c a l l e dt h e S i n g l c l ) e e c ' lS a I n a d h i . " I r . - T r b e t r n t c x t r c a d s : " M a I r 1 u 6 r i ,t h e s o - c a l l c d S i n g l e l ) e c d l S a m l d h i ] i s s i n t p l y a n(\nr.'n.irrrlr. of the nonarising Itruthl. Those good nren and goocl women rvho wish to t c r ' : 1 r L 'rrh c S r n g l el ) c c d S a n r l c l h if i r s t s l i o r . r l d a r c f u l l y s t u c 1 1l' i e p l r a n r i t l o f w i s d o t . n . " 9. -fr=ffi . h c r c r c n d e r e d a s " t h e S i n g l c D c c r l S a n r i c l h i . "i s p c r h a p so n c o f t h e m o s t l l l F o r t . l n r t o p i c s o f t h i s s u t r a . A l l t h e n r a j o r p r a c t i c c so i M a h a v a l r at s u d d h i s n t s c c r t t t o b c o u i c l u d c c li n t h i s s a m i d h i p r a c t i c e .H o l v e v e r , u ' i t h o u t a c a r c f u l r e ; r t l i t t g n c i s l i a b l c t o t t t i s u n . l c r s t a n r lt h e t e a c h i n g g i v e n h e r e . T h u s , b r i c f r c v i c u o f t h e p r a c t i c co f t h i s s a n r i d h i m a y b e hcipful: T h e e s s e - n c cr b a s i cn a t u r e o f t h i s s a m i d h i i s n o t t h e r c c i t : r t i o no t ' a l l u d d h a ' s n a n r e . f , s o i n s t r u c t c c li n t h i s p a r a g r a p h .T h c r c c i t a t i o n o f a t s u d d h a ' sn a r r r ca n d t h c c o n t i n u o u s m i n d f u l n e s s o f a B u d d h a ' s i r n a g c , a s p r u c t i c e d b v t l . r cC h r n e s e P u r e L a n c i S c h o o l a n d t h e T a n t r a a S c h o o l , a r e e x t r e r n c l v i n r p o r t a r ) ta n d n c c e s s a r v s p r e p a r f , t o r vp r a c t i c ( - st;h c y c a n n o t , h o w e v e r , s u b s t i t u t c f o r t h c r n a i n p r : r c t i c co f t h c S i n g l e l ) e e d S a n r i d h i , b c c a u s cb o t h a r e s t i l l "fbrm-bound," i.c., attacired o cc'rtain inds of fornrs. k t o T h c r . n a i np r a c t i c e o f t h c S i n g l e I ) e e d S a m l d h i i s t o n r c d i t a t co n t h e " o n e e s s e n c c f thc dharmadhitu," or thc "nonarising enptincss," u'hich is beyolrd all thoughts and disc r i r r i r r a t i o n sa n d t o t a l l y t r a n s c e n d e n t . T o c n t c r t h i s s e r n a d h i ,o n e s h o u l d f i r s t s t u d y w c l l t l r c t e a c h i n s so f t h e P r a j n l p a r a n r i t J , . t h c n r e c i t e a B u d d h a ' s n a m c s i n g l c r n i n c l e d l yM c t l r t a t l n g t h u s c o n t i n u o u s l y , o n c r v i l l r c c c i v c t h e b l e s s i n go f a B u d d h a . C o m b i n i n g t h i s b l c s s i n g w i t h o n c ' s i n s i g h t i n t o P r a j i r i p J r : n r i t 5 . o n e c a n t h e n a p p r o a c ht h c S i n g l e L ) e e d S a r n n d h iw i t h o u t r t u c h h a z a r c l . T h e s c q u c n c eo f p r a c t i c i n g t h c S i n g l c l ) c c c l S a r n l c l h ii s t h c r e l o r c a s f o l l o w s : '1 tcaching. . Study and conternplate rvell the Prajrlaparan-rit5 2 . R e c i t e a t s u d d h a ' sn a n t c s i n g l c - t t t i n d c d l y . 3 . M e d i t a t e o n t h e o n e e s s e n c eo f t h e d h a r m a d h a t u ; i . c . , p c n c t r a t i n g l , vo b s e r v e t h e e n r p t i n e s so f b e i n g , t h u s c a u s i n g a g r e a t " l e a p o v e r " t o t h e i n c o n c e i v a b l cd h a r m a d h a t r " r( G . C . ) . 10. When the karmic results lbr such persons'evil actions or thoughts havc bccn . e x l i a u s t e d ,t h o s e p e r s o n sw i l l t h e n b e a b l e t o p r a c t i c et h e p r o f o u n c l s a r n a c l h i ( V . S B )

Rffi#ffi€
Fearless The Prophecy Bodhisattva of

Attainment Buddhahood Virtue's of

Thus have I heard. C)nce the World-Honored One was dwelling on Mount Grdhrakita near the city of Rajagrha,accompaniedby five hundred monks. Countless Bodhisattva-Mahlsattvaswere also present, and eight thousand of thcm led the rest. These leadcrshad all acquired samidhi and dhara'li; had penetratedwell into and wishlcssncss-thc three doors to liberation; had acemptincss, signlcssncss, quircd a good command of miraculous powers; and had achievedthc Realization of thc Nonarising of l)harmas. Among them wcre BodhisattvaMcru,r Bodhisattva Great Meru, Bodhisattva Constantly Entering Samadhi, Bodhisattva Ever-Vigorous, Bodhisattva PrecionsHand, Bodhisattva Roots of ConstantJoy, Bodhisattva V/orthy Strength, BodhisattvaPreciousForm, BodhisattvaRahu,2BodhisattvaSakra God, Bodhisattva Water God, Bodhisattva High Aspiration, Bodhisattva Superior Aspiration, Bodhisattva IntenseAspiration, and so forth. During the World-Honored One's stay near the city of Rijagrha, the king, princes, brlhmir-rs, elders, and lay devoteesall worshiped, praised, and made offerings to the lluddha. At that timc, thc World-Honorcd Onc was tcaching thc Dharma to the incalculablehundreds of thousandsof millions of followers who surrounded him respectfuly. I Onc morning, in accordanccwith thc rulcs, numerous Srivakas, including Venerable Siriputra, Venerable Mahamaudgalyiyana, Venerable Mahika6yapa, Venerable Subhuti, Venerable Prlrnamaitrayaniputra, Venerable Revata, Venerable A6vajit, VenerableUpili, VenerableRihula, and VenerableAnanda, all dressedin monastic robes and holding bowls in their hands, went into the city of Rajagrha Sutra32, Taisho310 pp. 550-555; translated into Chinese Buddha6anta. by

116

ON ElrprrNrss

ior rhc sole purposc of begging food from housc to house. Begging in this way, the palaccwhcre King Ajata5atrulived. When rh.-scSravak;s gradually approached rhL\ rrn\-ed rherc, thcy stood in silenceto onc sidc, without saying whether thcy s'antc-dtood or not. Virtuc, a nraidcn incomparKrng AjataSatruhad a daughter named Fearlcss had achicved the most distinctive mcrits [in the able in bcauty and grace. She s'orldl, although that year she was just twclvc. She u'as sitting rn'ith golden, shoeson hcr fect in her royal father'shall shcn slt.-saw thc Srlvakas. She .1cu'elled did not stand up to wclcome thenr, but sat in silcncc, not exchanging greetings thenr to be scatcd. Sccing FcarlessVirtue rvith them, saluting thcm, or askir-rg her, "Do you not know that thesemen are sitting silently, King AjitaSatru asked all thc forcmost disciplesof Sakyamuni Tathigata? Do you not know that thcy in have achievedthe great Dharma, and are fields of blessings the world? It is out Now that you havc seen of compassion for senticnt bcings that thcy beg for food. thern, why do you not stand up to welcome them? Why not salutcthcm, exchange Now, what on carth do you have greetingswith them, and ask them to be seated? up in mind that keeps you from standir-rg to welcome thcm?" Fearless Virtue askedher royal father, "Has Your Majesty evcr seenor hcard r.rp that a universal nonarch star-rds to welcome minor kings when he seesthenl?" Thc king answcrcd, "No." ' "Flas Your Majcsty cver secnor hcard that a lion, the king of beasts,risesto wclcomc jackals when it seesthem?" "No." "Has Your MaJcstycvcr sccn or hcard that Sakra reccivcs his cclestial subjccts or that Brahrni saluteshis celestial subjects?" "No." "Has Your Majcsty cvcr sccn or hcard that thc god of a vast occan pays homage to gods of rivcrs and ponds?" "No." "Has Your Majesty ever seen or heard that the king of Sumeru, [the unequaledmountain,l pays homagc to kings of hills?" "No." "Has Your Majcsty cvcr sccn or hcard that gods of thc sun or thc moon salutc fireflics?" "No." The n.raidensaid, "Therefore, Your Majesty, why should a Bodhisattva, rvho in great kindncss and compassionhas vowcd to pursuc suprcnlc cnlightennlcirt, pay homage to Sravakas the Hinayana, who have neithcr €ircatkindness of nor great compassion?Your Majesty, why should orre who follows the path lcading to supreme enlightenmer-rt, who is like a lion, thc king of bcasts, salute those rvho follow the Hinayana, who are like jackals?r "Your Majesty, if one is already engaged in a vigorous cffbrt to seck thc

FrRuEss Vrnrue's Arr,trNurNr or BuprrrAttorto

117

with Srivakas of small and fe'w good roots? great, pure path, should he associate "Your Majesty, if a pcrson wishes to go to a sea of great wisdom to seek a thorough knowledge of thc great Dharma in its entiret,v,does he bothcr to turn to whose knowlcdgc, basedon thc tsuddha'soral tcachings,is as limited as Sravakas, the warcr in a cow's hoofprint?{ "Your Majesty, if onc wishes to reach Buddhahood, Ithc spiritual] Mount Sumeru, and acquire thc infinite body of a Tathagata,should hc p:ry homage to the space Srivakas, who seekonly as nuch samldhi power as could bt- contlned ir-r o f a t i n y m u s t a r ds e e d ? "Your Majesty, Ithe mcrits and wisdom ol-] Srivakas mav bc compared to thcnrsclves,and light of] a firefly, bccausetheir illumination can orrly bcr-rcfit fthe their understanding of Dharma comcs only through hcaring the Buddha's oral teachings.If a person has alrcady learnedof thc mcrits and u,isdom of Tathigatas, S w h i c h m a y b c l i k c n e d t o s u n l i g h ta n d m o o t r l i g h t ,s h o u l d h e s a l t r t e r i v a k a s ? "Your Majesty, I will not pay homage to Srivakas cven aftcr thc Buddha enters nirvana, let alone now, lvhen the World-Honored One still remains in the world. Why? "Your Majcsty, the reasonis: onc who associates closely with Srlvakas will will onc who associates closely with Pratyekabuddhas vow to attain Sravakajrood; one who associatcs closelywith the supremcly vow to attain Pratyekabuddhahood; cnlightenedonc will vow to attain supreme enlightcnment." Virtuc spoke in verse to her father, King AjataAftcr saying this, Fearlcss Satru: "Likc a pcrson who ventures [To scck a fortune] at sca And yet returns with one coin only; ;, h So. prcciscly. o Sravakas eheve. d Having rcachcdthc grcat oceanof Dharma, Thcy disrcgardthc trcasurcsof the Mahayana, A n d c n g c n d e ro n l y t h e n a r r o w a s p i r a r i o r r To follow thc Hinay-na path. If e pcrson associrtes closely with a king. And enjoys free access the palace, to But asks that king for only one coirr, His intimacyrvith the king is irr vairr. If one, with a respectfulmind, Kceps closc to a univcrsal monarch And asks him for millions of taelsof gold To help numerous poor people, His intimacy r,vith the king is indeed fruitful.

I 18

ON EuprrNrss To the person who asks for one coin A Srivaka may be compared; Insteadof secking true liberatior-r, H e p u r s u c so n l y a m i r r o r n i r v i n a . I f o n c e n g e r r d e ra n a r r o w a s p i r a t i o n . s only, not others', Seekinghis own deliverance Thcn, just like a minor doctor Who can only cure himself, no He deserves respectfronr thc wise. A great skillful healer, heart, With a kind and compassionate And a command of all methods of treatmcnt, Can hcal vast numbers of the sick, Winning respect'anda good reputation. Simiiarly, those who bring forth bodhicitta Can cure .rll beings' afflictions.i Your Majesty, a €lrovc of castor-oil plants Gives forth no flower's fragrance And provides no good shade;likewise, A Srlvaka docs not resolveto savethe world. Howevcr, a Bodhisattva can bencfit all, Like a huge trcc giving shclter. Small brooks can be dried up By the flames of the autumn sun Before they rcach the ocean, And so cannot nurturc rnyriad beings.6 The Srtvaka-path,like Ithe water in] The narrow, lowly hoofprint of a cow, Cannot eliminate the afflictions of scntient beings. i Up"" a small hill , One cannot acquire a golden-hued body; It is upon Mount Sumeru That everyone appearsgolden.T are like Mount Sumeru; Your Majesty, tsodhisattvas Bccausethey stay in the world, Bcings can be liberated And have bodics of the same hue.n Bodhisattvasare endowed with all-knowing wisdom, Which, like productive land,

Flanrrss Vrnrur's ArrarNurNr or Bunrnanooo Can support numberlessbeings; But the wisdom of Srtvakas, Who do not realizethe Dharma, Is like the morning dew, Incapableof moistening the world.'r A Sravakais like a dewdrop on a flou'er. Whilc a Bodhisattva is like a downpour Or thc nurturinll water of a vast lake;1o All those who associatcclosely with hinr Will attain the great Dharma. Mcn aud womcn do not erloy Thc rhododcndron, lfhich has no scent, But all enjoy the wonderful fragrance Of the campakaflowerlr And the blue lotus. A Srivaka is like a rhododendron flowcr; His wisdorn cannot hclp sentientbeings. A Bodhisattva is likc a campakaflower; Out of his compassion, He can convert numerous beings. Your Majesty, do you know Which is nrore unusual, ,1, Onc who dweils in the wilderness {l' Or one who benefitsmany people? i

119

{

To providc security to countless beings And fcrry thcm ovcr [thc occan ofsarhsara], You shouid bring forth bodhicitta^ And not follow thc path of the two vchicles. Just as a good guide can show The right way to people lost in the wilderness, So can Bodhisattvas [Guide others out of sarirs-ral. Your Majesty, have you ever seen A small raft sailing acrossa vast ocean? Only a huge ship can do so, Carrying numerous beings. Your Majesty, while a Srivaka is like a ra[t, A Bodhisattva is like a hugc ship; After being permeated with the Dharma

1,20

ON ElrpuNtss While cultivating thc Path, Hc can ferrY scnticnt bcitrgs Over the occan of hunger atrd thirst' Your Majesty, have You cver secn A man fighting a battle on a donkel'? One can wrn a battle Only on an elePhantor a horsc. i A Sravakais like a donkeY, ' Vy'hil. a Bodhisattvais like a dragorror atr clephant' He defeats dernons undcr thc bodhi-tree And delivcrs countlessbeings Ifron'r sarirsara]' In thc nocturnal skv, All thc stars fall into shadow When thc full moon riscs To illuminate every corner of the world' A Sravakais like a star, While a Bodhisattva is like the full moon; Out of compassionfor sentientbeings, Hc showsthem the wry to nirvana. The light of a fireflY Cannot helP a Pcrson work, But when the sun illuminates the earth All activitics can Proceed. A Sravaka, like thc glow of a fircflY, Cannot benefit manY, But a Buddha, endowed with the light of liberation, Has compassion for all beings. A jackal cannot bY its howl Frighten the king of beasts; But when the lion roars, Flying birds fall down with fear. Your Majesty, Sravakasfail To bring forth bodhicitta; They eliminate afflictions, But not to benefit sentient bcings. Seeingthis, I do not vow to become a Srlvaka' Since I havc already engendercd the great resolve, Why should I now make a small vow? Your Majesty, if one who is fortunate enough To obtain a human bodY

' .

Franrrss Vrnrut's Arr,trNutNr or BuonHanooo Can cherish the unexcelledresolve T o s a v ca l l b c i n g s l r o m s a r h s J r a . And givc up the Hinayana path, Hc will havc a good humarr bodr', And also good fortune.

121

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It is best, if born in this world, To bring forth thc unexcellcdresolve: To seck the supremc path And dclivcrall living bcings. He who can help himself and others Is well worth extollingt H c w i l l a c q u i r cw o r l d l y r c n o w n As well as the ultimate truth. Thcrefore, I do not salutethe Sravakas."

Then, King Ajita6atru reproached FearlcssVirtuc, saving, "You arrogant girl! How darc you not wclcome thesc Srtvak.rswhcn you seethcm?" The maidcn said, "l)o nor say that, Your Majcsty. Your Majesty is arro!{ant! too. Why do you not welcomc thc poor of thc city of Rajagrha?" Tl-rcking ansrvercd,"They are not my pccrs. Why should I welconrethenr?" Thc maiden said, "A novice tsodhisattvais also likc that. No Srlvaka or Pratyckabuddhais his peer." The king asked his daughter, "L)o you not know that tsodhisattvas respecr all scnticnt beings?" Fcarless Virtue answered,"Your Majcsty, a Bodhisattvarespects them all in ordcr to save arrogant, iratc beings and make them turn thcir minds toward enlightenment]. It is in order to augment sentient beings'good roots Ir-rniversal that a Bodhisattva cxtends rcspcct to all. However, Sr)vakas are lalready] lrcc of anger and hatrcd and are ur.'able increase to thcir good roots. Your Majcsty, even though hundreds of thousandsof Buddhas cxplain thc wonderful Dharma ro thenl, thcy will not improve in discipline,meditation, and samadhi. "Your Majesty, a Sravaka is likc a piece of lapis lazuli Iunable to contarn ;urythingl, but a Bodhisattva is like a precious containcr. Your Majcstl', a bottlc s'hich is full cannot take in cven a drop of rain lrom the sky. In the sanre\\ray, a Srivaka, even aftcr hu'dreds of thousands of Buddhas, Tathagatas,explai' the u.onderful Dharma to him, cannot be hclped to improve in disciplinc, meditation, rvisdom, and so forth; nor can he causcsenticnt beings to aspire to all-knowing rvisdom. "Your Majcsty, a vast ocean can receivc thc water of rivers, rains, and so torth. Why? Becauscit is an immcasurablccontaincr. Your Majcsty, whcn a grear Ilodhisattva teachesthc Dharma, thosc who listen will be greatly helped a'd all

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roots u'ill increasc.Why? Because thr'ir qooL'l thc Bodhisattvasarc vessels containLnq rntlnrtc krnds of [bcncficiall discourses." Hcarins his daughter saying this, King Ajita(atru sank into silence.At that rinrc. \'cncrablc Seriputra thought, "FearlessVirtue is so eloquent that she can clclrvc-r this boundlessdiscourse.Let mc stcp foru'ard to ask hcr a few questions;I ri'ill tlnd out whether she has realizcdthc truth." Thcrcupon, hc approachedthe nraiden and asked, "Do you abidc in the

;r- -V a K J - v c h l c l c \ a

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Fearless Virtue answcrcd. "No." "Do you abidc in the Pratyekabuddha-r'ehiclc?" "No." "Do you abide in the Great Vchiclc (Maha1'tna)?" "No." Siriputra askcd furthcr, "Then, in what vehiclc do vou abidc that you are ablc to rnakc such a lion's roar?" The maiden answercd Venerablt' S;.iput.r, "If I r'ucrcabiding in anything now, it would be impossiblc for me to make a lion's roar. SirrccI abide in nothing, I can makc a lion's roar. However, S;tiputr.,, you asked:'In what vehicle do you abide?'l)oes the l)harma rcalizedand achievedby yoLr,S;riputra. consisrofdiffercnt vehiclcs, such as tht' Srivak.i-vehicle, thc Pratyckabuddha-vchicle, and the Great Vehicle?" Se.ip,rt.. said, "Pleaselisten to me. The Dharma I havc rcalizc-d no such has d i s t i n c t s i g n s a s ' v c h i c l c ' o r ' n o n - v c h i c l e , ' b e c a u s ei t h a s o n l y o n e s i g n , n a m e l y , " signlcssncss. "Venerablc'Se.ipr.rt.", the l)harma is signless, if how can it bc sought?" "Fearlcss Virtue. what is the diffcrcncein excellence between thc Dharma of Buddhas and the dharmas of ordinary persons?" "What is the differencebetwccn cmptincssand quiescence?" "There is no dif-ference." "Sariputr., just as there is no diffcrcnccin cxcellence between emptincssand quiescence,so therc is no differcnce in excellerrce bctwecn thc Dharma of Buddhas and the dharmas of ordinary persons.Furthermorc, S;.iput.., just as space,while cmbrrcing all fornrs, is not different from thcm, so thc Dharma of Buddhas is not different from the dharmas of ordinary persons,nor can the two bc distinguished b y s i g n s" . Thcn Vencrable Mahamaudgalyiyara askcd FcarlcssVirtue, "What diffcrencc do you scc bctween a Buddha ar-rda Sravaka that prcventcd you from standing up to wclcome thesc great Sravakas, grect thcm, and yield your seat to them?" FearlcssVirtuc replied to Mahamaudgalyiyana, "Srivakas arc like stars, rvhich cannot illuminate anything clcarly even though they arc cvcrywhere throughout a billion-world universe. Whcn Srivakas cnter dhyana, thcy have [enough] wisdom to know something, but when thcy do not enter dhyana, thcy know nothing. "

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"But it is impossible to know the minds of sentient beings without entering dhyina!" "Mahamaudgalyayana,a Buddha can, without entering dhyana, teach the Dharma according to the inclinations of sentient berngs and libcratc them in worlds he as numerous as the sandsof the Ganges,because is proficient in reading sentient beings' minds. This marvelous deed of Buddhas, Tathagatas,is quite beyond Srivakas, who may be likencd to thc weak lights of stars. Furthermore, Mahdknow how many worlds are being fornred and how maudgalyiyana, can Sravakas many arc being destroyed?" "No, thcy cannot." " M a h a m a u d g a l y a y a n a .a r rS r l v a k a sk n o w h o w m a n y B u d d h a sh a v e a l r e a d y c entcrcd nirv-na, how many will enter nirvina, and how many are entering nirval a?" "No, they cannot." " M a h a m a u d g a l y a y a n ac,a n S r a v a k a s n o w h o w m a n y s e n t i e n tb e i r r g sa r e k espccially prone to desire, hatred, or ignorance, and how many are equally irone to desire,hatred, and ignorancc?" "No, they cannot." "Mahamaudgalyayana, know how many scnticntbcings accept can Sravakas thc Sravaka-vehicle,I.row many accept the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle,and how many acceptthe Buddha-vehicle?" "No, they cannot." "Mahimaudgalyayana, can Sravakas know how many sentientbeings can be delivered by Sravakas,how many can be delivered by Pratyekabuddhas, and how many can be deliveredby Buddhas?" "No, they cannot." "Mahimaudgalyayana. can Srivakas know how many sentientbeings have right vicw and havc decided to pursuc cnlightcnment, and how many have decided to pursue heterodox tcachings?" "No, they cannot." Fearless Virtue said, "Mahamaudgalyayana, only the Tathagata, the Perfectly Enlightened One, understands the realm of sentient beings as it is and can skillfully explain the Dharma to them. This ability is quite beyond the domain of let you Sravakasand Pratyekabuddhas, alonc other people. Mahamaudgalyayana, should know that this unique ability of the Tathagata results from his all-knowing wisdom, which no Sravakaor Pratyekabuddha has." Then FearlessVirtue continued to Venerable Mahamaudgaly-yana, "The World-Honored One often says that Mahamaudgalyayana stands first in mrraculous powers. Mahimaudgalyiyana, can you, by your miraculous powers, reach the world named Fragrant Elephant and witness that the trees there all exude a most wonderful fragrance, like that of sandalwood?" Mahamaudgalyayana answered, "This is the first time I have heard the name of that world; how can I go there?" Then he asked the maiden, "What is the name of the Buddha who teachesthe Dharma in that world?"

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thc Dharma there is named The maiden answered,"The Buddha who tcaches and Light, the Worthy Orrc, the All-Knowing One." TathagataEn'rittingFragrance asked the maiden, "How can one seethat tsuddha?" N'lahimaudgalyayana Thcrcupon, FearlessVirtue, rcmaining motionlcss on her scat' made this and Pratyeall declaration:"lfa mere novice Bodhisattvatruly surpasscs Sravakas and Light, bccauscof my dcclarakabuddhas,may TathagataEmitting Fragrance tion, appear here and causcthc Srivakas and Pratl'ekabuddhas Presentto see the rvorld namcd Fragrant Elephant and to smell thc nost wondcrful fragrance,likc that of sandalwood,exuding from the treesthcrcl" After FearlessVirtue had made this declaration,Tathigata Emitting Fraofthat light, all thc granceand Light gave forth a light from his bodv and, becausc Srlvakas [with FcarlessVirtuel saw thc Fragrant Elephant World. That Buddha was sitting behind a silken nct and teachingthc Dharma to Bodhisattvasand others who surrounded him. His prcaching could be heard clearly by those with Fearless Virtue. By that Buddha's niraculous powers, thcy also smcllcd the fragranceof Thc Buddha the rrecsthere, which was like that of the most exquisitesandah,vood. Virtue said. Even thc initial in that world said, "So it is, so it is, just as Fearless stageof a Bodhisattva is beyond the domain of Srivakas and Pratyckabuddhas." Maitrcya, Ion Whcn this I)harma wrs bcing taught, Bodhisattva-Mahasattva Mount Crdhrakhta,] asked [S-kyamunil tsuddha, "World-Honorcd One, why is there such a wondcrful fragrance of trees?" Virtue is discussingthe Dharma with Thc Buddha said, "Maitreya, Fearless the Sravakasand has madc a declaration.Knowing this, the tsuddha of the world calledFragrant Elephant, by his miraculouspowcrs, has causcdthis fragranceto be perceivcd and has revealedhis land. The most wondcrful fragrancc, like that of sandalwood, issuing frorn there is now pcrneating this billion-world universc'" Virtue said to Mahamaudgalyiyana,"lf a pcrson sees [n the palace,]Fearless such an inconceivable,superb deed, and still has thc narrow, infcrior aspirationof a Sravaka, seeking only to deliver himself, thcn you should know that his good roots arc vcry few and insignificant irldecd. Who would not bring forth bodhicitta after seeing a Bodhisattva perform immeasurable meritorious decds? "Mahamaudgalyiyana, do you know how far from herc is that Buddha's world?" answered,"No, I do r-rot." Mahan'raudgalyayana FcarlcssVirtuc said, "Mahamaudgalyayana,it is absolutcly impossiblc to know and see that Buddha's world with the aid of [ordinary] miraculous powers even in hundreds of thousandsof kalpas. The Fragrant Elephant World is located in a placc as many BuddhaJands away from here as there are recds and bushcsin all the forestsin the world." Thcn that Buddha withdrew his light, and as a result, Fragrant Elephant suddcnly. World and its Tathagataboth disappeared Virtuc, "Did you see Thereupon, Vcnerable MahikiSyapa asked Fearless Fragrant Elephant World and that Tathagata,thc Worthy Onc, the All-Knowing One?"

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The maidcn answered, "Mahak56yapa, can thL- Tarhigata bc seen? The 'Thosc Buddha has said, who see me by forn or seek nrc by sound arc treading t h e w r o n g p a t h a n d c a n n e v e r s e e t h e T a t h a g a t a . ' S i n c ct h c T a t h a g a t a s ' b o d i e s arc no other than the l)harma-body, and thc Dharrna-bodv is bcyond thc rcach of vision and hcaring, how can thc Tathagata be knon'n or sccn? The Buddha will frecly nranilcst any corporeal form to suit cvcrv scnricnt bcins: this is only his ingenuity.l2 'Did "However, Mahaka6yapa, you asked me, ,vou scc that rl'orld and that Buddha, thc Pcrfectly Enlightened Onc?' I see that tsuddha not u'ith n'rv ph1'sical eye, because is not a form to bc seenwith thc physical e.ve.l-t seerhar Buddha he I not with the dcva-cyc, because is frcc of feeling. I seethat tsuddha not s'ith thc he rvisdom-eye,becausc is detachedfrom conccptions.I seethat Buddha not rvith hc the Dharma-eyc, bccausehe rises abovc impulse. I sec that Buddha not u.ith thc tsuddha-eye,bccauschc is beyond consciousness. MahakaSyapa, seethat Buddha I by purging the mind of ignorar.rce, craving, and [all] views, just as Venerablc Mahaka6yapadocs. Moreover, I sec that Buddha [by climinating] the vicw of 'l' 'mine,' just and as VenerablcMahakaSyapa docs." Mahiki(yapa asked the maidcn, "If no dharma cvcr cxists, how can igno'l' 'minc' rance, craving, ar-rd the and arisc, sinceno senticnt bcing can be seen?" FcarlcssVirtue askcd in turn, "If no dharma evcr cxists, how can anything be seen?" Maheka6yapa askcd, "Is thc tsuddha-Dharmaalso ultimately nonexistcnrso that it. too. cannot be seen?"14 FearlessVirtue then asked, "Do you see any growthls of the BuddhaI)harma?" Mah-k-6yapa answcrcd, "l do not cvcn know the dharmas of ordinary people, let ak;ne the lluddha-Dharma." FcarlcssVirtue said, "So, VenerableMahiktSyapa, rherc bcing no tsuddhal)harma, how can there be an interruption or resumption of it, as seen by those who have not realizcd [Dharma-naturc]?Mahlki5yapa, all dharmas arc noncxistent, so they can ncvcr appear.If dharmas do not exist in the first place,how can there be a purc dharmadhatu to be seen?Mahak-6yapa, if good men or good wonlen u'lsh to seethc;rure Tathlgata, thcy should flrst purify their own minds." Then, Mahika5yapa asked Fcarlcss Virtue, "How can one purify well one's own mind?" Fcarlcss Virtue answered,"MahlkaSyapa.i[ onc believesthat hc himself and all dharmas are suchness and are thereforcdevoid of action or loss.r('hen'ill seethe purity of his own mind." Mahak-5yapaasked, "What is thc substance onc's own n-rind?" of Fearless Virtuc answered,"It is emptiness.If one realizes rnind is empty, his he will believe in [the cmptiness ofl himself; as a resulr, he will also have faith in the emptinessof suchness, bccause dharmasare by nature quiescent."l7 all Then, VenerableMahika6yapa asked Fcarless Virtue, "From which Buddha did you hear this doctrinc, so that you acquiredright view? The Buddha saysthar

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thcrc arc t\\'o ways to obtain right vicu': by hcaring the Dharma cxplained by othcrs. ar.rd thinking within oneself." bv Thc nraidcn answcred, "Mahiki6yapa, I acquiredright view by first hearing cxternal discourses and afterwardsthinking wrthin mysclf. "MahikiSyapa, without the help of others'verbal tcaching, how can a great B t r d h i s a t t v a b i d ei n u l t i m a t eq u i e s c c n c c ? " r " a MahakiSyapasaid, "Onc rcflcctswithin himself accordir.rg the Dharma he to has heard; this is thc practicc of contemplation." Then MahlkaSyapa askcd the maiden furthcr, "How docs a Bodhisattva retlect u'ithin hirnselP" "Mahika6yapa, when a Bodhisattva joins othcr Bodhisattvas in prcaching the Dharma and ir-r other Dharma activities. if he does not percerve arry form of sentientbeings, then he succceds internal conternplation.MahSka6yapa, in all dharmas partake of the past, prcscnt. and iuture becauscall dharmas have suchncssas their very substanceand arc manitcstcd in suchness.Hc who has this insight is a Bodhisattva u'ho l-ras achievcd intcrnal contemplation. This you should know. " "How can one be in harmony with dharmas?" "Mahiki(yapa, one should view them as suchness, without bcing attached to them or libcratcd from thcrn." "What kind of view is right vicw?" "Mahaka6yapa,right view is free from the two extremes, is r-rcithcr active nor inactivc, and therelbre is a view and yet not a view. Mahaka6yapa, the l)harma is only a name. It is actually apart from the name, because Dharma [itselfl can never bc rcalizcd."l" Then Mahaki6yapa askedthe maiden furthcr, "How should onc pcrccivc thc

't'? "

'Just Fearless Virtue answered, as VenerableMahika5yapa does." Mah-ka6yapasaid, "l perccivc ncithcr thc 'l' nor 'mine."' FcarlcssVirtue- said to Venerable Mahika(yapa, "One should perceive all d h a r m a si n t h i s w a y , f o r t h e r e i s n o ' I ' o r ' m i n e . " ' 'When this doctrinc was spokcn, Venerable Subhnti was overjoyed-airil'saldto Fcarless Virtue, "You must have attainedgreat insight to achievesuch eloquence."2o Fearless Virtuc said to Venerable Subhnti, "Subhuti, are there such ilistinc'attainable' 'unattainable' tions as and among dharmas, or is there anything that can be sought? What causesyou to tell me that I havc well achieved such eloquence?In my opinion, I have eloquencebecauscI perceive nothing, internal or " external. Subhnti at oncc askcdthe maiden, "What rcalizationor Dharma enables you to have such ready, wondcrful eloquence?" Fearless Virtue answcrcd, "I do not know by myself or with the help of others the difference between wholcsome dharmas and unwholesome ones. Knowing dharmas in this way, I see nothing impure or pure, defiled or undefiled, conditioned or unconditioned, mundane or supramundane. I do not see any dhar-

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ma as a dharma of ordinary people, because everv dharma is the Buddha-Dharma 1'i in substance.Because I see no such distinctions, I have acquired the Buddha- ' Dharma without seeinga Buddha. Subhnti, those u.ho knou,' this and perceiveno such distinctions will havc such eloqucnce. "21 Subhuti asked, "What is eloquencer?" Fearless Virtue answered, "Subhuti, it is the climination of all your atrainments." FearlessVirtue continucd to Venerable Subhnti, "Althoueh dharmas are expressed, their substance neithcr heard nor attained.So it is u.ith eloqucnce." is Then Fearlcss Virtue asked Venerablc Subhuti, "Can one abide rn the substancc of things? Can it increaseor decrease? not,] how can one havc clo[If quence?" Subhuti at once answcrcd, "[One can have eloqucnce]if hc realizes that there is no diffcrcncebetweennondefilemerrt and Iallj dharmas,and that they are bcyond argunlent and cxprcssion,sincc the substancc ofdharmas is inexprcssible."ll FearlessVirtue asked Vcnerable Subhuti, "All dharmas bcing so, u.hy did 'You you say, must have gained great insight to achicvc such eloqucnce'?" Subhnti asked in turn, "[Now, this very question of yours-] is it bccause you have acquired cloqucncethat you are able to raiseit, or becausc you have not acquircd cloquence?" FcarlcssVirtuc askcd VenerableSubhnti, "Do you bclicve that all dharmas are like echoes,as the Buddha says?" Subhuti replied, "I believeit." Fearless Virtue asked, "l)oes an ccho have eloqucnceor not?" Subh[ti rcplied, "It is bccausethcre is a sound in the valley that an echo is l-reard outsidc."23 FearlessVirtuc said, "Subhnti, becausethere is a sound, thcrc is an ccho. L)oes an echo havc any entity or form? It has neither. Why? Bccausethat which arisesfrom causes and conditions docs not [truly] arise." Subhnti said, "All dharmas arisc from causcs and conditions." Fearlcss Virtue said, "No dharma arisesin substancc by nature." or Subhnti asked,"If all dharmasare ultimately nonexistentin substance and by naturc, ho.v can thc Tath-gata say, 'sentient beings as numerous as the sands of the Gangcs will attain supreme enlightenmentand become Buddhas'?" Fearlcss Virtue askcd in turn, "Can thc dharmadhatuarise?" S u b h n t i r c p l i e d ," N c r , i t c a n n o r . " Fearless Virtue said, "All Buddhas, Tathigatas, are the nature and form of the dharmadhitu. " Subhnti said, "I do nor perceiveany dharmadhitu." FearlcssVirtue said, "The Buddha always teachcs'nonarising'2a his disin courses, yet he says that sentient beings as numerous as the sands of the Ganges will attain supreme enlightenment and become Buddhas. What does this mean? Why does he say so? Actually all his discoursesare not discourses,becausethe

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dharmadhitu neither arisesnor ceases-it is ultimately purc, for it is not an cvent; rt rs bc-r'ond words and cxprcssiorrs all and apart from [mundanel reality." Subhuti said, "How cxtraordinary you are! Although you lead a lay lifc, you can explarn thc Dharma vcry skillfully and have inexhaustibleeloquence." Fearless Virtue said, "Subhhti, a Bodhisattva'seloquencchas nothing to do n'ith acquisitionor nonacquisition,learning or nonlcarning, rcnouncing the household lifc or not renouncing it. Why? Because Bodhisattva'swisdom comcs from a purity of mind, and along with his wisdom, eloquenceappears." Fearless Virtuc said to Venerable Subhuti, "Norv, let us discussthc Bodhi" sattvas'practices. SubhUti said, "Speak, and I will listerr." Fearlcss Virtuc said, "Subhuti, if a Bodhisatn'a has achievedeight things, it makes no differcncc whcthcr hc rcnounccs the household life or not. What arc the eight? (1) To acquire purity of body and dccp faith in bodhi; (2) to have great kirldness and compassion, and ncvcr to forsake any sentient bcing; (3) to master all worldly affairs becauseof great kindness and compassron; (4) to be able to givc up lifc and limb and achic-ve ingenuity; (5) to be able to make infinitc vows; (6) to consummatc the practice of the paramitt of wisdom and be detached from all views; (7) to havc grcat couragc and vigor to cultivate good karmas without satration; and (8) to acquire unhindered wisdom as a result of attaining the Rcalization of the Nonarising of Dharmas. Subhnti, if a Bodhisattva has achieved these eight things, it makes no difference whether he renounces the houschold life or not. He can abidc in bodhi without hindrance, whether he walks, stands,sits, or lies down." Then Venerable Rahula said to Fearless Virtue, "Your discourse is not pure. You wear jewelled shoes and sit on a high couch while discussingthe Dharma with these Sravakas. Have you not heard that one should not explain the Dharma to those who are not sick while sitting on a high couch?" Thereupon, Fearless Virtue askedRahula, "Do you really know what is pure and what is impure? VenerableRahula, is this world pure?" Rahula replied, "It is neither pure nor impurc, Fearless Virtue,2sthose who accept and practice the precepts set forth by the Tathagata and then break them can be said to be pure or impure, but those who never break the precepts are neither pure nor impure." Fearless Virtue said, "Stop! Stop! Do not say so. Those who practice the Dharma as taught and the precepts as set forth can be said to be impure, [whether they later break the precepts or notl. Rihula, those who have realized the undefiled

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Dharma can nevcr brcak the precepts, and theretbre thev arc neither pure nor impure. V/hy so? Becausesuch Sravakashavc transcendedthe Dharma and the precepts;it is for the Srivakas in the three realmsrvho arc srill in thc learning stage that the Tathagata teachcs the Dharma, whilc those Srlvakas [who have transcendedthe Dharma and the precepts]have also transccndcdthe thrcc realms. In this sense,we spcak of transcendingor not transcendinqthc thrcc rcalms. Since some people are ignorant of the [true naturc o1-lprecepts.pr,rritvand impurity arc mentioned, Ithough thcy, like] empty space,are nothing but cxpressions. This can only be seenby meansof wisdom. It is in this light that puritv and inrpurity can be spokcn of." Rahula askcd, "What is thc differencebetween purity and impuritl'?" Fearless Virtue askcd in turn, "ls a picce of stainless, rcal gold used as an ornament different from another piece not used as an ornamcnt?" Rahula answcrcd, "No, it is not." Fearless Virtue said, "Purity and impurity are different in name onlv, not in other respects. Why? Becauseby naturc, all things are frcc from filth; the_v have no contamination or attachment." Fearless Virtuc continued to Venerable Rahula, "You said that one should not teach the Dharma whilc sitting on a high, broad couch. A Bodhisattva sitting on a grassseatsurpasses those sitting on high couchesand Sravakas the tsrahma in Heaven." Rahula asked, "Why so?" FearlessVirtue askcd in turn, "Rihula, on what kind of seat does a tlodhisattva attain bodhi?" Rahula rcplicd, "On a grassseat." Fearless Virtuc said, "When a Bodhisattva sits on a grassscat. Sakra, Brahma, the four dcva kings who protect the world, and other gods in thc billionworld universe, including the gods of Akanistha Heaven, all come to pay homagc to him with thcir palms joined; they come to him and bow with their hcads at his feet." Rahula said, "It is so, it is so." Then, FearlessVirtue asked Rahula, "[Therefore,] does not such a Bodhisattva, who sits on a grass seat, surpassothers sitting on high, spaciouscouchcs, and Sravakas in the Brahma Heaven?" At that time, King Ajata5atruaskedFearlcss Virtue, "Do you not know that is thc son of Sakyamuni Tathagata and that he srands first in discipline?" [Rahula] FearlessVirtue said to her royal father, "Pleasc, Your Majesty, do not say that R5hula is the son of the Tathagata! Your Majcsty, have you cver seen or heard that a lion gives birth to a jackal?" "Never. " "Your Majesty, have you ever seen or heard that a universal monarch pays homage to minor kings?" "Never. "

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Majesty, whcn thc Tathtgata, like the king of lions, turns thc great gather around him. Your Majesty, rvho arc the true sons Dharnra-s'heel.Sravakas oi rhc Tathigata? As far as thc truc Dharma is concertred,the answer should bc 'Bodhrsattvas.'Therefore,Your Majesty, do not say that thc Tathagatahas a son or rlot. If rhc Tathagata has any true son, it is onc who brings forth supreme b o d h i c i t t a". When this doctrine was spokcn, twenty thousandladiesirr the palaceof King A-jSta6atru brought forth bodhicitta. Twenty thousand gods who were satisfied Virtuc taughtl also brought forth bodhrcitta aftcr hearu'ith the doctrine [Fearless ing hcr make a lion's roar. The king said, "These people are the sons of past, prescnt, and future Buddhas. How can those who study thc Srivaka precepts to free themselvesfrom afflictions be the true sons of thc Tathagata?" Thcrcupon, the gods scatteredt"lowersaround the Buddha and all over the city of Rijagrha as an offcring to the maiden FearlessVirtue. Then, Fearless Virtuc stcppcd down from her couch and paid homage to Shc gave them various kinds ofdelicious, fragrant food and drink those Sravakar.26 as offerings, all according to thc rulcs. Aftcr making offerings, shc said, "l do not kr-rowwhy you venerableSrlvakas leti the Tathagataand came here so early in the morning. You should go out to beg for food only after hearing the Dharma Pleasego back. I shall be there in a moment." explair-red. Thereupon, Fearless Virtuc, together with her royal fathcr and mother and surrounded by countlesspeople of Rajagrha,wellt to seethe Tathigata that morning. They all bowed with thcir hcads at the tsuddha's feet and sat down to one side. The Sravakasalso rcturncd to the Buddha, bowcd with thcir hcads at thc Buddha's feet, and sat down to one side. Then, VenerableSariputrasaid to the Buddha, "World-Honored One, FearlessVirtue is marvelous; she has acquired many blessings and great benefits." The l-luddhatold VenerableSariputra,"Fearless Virtue has [ong ago] brought forth bodhicitta and has plantcd good roots in the presence of nine billion past Buddhas in order to seek the supreme enlightenmentof the Buddha." Seriputraasked, "World-Honored One, can she changeherselfinto a man?" The Buddha said, "Sariputra. do you consider her as female?Do not take it such a view. Why? Because is by virtue of his vow that this Bodhisattva reveals himsclf in a female form to win sentient beings over to thc Dharma." Thereupon, Fearless Virtuc made this declaration:"lf no dharma is masculine or feminine, then, may I now change into a man in full view of all the people " here! After she said this, her female body changed immediately into a male one. She ascended in midair to a height of seven palm trees one above another, and staycd there. Then, the World-Honored One asked Venerablc Siriputra, "Siriputra, do you see Bodhisattva FearlessVirtue staying in midair?"

FnanrEss Vrnrur's ArrarNmtNr or Buoonanooo

131

S-riputra answered,"Yes, I do, World-Honored One." T h e B u d d h a s a i d , " S a r i p u t r a . B o d h i s a t t v aF c a r l e s s i r r u e w i l l a r t a i n s u V preme enlightenment after seven thousand myriads of kalpas, and will be named Undefiled Tath-gata, the V/orthy One, the All-Knorving One. His world will be called Bright, and his life span will be one hundred kalpas. His true Dharma will prevail for ten kalpas [after his parinirvila]. He will have an assembly of thirty thousand monastic Bodhisattvas,all of whom have reachedthe stageof nonregression. The ground of his world will be made of clear lapis lazuli and adorned by eight rows of magnificent lotus flowers. The names of thc miserable planes of existence will be unknown there. His world will be full of gods. Siriputra, those gods will enjoy wonderful pleasuresand the flavor of the supreme Dharma, as do the gods in Tusita Heaven. " Bodhisattva Fearless Virtue's mother, named Moonlight, had come to the Buddha with King Ajita6atru. [After the Buddha had spoken,] she said to him with hcr palms joined, "World-Honored One, I have gained great benefir: I was prcgnant with this child for nine months, and now this good child makes a lion's roar. I now dedicate my good roots to the attainment of supreme enlightenment, so that I may attain suprcmc enlightcnment in the Bright world of Undefiled 'I'athlgata in the future." Thcrcupon, the Buddha asked Venerable Sariputra, "Sa.ipnt.r, do you see this woman now?" Sariput.a replied, "Ycs, I do." The Buddha said, "Saripurra, rhis woman, Moonlight, will be reborn in the Heaven of the Thirty-Three after death and will be named Inrense Light. when Bodhisattva Maitreya attains bodhi, this god Intensc Lighr will be the eldest, most prominent son of King other View. After the prince makes offcrings to Maitreya Buddha, he will renounce the household life. He will be able to remember and practice the Dharma taught by Maitreya Buddha from bcginning to end. He will 'Worthy see all the tsuddhas of the Kalpa and make offerirrgs ro rhem one by one. 'fhen, when Bodhisattva Fearlessvirtue attains supreme enlightenment and becomes Undefiled rathagata, the god Inrense Light will be an cmperor possessing the seven treasures, named Holder of the Earth. After he makes offerings to the Tath-gatas, he will also attain supreme enlightenment and bc named universal Light Tathagata, the Worthy Onc, the All-Knowing One. He will establish a Buddha-land exactly like that mentioned beforc." Upon hearing this, Queen Moonlight was overwhelmed with joy. She took off her exquisite necklace of prccious stones, which cost hundreds of thousands of taels of gold, and offered it to the Buddha. V/ith the king's permission, she received the five hundred preceprs [for nuns] and began to lead a pure life. Then, Bodhisattva Fearless Virtue said to the Tathagata, "May Bodhisattvas, by virtue of my vow, bc reborn by transformation wearing monastic robes when I attain bodhi in the future! May the Tathegata, becauseof my vow, now give me the appearanceofa young monk ordained for eight years!"

132

ON EnpuNrss

Inrnrcdiately after Bodhisattva FearlessVirtue uttered these words, she chanqcd into a fully dignified monk drcssedin a monastic robe. Then Bodhisattva FearlessVirtue suddenly changed back to her original and said to her father, King Ajata(atru, "Your Majcsty, all dharmasare appearance and thcy defy like this: they arc apart from the forms causedby all discrinrinations Now, Your Majesty, I have reveale myself again in thc form d all n-risconceptions. of a maiden. Does Your Majcsty scc mc?" The king answered,"Yes, I do, but I do not [know how to] sce you as you I ph1'sically appear, because just saw you as a monk, befbre secing you now as a maiden again." The Buddha said to the king, "Your Majesn', rvhich form is the true one? You should learn to abidc by right view regarding all dharmas. Sentientberngsarc burning with afflictions becauscthcy do not understand the pou'er of Dharma. Not understandingthe power of Dharma, they doubt u'hat should not be doubted. Therefore, you should often keep close to the Tathagataand thc youthful tsodhithe awe-inspiring power of that Bodhisattva'svirtue will sattva Mafrju6ri, because enablcYour Majesty to repent your misdeeds." -I'hcn, thc Buddha told Arranda, "You should acccpt and practice thc l)harmaDoor of the Prophecy of Ilodhisattva Fearless Virtue's Attainment of Ruddhahood. Read and recite it and do not liorget it. Ananda, a good man or a good woman may give to the Buddhas enough of the seven treasures to fill a billion-world him in blcssingif he can acceptand universe;however, another person will surpass practice evell onc sclltcncc or stanza of the Dharma-Door of the Prophecy of Bodhisattva Fearless Virtue's Attainment of Buddhahood aftcr hearing it explainedmention those who read and recite the entire sfrtra, explain it widely to not to othcrs, and practiceit as taught." When the Tathagatahad spokcn thc Dharma-Door of thc Prophccy of BoVirtue's Attainment of Buddhahood, Queen Moonlight, Fearless dhisattvaFearless Virtuc's mother; and all the gods, dragons, asuras,and so forth were jubilant over the Buddha's teaching. They accepted it with faith and bcgan to practice it with veneratron.

NOTES
1 . A l s o a n a m e f o r M o u n t S u m e r u . I t h a s t h e g e n e r a lm e a n i n g o f 'lofty'.

2. Also the name of a star, which is belicved to causeeclipsesof the sun and moon. 3 . T h i s p a r a g r a p hi s a l r e e t r a n s l a t i o n .S o m e a p p a r e n t l yi r r e l e v a n t w o r d s i n t h e o r i g in inal text have been deleted. This and many other passages this sutra are extremely obscure and difficult to understand. The translators had to resort to somewhat arbitrary interpretations and free translations for the sake of readability.

Franrrss Vrnrut's 4. Free translation.

ArrArNl,rrNr

or Buoonrsooo

133

5 . T h c l i n e s i n t h c s e t w o s t a n z a s a v e b e c n a l t e r e dr n s e q u e n c c o r c l a r i t 1 , .A l s o , s o r . r . r c h f rcdundantwords in the original have been deleted. 6. These two lines arc lreely translatcd. 7 . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e n r y t h , M o u n t S u m e r u h a s t b u r s r d e s .c - . r c h i d e m a d e o f a v a l u a b l c s s u b s t a n c e I t i s s a i d t h a t o n c w h o a p p r o a c h e s s i d e o f t h e n r o L u r t . r i n i l l a c q u i r et h e c o l o r o f . a u t h a t s i d e ; e . g . , t h e b o d y o f o n e u ' h o a p p r o a c h e sh c s i d e n . r a d c i g o l d s i l l b c c o m e g o l d e n i 1 t o c o l or . 8 . T h a t i s , b e i n g s c a n a c q u i r e t h c " c o l o r " o f l i b e r a t i o n b v a s s o c i r t i n ! :s ' i t h l i b e r a t c d Bodhisattvas. 9 . T h c s e q u e n c c n t h i s s t a n z ah a s b c c n r e a r r a n g e d . i 10. Litcrally, "occan." 11. A fragrant yellow flower. 1 2 . T h e o r i g i n a l t c x t o [ t h i s p a s s a g e s c o m p l e x a n d o b s c u r e . W c ] r r r - c r c n d c r e c li t i freely. 1 3 . S c c N u m e r i c a l G l o s s a r y ," f i v c k i n d s o f c y c s . " H e r e e a c ht y p e o f e v e i s a s s o c i a t c d rvith one of thc fivc aggrcgatcs. 1 4 . L i t e r a l l y , " l f a l l t h r : L l u d d h a - L ) h a r n - ri a u l t i m a t c l y n o n c x i s t c n t , h o w . c a n i r b e s seen?" 15. This could bc interprctcdto mean 'change'. 1 6 . ' f h r s r e f e r s t o t h c d o c t r i n e r h a t w i t h i r . rt h e d h a r n r a d h l t u n o t h i n g i s a c t u a l l y d o n e , t n o c h a n g eo c c u r s , a n d n o t h i n g i s g a i n c d o r l o s t , f o r a l l i s s u c h r r c s r t s c l f . s l 7 A l t r : r n e t c t r r n s l a t i o n : " l t i s e r n p t i n e s s .I f o n e r c a l i z c d e n r p t i n c s sa s a r e s u l t o f b c l i c v i n g i n t h c q r t i c s c e r rn a t u r e o l - h i r n s e l fa r r d a l l d h a r m a s ,h e w i l l b c l i e v c i n r h e e m p r i p c s s t o f s u c h n c s s". 1 8 . A l t c r n a t e t r a n s l a t i o n :" M a h i k a 6 y a p a ,a s r e a t B o d h i s a t t v an e i t h c r d c p e n d so n o r h e r s ' w o r d s , n o r o t t a n y v e r b a l t c a c h i n g :h o w c a n i t b c s a i d t h a t h c a b i d e si n u l t i m a t e q u i e s c e n c c ? " 1 9 . T h i s i s a t y p i c a l e x a n t p l c o f t h c l ) r : r j r i - p a r a m i t -e x p l a n a t i o no f " r h o r o u g h c m p t i n e s s " ;i . e . , t h c r c i s n o t c v e n s u c h a t h i n g a s " l ) h a r r n a " t o b c r c a l i z e d . 2 0 . l . i t c r a l l y , " Y o u m u s t b e s k i l l e d a t g a i n i n g g r c a t b c n e f l t t o a c h i e v es u c h c l o q u c n c c " . 'lhese 21. t h r c c s c n t e n c e s r e f r e e l y r c n d e r e d ;t h c t c x t i s c o n f u s i n g . a 2 2 . T h i s i s a I r c c t r a n s l a t i o n ;t h e t e x t i s n o t c l e a r . 2 3 . l . i t i : r a l l y , " B c c a u s eo f t h e i n n e r s o u n d t h e r c i s a n e c h o o u t s i d e . " 2 4 . L i t e r a l l y , " n o n d e f i l e n r c n t . "T h i s r n a , vb e a m i s p r i n t i n t h e C h i n e s c t c x t . 2 . 5 .T e x t h a s " F c a r l c s sV i r t u c s a i d , " w h i c h i s p r o b a b l y i n c o r r c c t , s o r v e h a v e c l c l e t e d sr1d. 2 ( r . I t i s n o t c u / o r t h v t h a t t h i s t e x t a d v l s r - s a v r n g h o m a g e t o H r n a v a n an t o n k s . ev c n i f p onc lollorvs thc Mahay-na.

B v%tmrrl*Fr€
Dharma-Door the to The Universal
T

lnconcelvaDte

.

ll

Thus have I heard. ()nce the -tsuddhawas dwelling on Mount Grdhrakfita near Rljagrha, accompanied by eight hundred great monks and forty-two thousand llodhisattvas. At that time, Bodhisattva Undefiled Store descended from the sky, surroundcd rcspcctfully by ninety-two thousandother Bodhisattvas. Then the World-Honored One told thc assembly,"These Bodhisattvaswere urged by Universal Flowcr Tathtgata, in the world called Every Pure Deed, to come to this Saha World in order to hear and accept from me the Universal Dharma-Door to thc Inconccivabic. Othcr Ilodhisattvas will also comc to this " assembly. As soon as the World-Honored One had finished saying this, innur-nerablc Bodhisattvas camc frorn this and othcr worlds and gathered on Mount Grdhrakuta. After prostrating thcmsclvcs with thcir heads at thc Buddha's fcct, they withdrew and stood to one side. Thcn Bodhisattva Undefiled Storc approachcd thc Tathigata, bearing in his hand a thousand-petalledlotus flower made of the seven treasures.He bowed down with his head at the Buddha's feet and said, "World-Honored One, Universal Fiower Tathigata in thc world called Every Purc I)ced offers you this prcciousIlowcr and asksmc to convcy to you his infinitc good wishcs. Hc inquires whcther you are enjoying good health, freedom from afflictions, and ease and peaccin life." After saying this, the Bodhisattvaascended midair and sat there in in the position of meditation. From among the assembly,Bodhisattva-MahlsattvaManju5ri rose from his

i S u t r a 1 0 , T a i s h o 3 1 0 , p p . 1 5 8 - 1 6 3 ;t r a n s l a t e d n t o C h r n e s eb y B o d h i r u c i

THn ljNrvrnsal DsannA-ooon

135

seat, bared his right shoulder, knelt on his right k'ce, joined his palms respccrfully, and said to the Buddha, "l rcmembcr that verv long ago I heard Universal Lamp Buddha prcach the Universal Dharma-l)oor to thc Inconceivable.Right then, I acquired eight hundrcd forty billion .ryriads of san.radhis, and could also understandscventy-scvcntrillio'myriads of sanridhis. world-Honored one, may you, out of sympathy for thc Bodhisattvas,explain this doctrinc to them." Thereupon, the Buddha told ManjuSri, "Norv, hsren artcntively and think well about this. I am going to explain it to you." Manju6ri said, "Ycs, World-Honorcd One. wc shall gladlv listcn." The Buddha said, "If a Bodhisattva wishes to learn this doctrine. hc should cultivate thesesamadhis: the Form-Image Samidhi, thc Sound-lmagc Samadhi,the Sce't-lmagc Sanidhi, the Taste-lnrageSanadhi, the Touch-lmage Samiclhi, thc Mind-Objcct Samadhi,thc Wonran-lmagc Samadhi,the Man-lmage Samadhi, . . . thc l)cva-lmagc Samidhi, . . . the Animal-lmagc Samadhi, . . thc Desire-lmage Samadhi, the Hatred-lmagc Sarladhi, the Ignorancc-ImageSamadhi, the Samidhi of Unwholesomc I)harmas, the Samddhiof fi/holcsome Dharmas, the Samidhi of conditioned Dharmas, and the Samadhiof Unconditioncd l)harmas. Manju6ri, if a llodh'isattvarcalizesall thesesamidhis, he has alreadylcarned this doctrr'e. "First, Mailuiri, what is the Forrn-Image Sam-dhi?" The World-Honored C)neexplainedin vcrsc: "Consiclcr lbrrn to be just like foanrDcvoid of substancc, And thus inpossiblc to grasp. This is called thc Form-Imasc Samadhi." Thc Buddha conrinucd, "Mairju5ri, what is the Sound-lrnagcSamldhi?" The World-Honorcd One explainedin verse: 1 "Regard sound as an ccho in a valley, t" c I I n a p p r c h e n s i b lb y u a t u r c . I All dharmas arc like that, Frec of essenccand differenccTo know them all to be quiescent Is called the Sound-lmase Samidhi. "Furthermore, Mafiju5ri, what is the Scenr-ImagcSamtdhi?" The World-Honored One explainedin verse: as the ocean lnsatiably engulfs all rivers, So one caDsmcll various scerlts constantly, Evcn for hundreds of thousands of kaloas. 'Just I

136

ON EuprtNrss If thc scentswerc rcal, One would soon have orre'sfill. Yet, because they are nrere arbitrarl'nanles, They have no reality to be grasped. Just as scentscannot be graspcd, The nose, too, has no [true] existence. To know them all as cmpty And quiescentby nature Is called the Scent-lmageSanridhi. "Moreover, ManjuSri, what is the Tastc-lmagc Samidhi?" The World-Honored One explainedin vcrse: "All that is tastedby the tongue, Whether salty, sour, or of some other taste, Arises from dependent generation, And by nature does not [truly] exist. To know that flavors arise From a cornbinationof causes and conditions Is to know the inconceivable.. This is called the Taste-hnageSamadhi." The Buddha continued, "Manju6ri, what is the Touch-lmagc Samadhi?" The World-Honored One explained in verse: "Touch is rrothing but a name, Inapprehensible nature. by Softness,snroothncss, and all other texturcs Arisc from depcndent generation. To comprehend that touch ariscs From the combination of causesand conditions And cannot ultimately be found Is called the Touch-lmage Samadhi. "Furthermore, ManjuSri, what is the Mind-Object Samidhi?" The World-Honored Onc explained in verse: "Even if, in thc billion-world univcrsc, All the countlessscntient beings asscmblcd And together sought the objects of thc mind, They could not find them.

Tsn UNrvrnsal-I)rren,rre-ooon Mcntal objccts arc llot insidc or outsioc, Nor can they be gatheredtogc-ther. They arc merely varietiesof vcrbal phcnomena, Fabrications arbitrary namcs. of They arc illusory, likc magic; Ever flccting, thcy remain nowhere. To know that they are cmpty by naturc Is called thc Mind-Objcct Samidhi. "Morcover, ManjuSri, what is thc Woman-lmagc Samtdhi?" The World-Honorcd One explaincd in verse: "A woman has no real existencc; She is a mere assemblage thc four elements. of However, ordinary men, thcir minds confused, llelieve her to be real. A wonran is illusory, like magic; This fools cannot understand. Dcccivcd by the sight of her, They engcndcr attachment in their hearts. Like a person nagically produced, A woman has no reality; Yet, in delusion, Ignorant men grow desirousof her. To know perfectly That women have no sclf-entity And are quiescentforms Is called the Woman-Image Samadhi." The Buddha continued, "Manju6ri, what is the Man-Image Samadhi?" The V/orld-Honored One explaincd in verse: "Men considerthemselves be men, to And other humans to be womcn. Becausc f thcir discrimirration, o Lust is arousedwithin them. However. from the beginning. A lustful mind has never been. No sign of [such al mind can be found

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13U

ON EuprtNnss By delusive discrimination One thinks of a physical form as malc. I say it is, in fact, not a man, But a thing likc a mirage. To know that nran is quiescent by nature Is callcd the Man-Image Samadhi. . . ." The Buddha continued, "Manjuin, r,vhatis thc l)eva-Image Samadhi?" The World-Honored One explainedin verse: "Thosc lvho havc pure faith of And an abundance good karmas Will be born rvith bodies of spccialbeautv To enjoy superb rervardsin heavert Prccious gems and palaces Appear without work or effort. Exquisite llowers of thc coral tree Bloom, though no one plants thcm. All such inconccivabiccvcnts occur As a rcsult of kan-nicpower! Just as myriad forms are reflected In a pieceof clear lapis lazuli. The gods' wor.rderfulbodies, and other chings Palaccs, All arisc from delusion. This Irealizatior-rl Is called the Deva-lmage Samadhi. . . ." The Buddha continued, "Manju6ri, what is the Animal-lmagc Samadhi?" The V/orld-Honored Onc cxplained in verse: "Though clouds diffcr in hue and shape, T h e y h a v en o s u b s t a n c e . However, they delude and confuse The ignorant. Just as the clouds in thc sky Have different colors and shapes, So sentient beings appear In various forms as animals.

Ttrr [JNrvrnsar Dsanua-ooon If one knows that karma is illusory, He will be free of delusion. To knor,l'that animals are intrinsicallv quicscent Is the Animal-lmage Samadhi. "Furthermorc, Manju5ri, what is the Desire-lmageSamidhi?" The World-Honored Onc explained in verse: "Desire is a mere figment of discrimination, 'V/hich cannot be found. It does not arise,does not appear, And has no abode. By nature, desire is like empty space, Divorced from anything established. Becauseof false discrimination, though, The defilement of desire plagucs the ignorant. The nature of all dharmas is not dcfilcd; It is pure, like empty space. Even if one searches it for I'hroughout the ten directions, No trace of it can bc found. Onc who knows not this emptinesS ls tcrrificd to meet desirc. Hc fcars when there is nothing to fearHow can he ever securepeaceandjoy? A f<rol may be afraid of cmpty space And flce from it in terror. How can one escapefrom space When spaceis everywhere? The ignorant, being deluded, Wrongly discriminate. Desire is intrinsically unreal, Yet they try to renounceit. Their efforts are as vain As the attempt to elude empty space.l Every dharma, in its nature, Is unattainable, like nirvlna. Buddhas of the past, present, and future All realize the natural emptiness of desire. ,

t39

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ON EnprtNess Secure in this realization, They never part from [desirc]. Although those who fear desire Rack their brains secking liberation from it, It rcmains forever intrinsically pure . When I attaincd enlighter-rment, I realized that all things are equal. Some maintain that desire is real And that it should bc abandoned. The view that desireshould bc rcnounced Arises from falsediscrimination. There is, in truth, no abandoning; It is only [the function] Of a discriminativemind. by Desirc is inapprehensible nature, So it cannot be extinguishedor destroycd. In undiffbrcntiated reality, There is ncithcr libcration Nor discrimination. If one could bc iiberated from desire, One could also be liberatcd lrom ernpty spacc. Empty spaceand dcsire Are boundlcss and not differcnt. If one seesany difference, I t e l l h i n r t o f o r s a k eI d i s c r i n r i n a t i o n ] . In truth, dcsirc ncvcr arises; it of One perceives because delusion. Desire is empty by nature; It is but an arbitrary name. One should not engenderattachment Becauscof such a name. To rcalizc that desireis frcc of impurity Is to realizeultimate emptiness. Liberation is not reached Through the dcstructionof desire. Desire and thc Buddha-Dharma are equal; T h i s [ r e a l i z a t i o nils n i r v a n a . The wise should know: To enter the realm of utter quicsccncc

Tse tjNrvrnsu Dn.rRyr-loon of By realizing the quiescence dcsirc Is called the l)esire-Imagc Sanridhr. "Moreovcr, Manju5ri, what is the Hatrcd-Imaqc Sarnidhi?" The World-Honored One explainedin versc: "Hatred2 originatesfrom dclusion. 'l' One clings to the 'I'; Whcn therc is no thus, w W h c n h c h c a r sn t a l i c i o u s o r d s , r hatred arises, Inter"rse W h i c h i s l i k c a v i c i o u sp o i s o n . The nraliciouswords-and hatrcd, toe Ultimately cannot be found. To start a fire by boring wood, Many conditions must bc fulfillcd. No fire can possibly ignite If theserequired conditions are not met. Likewise, speechunpleasant the ear to Ultimately cannot be found. If spcechis krrown to be enrpty bv nature, No hatred will arise again. Hatred is not in speech, Nor does it dweli in the body. It is a product of many causes and conditions, 'V/ithout whicl-r it carl ncver come to be. Just as buttcr and chccscarc nradc By a combination of milk and other agents, So hatred, in itself, is unborn, Though harsb speechImakes it scem to arise]. Fools cannot undcrstandthis, So thcy ignitc ',vith thc hcat of angcr. This one should know: Ultimately, nothing can be fbund. H a t r c d i s b y n a t u r cq u i c s r ' c n t : I t i s b u t a n a r b i t r a r yn a m c . Hatrcd is reality itself; Bccauscof suchness ariscs. it Knowing hatred to be thc dharmadhitu Is called the Hatred-Imagc Sanadhi." I

1.11

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ON EnaprtNrss Samtdhi?" Thc Buddha continued, "ManjuSri, what is the lgnorar.rce-Image Thc \Vorld-Honored One cxplained in vcrse:

"lgnorance is cmpty by nature; It has never by itself arisen. There is not a singie dharma That can be calledignorancc. Ordinary people Wrongly conccive of ignorancc Vy'hiletherc is no ignorancc; They arc attachcd While thcre is nothinq to be attachedto. It is as if they tr)' To tie crnptv spaceinto a ktrot. Strangeindeed are thosc fools! Thcy do what thcy should not do. There are no dharmas, Yet they discriminate, And thus engcnder myriad defilemcl'rts. If one attcmpts to takc up lParts ofl space Arrd put them togcther in a ccrtain placc, Hc will ncvcr complete the task, Even ir-rmillions of kalpas. For innumcrablc kalpassince the beginning, o F o o l sh a v ea m a s s e d ' k n o t s f i g n o r a n c c , ' Yet, Itruly,l their ignorance Has not increascdan iota. Just as one who tries to movc cmpty spacc Can never alter its magnitudc, So clnc can ncver incrcaseignorattcc. Though he may amassit for many kalpas. Just as a bcllows takes in Endlessamount of air, So the ignorant attach thcmselves pleasures. Insatiablyto sensuous Howevcr, ignoranceis nowhere, With ncither root nor abode. Sinceit has no root, How can it have an end? Sincc it has no end, Its bounds cannot be found.

Tnr UNrvrnsal I)nanua-loon For this very rcason, I can never finish L i b e r a t i n gl i v i n g b e i n g s .
F,,-,. ;r ;,. ^,.., l-.,

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I dcliver all thc beings h-r a billion-worlcl universe, Causirrg hcnr to realize rirvana: t r And for innumcrable kalpas I do the same evcry day, T h e r e a l n ro f s c r r t i e r r t c i n g s b Carrnot c cxhatrstcd. b I i

The realnrsc;f ignoranceand of bcings Arc both signlcss A n d i l l u s o r y ,l i k c r r r a g r c . So thcy cannot bc cxhaustecl. Ignoranceand Buddhahood arc not diffc'rcnt, But :rrc cqual by naturc. ,i.' ' ,' If orrc discriminatcsa Buddha, i Ther-rhe dwells in dclusion. i Ignorancc arrclall-knowing wisdom Arc both emptv of self-entity; Seutieutbeings arrd ignorancc Arc entirely cqual. lnconceivablearc scrrtientbcings; Inconccivable,too, is ignorance! Sincc both are inconceivable, Ifow car-r distinction be madc bctween thcm? a 'l'his mind of thoughta Cannot bc rrcasuredor conceived. lmmcasurable,toc'r, ignorancc, is For it is boundless. Sinceit has no bounds, How can it arise? It ariscs not ill its sclf-naturc, And no sign of it can be four-rd. Realizing that ignorance is sigr-rless, ()ne regardsthc Buddha in the same way. I t s h o u l d t h r r sh c k n o w r L l.'hat all dharmas are nondual. Ignoranceis. fr<lnrthe beginrrirrg. Still and quiesccnt;

l+t

ON EuprrNrss It is but an arbitrary namc. When I rcalized cnlightenment, I understood it as equal Ito bodhi]. To bc able to contcnplate thus Is calledthe lgnorance-ImageSamidhi "Furthcrmore, Manju6ri, what is the Samadhiof Unu'holcsonc Dharmas?" The World-Honored One explainedin verse: "Ali the mar-rifestations O I d c s i r e ,h a r r e d .i g r r o r a n c c . And the other defiiements Are illusory and unreal. To have this insight is called The Samidhi of Unwholesome Dharmas. "Moreover, ManjuSri, what is the Samadhiof Wholcsomc Dharrnas?" Thc World-Honorcd One cxplaincd in verse: "Al1 of you should know That those with good will, Though diflerent in dispr-rsition, j . Are the same in debd, , For they are all detached, And know all dharmas To be quiescent nature. in This [insight] is called Thc Samidhi of Wholcsomc Dharmas." The Buddha continucd, "Manju6ri, what is the Samadhi of Conditioncd

i

i

Dharmas?" The World-Honored One explaincd in verse: "All of you should know That no conditioned thing Is createdby anyone, Or can bc mcasurcd. I see that phenomena By nature cannot accumulate, And that everything is quiescent. This [insight] is called The Samadhiof Conditioncd l)harmas.

Tnl [JNrvtnser L)s.rnrl.r_loon "Fi.rally, Manjusrr, wl.ratis the Samadhi of U'corditioned l)ha'nas?', The World-Honored Onc explainedin versc: "(Jnconditioned things arc quiesccntbr, narurc; Onc cannot cling to thcm, i N o r c a n o r ) c r e l r o u l r c ch c n r . t They are but artificial r.ramcs Uttcred for clinging sentientbeings. To rcach such a realization Is called the Samadhiof Unconditioned l)harnras.,..

i45

Then Bodhisattva MaiijuSri said to the lluddha, "May thc world-Ho'ored one teach the Bodhisattvasthc names of other samidhis so that: (l) their scnse-organs may become kcen and sound; (2) they nray acquire the wisdom to comprehendall dharr'as and to become invincibic to those with l,u.rongviews; (3) thcy nay realizcand achievcthe four ki'ds of unhindered cloquence; (4) they car 'aster many la'guagcs by k'orvledgc of one particurar ra.rguagc-, and or-rc particular lar-rguagc knowledgc of many languagcs; by (5) they nlay tcach the essence the l)hartrla to scntient of beinqs, and do so skillfully and with boundlesseloquence; (6) thcy rnay achicvethe rcarizatio' of thc profou'd Dharma; a.d (7) thcy may undcrstarrd in an instant all actions, as well as thc infinite Ibrms ar-rd varictiesof each of them.,, The Buddha said, "Manju:iri, there is a samadhi naned Boundless Frcedom tior-rr l).'filemcnts. A tlodhisattva who attains rt can appcar in all ki.ds of pure tir rnr s. "Therc is a samadhi named Awesonrc Visage. A llodhisattva who attarnsrt n-ill havc an awesome light outshining the sun anclmoon. "Thcre is a samadhinamed Flaming Light. A Bodhisattva who artarns can it or.rtshine awe-inspiring lights of all indras and brahmas. the "Therc is a samadhi named Renunciation.A Bodhisattva who attarnsrr can .ruse scntient beings to rid thcrrrsclves ofdesire, hatred, and ignorance. " T h c r c i s a s a m 5 d h ir r r m c d U n h i r r c l e r c d L i g h t . A t s o d h i r a t r v :w h o a t r a i r r st r i -.rn illuminate all tsuddha-lands. "Therc is a samidhi 'amed Unforgetting. A Bodhisattva who attaursrr can hold i' mind thc teachingsof all Buddhas and cxpound thcm ro others. "There is a samadhinamed Thunderi'g voice. A Bodhisattva who atta'rs it ;a' spcak well i' all languages and to'es, includi'g thosc of the llrahmi Heavcn. "Thcre is a samadhinamedJoy. A Bodhisattva who attainsit can fill sentient L.crnes with joy.

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"There is a samidhi named InsatiableDelight. People will not be tired of seernqor hearing a Bodhisattva who attainsit. "There is a samadhi named Inconceivablc Merits of Concentratlon on a Singlc Object. A tsodhisattvawho attainsit can perform all miraculous feats. "Therc is a samadhi named Understanding the Languagcs of All Sentient with proficiency, can Beings. A Bodhisattva who attainsit can speakall languages e\press all words in onc word, and can understandthat all words are one word. "There is a samadhi named Supreme Dhirani. A Bodhisattva who attains it can thoroughly understandall dhiranis. "There is a samidhi named Adornments of All Eloquence. A Bodhisattva who attainsit will be well vcrscd in all writtcn and spoken languagcs. "There is a samidhi named Accumulation of All Wholcsome Dharmas. A Bodhisattva who attains it can cause sentient bcings to hear thc tcachings of the and Bodhisattvas; of Buddha, Dharma, and Sarirgha; Srivakas. Pratyekabuddhas, or of thc plramitas. Whcn he abidesin this samadhi, he can causesentientbcings to hear theseteachingscontinuously." Then ManluSri said to the Buddha, "World-Honorcd Onc, pleasebless me and hclp me to obtain unimpcdcd eloquenceto proclaim the superb merits of this I])harma-door. " Thc tsudclhasaicl,"Exccllent! Your wish is granted." Manju6rr saicl to the Buddha, "lt should be kr.rown that if a Bodhisattva acccpts, practices)reac{s,and recites this Dharma-door without doubt, hc will dcfinitely aquirc in his present life four kinds of cloquence; namely, ready cloquence, great eloquence, profound eioqucncc, and inexhaustible eloqucnce. He will always rcmember to protcct scnticnt beings, and, by enlightening them, will thwart those who irrtend to dcstroy the devotees'Dharma practicc." Thereupon, the World-Honored One praisedBodhisattvaManju5ri. saying, "Excellent, excellent! You understand this doctrinc vcry well. Just as thosc who givc will surely gain irnmense wealth, and as precept-keepers will bc rcborn in heaven, so those who accept and practicc this sutra will unqucstionably achieve eloquence in this life. Just as sunlight can surely dispel all darkness, and as a Bodhisattva will surcly attain suprcmc cnlightenment when he sits on the bodhiseat, so those who accept, practicc, read, and recitc this sfitra will achieve eloqucnce in this lifc without fail. Manju6ri, he who wishes to seek eloquence in this iife should bclieve in, rcjoice at, accept, practice, read, and rccitc this sutra and explain it to others without entertainingany doubts." Then tsodhisattva Undefilcd Store said to thc Buddha. "World-Honored One, after the [pari-] nirvana of thc Buddha, if any tsodhisattva, free of doubt, accepts,practices,reads, and recitesthis Dharma-door and explainsit to others, I n'ill hold him in my embraceand enhancehis eloquencc." At that time, Papryan, the celestial demon, was strickcn with worry and griei With tcarsin his eyes,he came to the Buddha and said, "When the Tathagata rvas attaining suprene enlightcnment in the past, I writhed in worry and agony.

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Now your preaching of this Dharma-door redoubles my pain, and I feel as if I have been shot by a poisonous arrow. Sentient beings who hcar this sfltra will dcfinitely not regress fronr their pursuit of supreme enlightenment, and will eventually enter parinirvlna. This will reduce my kingdom to nought. The Tathagata, the worthy one, the Supremely Enlightenedone, can gi'e pcaceand happiness to all living beings in distrcss.May the Tathagatabe so kind a'd compassionate as not to bless this sutra, and thus give me peaceand security and eliminate all my worry and pain." The world-Honored one told Pipiyin, "Do nor \vorrv. I shail not blessthis sutra, nor will sentientbeings enter parinirvlna." Hearing this, P5piyin, the cclestialdemon, danced with joy; all his rvorries and sorrow vanished.He suddenly disappeared from the presence the Buddha. of Then Bodhisattva Maiju5ri approachedthe Buddha and asked, ,.What was the Tath-gata's implicit intentionjust now in telling p-piyan, 'I shall not blessthis I)harma'?" The Buddha a'swered, "Manjusri, I bless this Dharma by not bressi'g ir; thus, I told him that. Becauseall dharmas are equal in reality, return to suchness, are iderrticalwirh the dharrnadhitu. defy spccch.and transcenddualiry. rherc is no blessi'g. Because speakthc truth and not falsehood,this sutra will prevail wideiy I in thc world. " A f t c r t h c w . r l d - l l o n . r e d o r r e l r a d s u i d t h i s , h c t o l d A n a r r d a ," T h r s s I t r a i s narrredthc (Jniversal Dharrna-Door to the Inconceivablc. Acccpting and practicing this sitra is not different from acccpring and practicing the cighty-four thousand I)harma-doors.6vzhy? Becauscit was only after I becamcconversantwith it that I was able to expound the eighty-four thousand Dharma-doors to all living beings. Therefcrrc,Ananda, you should carcfully protect and uphold this sDtra and read, rccite, and circulateit so that it may not be forgotten or lost." whcn the Buddha had spokcn this srltra, Bodhisattva Maiiiusri, Bodhisattr ' ; r U r r d c f i l c d s t o r t ' . V e r r e r a b l c r r a n d r , h u m a n s . d e v a s ,a s u r a s , a n d h a r v a sa r r d A g , othcrs were all jubilant over thc Buddha's teaching. Thcy acceptedit wirh faith and began to practiceit with veneration.

NOTES
1. This inclicatesthat lrtlc renunciation of desirc can only be attained bv realization of c n l p t i n e s s ,i . e . , b o t h t h e e r n p t i n e s s f o b j e c t s o f d e s i r c , a n d o f d c s i r e i t s e l f . O t h e r f o r m s o f o rcnuncr:rtion such as abstinellce may bc useful, but they are temporary and evcn discrimlnatory as thc tcxt implies here ancl bclow. In certai' aclva.ced yogas, the yogi r'ay cvcn be advised to stir up desirc rntenttonally, and apply the meditation of cmptiness to it by thoroughly iricntifying emptilless

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o;f ri'ith desire and rvrth all else. See Garma C. C. Chang, Teachings Tihetan Yoga (New Hyde U n i v e r s i t - vt s o o k s , 1 9 6 3 ) ,p . 4 4 . ( V . S . B . ) Park: 'hatred', 'anger', but may also denote t 2 . T h e C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r sr E l i t e r a l l y m e a n ' r e s e n t n l e n t ' , e t c . H e r e w e u s e ' h a t r e d ' t o b e c o n s i s t e n tw i t h o u r r e l r d e r i n g o f t h e t h r e e
POISOnS.

3. Literallv. "sounds." .1. 'The mind of thought' (Ch. Effi,t')

relers to the mental function of ordinary

, m i n d s , w h e r e a sa B u d d h a ' s ' m i n d ' o r ' w i s d o m ' h a s n o t h o u g h t b u t d i r e c t p e r c e p t i o n i . e . ,

4"8tr,.
5. Literally, "There is nothing to be attached to, nor anything to be dctached from." 6. A figurative exprcssion denoting all the various Buddhist doctrines.

9 trffinffi€
The Inexhaustible Stores Wisdom of

Thr.rshave I heard. ()r-rcethc Budclha was dwellrr-rgo' Mount Grdhrakuta near thc city of Rajagrha, together with onc thousand grcat monks, all of whor' had acconrplishecl supcrb merits and could nrakc the lion's roar; and with five hundred grcat llodhisattvas, all of whor-n had acquircd dhararris,attained unimpcded eloqucnce achicvedthe Realizationof thc Nonarisirrg of l)harrnas, rcachcdthe stage , of .orrrcgression,acquired sarnidhis and a free command of r'iraculous Dowers. and who knew well thc mentaliticsand irrclinations living beings. of The ljodhisattvas were headed by B'dhisattva-MahasattvasSu. Banner, Moon Ran'er, ljnivcrsal Light, Moon King, Illuminator of peaks,So'of.the Sun, Lion's wisdom, Prccio.rsLight of Merits, Rcalizationof All Meanings, Fulfillrncnt of Previous Conclitions,Accomplishme.t of Vows and Dceds, wisdom of Emptirress,Equal Mind, Joy and Love, Foncl of Company, Victorious Fighter, Wise Dcccls,Lightning Attainmenr, superb Eloquence,Lio''s Roar, wonderful Voice, Alert, Dccds of Skillful Convcrsio', and l)ceds of Ulti.rate euicscence . Also in the assenrblywere Irrdra; the four deva ki'gs; Brahma, rord of the Sahaworld; a'd innumerableawc-inspirir-rg, virtuous gods, dragons, yaksas,sardharvas, asuras,garudas,kinnaras,anclmahoragas. At that time, Bodhisattva Lightning Attainment, seeingthat all thc cmilcnt ones had gathered and that thc u,hole assembly was hushcd, rose fronr his seat, bared his right shoulder, knelt on his right knee,joi'ed his palms, and said to the Buddha, "world-llo'orcd o'c, I wish to ask you sonrc questio,s. pleasc grant mc the opportunity." The world-Ho'orcd ()nc said to Light'rng Attainme't, "The Tathagata, thc worthy one, the Pcrfcctly Enlighter-red one, grants your request. Ask whatcvcr questronsyou wish, anclthe answerswill be explainedto you." Sr.rtra Taish0310, ppr.48(f486;translated 20, into Chincscbv Bodhiruci.

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BodhisattvaLightning Attainment askcdthe Buddha, "World-Honored One, s'har should a Bodhisattva accomplishto be able to satisfy sentientbeings' desires n.ithout being alllicted with defilements; to lead senticnt beings skillfully, accordir-rgto thcrr particular inclinations, and prcvent them from falling to the miserable plancsof existcnceafter death; to rcalizcwithout fail the equality Iof dharmas];and ro renrain undcfiled by the world in which hc lives, just as a lotus flowcr is unsoiled [by the muddy water from which it grows]? How can a Bodhisattva travel frcely among tsuddha-lands without moving at all within the dharmadhatu;1 be always with the Buddha without seeinghim as he physically appears;abide in the threc [doors to] liberation without entering the IHinayanal nirvina; adorn and purify a Buddha-land in accordancewith the wishcs of sentient beings; and attain supreme enlightenmentin an instant?" repeatcdhis questionsin vcrsc: Then thc Bodhisattva-Mahasattva "Unexcelled, Most Honorcd of Men, Master of Infinite Knowledge, You abide in the dharmas common to all. Y o u b c r r c f i tt h e w o r l d And treat living beings with equality). You arc thc haven of the world. You revcal the right path to the heterodox, So that thcy rnay attain ultimate peaceand joy.l Thc supreme mcrits yott have accumulated Arc likc a treasurc-troveMay the sun of wisdom in the world, The Worthy One in thc three reaLns, Expound thc suprcmc vehiclc' For the accomplishmcntof Bodhisattvahood. Your countenanceis as clear as a full moon; You arc fully proficient in Samatha: You make manifest the Dharma of tranquillity Which can extinguish all afflictions. May you teach the Bodhisattva-path For thc bcnefit of sentient bcings. Purc arc the Buddha's lar.rdand life span, His physical body and retinue, His actions of body, speechand mind And all his other attributes. May thc Tathigata expound now The pure practicesof a Bodhisattva. How does a Bodhisattvaconquer dcmons?

THg luexHausrrsrr Sronrs or Wrsoou How does he teach the Dharma? How does he become ever mindful? Please explain this to us. How does the courageous hero4 Plunge into sarhsira again and again, While abiding securely in nonduality And rcmaining unmoved by anything? How docs he associarewith tsuddhas And make offerings to rhem? How does he observc the Buddha's physical body While ultimately remaining detached from all forms? How does hc refrain from entcring nirvina Bcfore acquiring all merits,s Though he has realized the three [doors to] libcration And is as free as a bird in the sky? How does he know the inclinations And desiresof sentient berngs, Comply with them fearlesslv. And thcreby bring those beings to maturity, While hirrrselfremaining urrclefi led? How does he first give rhem mundane delights, And thcn persuade thcm to develop pure minds To help them achieve supreme wisdom, And attain supreme errlightenment? Such doctrines, profound and subtle, May thc Tathigata cxplain to us.',

r51

Thercupon, the world-Honored one told Bodhisattva-Mahasattva Lightning Attai.me't, "Excellcnt! It is excellent, good man, that you can ask the Buddha such questions in order to give bcnefit, pcace, and happiness to numberless beings, a'd to win over to the Dharma thosc gods and humans of thc prcsent who will be Bodhisattvas in the future. Therefore, Lightning Attainmerrt, you should listen carefully and think well about what I say. I am going to explain this for you.,, Bodhisattva Lightning Attai'mcnt said, "yes, world-Honored one. I am wrlling and glad to listen." The Buddha told Lightning Attainmcnt, "A Bodhisattva-Mahisattva has five stores of wisdom,6 alr of which are great stores of wisdom, incxhaustible stores of wisdom, universally inexhaustible stores of wisdom. once a Bodhisattva pos_ sesses these stores, he wil be relicved from poverty forevcr, achieve the superior virtucs you have mentioned, a'd quickly attain supreme enlightnment with littre effort' what are rhe fivc? They are: rhe store of wisdom for the rustfur. the

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srorc oi u'rsdom for thc angry, the store of wisdom for thc deluded, the store oi s'rsdonr for thosc afflicted equally by all three defilemcnts, and the store of n'isdonr oi the Dharma. "Lightning Attainment, what is a Bodhisattva-Mahlsattva's storc of wisdonr for thc lustful? When senticnt beings act out of lust, they are bound by wrong to vicn's: thcy make distinctionsamong all phenomcna:thcv clir-rg and indulge in scents,tastes,textures, and dharmas. A Bodhisattva should havc tornrs, sounds, rruc knowledge of their mcntalitics: rvhat thel' delight in ancl rvish for, what circumstances aggravatc thcir habitual dcfilcments, u,hat faith and understanding have achieved,what kinds of good roots the\. have previously planted, what they for vehicle'steachingswill arousethcir aspiratior-rs enlightenment,and how long it rvill takc for thcir good roots to mature. The Bodhrsatn'ashoulclexamine all these carcfully and provide the remedy neededto cut off those sentientbeings' passions cornplctcly and causcthcn] to dcvclop wholesome minds contrnuously. "Lightning Attair-rment, you should know that thc various inclinations and activities of sentient beings are difficult to discern. They are not known to any Sravakaor Pratyekabuddha,much less to ordinary people and thc heterodox. For to examplc, Lightning Attainmcnt, some living beings, euenthoughthey avsdttached desires, neuertheless broughtt0 mdturity and mn attdin supreme utt be enlightenment. Some cdn ntdture and thus attaifi supremeilluminatiott and liherationds soott ds they contact desired objects, talk aboutthem with a clrrupt mind.l Somc can bc nraturcd and thus or liberatior-r attain suprerrreillunrination ar-rd through the cessationof passionsand of deep contemplation on impermanence,which arisesfrom their awareness the have seenand craved. of dctcrioratior-r thc bcautiful things they "Some nren do l1ot have any passionfor women at flrst glance, but when they later recall a woman's charming appearance,they become mer-rtallycorrupted ar-rd attachedto it. Some become lustful and absorbedin desire when they see a beautiful woman in dreams. Some become enchantedwith women simply on hcaring thcir voices. Yet, sometimes these men can be brought to n-raturity and thus attain suprcme illumination and liberation merely during a tcnlporary ccssation of their craving. "Therefore, Lightning Attainment, because the Bodhisattva thoroughly knows all diseases derived from lust and thcir curcs, and at the safirc time seesno duality in the dharmadh5tu, hc engendcrs great compassion for all those who arc ignorant of the dharmadhatu. Lightning Attainment, since lust, anger, dclusion, and thc wisdom of the dharmadhatu are all inapprehensiblc,thc Bodhisattva thinks, 'As I seeit, theseliving beings have lust, anger, and delusionregarding composite things, which are devoid of forms, empty in nature, and which cxist only as arbitrary names. I will examine this situation realisticallyand abidc in great compassion for these beings who are deluded by lust; I will fulfill my prcvious vows by bringing them to maturity with eflortless wisdom, without becoming pcrturbed by any dharma.' "lf a man considers a woman to be pure and becomes deeply infatuated with

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hcr, the Bodhisattva will transform himself into a *'oman of grcat beauty and clcgance,adorncd with jewcls and necklaces, dcsirablea cclcstialmaiderr as the as man has cver seen bcfore, arrd allou' him to lavish or hcr his passio'ate love. When the man has indulgcd his passionto thc utnlosr. thc ljodhisattva will, using mcans conlmensuratcwith thc man's capacity, pluck ollt thc poisonous arrow of lust i' him. Ther-r, his miraculous power, he rvill cha'ge back from thc fcmale by form and appcar before thc man to expound the Dharn-rator hinr until he has pcnetratedthc dharmadhttu. After that, he will disappcartlonr sieht. In rhe cascof a woman infatuatedwith a man, the tsodhisattvawill do the sanre-he rvill appear to hcr as a man, pluck out the poisonous arrow of lust i' hcr, expou'd thc Dharma to her until she has penetratedthc dharmadhrtu, and thr-' clsappcar. "Lightnir-rgAttai'ment, Ithough sentientbeings are afflictcd br'] t*.e'ry-one thousand actions of desire and othcr wrong deeds, [totalling] i' all eighrr.-four thousand,sa Bodhisattva with effortlesswisdom can open up nrvriads of Dharmadoors to icad them to liberatio', witl-rout co'ceivi'g a notion that he has expoundcd certain doctrines for living bcings or that any being has becn liberatcd. "Lightrri'g Atain'rcnt, for example, thc dragon ki'g [of the lakej called No Hcat,' by the powcr of his kar'ra, issucs forth four great rivers from his palace to cool d.wn the summer heat for senticnt beings who live on land or i. water; to nourish flowers, fruit trees a'd grains; and to give livi'g beings pcacc and happiness.Howcver, hc clocs not conceive the notion that hc issucs, has issued, or will issrreforth the-rivers; he sporrraneously keeps the four rivers full for scnticnt beings' usc. Similarly, thc Rodhisattva fulfills his past vows by cxpounding the four noblc truths with eftbrtlesswisdom in ordcr to eliminate all the burnirrg distresses sarirsrra,and to give the holy bliss of liberation to all of gods and humans. Howevcr, he does not conccivc thc notion that he is tcaching, has taught, or will teach thc Dharma; he spontaneouslyabidcs i' great compassion, obscrvcssentientbeings, arrd explainsthe l)harma according to their nccds. "As a further exarrple, Lightni'g Attainment, Indra can re'rain unaffccted whilc transforming himself into bodies numerous enough to satisfy separately and simultaneously thc sensual desircs of his twclve myriad celestialmaidcns, causing each of them to thir.rkthat shc alonc is sporting with Indra. Similarly, thc tsodhisattva calr rcmain unaffected while bringing to maturity those bcings who are capableof being delivered,in accordance with thcir wishcs. "Lightning Attainmcnt, to illustrate furthcr: thc sun, emergi'g from behind a mountain, sheds its light all over thc world and causesthe various colors, such as blue, yellow, red, and white, to appear wherc it shincs, ."vhilethc sun itself remains one ur.rdifferentiatcd, single-colored light. Similarly, the Bodhisattva, the sun of wisdom, illuminates the cntire dharmadhitu in thc samc manner by rising above thc mountainous attachnlentsof sentient beings and teaching them the Dharma accordi'g to their needs, whilc he himself sccs no duality in the dharmadhitu. "Lightning Attai'mcnt, this is what is meant by a Bodhisattva-Mahasattva's

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storc oi u'isdom for the lustful. Once a Bodhisattva has acquired this store, he can. ior a kalpa or more, transform himself into myriad bodies in accordance u'rth sentientbeings'swishes and teachthe Dharma in various modes of expression s'rthout seeingduality in the dharmadhatu. "Furthermore, Lightning Attainment, as an example, real gold remains the same in nature when an artisanturns it into various necklaces and other ornamcnls bv his craft. In like manner, the Bodhisattva observcs thc dharmadhatu well, transforms himself into myriad bodies in accordance rvith scntient beings' wishes, and cxplains thc Dharma to them in many diflcrcnt modcs of expression,but he sees no duality in the dharmadhatu. This is [called] constant penetration of the onenessof the dharmadhetu. Having acquired this storc of wisdom the Bodhisattva can give various discourses the Dharma to living beings, who, after on hearing them, will be enriched with inexhaustible holy treasures and be freed frorn the povcrty of sarirsdraforever. "Now, Lightning Attainment, what is meant by a Bodhisattva-Mahasattva's store of wisdom for thc ar-rgry? Some living beings are prone to arroganceand 'l' 'mine' conceit; they conceivc that thc and are real, and cling to discriminations bctwccn sclf and othcrs. Sincc they never cultivatc kindness or patience, their minds are corrupted with anger and other burning dcfilcrncnts;thcy are not mindfui of the .tsuddha, thc Dharma, or the Sarhgha; and, enveloped in wrath, they become coufused about things. The Bodhisattva ncvcr harms or irritates these 'Strangc ill-ternpered people, but thinks instcracl, are these senticnt beings! Dcluded, and caught in wrong views, they become angry and rcscntful in spitc confused, of the lact that al1 dharmas are by nature quiescent, detached,undefiled, noncomposite, and bcyond contcntion.'Thinking thus, he will abidc in great compassion and sir-rcercly take pity on those beings. In ordcr to subdue therr angry actions,he will toleratesuch people with steadfast patienceeven i[thcy dismcmbcr his body. If all the innunrerable ill-tempered beings wcre to bctray each other and bear grudges, thus dooming themselves to fall to the miserable plane of serpents when that karma ripens, ther-rthe Bodhisattva who abides in patience would use his merciful power to convcrt those beings, causing them not to fall to the miserable planes of existence, but ir-rstead realize equality without fail. to Thus does a Bodhisattva with ingcnuity climinate sentient beings' acts of anger. "Furthermore, Lightning Attainment, when the Bodhisattvaseesangry peo'A11 ple, he will think: dharmas are pure by nature. Because they do not understand thc dharmas'naturc, thcsc living beings act according to the appcarancc of things, vainly make discriminations, and feel anger, in spite of thc fact that all dharmas arc cqual and bcyond contention. If they saw the nature of dharmas, they would not bcar grudgcs against each other, but since they do not, they bccomc angry.' The llodhisattva will then redouble his kindr.ress and abidc in great compassion fbr these beings. He will fulfill his past vows and cxplain the I)harma to thern, revealirrg various teachings with effortless wisdom to put an end to their angry actions. However, he will not think that he teachesthe Dharma to eliminate

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the sentient beings' anger. why is this? Becausethe Bodhisattva has insight into the nature of the dharmadhatu. This is how a tsodhisattvaabidessecurelyin the undifferentiated dharmadhatu and eliminates defiled actions. "Lightning Attainment, for example, the underlving narure of both darkness and light is the same; they are both like undifferentiated empty space. Thereforc, darknessis never really dispelled when Light appears,but it cannot be said that it is not dispelled[in the phenomenalsense].Similarly, a Bodhisatn'awho relieson the wisdom of nondifferentiation of the dharmadhitu can skillfully elucidate thc Dharma to eliminate the various angry actions of sentient beings, and at the same time hc makes no distinctions in the dharmadhatu. "Lightning Attainmcnt, just as sunlight is never separatcdfrom the sun wherever it shines, so whatevcr the Bodhisattva teaches to subdue and destroy sentient beings' angry acrions is the Dharma-wheel, [because]he docs not different i a t c a n y d h a r m a si n r h e u n i v c r s e . "lThough senricnr beings are afflicted byl twenty-one rhousand angry actions and othcr wrong deeds, in all eighty-four thousand, a Bodhisattva with effortlcss wisdom can reach the appropriate Dharmas to copc with therr angry actions, withor.rt conceiving a notion that hc is teaching, has taught, or will teach thc Dharma to then. This is what is meant by ^ great Bodhisattva's store of wisdom for thc angry. "Oncc a Bodhisattva has acquired this store, hc can, for a kalpa or more, teach tl-rel)harrna skillfully in various terms to fulfil thc wishes of sentient beings. Although sentient trcings' angry actions know no bounds, thc Bodhisattva'swisdom and eloquc'ce arc also inexhaustible.This is how a Bodhisattva who has acquired che store ofwisdorn for thc angry expounds the undiffcrcntiated nature of thc dharmadhitu skillfully. "Now, Lightning Arrainmenr, what is meant by a Bodhisattva-Mahisattva,s store of wisdom fbr the deluded? Lightning Attainment, it is a very difficult task for Bodhisattvas to cope with thc deluded, because such peoplc pursue deluded actions, feel malicc toward others, are wrapped up in thc shell of ignorance like silkworrns wrapped in their own cocoons,arc unablc to adapt themselves wisely to dharmas, are not kccn in observing a proper coursc of action, cling to the view of a scli follo., wrong paths, are slow to progress, and are unable to extricate themselves from sarirslra. "For thc sakc of such deluded bei'gs, thc Bodhisattva, soor after he engcnders bodhicitta, makcs great, intensified efforts unriringly and ceaselessly.Hc considershow hc should teach the Dharma, under what circumstances, and how best to interpret it, all in order to cause deluded persons to follow the Bodhisattva's practices and achievc liberation. "A tsodhisattva who in the past has gained insight into the dharmadhatu will abide in great compassion by virtue of his effbrtless wisdorn. When he encounters sentient beings who arc ignorant of the dharmadhatu, he will subdue them by explaining the Buddha's reachings accordirrg to their capacities, yet without con-

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ceivinq a notiorl that he is teaching,has taught, or will teachthe l)harma. Because oi the pos'er of his past vows, hc clearly seesthe concatention of all events in the unir-erse and is able to open spontaneouslyhundrcds of thousandsof Dharma. doors to prevent sentientbeings from performing karmas out of ignorance,and so Iead them to liberation. "Lightning Attainment, consider, for examplc, a good physician who is With his great knowledge of medical works, he can prot-rcientat curing diseases. as diagnoseany disease soon as he seesits symptoms, and then cure it with the right spellsor medicines.In the same way, a Bodhisattvawho has insight into the dharmadhatu can teach the Dharma with his effortless wisdom for habitually deluded beings in accordancewith their various inclinations, causing them to know hundreds of thousands of doctrines. "Lightning Attainment, this is what is meant by a great Bodhisattva's store of wisdom for the deluded. Once a Bodhisattva has acquired this storc, hc will have deep insight into thc concatenationofall events in the universe, and can, for a kalpa or more, teach the Dharma in many different tcrms for those deluded beings in accordanccwith their inclinations and wishes. Whilc their delusions are boundless, his wisdom and cloqucncc are also inexhaustible. A bodhisattva who has acquired thc store of wisdom for the deluded can, in this manner, cxpound the Dharma skillfully and without making distinctions. In order to eliminate the twer.rty-one thousand deluded actions and other wrong actions, in all eighty-four thousand, a hundreds ofthousands ofdoctrines. This is the explanationof Bodhisattva tcaches the Bodhisattva's store of wisdom lbr the deluded. "Now, Lightning Attainment, what is mcant by a great Bodhisattva'sstore illustration, of wisdom for thosc afflictc,d cqually by all three defilements? As ar-r consider a clean, crystal-clear n-rirror with four facets. When placed at the crossing of two thoroughfares, it gives a true image of everything around it, but it does not think of itself as being able to produce these images, which are naturally reflected on it when it is well polished. In the same way, when a Bodhisattva has polished the mirror of the dharmadhatu, he abides in effortless samidhi and teacheshundreds of thousands of doctrines in accordance with thc different mentalities of sentientbcings, so that they may gain a thorough understandingofthcsc doctrines and attain liberation. Howcver, he does not conceivc any notions of Dharmas or the Bodhisattvahas insight into the nature of scntientbeings. Why is this? Because the dharmadhitu. He knows the real situation of senticnt bcings who are prone to the four defiled states, and teaches them the Dharma according to their inclinations. Yet, in accordance with reality, he vicws dharmas and sentient bcings nondualistically-he clearly seesthat there are no differencesamong them. "Lightning Attainment, just as one sees space distinguishable characterin no istics or constructions,so a Bodhisattvawho observesthe dharmadhatuwell realizes that all dharmas arc one. Due to the power of his past vows, he can explain the Dharma in many ways according to sentient beings' propcnsitics, while he makes no distinctions in the dharmadhitu.

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"Lightning Artainment, a Bodhisartvahas a clear insight into all the rwenryone thousand actions of those afflicted equaliy b1' all three defilements, as well as other wrong actions, in all eighty-four thousand. He can teach the Dharma in different ways by means of his effortlesswisdom, just as a good physician can make a Propcr diagnosisand administer the right medicine tbr the disease. This is what is meant by a great Bodhisattva'sstorc of wisdom for those afflictcd equallv by all three defilements. "Once a Bodhisattva has acquircd this store of wisdom, he can, for a kalpa or more, skillfully teach the Dharma to sentient beings in difterent terms according to their aspirations. Just as sentient beings' wrong actions are boundless,so are a Bodhisattva'swisdom and eloquence. Bodhisattvawho has acquiredthe store of A wisdom lor those alflicted equally by all three defilements can, in this manner, skillfully teach nondifferentiation of rhc narure of the dharmadhatu. "Furthermore, Lightning Attainment, whcn a Bodhisattvaachieves such wisdom, he will thoroughly know the inclinations and wishes of sentierlt beings. when he seessentiellt beings full of lust, he may, to subdue and curc ther', appear as an ordinary person afflicted with dcsires and possessinga wife, children, propr-:rty, and ncccssities of life, but he will rernain as undefiled as a lotus flower. Sonrc scntient beings who are deluded and lack wisdorn cannot undcrstandsuch a llodhisattva's ingcnuity, and think, 'How can a wisc rnan be so greedy to fulfil desiresthat he is i'distinguishablc liom an ordinary pcrson?' Thus they consider that tsodhisactva to be apart From lthe pursuit ofl enlightenment. Becausc their minds are impure, they becornc a'gry with the tsodhisattvaand do nor rcspecr him or believe in hi'r. l)uc ro this karma, they will fall to the great hells after death. Howevcr, thcy will bc sccretly co'verred by that Bodhisattva, and they without fail will rcalize the equality lof dharmas] aftcr the retribution for their misdeedsis con.rpleted. "For example, Lightning Attainment, just as a ragirrgfire can burn up all thc trecs and grasses fcd into it, turning them all into fire, so thc Bodhisattva'sraging wisdorn-firc can turn the lust, angcr, and dclusion of all the sentient beings hc encountersinto wisdom whether they arc good or evil.1')This is called the unrque quality of a llodhisattva. "As a further illustratio', considerMount Sumeru, which has uniquc attributes. Each of its four sides is made of a different ki'd of jewcl, and sc'tier-rt bcings-whcthcr they are blue, yellow, rcd, or whitc-all assumethe color of lapis lazuli when they draw ncar rhe sidc made of lapis lazuli, thc color of gold when they draw 'car the sidc ofgold, a'd the color ofsilvcr or crystal rvhcn they draw ncar those sides. In the sam.^way, if a Bodhisattvahas this unique quality, then sentient beings-whcther they are lustful, angry, or deluded; whether thcy are good or evil will all acquire the wisdom of the -tsodhisattva when thcy assocrate with him. Some of thcsc beings, becauseof thcir impurc minds and evil decds, rnay fall to the hells, to the rcalnr of hungry ghosts, to thc realm of animals, or to the realm of Yana, yct after the retribution for their rnisdeedsis completed.

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thev u'ill attain supreme enlightenment without fail, by virtue of the Bodhisattva's unique merits and the power of his vows. . . "Lightning Attainment, just as of ail mountains Mount Sumeru is the highest. so of all kinds of wisdom the Tathigata's is supreme.Just as of all bodies of \1'aterthe seais the deepest,so of all kinds of wisdom, the Tathagata'sis the most proiound. Just as of all monarchs the universalmonarch is the most honored, so of all kinds of wisdom the Tathlgata's is the highest. "Lightning Attainment, becausethe Tathigata has achicvcd this kind of wisdom, he can thoroughly understandthc lust, hatred, and dclusion of sentient beings and every shift in their minds; he comprehends all these in an instant. "Lightning Attainment, the Tathagata,who has achievedall-knowing wisdom, resembles a man who has clear sight: just as such a man can effortlessly see with unquestionable clarity a mangc,Irheld in his hand, so thc Tathagatacan seethe mental activities of all bcings and givc appropriatc discourses on the Dharma to assemblies. "In the immeasurable,countless tsuddha-lands, there are sentientbeingswho are prone to lust, who are inflamed with and pertrubed by lust, who waste their timc day and night thinking of mcthods to gratify thcir lust, and who create differcnt bodily and verbal karmas becauseof burning lust. All this the Tathagata knows and sees. "There arc scnticnt bcings who are smothered with anger and hatred, who bear grudges against one anothcr, and who will fall to the Uninterrupted Hell because their malice. All this the Tathigata knows and sees. of "'I'here are sentient beings who are prone to delusion, who are shrouded in ignorance, confused, obdurate, and who delight in following wrong views. All this the Tathlgata knows and sees. " S o r n e s e n t i e t r tb e i n g s . l r e c o n l p e t e n t ,s o m e i n c o m p e t e r ) ts o m e a d v a n c e , i some regress; some havc cultivatedgood roots for thc Tathigata-vehicle,l2 somc for the Srivaka-vehicle, sone for the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle. All this the Tathigata knows and sees. "Becausethe Tath-gata has achievedthis kind of wisdom, he is able to know the different mentalities of sentient beings in an assembly. When it is untimely to 'These preach, he will remain silent and merely think: sentient beings are confused about dharmas and cannot understandmy teachingright now.' "Becausethe Tathigata is cquipped with supreme power and a skillful sense of timing, he thoroughly knows who can be subdued, who has high aspirations. rvho is endowed with patience, ar-rdwho can accept admonitions. Knowing this, hc wins people over to the Dharma accordingly, and benefits them. "When a Bodhisattvaseeslustful beings, he should think, 'lt is my fault that they are so inflamcd with desirc.'When he seessentient beings inflamed with 'This is my fault. Why? It is my anqer or fbolish delusions, he should also think dutv to find medicinc and ways to hcal sick scntient beings when I see them. I von'cd to rclieve them from their discases,but now [they are still sickl. I must have lbrsaken them, so I am to blame.'

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"[Lightning Attainment,] if a Bodhisatrva achieves such a mental state, reflecting on his own faults and feeling great kindness toward sentient beings, he will never take revenge on his offenders even if they dismember his body. Lightning Attainment, if a Bodhisattva thus engagesin right practice, his past unwholesome karmas will be eradicated completely, and no evil rvill arise in him in the future. "Lightning Attainment, numberless, incalculable kalpas ago, before the era of Diparhkara Buddha, there was a Buddha named Tathtgara Born victorious, the worthy one, the supremely Enlightened one, the one perfect in Learning and conduct, the well-Gone one, the world-Knower, rhe (Jnexcelled one, the Great Tamer, the Teacher of Gods and Humans, the Buddha, the world-Honored one. He was born in a world named Brilliant Light, and lived in a foresr near the capital city Secure Pcace. "At that timc, there was a ferocious, bloodthirsty, irritable, merciless butcher named Horrible, whose hands were always smeared with blood, making a fcarful sight. once he entercd his house to kill a cow tied there. The cow, seerng him, becamc frightened and dashed out roward the forest where Tathagata Born victorious lived, draggi'g thc ropes with it. while the butcher, knife in hand, was chasing it, the cow panickcd and fell into a deep pit. Knowing death was near, it moa'ed and bellowed in agony. At the sight of the cow, the butcher flew rnto a rage, and immediately jumped into the pit ro kill the cow with the knife. 'Just at that time, Tathagata Bor' Victorious, surrounded by a huge as_ sembly of numberless hundreds of thousands of devotees, was cxpounding the doctrinc of dependent origination in detail, as follows: "'on ig'orarrce depcnd actions; on actio's dependsconsciousness, on consciousnessdcpend name a.d form; on name and form dcpend thc six sense-organs; on the six sense-organsdepends contact; on contact depends feeling; on feeling dcpcnds craving; on craving dependsgrasping;o'grasping dependsbecomrng; on becoming depends birth; o. birth depend old age, death, worry, sorrow, misery, and distress. Every link of dependent origination is only a great mass of suffbring. "'The adjoining links of the circle, in order from ignorance and acrions, to birth, old age, and death, and also in reverseorder, do not think ofeach orher, nor are they a'.vareof each other. All these things arc inapprehensible by nature; they have'o activitics,no thought, no "I," and no "mine." Each link is pure in its basic nature and does not know the othcrs. Yet ordinary people, being ignorant of this doctrine, insist that form is the self, that thc self has all kinds of form. and that form belongs to the self; and they hold the same view about feeling, conception, impulse, and consciousness. "'Because they cling to thc "r" and "mine," thcy give rise to the four wrong views-they take impcrmanence for permanence, suffering for joy, impurities for purities, and egolessness ego. for "'Becausc of their wrong views, they are confused by ignorance and fail to think correctly; they allow their minds to be defiled and cannot break through the defilements; they are fcttered by their craving for existence, and thus continually

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circlc in sarirsira.The wise, becausethey havc dccp insight into all phcnomcna, no scc no sL-lt-. others, no sentientbeings, no lifc, birth, old agc, illncss, or dcath. Thc'r' do not seeany bondage or killing.' ''Liqhtning Attainment, when the butcher Horrible heard the voice of the suddenly enlightened,and Tathaqatateachingthe Dharma from a distance,he r.vas at hrs intcntion to kill ceased oncc. Casting asidc his knife, hc camc out of thc pit, \\'cnr to the Buddha, and bowed with his head at the Buddha's feet. He withdrew, 'World-Honored One, I u'ish to lcavc thc houschold stood to one side and said, lifc and seek the path through the tsuddha-Dharma.' "Thc Buddha said,'Very goodl Welcome. monk,'and the butcher immediately becamea fully ordaincd Sramana. "Then TathagataBorn Victorious, knowing thc butchcr's mind was gradually coming to maturity, extensivelyexplainedthe practicesof a Bodhisattva for him. After hearing them, Horrible attained the Realizationof the Nonarising of fronr the Buddha-Dharnra. Dharrnas and never afterwardsregressed "As for thc cow, it enjoycd hcaring the wonderful voice of the Tathagata expourrding the doctrirre of deperrderrtorigination. Consequently, after death it was reborn in the Tusita Heaven, where it saw Maitreya and attainedright faith. "Lightning Attainnrent, the activities of sentient beings arc vcry complicatcd, subtlc, and difficr,rlt to recognize and understand. Thcrcfore, Lightning Attainmcnt, a Bodhisattva in pursuit of supreme enlightenmcnt should try to know thoroughly thc capacitics and actions of sentient beings. He should keep an impartial and ur.robstructedmir.rd toward all beings, and be detached from alldharmas.... "Now, Lightrrirrg Attainmer-rt; what is a Bodhisattva'sstore of wisdom of the Dharrna? It is this: thc Bodhisattva clearly sccsall forms as thcy really are; he knows that they are uncreated from the beginning and purc in sclf-naturc. Bccausc the Bodhisattva has a thorough understarrdir-rg forms, hc can achieve the four of clements of unimpeded eloquence. What are the four? They are: the unhindered understandingof meaning, the unhinderedknowledge of dharmas, thc unhindered use oflanguagc, and thc unhindered ability to discourse. "The unhindered understanding of meaning is the perfcct undcrstanding of the meaning of all forms. What is the meaning of forms? It is the same as the ultimate truth.13 What is the ultimate truth? It is the inapprehensibilityof forms. Acquiring an understanding of this ultimate truth is called the unhindcrcd undcrstanding of meaning. "The unhindcrcd knowledge of dharmas is thc thorough knowledge of all forms, which results from accurate observation of them. "The unhindered use oflanguage is the skillful usc oflanguagc in prcsenting forms in all ways, with unobstructedwisdom. "The unhindered ability to discoursc is the ability to reveal and discourse upon all forms to scnticnt bcings according to their propensities without being attached or affected oneself. After achieving this understanding, the Bodhisattva

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can, with his cffortlcsswisdom, expound thc Dharma propcrly to all thc deluded beings who cling to forms. Hc does this in accordancevvrth their naturcs and desires,while he himsclf has no dualisticview of rhe dharmas.Fle can also explain the Dharma in the sanrcway to those deludcd berngsrr'ho are attachedto sounds, scents,tastes.textures. and dharmas. "Lightning Attainmcnt, this is what is meant bv a qrcat Bodhisattva'sstore of wisdom of the Dharma. In order to subduc sentient beines de-luded scnseby objccts, a Bodhisattva who has acquired this store of rvisdont can, for a kalpa or more, use various terms to teachthc tv,'elveentranccs skilltullv in accordance with their wishes. While their [attachmentto] thc twelve entranccsis rnfinite, his wisdom is inexhaustible,because never deviatcsfrom the nondual, undifferentiated he dharrnadhatu,but always conforrns to it. This is a Bodhisattva'sskilltul erposirion of thc nondifterentiationof all dharmas. "C)nce a Bodhisattva acquircsthis storc of wisdom of the Dharma, he can teach the l)harn-rato sentiellt bcings properly, causing thcm to possess lulli, the inexhaustibleDharma treasurcs and be free frorn thc povcrty of sarhsirafbrever. "Lightrring Attainment, thcsc are a Bodhisattva-Mahisattva'sfive stores of wisdom, which arc great stores of wisdorlr, inexhaustiblcstorcs of wisdom, universally irrexhaustible storesof wisciorn, and bor-rndless storesof wisdom. If a Bodhisattva acquiresthese fivc storesand prclccts supreme virtues, he can attain supreme enlightenmentquickly and witbout much effort." Whcn this doctrine of the storesof wisdom was explained,tsodhisattva Lightning Attainmcnt achieveddhlrarlr, five hurrdrcd other Bodhisattvasachicvcd the Lightning Samadhi,and thirty-six thousandgods brought forth suprenre bodhicitta. At that timc, Bodhisattva Moon Banner said to the Buddha, "WorldHonorccl One, you have mentioncd cflortlesswisdom. What docs it mean?" Thc lluddha said, "If a Boclhisattva,inclincd in body and mind ro practice wholcsorrrc dharmas, clings to onc thing aftcr another while pcrforming those effortlesswisdon.r [dharrnas],that is called etTort.A Bodhisattva is said to possess if he can do the following: remain flexiblc in body and mind; be free of thought; rely on nothing; manifest no sign of practice;makc all kinds of manifestations in thousands of Imillions of-] billions of tsuddha-landsby mcans of the wisdom resulting from the fulflllment of his past vows, whilc remaining unmovcd in thc dharmadhatu; teach thc Dharma constantly without entertaining any notion of thc Dharrna; employ thc four inducements to bring selltierlt beings to nraturity without thinking that therc are any beings to be libcratcd; bcautify and purify all Buddha-landswithout regarding ar.ry Buddha-land as impurc;14bc always mindful of tsuddhaswithout seeingthem as rhey physically appcar; and traverseall tsudclha-landswithout moving in the dharmadhatu. By achieving such wisdom, a Bodhisattva can satisfy all thc wishcs of sentientbcings without being attachedto what he does." . Then the World-Honorcd Onc told Bodhisattva Lightning Attainment, "The Tathagatas,the Worthy Ones, thc Supremely Enlightcncd Ones of the past re-

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vealed and explaincd this doctrine here, and future Buddhas will also appear here in the u'orld to expound this doctrine. The present Buddhas, Tathagatas,in the the numberless,incalculableworlds are now shedding this great light to celebrate continurtv of this doctrine." Thereupon Venerable Ananda rose from his seat, bared his right shoulder, knelt on his right knee,joined his palms, and askedthe Buddha, "World-Honored One, what shall this sitra be named and how should we uphold it?" 'The InexhaustibleStoresof The Buddha told Ananda, "This sutra is named o W i s d o m ' o r ' A D i s c o u r s eo n t h e N o n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n f A l l D h a r m a s . ' T h e s e a r e the names by which you should uphold it." When the Buddha had spoken this sutra, BodhisattvaLightning Attainment, Venerable Ananda, the four kinds of devotees, and all the gods, humans, asuras, gandharvas, and other beings of the world were jubilant. They acceptedthe sutra with faith and began to practice it with veneration.

NOTES
1. Alternate translations: "While remaining unmoved by dharmas," or "while remalni n g u n a f f e c t e di n d h a r m a d h i t u . " ' D h a r m a d h i t u ' i n t h i s c h a p t c r m a y s o m e t i m e s b e u n d e r 'dharmas'. stood simply as For example, "to make no distinctions in the dharmadhitu" may be construed to mean "to make no distinctions among dhaimas." " 2 . T h c s c t w o l i n c s m e y a l s o b c t r a n s l a t c d : Y o u r e v e a la l l p a t h s a s r i g h t o r w r o n g / S o that all rnay attain ultimate peaceand joy." The text is ambiguous. 3- The Great Vehicle, or Mah-ylna. 4. I.e-, a great Bodhrsattva. 5. Although the text reads this way, it could be misleading. A Bodhisattva who accomplishes all the tsuddha's merits will "enter" the nonabiding nirv-la *Eig# , which means to abide neither in sarhsaranor nirvila. (G.C.) 'store 'store' 6. The term we have translated as of wisdom' literally means simply or 'treasu'y'. Because the content of these treasuries is exactly wisdom, we have rendered the term freely. rendered as 7. (ltalics mine) These two sentences seem to be Tantric in view, implying rhatakleia, 'passion', 'defilement' or is not necessarily something to be eradicated, but

instcad to be identified with Buddha-nature. According to this view, it is possible for enlightenment and liberation to be attained by associationwith the kleias, rather than avoidance of them. (G.C.) 8. We believe that these figures are not necessarilyprecise; they are simply meant to convey numcrousness. 9. Anavatapta, literally 'No Burning Afflictions', is the name of a mythical lake located in the center ofJambudvipa. The four rivers of which it is said to be the source are the Ganges, Indus, Oxus, and Sita. The lake nray be the modern Manasarowar.

Tur INrxrtausrrsrs Sronrsor Wtsoou
10. A somewhat free translation. 1 i . T h e o r i g i n a l r e a d s" f i v e m a n g o e s . "

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12. The Tathagata-vehicle and the Bodhisattva-vehicle are really the same; the vehicle is called the Tathagata-vehicle when viewed in the aspect of fruit or achievement, and is called the Bodhisattva-vehicle when viewed in the aspect of cause or practice. 'transcendental literally'the first truth', is a synonvm ior frB*# , 13. Chinese H-*, a t r u t h ' . T h e T i b e t a n t e x t h e r e a l s o r e a d sd o n - d a m - p ( ' u l t i m a t e t r u t h ' ) . ( G . C . ) 14. For example, the tsuddha-land in which we live, the Sahi World, is said to be an irnpure one, subject to the five depravities.

10 k ykgmrrlffiFd€
Attainment of The Prediction MafljuSri's of Buddhahood

I
Thus have I heard. Oncc thc Buddha was dwclling on Mount Grdhrakfita ncar the city of R-jagrha. He was accompar.ried one thousand great monks; eighty-four by thousand Bodhisattvas, led by the Bodhisattvas Maiiju5ri, Avalokitcivara, and Mahasthama. . . . At that time, in thc city of Rajagrha, the king, his ministers, the four kinds of devotees, gods, dragons, yaksas, humans, nonhumans, and so forth offered clothing, food and drink, bedding, medicine, and othcr ncccssiticsof life to the Tathigata with respectand esteem. ()ne morning, the World-Honored Onc, drcsscdin his robc and holding his bowl, walked toward the palaccof King Ajita5atru in the city of Rijagrha, surrounded by hundreds of thousandsof monks and gods. By the awesome miraculous pcwers of thc Buddha, hundrcds of thousandsof lights of various wonderful colors shone forth; hundreds of thousarrds of musical instruments sounded together; and exquisite flowers, such as blue iotuses,white lotuses, and giant white lotuses, showcrcd down itr profusion. Then, by the awesome miraculous powers of the Tathagata, precious lotuses, each as big as a cart wheel, sprang forth from thc ground on which he walked. The stems of these lotuses werc silver, the leaves were real gold, and the pistils were lapis lazuli. On eachlotus seatwas a magically produced Bodhisattva sitting in the position of mcditation. Without rising from

into Chincscby Siksananda. Sutra15, Taisho3lt), pp. 336-350; translatcd

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these magically produced Bodhisattvas circled the city of Rejagrha !|gtt ::rrt, / dbven)times the right and spoke [to the citizcnsl in verse: to "The Worthy One of the Sakya Clan, Like a great merchant leader, Benefits and gladdensscntient beings, and n-rakes them sccure. He has great, awesome virtue and a pcacefulmind: Upon him may mankind rely. Now he will cntcr the city. Those who dcsire freedom From the sufferingsof old age and death, Those who wish to enjoy heavenly palaces, And thosc who want to dcfeat the demon-hordes Should kccp close to the wondcrfully eloquent Lord of mankind. Just to hear his namc is rare, and now he appears! He has cultivated Ivirtuous] pracrices For hundreds of thousandsof kalpas, And has appeared the world out of great compassion. in The Honorcd Onc will enter thc city. Hc has practiced giving Immeasurably, boundlessly; Givirrg even his childrcn, wife, thronc, Hcad, cycs, L-ars, nosc, hands, and legs, Let alone clothing, food, and drink. Hc has cultivated incalculable merits by giving And has realized uncxcelled all-knowirrg wisdonr By giving, he has subdued his mind And strengthencdhis virtuous practices. Greatestof men, he upholds pure discipline And has achieved ir-rnurnerable rncrits by patience. The ever-calm onc will enter thc city. Hc haspracticcd ith suprenrc igor w v For millions of kalpas: Out of vast conccrn for suffcring sentient beings, FIe forgets all weariness. He has perfcctcdimmeasurablc,peerless meditatron; The one with thc pure voice will enter the city. His wisdom is immeasurable,unrivaled, And as limitless as spacc,

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ON EuprINrss -\s is the discipline Obscn'ed by the Supreme Honored One of humans. He cultivatesall [virtuous] practiceswith pure rl'isdom; Hc can defeatdemon-hordesand rescuescntietrtbeings; He can abide in the carefrec,immovable statc; He, the unequaledDharma king, turrrs the I)harn-ra-rvheel. Thc Lion of the Sakya Clan will crlter the cit)'. Those who wish to become Buddhas, And to appearin the world Adorned with the thirty-tu'o signs, Should cngender suprcme bodhicitta And make offerings to the Tathigata. Those who wish to abandor-r Desire, hatred, and ignoranceforcver. And bc free lrom all afflictrons Should at once keep close to the Lion of thc Sik.va Clan Arrd rnake all kinds of offerings to him or Those who wish to becomc Sakras brahmas soon, Attcnclcd by a retinuc of thousands, And to cnjoy ncver-ending amuscmcntsin heavenly palaces Should keep close to the Lion of the Sikya Clan. One who wishes to be a grcat univcrsal monarch Rulirrg over the four contincnts, Posscssing thc seveutreasurcs f'o his heart's content, And having a thousand bravc, robust sons, Sl-rouldn-rakeof-feringsto thc Supreme Honorcd Onc. Thosc who wish to bc clders or rulers of cities, wealth, With immense, even imrncasurable And houschold nrembersunrivaled in beauty, to Should make oI-fcrings the Lion of thc Sakya Clan. Because hcaring thc Buddha's tcaching of On thc quiescelrtl)harnra, sentientbeings havc achievedliberatior-r, IInr-run-rerablcl And othcrs will do so in the future. To meet thc Supremc Onc is an opportunity nlost rtrc, So wc should hcar him teach the nectar-likeDharma, Which can eascour worrics."

,

pcoplc in thc city of Rajagrha,malc and Afier hearing thcsc vcrscs,countless fcrnalc, voung and old, all becameenlightcncdl and went to [the outskirts of the

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city to wclcome] the Tath-gata with incense, flowers, precious canopies, banners, and many musical instrumcnts. They paid homage to him with all their hearts, danced for joy [to seehim], and respectfullymade offerings to him. When the World-Honored One stepped on the threshold of the city, the earth quaked in six ways, exquisite flowers rained down from the sky, and musical lnstruments instantly sounded togerher. The blind regained thcir sight, the deaf regained their hearing, the lunatics regained their sanity, the naked gained clothes, the hungry gained food, and the poor gained wcalth. [The citizens]u,ereno longcr oppressedand vexed by desire, hatred, ignorance, and arrogance;they ,lvereas kind to one another as a father is to his son. They spoke in verse to thc accompaniment of music: "Thc greatestman, who has thc ten powcrs, The Suprer-ne Onc among humans, The Lion of the Sakya Clan, Is cntering the capital city In ordcr to benefit scntient bcings By giving thcm peaccand happiness. Now, the blind regain thcir sight, The cleafregain their hcanng, T h e l u r r a r i c sr . g a i n h c i r s a r r i t y . r t The naked gain clothcs, The hungry gain dclicious food, And the poor gain wcalth. In the sky, hunclrcdsof rhousarrds billions of gods of Play rnusical instruments as an offering to the tsuddha. 'I'hc IIonored One, endowed with virtues and the ten powers, Is enterirrg the city now In thc city, the earth quakes in six ways'l'he universal quake and so fbrth But not a singlc scntient being is afraid; R.ather,all of them are overjoyed. Now thc sentient beings in thc city Are not afflicted by desirc, Hatred, ignorancc, avarice,or jealousy; Thcir hearts are full ofjoy, And they arc kind to one another. May thc tsuddha cnter the city quickly To give pcaccand happiness scnticnt beings. to As thc World-Honored Onc entcrs the city, He cmits great lighrs,

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ON EupuNess And hr-rmans and gods play musical instruments \\'ith cheerfulhearts. \liraclcs likc this are varicd and innumcrable . C'o.is.humans, and asurasall rcvcrc thc Enliehtcncd One."

-\r that time, a Bodhisattvanamed Destrot'rne Vice, the son of an elder, was -:'.'::rqin Ralagrha. Standing in an alle1'. he sas' from a distance the WorldHonorr-d One, who possessed thirty-tr"-o u'ondcrlul, auspicioussigns and thc the crqhtv minor ones. The Buddha's face rvas handsonic, and his eyes clear and bright. All his sense-organs were pcrfectly calm. He \\'asan ever-plcasant sight to thosc who saw him. He abided in Samatha, holding hrnrsclfin perfect control. He guarded and protccted his sense-organslike a u'ell-tamcd clcpharrt. His mindfulncss was correct and undisturbed,like a clear deep pool.r Whcn hc saw thcsc characteristics the Tathigata, BodhisattvaDestroying of Vice felt great respect for him and purc faith in him. Hc \\rent to the Buddha, bowed with his head at the tsuddha'sfeet, circumambulated him thrcc timcs to the right, and then stood to onc side. At the same time, incalculablehundreds of thousandsof sentientbeings gathcrcd around the Buddha. Gods without numbcr remained in midair, joining their palms and bowing down with veneration. Thcn, Bodhisattva Dcstroying Vice askcd thc tsuddha, "World-Honored One, how can a -Bodhisattvf,attain supreme errlightenment quickly and adorn and purify a Buddha-larrd as he wishes?" The World-Honorcd Onc, bccause his wish to subduc sentientbeings and of his compassior-r for Bodhisattva Destroying Vice, then walkcd to thc marketplacc and told him in the presenceof the crowd, "Clood nran, if a Bodhisattva achieves one thing, he will attain suprcmc e-nlightenmentquickly and adorn and purify a Buddha-land as he wishes. Good mar.r,what is that thirrg? It is to engender bodhicitta with superior aspiration in order to show great compassiorrfor senticnt beings. "What is it to cngender bodhicitta with superior aspiratior-r? The answer is: those who errgenderbodhicitta should not do any evil, not even thc slightcst amount"What evils should they not do? Thcy should kccp far away from desire, hatred, and ignorance. If they are lay pcoplc, thcy should maintain dignified deportment and avoid flirtation. If they arc monks or nuns, they should not long for fame, profit, or respect, but abide in the practice of those who have left the household lifc. "What is that practice?It is to comprehend all dharmas as they really are. . . . By contemplating, for example, that the five aggregatesare -:ill and empty, like nonexistent illusions. When one comprehends them in this way, he does not consider himself as comprehending anything, nor does he feel anything or think of anything; all discriminationsarc cxtinguishedin his mind. If a person comprehends the five aggregatesin this way, he comprehends all things. This is thc practicc of those who have left the household life.

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"Wherr a Bodhisattva cultivates this practicc, he does not forsakc any sentient bcing. Why? Becauscthe tsodhisattva explainsthis L)harnrato scntientbcings according to his own insight, without attachmentto thc l)harnra hc explarnsor to thc scntient bc'ingswho hcar it. Good man, a Bodhisattvau'ho fullllls this will bc able to attain suprcmc enlightenmcnt quickly and to pcrlcct a Buddha-land." Whcn this doctrine was spokcn, Bodhisattva Desrrovinq Vice achievcd thc Realization of the Nonarising of Dharmas, danced u.ith 1or. and ascendedin i midair to a height ofseven palm trees placedone above anothcr. In the asscnrbly, two thousand senticlrtbcings cngenderedbodhicitta, and iourrccn thousand gods and humans frecd thcmseivesfron defilementsand acquircd the clcar L)harma-eye, capableof pcnctrating all dharnras. When thc World-Honored Onc and the monks arrived at thc palaceof King Ajatadatru,thcy arrangedthcir scatsand sat down in due order. The king then personally offcred various kinds cf fbod and drrnk to thc World-Honored Onc and the n.ronksuntil hc had fully providcd for thcm. He also off-ered the finest garnrentsto the Tathegata.Thcn, in front of thc lluddha, he took an inferior scatanclaskcclhirn, "World-llonored One, what is the origin of hatrcd, anger, ar-rd vL-xation? How can dclusion and ignorancebe eliminatcd?" Thc Buddha replicd to the king, "Hatrcd, anger, and vcxation arisefrom the 'l'and'minc.'Those w h o d o n o t k n o w v i r t u c s ,f a u l t s ,a n d t h e ' I ' a n d ' m i n e ' h a v e uo wisdom. Those wl-ro truly know the 'l' and 'minc' are beyond wisdom and l1ol1-wisdom.Your Majesty should know that all phcnomcna comc from nowhere and go nowhere. Ifthey neither corne nor go, thcy ncithcr arisenor cease. Ifthey rreither arise 11orccasc,thcrc is neither wisdom nor non-wisdom. Why? Ilecause there is rlothing whatsocvcr which can know arising and nonarising. If one can t r a n s c e n d ' t l - r a th i c h k n o w s , ' h e i s s a i dt o h a v et r u e k n o w l e d g e . " w Thcn, King AjataSatrusaid to the Buddha, "The World-Honorcd Onc is most extraordinary!Thc teachingof the Tatl-r-gata, Worthy One, the Pcrfcctly thc ErrlightenedOne, is nlost wonderful! Now I would rather die ir-rthe course of hcaring the Dharma explainedthan continue to live in vain!" Having ir.rstructed and illurninatcd King Ajata5atru,and gladdenedhim, the World-Honored Onc rosc from his seatand returnedto Mount Grdhrakhta.Thcre, thc WorlC-Honorcd Onc arrangedhis seat,washed his feet, arrd sat clown to enrer sarnidhi. Later in thc afternoon that day, the Tathigata cmcrgcclfrorn his samidhi in order to preachthe l)harma, and the great Bodhisatrvas and Srivakas also emerged fron-r samidhi. At that time, ManjuSri, accompanied by fortv-tn'o thor.rsand gods who followt-d tl.re Bodhisattva-path; Bodhisattva Maitreya, accompanied by fivc I thousand Bodhisattvas;Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voicc, accompaniedby ' five hurrdred Bodhisattvas-all thcsc Bodhisattvas,many Srlvakas. and King Ajata6atru,all surrounded by thcir retinues,arrived at the Tathagata'sdwelling place. They bowed down with their hcadsat the Buddha's feer, and then sat to one side. Also, innumerablc hundreds of thousands of other scnticnt beines went from

1 - rI

O N EnpuNsss

ii,. =t:h"r ro Mount Grdhrakuta. When they arrived, they all bowed with their : - : . : i : : t h ( - Buddha'.sfeet, and then sat to one side.

II
Then Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice3 rose from his seat, barcd his right shoulder, knelt on his right knee,joined his palms roward thc Buddha, and said, "Bodhisattva Manju5ri, the youthful Dharma Prince, is always praised by Buddhas, World-Honored Ones. When will he attain supreme cnlightenmcnt? What kind of Buddha-land will he acquire?" The Buddha said, "Good man, you should ask Manjuirr yourself." Thereupon, Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice asked Bodhisattva Maflju5ri, "Virtuous One, whcn will you attain supreme enlightenment?" Manju6ri answered, "Good man, instead of asking me whether I progress toward enlightenment, why do you ask me when I shall attain it? Why do I ask this? Becausc I do not even progrcss toward enlightenment; how thcn can I attain it?" Bodhisattva Lion of Thundcring Voice asked, "Manju6rr, Virtuous Onc, do you not progress toward enlightcnment for thc bcnefit of sentient beings?" Mafr1u5rranswered, "No. Why not? Becausesentient bcings are inapprehensible. If there were senticnt beings, I would progress toward enlightcnment for their benefit. Since neither a scntient being, nor a life, nor a personal idcntity exists, I do not progress toward enlightcnmcnt, nor do I regressfrom it." Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice asked, "Manju6ri, Virtuous One, do you progress toward the Buddha-Dharma?" Manju6ri answered, "No, good man. All dharmas progress toward the Buddha-Dharma. Why? Because they are devoid of defilemenr, bondage, shape, or form. As thc Buddha abides in suchness,so do all dharmas. "Good man, you asked me whether I progress toward the Buddha-Dharma. Now I am going to ask you some questions and you may answer as you like. What do you think? Does form seek cnlightenment? Or does the basic narure of form, the thusness of form, the selGentity of form, the emptiness of form, the absenceof form, or the I)harma-nature of form seek enlightenment? Good man, what do you think? Does form, the basic nature of form, thc thusnessof form, the self-entity of form, the emptiness of form, the absenceof form, or the Dharmanature of form attain enlightenment?" Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice answered, "No, Maiiju6ri. Form does not scek enlightenment, nor does thc basic nrture of form, the thusness of form, the self-entity of form, the emptiness of form, the absenccof form, or the Dharma-nature of form. Form does not attain enlightenmcnt, nor does the basic nature of form, the thusncss of form, the selGentity of form, thc emptiness of form, the absenceof form, or the Dharma-nature of form."

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Manju6ri asked, "What do you think? Do fccling, conception, impulse, anci consciousness[or any of the other categoricsl up to the Dharma-naturc of consciousness seek enlightenment? Do feeling, conception, impulse, and conscrousness attain enlightenment? Or does the basic nature of feeling, or any of the other up artain enlightenment?" [categories], to the Dharma-nature of consciousness, Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice answered, "No, Manju6ri. None of them seeksenlightenmentand none of them attainsenlightenmcnt." ManjuSri asked, "What do you think? Is there an 'l' or 'mine' apart from the five aggregates?" Bodhisattva Lion o[Thundering Voice answered,"No." Manju6ri said, "It is so, it is so, good man. Then, what else can seek and attain er-rlightenmellt? Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voicc said, "Manju6ri, Virtuous One, [usuallyl your words are sincerely believed by people, but now you say not to seek enlightenment, not to attain enlightenment. Novice Bodhisattvas will certainly be frightened at such statements." MairjuSri said, "Good rnan, there is nothing to be feared, nor is there fear in reality. It is fbr those who have no fear that thc Tathagata teaches the Dharma. However, thosc who fcar things will loathe them. Those who loathe things will renourlce desire for them. Thosc who renounce desire for things will be liberated. Those who are liberated do not need enlightenment. Those who do not need enlightenment will not abide in anythir.rg.Those who do not abide in anything will not €jo. Those who do not go will not come. Those who do not come will have no wishcs. Thosc who have no wishcs will not regress.Those who do not regresswill regress. From what will they regress?They will regress from attachment to a self, a sentient bcing, a lifc, a personal identity, nihilism, eternalism, appearance,and discrimination. Those who regress from these will not regress. From what will thcy not regress?They will not regressfrom emptiness, signlessness, wishlessness, reality, or the Buddha-Dharma. "\)Vhat is the tsuddha-Dharma? It is neither detachment nor arrachment. It grasps no object, enters nowhere, cmerges from nowhere, practices nothing, and defies expression. It is a name only, empty and nonarising. It neither goes nor comcs. It is neither defiled nor pure; it is beyond stain and stainlessness. is It egoless and nondiscriminating; it is not composite or clinging. It is equality and noncontradiction. "Good man, the Buddha-Dharma is neither a dharma nor a nondharma. Why? tsecausethe Buddha-Dharma arises from nowhere. If a novice Bodhisattva hears this statement and becomes frightencd, he will eventually attain enlightenment. Observing this, one may think, "I must first bring forth bodhicitta and abidc in [deep] realization; then I can attain Buddhahood. Otherwise, if I do not bring forth bodhicitta, I can ncver attain Buddhahood.'[However, actually one should not evenl harbor this kind of discrimination, becauseboth bodhicirta and Buddhahood are inapprehensiblc. If they are inapprehensible, how can they be observed? If they cannot be observed, the realization will not be possible. Why

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not? Because without observation,realizationwould have no [germinating] cause.a "Good man, what do you think? Can empty spaceattain enlightenment?" BodhisattvaLion of Thundering Voice answered,"No." \1ar1u6ri asked, "Good man, has the Tathagata rcalizcd that all dharmas are the same as empty space?" tsodhisattvaLion of Thundering Voice ansu'ered,"Yes, he has." Manju5ri said, "Good man, enlightenment is like empty spaceand empty spaceis like enlightcnmcnt. Enlightcnment and empty spaceare neither two nor different. If a Bodhisattva knows this equality, then therc will be neither' that which he knows Iand seeslnor that which he does not know or see." When this doctrine was spoken, fourteen thousand monks ended their defilements and became mentally liberated; twelvc myriads of nonks were freed from impurity and acquired the clear Dharma-eye which secs all dharmas; ninety-six thousand sentient bcings engendered bodhicitta; and fifty-two thousand Bodhisattvas achieved the Realization of the Nonarising of Dharmas. Then, Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice asked Manju6ri, "How long ago did you engenderbodhicitta?" Manju6n answered, "Stop! Good man, do not entertain any dclusive thought! 'l Irr regard to the Dharma, which does not arise, if a person says, engender bodhicitta. I pcrform thc dccds of cnlightcnmcnt,'hc holds a vcry wrong view. Good man, I do not see any mirrd which is engendered to seek enlightenment. BecauseI seeneither rnind nor enlightenment,I engendernothing." BodhisattvaLion of Thundcring Voicc askcd, "Manju6ri, what do you mean 'seeing no mind'?" by 'seeing Mafrju6ri answered,"Good man, no mind' mcans cqualitJ'." Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice asked further, "Why do you say it mcans cquality?" no Manju6rr answered,"Good man, it meansequality because nature of any 'ode kir-rdexists and all dharmas are oi one trrte.j The taste' means there rs rro attachment, no contamination, no purity, no nihilism, no eternalism,no arising, no cessation,no grasping, no abandoning, no sclf, and no sensation.He who explains the Dharma in this way does not consider himself to be explaining anything, nor does he discriminatc anything. Good man, to practice Dharma [in the spirit ofl this dharma of equality is called equality. Good man, if a Bodhisattva pcnctratcs such cquality, he does not see any realm, whether it is the realm of one or the realm of many. He sees no equality in equality and no contradiction in contradiction, becausethey are both originally pure by nature." Then Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice said to the Buddha, "WorldHonored One, Manju(ri will not say how long ago he engendered bodhicitta, but everyone in the assemblyis eagerto hear it. " The Buddha said, "Good man, Manju5ri has achievcd the very profound rcalization of truth. In the very profound realization of truth, neither enlightennlent nor mind is to be found. Ilecause both are inappreherrsible,he does not say

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bodhicitta. However, good man, now I am going to how long ago he engendered tell you how long ago ManjuSri engendered bodhicitta. "Good man, in thc past, as many kalpas ago as the incalculablesands of , seven hundred thousand GangesRivers and morc, a Buddha named Thund..o.,, I Voice Tathagata, the Worthy One, the Supremell' Enliehtcned One, appearedin the world. At that time, in the east, seventy-two mvriads of Buddha-landsaway from here, there was a world named Nonarising, u'here Thunderous Voice Tath,gata taught the Dharma. There were eight billion four hundrcd milliorr myriads of Sravakasthere, and twice as many Bodhisattvas. "Good man, at that time, there was a king named LJrriversal Enfoldrng. He was a universal monarch who possesscd thc sevcn treasures all and ruled the four continents in accordance with the True Dharma. For eighty-four thousand vears, he respectfullyoffered wonderful clothing, food and drink, paiaces, torvers, par.ilions, scrvants, and scrvicesto Thunderous Voice Tathigata and his Bodhisattvas and Srlvakas. His emprcss,royal relatives,maids of honor, princcs, and minisrers did nothing but make offerings, and never tired of it, though they made offerings fbr years. "Afler that, thc king thought alonc in a quiet place, 'I have already accumulatcd many grcat good roots, but I have not yet decided how I shall dedicate I them. Do I seek to be a 5akra, a brahma, a universal monarch,n a Srivaka, or a Pratyekabuddha?' "After he thought thus, the gods in thc air said to him, 'Your Majcsty, do , rrot cngcndcr such a narrow, inferior aspirationlWhy? Bccause, having gatheredso j rlrany blessingsand virtues, Your Majesty should engendersuprcmc bodhicitta.' i "When King Univcrsal Enfolding heard those words, he was very glad and 1 'From thought, now on, I shall most definitely not rcgrcssfrom bodhicitta. Why? Bccauscgods know my mind and comc to remind me.' "(lood man, therl the king, together with morc than cight billion myriads of othcr scnticnt beings, went to Thunderous Voice tsuddha. On arrival, thcy all prostrated themselveswith their heads at the tsuddha's feet, made,'seven circumambulations to his right, bowed rcspectfully, and joined thcir palms toward thc Buddha. Then King Universal Enfolding spoke in verse: 'Now

I shall ask the Supreme One a question. May he answer it for mel How can one bccome a Supremely Honored One among humans? To thc Refuge of the world I have made offerings for a long time, But, wavcring in mind, I did not knou' How to dedicate rny rncrits. [Alonc, I thought,] "I have cultivated great blessirlgsand virtues;

l7-l

ON EuPrrNsss How shall I dedicate them? Do I seek to be a brahmi, a Sakra, Or a universal monarch? Do I seek to be a Srivaka Or a Pratyekabuddha?" When I thought in this way, The gods in the air told me, "Your Majesty, engender not A narrow, inferior asPiration As you dedicateYour merits! For the sake of all living beings, Your Majcsty should make a great vow. In ordcr to benefit the world Your Majesty should engenderbodhicitta." Now I beg the Worid-Honored Onc, Who has free command of dharmas, 'I'o tell me how to engender bodhicitta, So that I shall attain Ienlightcnmentl As the Muni has. Mly thc Honored Or-reamong gods and humans Lxplain this for n-re!' Enfolding in "Thcn Thurrderous Voice Tathagataspokc to King Ur.riversal

verse: Majesty, listen attentivcly. going to explain this to you point by pornt. I am and conditions All dharmas result fiom causcs can accord with one's inclinations; And One can acquire the resultsone wishes. Ll my past livcs, I also cngcnderedbodhicitta, Wishing to benefit all sentient beings. In accordanccwith my wish and n-ry bodhicitta Engcnderedin the past, I attaincd enlightcnnrcnt quickly from it. And never regressed Your Majesty should earnestly Cultivate all lvirtuousl deeds; Thcn you will attain The great, suprcrncenlightcnment of Buddhahood. 'Your

i

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"When King Universal Enfolding heard the Buddha's teaching, he rejoiced as he never had before. He made a great lion's roar in the presence of the assembly, speaking in verse: 'Now,

in the prcsenceof the entire assembly, I bring forth bodhicitta For the sake ofall sentientbeings.

I vow to involve myself in sarhsira countless times To bring great boons to living beings Until the end of the future. I shall cultivate all thc Bodhisattva's deeds To save living bcings from their sufferings. From this moment on, if I brcak my vow And becomc grccdy, miserly, or resentful, I shall be deceiving the lluddhas in thc tcn directionsFrom today until thc day I attain enlightcnmcnt, I shall always folow the Buddhas In cultivating pure conduct; I shall observe the pure precepts And commit no misdceds. I shall not cherish the idea, Of attainirrg Buddhahood in haste, But until the end of thc future, I s h a l l b e n e t l ta l l l l v l n g b c r n g s . And adorn and purify incalculable, Inconceivable tsuddha-lands. My nanre shall bc hcard Throughout the worlds in the ten directions. Now I prophcsy on my own behalf That I shall without fail become a Buddha. Becausemy aspiration is supcrior and pure, I have no doubt of my achievement. I shall purify my words, thoughts, and deeds And lct no tracc of evil arisc. In accordanccwith this sincerevow, I shall Ieventually]become a Buddha, An Honored Onc among human beings.

I /()

ON EuprlNrss If my vow is truly sincere, May the six kinds of quakesshake the great carth! If my words are genuine and not false, May musical instruments sound spontaneously thc air! in I am free of flattery or resentment; If this is truc, May flowers of the coral trcc rain dorvn!'

"When King Universal Enfolding had spoken this versc, the six kinds of quakes shook billions of Buddha-landsin the ten dircctions, musical instruments sounded in the air, and flowers of the coral tree rained down, all becauscHis Majesty's vow was sincere. At that timc, two billion of the king's attendants 'We rejoicedin ecstasy.They said to themselves with dclight, shall arrainsupreme enlightenment,'and thus followed the king's cxample by engendcringbodhicitta." The Uuddha said to the assembly,"Who was King Univcrsal Enfolding of that time? Hc was no othcr than Bodhisattva Manju5ri of today. h.r thc past, as many kalpasago as the incalculable sandsofscven hundrcd thousandClanges Rivers and more, he cngcndcrcd bodhicitta fcrr the first time. Then, after kalpas as numerous as the sandsof sixty-four GangcsRivcrs, he achievcdthc Realization the of Nonarising of Dharmas, attainedall the ten stagesof a Bodhisattva, and acquired the ten powers of a Tathagata.Hc perGcted every Dharma of the tsuddha-stage, but he ncvcr thought: 'l shall become a tsuddha!' "Good man, thc two billion people of that tir.rrewl.ro attendcd on the king and er.rgendered bodhicitta in thc presenceof Thunderous Voice Ruddha were all persuadedby ManjuSri to practice [the piramitas ofl giving, discipline, patiencc, vigor, meditation, and wisdorn. Now they havc all attained supreme enlightennrcnt, turned the great Dharma-wheel, and, aflterfinishing the Buddha-work, have entercd parinirvdna. Manjudri has made offerings to all those Tathtgaras and protected and upheld their Dharmas. Now only onc Buddha [of the two billion] remains, whose namc is Mount Earth-Holdcr. The world of that Buddha is named Earth-Holder, and lies in the lower directiorr, as many Buddha-lands away from here as the number of thc sands of forty Ganges Rivers. There are countless Sravakas there. The life span of that Buddha, who is still alive, is immeasurable." When Manjudri's past was related, sevcn thousand sentient beings in thc assembly engcndercd supreme bodhicitta.

III
Then Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice asked Maiijuiri, "Virruous One, since you have attained the ten stages of a Bodhisattva, fully acquired the ten

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powers of a Tath-gata, and accomplishcdall Buddha-l)harnras,why do you nor attain supremc cnlightenment?" Maiijr,rSri answered, "Good nran, no one realizcsenlightcnment after he has achicved perfection irl allT tsuddha-Dharmas.whr'? Because,if one has achieved perfectionin all Buddha-Dharmas,he need not realizeanvthinq more." Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice asked,"Hos. can onc achievcperfection in all Buddha-Dharmas?" ManjuSri answcrcd, "To achicve perfcction in thc Buddha-l)harnras rs to achieve perfcction in suchness.To achieve pcrfcction in such'css is to achicve perfectionin cmpty spacc.Thus, thc Buddha-Dharmas,suchness. and cnrptl, space are [all] one and the same. Good man, you ask, 'How can one achicr.cpcrfr'ction in all Buddha-l)harmas?'Just as a pcrson can achieve pertcction in tbrrn, fecling, conception, impulse, and consciousness, he can achieve pcrfcctron in all so "8 Buddha-Dharmas. BodhisattvaLion of Thur-rdering Voice askcd, "What docs it mcan to achicve perfecticln in form and other dharmas?" Manju5ri askcd in turn, "(iood r.rran, whar do you think? Is the firrm you see p c r n l J n c n to r r m p c r n r a r r e r r t ? " tsodhisattvaLion of Thunderirrg Voice said, "lt is ncither." Manjudri asked, "Good man, if sorncthing is neithcr permanent nor irnpcrmanent, does it increascor decreasc?" Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice answered,"No." Mairju(rr said, "Good man, if you realize that things do not incrcaseor dccrcasc,you are said to achieve perfection in thcm. Why so? If you do not thoroughly understandthings, you will makc discriminationsamong them. If you thor.r.rghly understandthings, you will not rnake discriminationsanong them. If things are not discrimirrated,they d. 'ot increascor decrease. they do 'ot If increaseor decrease, tl-rcyarc equal. Good ma', if you see cquality i' form, you achicve perfi'ction in form. The same is true with fccling, corlccption, impulsc, consciousness, and all othcr dharmas." Therr, Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice asked Manjuirr, "Virtuous One, since you achievedthc Realizationof the Nonarising of l)harmas, you have ncvcr harbored a notion [in your mind] of attaining supreme enlightcnment. whv do you now urge others to progrcsstoward cnlightenmer-rt?" MaiSu6ri answered, "l really do not urgc any sentient beings to progress toward cnlightenment. v/hy? Becauscscntient bcings are nonexistent .rnd dcvoid of sclfl-cntity.If ser-rtient bei'gs were apprchensible, would causcthem ro proI gress toward enlightcnment, but since they are inapprcl-rcnsible,I do not urge them to do so. why? Becausccnlighte'menr a'd scnticnt bcings are equal and not diffbrent from each other. Equality cannot be sought by cquality. In equality, nothing originates. Therefore, I oftcn say that one should observe all phenomcna as coming from nowhere and goi'g nowhcrc, which is called equality, that is,

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r'mpliness. In emptiness, there is nothing to seek. Good man, you said, 'Since .,..u achreved the Realization of the Nonarising of Dharmas, you havc never h,rlored a ltotion [in your mind] of attaining supreme enlightenment.' Good :.iian.do vou seethe mind? Do you rely on the mind ro attain enlightenment?" Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice said, "No, Manju6ri. Why nor? Berause the mind, unlike form, is invisible, and so is enlightenment.They are arbi'mind' 'enlightenment' trarv names only. The names and do not exist." Mafrju6ri said, "Good man, there is an esotericirnplicationin your statement that I have never harbored a notion [in m1, mind] of attaining enlightenment. Why? Because the mind has never comc into being. Sincethe mind has never come into being, what can it apprehendor realize?" Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voicc asked, "What does it mean to realizc equality?" Manjuiri answered,"To be detachedfrom all dharmasis to realizeequality. The so-calledrealizationmcans the subtlc wisdom, which neither ariscsnor ceases, is identical with such.ess, and cannot be discriminated. If a Dharma-cultivator with right view comprehends the truth that in equality there is nothing to be attained, ar-rddoes not attach himself either to multiplicity or to oneness, thcn he has rcalized equality. If a person rcalizesthat all dharmas are signless,comprehends that signless'ess is their sig', and does not cling to his body or mi'd, then he has perltectly rcalizcd cqr.rality. " Bodhisattva Lion of Thundcring Voice asked, "What is 'attainment'?" ManjuSri answcrcd, "'Attainment' is a conventionalexprcssion.In fact, what saintsattain is incxprcssible.why? Because the Dharma restsupon nothing and is bcyond spccch. Furthermore, good ma', to rcgard nonattainment as attainmcnt, and as ncither attainment nor nonemainnlenr, called Ithe truc] attainment."e is Ther.r,Bodhisattva Lion of Thundcring Voice said to the Buddha, "WorldHonored Onc, may you tcll us about the Buddha-land which ManiuSri will achicve!" 'fhe tsuddha said, "Good man, you should ask Manjuiri, yourself." At this, Bodhisattva Liorr of Thundering Voicc asked Manju3rr, "Virtuous One, what kind of mcrits and adornments will vou achieve for vour Buddhaland?" Maiiju6ri, said, "Good man, if I sought enlightcnment, you could ask me what kind of Buddha-land I shall achicvc." lJodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voicc asked, "Virtuous One, do you not seek cnlightenment?" Manju6ri answcred, "I do not. Why so? If onc seeksanything, he is tainted and attached.Ifone is tainted, he has craving. Ifonc has craving, he takesbirth. If one takcs birth, he has lmorel craving. If one has craving, he will never be 'l'herefore, hberated. good man, I do not seek enlightenment. Why not? Because cnliqhtenment is unattainable.Becauseit is unattainable,I do not seek it. Good man, )'ou asked me what kind of Buddha-land I shall achieve, but I cannot tell

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if you. Why not? Because a Bodhisattva spcaksof the merits and magnificenceof his future Buddha-land in the presenceof the Tathagata, the All-Knowing One, he i s p r a i s i n gh i s o w n v i r t u c . " The Buddha told Manju6ri, "You may tell them bv rvhat kind of vows you will adorn your Buddha-land, so that the Bodhisattvashearing those vows will resolve to fulfil them also." Thus instructed by the Tathagata, Manju5ri rose from his seat, bared his right shoulder, knelt on his right knee, joined his palms, and said to the Buddha, "World-Honorcd One, now, by the miraculous powers vestedin me by the Buddha, I am going to speak of my vows. Those who wish to seek great enlightenment should listcn attentively, study them according to the truth, and fulfill them after hearing them set forth." When Manju5rr knelt on his right knee, the six kinds of quakes shook Buddha-landsas innumerable as the sandsof the Gangesin each of the ten dircctions. Manju5ri addressedthe Buddha, saying, "Hundreds of thousands of [mil'lf lions ofl billions of myriads of kalpasago, I vowed: all the Ifuturel Tathlgataslo in countless Buddha-lands in the ten directions, whom I see with my unhindered dcva-cyc, are not persuaded by me to engender bodhicitta or taught by me to cultivate giving, discipline, patience, vigor, meditation, and wisdom and to attain suprcrnc enlightenment, I shall not attain bodhi. Only after the fulfillment of this vow shall I attain supreme enlightenment."' At that tirne, thc Rodhisattvasin thc asscmbly all thought, "How many Tathigatas can Maiiju5ri sec with his unhindereddeva-eyc?" Knowing what all those Bodhisattvasthought, the World-Honored One said Boclhisattva Lion of Thunderring Voice, "Good rnan, suppose this billion-world to universcwcrc brokcn into tiny dust-motes.What do you think? Could the number of thcsc dust-motes be known through courlting?" Bodhisattva Lion of Thunderine Voice answered. "No. World-Honored " One. The .Buddha said, "Good man, MaiijuSri with his unhindcrcd dcva-cyc sees more Buddhas in thc cast than the number of such dust-motes.The same is true in the south, in the west, in the north, in each of thc four intermediate directions, in the zenith and in thc nadir." Manju6ri then said to the Buddha, "Furthermore, World-Honored One, I have vowed to combine the worlds of Buddhas as innumerableas the sandsof the Gangesinto a single Buddha-land and to adorn it with incalculable,intermingled, exquisitejewels. If I cannot do this, I shall never attain supreme enlightenment. "Furthermore, World-Honored One, I have vowed to causemy land to have a bodhi-tree as big as ten billion-world universes; that tree will shed a light all over my Buddha-land.11 "Furthcrmorc, World-Honored One, I have vowed not to rise from my seat undcr thc bodhi-trcc from the time I sit down upon the seat until I attain supreme enlightenment and enter nirvlna, [and during that time] to teach the Dharma by

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numberlcssBuddhamagicallv produced bodies to sentientbeings in incalculable, lands in the ten directions. "Furthermore, 'World-Honored One, I have vowed to causemy land to lack rhe name'woman,'and to be inhabited by numerous Bodhisattvaswho arc frcc trom the filth of afflictions, who cultivate pure conduct, and who are spontain with crossed neously born dressed monastic robesand seated legs. I have vowed to causemy land tol have no Sravakas Pratyekabuddhas, or even in name, excepr those magically produced by the Tath-gata to explain the doctrines of the three vehiclesto sentientbeings [of other Buddha-lands]in the ten directions." Then, tsodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice asked the Buddha, "WorldHonored One, what will be Manju5ri's name when he becomes a Buddha?" The Buddha answered,"Good man, when Manju6ri becomesa tsuddha, he will bc namcd lJniversal Sight. Why? Bccause that Tathegata will make himself visible to all the sentientbeings in innumerable hundreds of thousandsof billions of myriads of Buddha-lands in thc tcn dircctions. The sentient beings who see that tsuddha will certainly attain supreme enlightenment. Although [the future] Universal Sight Tathtgata has not yet become a Buddha, all those who hear his name mentioned, either when I still live in the world or after I enter parinirv-na, will also attain supreme enlightenment without fail, except those who have already attained thc stagc of nonrcbirthl2 and those who have a narrow, ir-rferioraspiration." Mairju5ri said to the Buddha, "Furthermore, World-Honorcd Onc, I have vowed that, just as the inhabitants of Amittbha Buddha's land have joy in thc Dharma fbr food, in my land the Bodhisattvas will all have in their right hands a bowl full of delicaciesas soon as they think of food. After a momerlt, they will 'Under thirrk, no circumstanceswill I eat any of this myself before I have offered it to the Buddl-rasin the ten directions arrd given it to poor, suffbring sentient beings, such as hungry ghosts, until thcy arc satiatcd.'After thinking this, they will obtain the five miraculous powers, enabling them to fly in space without hindrance; and then will go to offer the delicaciesto thc Buddhas, Tathagatas. and Srivakas in numberless Buddha-larrds in the ten directions. The Bodhisattvas from my land will give the food to all the poor, distressedscntient bcings in all those Buddhalands and will cxplain thc Dharma to them so as to frec thcm from the thirst of desirc. It will take the Bodhisattvas only an instant to accomplish all this and come back to their own land. "Furthermore, World-Honored One, I have vowed that when they arejust born, all the tsodhisattvas in my land will obtain at will in their hands whatever kinds of precious clothes they need, clean ar-rdfit for Srananas. Thcn thcy will 'l think, shall not use these myself until I have offered them to the Buddhas in thc ten directions.'Thereupon, they will go to offer their precious clothes to thc Buddhas of countless Buddha-lands in the ten dircctions and thcn return to their own land, all in a moment. Orrly after this will they enjoy thc clothing themselves. "Furthermore, World-Horrored One, I have vowed that thc Bodhisattvasrn

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of my land will offer their wealth, treasures, and necessitres life to Buddhas anC Srivakasl3 before they themselves enjoy them. "Furthermore, I have vowed that] my land u-ill be frce lrom the eight unwholesome dharmas,wrongdoing and prohibrtion, pain, annoyance, adversitics, and unhappiness." Then, BodhisattvaLion of Thundering Voice askedthe Buddha, "What will that Buddha-land be named?" The tsuddha answered, "That Buddha-land u'ill bc namcd Wish-Fulfilling Accumulation of Perfect Purity." Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice asked, "ln u'hat direction u.ill that Buddha-land be located?" Thc Buddha answered."In the south. The SahaWorld rvill also be contained in it." ManjuSri continued speaking to the Buddha, "Furtherrnorc, I havc vo\\'!-d amounts of wonderful jeu'els that my Buddha-land will be formed of incalculable and adorned with innumerablc, interlaced, exquisite pearls. These pearls rvill be exceptionally rare and difficult to find in the tcn directions; their names will be so numerous that no one could finish rccounting them, cven in millions of years. My land will appearto be made of gold to the Bodhisattvaswho wish it to be made of who wish it to bc gold, and will appearto be made of silvcr to the tsodhisattvas rnadc of silver, without affecting its goldcn appcarancc thosc who wish it to be to made of gold. According to the Bodhisattvas'wishes,it will appearto be made of crystal, lapis lazuli, agate, pearls, or any other treasurewithout affecting its appearanceto others. It will also appear to be n-radeof fragrant sandalwood, of l-ragrant alocwood, of rcd sandalwood,or of any other kind of wood, all according r o r h e B o d h i s a t t v a sw i s h e s . l 4 ' "My land will not be illuminated by thc brilliance of sur.rs, moons, pearls, stars, fire, and so forth. All the Bodhisattvas there will illuminatc hundreds of with their own lights. In my land, it will bc billions of myriads of -tsuddha-lands lt will daytime when flowers open and night when flowers closc, arrd thc scasons changeaccording to the tsodhisattvas' wishes. There will be no cold, heat, old age, illness,or death. "lf they wish, Bodhisattvas in my land may go to any other land to attain [suprt:mrc] eniightennent; they will attain it aftcr dcsccnding fronr thc Tusita Heaven when their lives come to an end there. No one in mv Buddhalarrd will enter nirvana.l6 "Though thcy will not appcarin thc sky, hundreds of thousandsoi nrusical instrunents will be hcard; their music will not be the soundsof areedl, desire,but the sounds of the paramitas, Buddha, the Dharma, the Sarhgha,and the doc_the. trines of the llodhisattvaf canon. Tl.re Ilodhisattvas u'ill bc able to hear the wondcrfui Dharrna in proportion to thcir undcrstanding. If thcy wish to scc 'Iath5gata the tsuddha, they will see lJniversal Sight sitting ur.rder the bodhi-

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rree as soon as they think of seeing him, wherever thcy are, whcther walking, srrrips. or standing. Bodhisattvas who have doubts about the Dharnra will brc-akrhe net of their doubts and comprehend the in'rport of thc Dharma at the sieht oithat tsuddha, without receiving any explanation." Then, in the assembly, incalculablehundreds of thousands of billions of ntvriads of Bodhisattvas said in unison, "He v"'ho hears the name of Universal Sight Buddha will obtain excellcnt benefits, let alonc those who arc born in his land. If a person has an opportunity to hcar the doctrine of the Prediction of ManjuSri's Attainment of Buddhahood explained and thc I'rameof Maiiju6ri mentioned, he is meeting all Buddhas face to face." Thc Buddha said to those Bodhisattvas,"lt is so, it is so, just as you say. Good men, supposea person keeps in mind hundreds of thousalds of billions of Buddhas' nanles. And supposeanother person kccps in mind thc name of Bodhisattva Mafrjuiri. Thc blcssingsof the latter outnumber those of thc former, let alone the blcssingsof those who keep in mind the namc of Universal Sight Buddha. Why? Becausccven the bcnefits which hundreds of thousandsof lmillions ofl billions of myriads of Buddhas givc to sentientbcings cannot conPare with those givcs during onc kalpa." which Mafr.1uSri Thcrcupon, in the assembly,innumerablehundrcds of thousandsof billions of myriads of gods, dragons, yaksas,gandharvas,asuras,garudas,kinnaras, mahoragas,humans, nonhumans, and so forth said in unison, "We take refuge in the youthful Bodhisattva Mafrjudri. Wc take refugc in (Jniversal Sight Tathigata, the 'Worthy Or.re,the Supremely Enlightened Onc." After saying that, eight trillion four hundred billion myriads of senticnt suprcme bodhicitta. Incalculable numbers of sentient beings beirrgs enger-rdered brought their good roots to maturity and gained nonrcgression from the three l7 vehicles. Manjudri again said to thc Buddha, "Furthermore, I have vowed to filI my tsuddha-land with all the nrerits and magnificence of the lands of the hundrcds of thousandsof [rnillions ofl billions of myriads of Buddhas, World-Honored Ones, whom I have seen bcfore. Howevcr, my land will lack the two vehiclcs, the fivc depravities, and so forth. World-Honored One, if I myself enunleratc the merits of and n-ragnificence my Buddha-land, I cannot finish doing so evcn in kalpas as innumerable as the sandsof the Gangcs.Only the lluddha knows the scopeof my
vow"llt

Ihc Buddha said, "lt is so, MaiijuSri. The Tathagata can know and see everything in the past, present, and futurc without limit or hindrar-rce." 'Ihcn, in the asscmbly, sone Bodhisattvas thought, "Will the mcrits and magnificence of the tsuddha-land achieved by ManjuSri be equal to those of Amitabha'sBuddha-land?" The World-Honored Onc, knowing these Bodhisattvas' thoughts, immcdiately told BodhisattvaLion of Thundering Voice, "Supposca person splits a hair into one hundrcd parts and, with one part, takes a droplet of water from a vast

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ocean. If he compares the droplet of water to the magnificence of Amitabha's Buddha-land, and the remaining water of thb vast ocean to the magnificence of Universal Sight Tathagata'sland, the contrast will still not suffice. Why? Because the magnificenceof (Jniversal Sight Tathagata'sland rs inconceivable." Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice asked the Buddha, "World-Honored One, is there any Buddha-land as magnificent as that Buddha-land in the past, present, or future?" The Buddha answered, "There is one, good man. In the east, there is a Buddha-land named Abiding in the Unexcelled Vow, which is so far away that to get there one must pass worlds as innumerable as the sands of ten billion Ganges Rivers. There is a Buddha there named King of (Jniversal, Eternal Light and Meritorious Ocean. The life span of that Buddha is immeasurable and infinite. He always teachesthe Dharma to Bodhisattvas.Good man, the merits and magnificence of that Buddha-land are exactly likc those of Universal Sight's Buddha-land." . . . Then, Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice asked the Buddha, "WorldHonored One, when will Manjudri attain supreme enlightenment? How long will that Buddha live; how many Bodhisattvas will he have?" The Buddha answered,"Good rnan, you should ask Manju6ri yourself." At this, Ilodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice asked Manju5ri, "Virtuous One, whcn will you attain supreme enlightenment?" Mafrju6ri answered, "Good man, if the realm of spacecould become a physical body, I could attain supreme enlightenment. If a magically produced person could attain enlightenment, I could attain it. If an undefiled Arhat could be no other than suprcmc cnlightenment, I could attain it. If a dream, an echo, a reflection, or a magically produced being could attain enlightennent, I could attain it. If it could be daytime when the moon shines and nighttime when the sun shines, I could attain supreme enlightenment. Good man, you should ask your question of those who seek enlightenment." Rodhisattva Lion of Thunderi'g Voice asked, "Virtuous One, do you not seek enlightenment?" Mafrlu6rr answered, "No. Why not? Because Manju6ri is no other than 'Manju5ri' is only an arbitrary name errlightenmcntand vice versa. Why? Because ancl so is'supreme enlightenment.'Furthermore, the name is nonexistent and cannot act; thereforc, it is cmpty. Thc naturc of cmptiness is no other than " enlightenment. Then, thc Buddha askcd BodhisattvaLion of Thundering Voice, "Have you ever seen or heard the Sravakasand Bodhisattvasin the assembly of Amitlbha 'f athagata?" Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice answered,"Yes, I have." The Buddha asked, "How many are there?" Bodhisattva Lion of Thundering Voice answered, "Thcir number is incalculable and inconceivable."

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Thc tsuddha said, "Good nlan, compare one kernel taken from a bushel of kingdom of Magadha to the numbc-rof thc Sravak.rs linsc.-Jtrom tl-re and Bodhisrtrvas in Amitibha Buddha's land, and compare thc kenrels remainirrg in the br,rshel the numbcr of thc Bodhisattvasin MailuSri's asscmbly whcn hc attains to r" srlprenlc enlightcnment-even this contrast is ir"radcqr.r.rtc. "Good man, if one compares the number of thc tiny dust-motes in this billion-r.vorld universe to the numbcr of kalpas for .,vhich lJr.rivcrsalSight Tathiqara '"vill live, one will find that thc formcr, even multiplicd by or.rchundrcd thousand billion, or by any amount, numcrical or figurative, is still lcss than thc lattcr. You should know that thc lifc span of Univcrsal Sight Tathlgata is incalculable and limitless. "Supposea person breaksa billion-r.vorlduniverseinto tiny dust-motes,and another person does the samc, and so on [up to ten persons].Then one ofthem takes all the tiny dust-motes [from one billion-world universe] ar-rd goes toward thc cast, dropping onc dust-motc aftcr hc passcs through woricls as numerous as all After he passes the dust-moteshc carries. againthrough the samenumber of worlds, hc drops anothcr dust-motc. Hc docs so until hc has droppcd all thc tiny dustrnotcs. Anothcr pcrson [of thc tcn] walks toward thc south [and does the same]. This corrtirrues until the same is done in the west, the north, each of the four intermediate directions, the zenith, ancl the naclir. Good man, can anyone know worlcls that havc bccn thr.rs thc numbcr of thcscr travcrscd?" l3odhisattvaLion of Thundering Voicc answcrcd, "No." The tsuddha asked, "Good man, supposethcsc tcn pcrsons break into tiny dust-motes every world in the ten dircctions that thcy passthrough, u'hcthcr thcy drop a dust-note there or not. What do you think? Can anyonc know thc numbcr of thcsc dust-motcs through counting?" Bodhisattva Lion of Thundcring Voicc answcrcd, "No, World-Honorcd One. Anyone who tries to count them will become confused and will not be able to know their numbcr." Thc Buddha said, "Good rnan, all Buddhas, Tathagatas, can know the numbcr of thosc tiny dust-motcs. Evcn a greaternumbcr than this is knowable to the Tathigatas." Then Bodhisattva Maitreya said to the Buddha, "World-Honored One, in order to attain such great wisdom, Bodhisattvasshould never give up the pursuit of it even if they go through extremely grievous sufferings in vast hclls for incalculable billions of kalpas." Thc Buddha said, "Maitrcya, it is so, it is so, just as you say. For who rvould not dcsirc and cnjoy such grcat wisdom, except those who are lowly and inferior and those who are lazy ar-rd lethargic?" When this wisdom was explained,ten thousand sentientbeings engendered bodhicitta. Thcn thc Buddha said to Bodhisattva Lion of Thundcring Voicc, "Good man, what do you think? Manju6ri will follow the Bodhisattva-path for kalpas as

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numerous as the tiny dust-motesin the worlds in thc ten dircctions whereir] those qrcat vows, his dcten persons pass. Why? Bccauscinconccivablcarc Marlr-r5ri's termination and pursuits; so are his lifc span and asscmblvoi Bodhisattvasaftcr hc attainssupreme enlightenment." "World-Honored BodhisattvaLion of Thundering Voice said to the tsudclha, One, Manju5ri's aspirationis very great, and so are the practiccshe has cultivated. Never has hc wcaricd of thcm. cvcn for kaloasas nunlcrous as thc tinv dust-mores mentioned before." Manju(ri said, "lt is so, it is so, good man, just as vou sa\'. What do you think? Does the realm of spaceconceivethe idea that it endurcs tbr davs, nights, years, and kalpas? months, seasons, -Bodhisattva Lion of Thundcring Voice answered,"No." Manju6ri said, "It is so, good man. Those who comprchcnd that all clharr-nas are [in reality] equal to spacehave nor-rdiscriminating, subtle i.r'isdonr and do not t h i n k , ' l e n d u r e f o r d a y s , n i g h t s , m o n t h s , s e a s o r - ry e a r s ,a n d k a l p a s . ' W h r ' ?t s e s, cause they have no thought of dharrnas. Good man, thc rcalm of spacc ncvcr thinks that it fccls tircd or afflicted. V/hy? Because, evcn after kalpas as innunrcrablc as thc sandsof the Gangcsclapsc,thc rcalm of spaccwill not arisc, nor u'ill it be consunredby trre ar-rd ruirred; it is indestructible.Why? Becausethe realnr of spaccdocs not cxist. Therefore, good man, if a tsodhisattvaunderstandsthat no dharrrraexists, he will have no burning afflictions and no weariness.(lood nran, thc namc'spacc'is lrec from destructionby fire. It is devoid of burning afllictions, and leels no fatigue. lt does not movc or altcr. It ncither ariscsnor ages.It neither c o m e s n o r g o e s . T h c s a m c i s t h c c a s cw i t h ' M a n j u S r i . ' W h y ? B e c a u s e n a m e l s a " dcvoid of sclf-naturc. When this doctrinc was spoken, the four grcat dcva kings, Sakra, Brahma, gods ofnriesome virtue, and others all said in unison, "Thc sentientbcings who hear this doctrine explained will ccrtainly acquire good, great bcncfits, let alone those who accept, practice, read, and rccitc it. It sl-rould known that thc good be roots they achievewill be very extensivcand grcat. World-Honored One, wc shall j accept, practicc, rcad, rccitc, propagate,and circulatethis profbund doctrine, becausewe want to protect and uphold it." Thcn, tsodhisattvaLion of Thurrderirrg Voice asked the Buddha, "WorldHonored One, suppose a pcrson, after hearing this doctrinc cxplained, acceprs, practiccs,rcads, and rccitcs it; pon_ders upon it; and resolvesto adorn a tsuddhaland with mcrits. What degreeof blcssingwill he acquire?" The tsuddha answered, "Good man, the Tathagataseesnlanv Buddhas and their lands with his unhindered Buddha-eye.Supposca Bodhisatn';roifcrs to each of these Tath-gatas wondcrful treasures enough to flll all thesc Tatl-rigatas' lands until the end of the future, abides sccurcly in the pure preceprs, and treats all scnticnt beings with impartiality. Supposeanother Bodhisattva acccpts,pracrices, reads,and recitesthe doctrine of [Manju6ri's] Adorning a Buddha-Land with Mcrits, and vows to follow thc path Manju(rl has trodder-r,even for as little time as it

186

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r ll

,\

isteps. The merits of the former, even multiplied by one takes to walk (seven hundred, or by any amount, numerical or figurative, will still be lessthan those of . rhe latter" Then Bodhisattva Maitreya asked the Buddha, "World-Honored One, what should we calledthis Dharma-door? How should we uphold it?" 'The The Buddha answered, "This Dharma-door is called Buddhas' Frec 'The 'Maiiju6rr's Command of Miraculous Powers,' or Fulfilmcnt of Vows,' or Adorning a Buddha-Land with Merits,'or'GivingJoy to BodhisattvasWho Engender Bodhicitta,'or'The Prediction of ManjuSri'sAttainment of Buddhahood.' You should acceptand uphold it by thesenames." In ordcr to makc offbrings to this doctrine, the Bodhisattvas who had come from the ten directions caused many flowers to rain down, and praised the Buddha, saying, "The World-Honored One is most cxtraordinary! How fortunate we arc to have such an cxccllcnt opportunity to hcar this inconceivable, magnificent doctrine explained by Manjuiri with a lion's roar!" After utterilrg these words, lands. they returned to their respective When this doctrine was spoken, Bodhisattvas as innumcrable as the sands of thc Ganges gained nonregression and thc good roots of countless sentient beings came to maturity. Then Maiiju5ri irnrnediatelycntcrcd thc Samadhiof the Bodhisattva'sEmitting Lights to Reveal Ali Dharmas as lllusory. Aftcr hc cntcrcd the samadhi, he causcd thc asscmbly to scc all the Tathagatasin all the incalculablc tsuddha-lands in thc tcn dircctions, and a Maiju6ri relating the merits and magnificence of his tsuddha-land in the presence of each Buddha. After the assembly had seen this, they all believedthe sublime, €geatvows of Manju5n to be extraordinary. Whcn thc Buddha had cxplaincd this sutra, thc Bodhisattvas,monks, nuns, laymen, laywomen, gods, dragons, yaksas,gandharvas, asuras,garudas,kinnaras, rnahoragas, humans, and nonhumans all rcjoiccd at thc Buddha's teaching, accepted it with faith, arrd began to practice it with veneration.

NOTES
1 . l n w h a t s e n s et h c s c p c o p l c b e c a m c e n l i g h t e n c d i s n o t c l c a r i n t h c t c x t . D o c s 'enlightenment' here mean the realization of emptincss or suchncss, or mcrcly a kind of awakening to certain truths? Did these people all reach the same degree of enlightenment or not? The text doesnot say. However, it is rny opinion that this and the subsequent iracles m r n t h i s p a r t o f t h e s u t r a s h o i r l d b e c o n s i d e r e dt o b e s y m b o l i c ( G C . ) 2 . ' I ' h c p h r a s c " H i s b o d y w a s a d o r n c d w i t h t h e t h i r t y - t w o a u s p i c i o u ss i g n s , " a l r e a d y s t a t c c la b o v e - w a s o m i t t e d h e r e i n o u r t r a n s l a t i o n .

MairtuSni's ArrarNurNr on Buoonanool
3. Literally, "Lion o[Darting Thunderbolt."

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4. Although this paragraph appearsto contradict the preceding statements,they should be understood to be on different levels. The previous statements describe the very nature of the ultimate truth, which is beyond discrimination and observation. On the other hand, from the point of view of Dharma practice, observation is necessarvto iurther one's realization at certain stages. It is said that prior to full realization one must penetratingly observe the emptiness of mind to rid oneself of subject-object dichotoml'. T h i s p a r a g r a p hi s e x t r e m e l y o b s c u r e . T h r e e v e r s i o n s ( T a i s h o 3 l f ) , p . 3 4 5 , b y S i k s a n a n d a ;T a i s h o 3 1 8 , p . 8 9 6 , b y C h u F a H u ; T a i s h o 3 1 9 , p . 9 1 2 , b v A m o g h a ) d i f f e r w i d e l y i n their renderings of this paragraph. Alternate translation: "Good man, the Buddhal)harma is neither a dharma nor a nondharma. Why? Because the Buddha-Dharma arises from nowhere. If novice Bodhisattvas are horrified at hearing this statement, they will attain enlightenment quickly; if they discriminate, thinking, 'Now I a m g o i n g t o a t t a i n e n l i g h t e n m e n t , ' t h e y w i l l e n g e n d e rb o d h i c i t t a , a i n i a t i m m e d i a t e r e a l i z a t i o n ,a n d a t t a i n e n l i g h t e n r . n e na s a r e s u l t . I f t h e y d o n o t e n g e n d e rb o d h i c i t t a , t h e y r v i l l t nevcr attain cnlightcnmcnt. Without the above discrimination, enlightenment and bodhicitta are both inapprehensible. What is inapprehensible is beyond discrimination. What is beyond discrimirration has rrothing to do with imrlediate realization. Why? Becausethere is no object . o f i m m c d i a t c r c a l i z e t i o n" 'one 'of 5. -4 nreans iiterally taste' or the same taste'. ln meaning it connotes , s i n r p l y ' t h c s a n r c ' , ' i d c n t i c a l 'o r ' a t - o n c - m c n t ' . 6. That is, to become a universal monarch again in his next life, as he was in that life. 7 . L i t e r a l l y , " i s c o r n p l e t ew i t h . " 8. That is, the aggregatcs arc by nature identical with Buddhahood. 9. Although this sentenceis rather curnbersorne, we havc choscn to rcndcr it litcrally, since it is philosophically important. 1 0 . T h a t i s , t h o s e w h o a r e n o w o r d i n a r y s c n t i c n t b c i n g s , w i l l b c T a t h a g a t a si n t h e future. 11. Another possible rendering: "Furthermore, World-Hor.rored One, I have vowed to causerny land to have as many bodhi-trccs as thc worlds in ten billion-world universes; those trccs will shcd a light all ovcr my tsuddha-lancl." 1 2 . T h i s s c c m s t o d e n o t e H r n a y a n aA r h a t s w h o h a v e c n t e r e dp a r i n i r v l n a . 13. This relers to Srivakas in other Buddha-lands. as there will be none in Universal Sight Tathigata's land. i 4 . T h e s e s t a t e m e n t ss u g g e s tt h e m i n d - o n l y d o c t r i n e ; i . e . , e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e e x t e r i o r world is a ;rere projection or reflection of one's own mind. 15. This implies that the land will be so brilliantly illuminated by thc Bodhisattvas' lights that the opening and closing of flowers will be the only indication of dav and night. 1 6 . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y t h c m o s t i m p o r t a n t " a d o r n m e n t " o f M a r i j u 6 r i ' sf u t u r e t s u d d h a land, showing how profound is his intention to save sentient beings before attaining supreme enlightenment himself. (VSB.) 1 7 . A r . r o t h e rv e r s i o n , T a i s h o 3 1 9 , p . 9 1 5 , r e a d s :" g a i n c d n o n r c g r c s s i o nf r o m s u p r e m e b o d h i ." 18. Here even the eioquenle of Bodhisattva Manju5ri cannot express the profound wonders of his futr.rreBuddha-land. 19. In this sirtra, ManjuSri's land is described as incomparably superior in time, space,

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: : r ' : : i : . e t . . . t o o t h e r B u d d h a - l a n d s ,s u c h a s t h a t o f A m i t a b h a . O n c s h o u l d n o t r e g a r d t h i s t o i ' r : s r n c t c o m p a r a t i v e s t a t e m e n ta b o u t t w o B u d d h a - l a n d s ,b u t i n s t e a d a s e m p h a s i z r n gt h e j : r : : r - . c r r o nb e t w e e n t h e p u r e l a n d o f N i r m i n a k i y a a n d p u r e l a n d o f S a r h b h o g a k a y a M a f r . -:in s land is that of Sarhbhogakiya, which is eternal and infinite, and is a reflection of o 3 m p t r n e s s r r t h e D h a r m a k a y a . S e e N u m e r i c a l G l o s s a r y ," t h r e e b o d i e s o f t h e B u d d h a . "

III
On the Light of the Tathagata

11 H
TheManifestation Lights' of

I
Thus have I heard. Once the Buddha was dwelling on Mount Grdhrakuta near Rajagrha, accompanied by five hundred great monks, all of whom had achieved great fieedom; eighty myriad tsodhisattva-Mahlsattvas who were to reach lluddhahood in their next lives, headed by Bodhisattva Maitreya; and forty myriad other great Bodhisattvas, headed by the Dharma Prince Maiiju6ri; and others. At that time, Moonlight, a boy in the assembly, rose from his seat, bared his right shoulder, knelt on his right knee, bowed down with his head at the Buddha's feet, then joined his palms reverently and said to the Buddha, "World-Honored One, what deeds did the Tath-gata perform to obtain thc Absolute Light;2 the Embracing Light; the Creating Light; the Manifesting Light; the Multicolored Light; the Single-Colored Light; the Narrow Light; the Wide Light; the Pure Light; the (Jniversal Pure Light; the Undefiled Light; the Utterly Undefiled Light; the StainlessLight; the Gradually Increasing Light; the Sparkling Pure Light; the Very Sparl.ling Pure Light; the BoundlessLight; the Utterly BoundlessLight; the Immeasurable Light; the Utterly Immeasurable Light; the Infinite Light; the Utterly Infinite Light; the Swift Light; the Very Swift Light; the Nonabiding Light; the Light of No Abode; the Blazing Light; the Illuminating Light; the Light of Dclight; the Light of Reaching the Other Shore; thc Unimpeded Light; the Immovable Light; the Straightforward Light; the Light of Abiding in the Infinite; the Light of Color and Form; the Light of Various Colors and Forms; the Light of Innumerable Colors and Forms; the Light of tslue, Yellow, Scarlet, and White; the Red-Colored Light; the Crystalline Light; and the Light of the Color of Void Sutra11, Taisho310,pp. 161195;translated Chinese Bodhiruci. into by

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Space? Each of these lights appcarsmixed with a light of five colors, and each of the lights of five colors-such as blue, yellow, red, white, and so forth-appears mixed n'ith innumerablekinds of lights of diffcrent colors." In reply, the World-Honored One spoke to Moonlight in verse:

"By inconccivablegood karmas, I haverid myselfof delusions And havc achievedvarious lights. By all kinds of [virtuous] practiccs, I abide sccurelyin the Buddha's parh; By the wisdom of emptinessand nonaction, I emanatcintcrmingled lights. Empty, cgolcss,inactive, And devoid of thought Arc cxtcrnal things; and yet Thcy can manifest different forms. Errrpty, egoless.and inactive ls tlrc body, and yct It can produce various sounds. In the samc way, through the [wisdom of] nonactron, I can manifest innumcrable colored lights ' To satisly thc wishes of all sentier.rt beings. Sometimes one light can producc two colors, Each radiating three [bcams]: Higher, r.niddle,and lowcr. Sometimesone light can producc five colors, Each radiating three [bearns]: Highcr, middle, and lower; This resultsfrom pure karma. Sometimes one light can produce six colors, Each radiating three [beams]: Highcr, middle, and lower; This resultsfrom ingenuity... . . Sometimcs one light3 can produce fifty colors, Each radiating thrce [beams]: Higher, middle, and lower; This rcsults from dhyina.

Tsr MaNrrrsr.{rroN or Lrcsls Sometimesonc light can produce sixn' colors, Each radiating three Ibearns]; Higher, middle, and lower; This results from wisdonr. Sometimesone light can produce a thousand colors, Each radiating three [bcams]: Higher, middie, and lower; This results from a thousand merits. Sometimesone light can produce tcn thousand colors. Each radiating three [beams]: Higher, middle, and lower; This rcsults from the spiritual provision of mcrits. Lights of many kinds Shine from my pores. I will now tcll you Thc diffcrcnt names of these lights. I havc a light callcd The Clotidsaof Purc Illumination; It arisesfrom the innumerablegood roots I havc accunrul;tcd. ln the past, w.|cn I saw scnlient beings , Afflicted with many kinds of disease, I gave thenr medicinesout of pity To rcstorc thcir hcalth, And thereby I obtained that light. Anothcr light, callcd Pure Eye, I obtained by offering lamps to Buddhas. A n o t h e r l i g h t , c a l l e dP u r c E a r , I obtaincd by offcring nlusic to Buddhas. Another light, calledPure Nose, I obtained by offering perfumcs to Buddhas. Another light, called Pure Tongue, I obtained by offering delicaciesto Buddhas. Another light, called Pure Body, I obtained by offering clothing to Br,rddhas. Another light, called Pure Mir.rd, I obrained by ever believirrg And delighting in lluddhas.

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ON rnr Lrcnr or rnr TarsAcara Another light, called Pure Forms, I obtained by making colored paintings of Buddhas. Another light, called Pure Sounds, I obtained by constantly praising the Dharma. Another light, called Pure Scents, I obtained by continuously revering the Sarhgha. Another light, called Pure Tastes, I obtained by fulfilling sentient beings' needs. Another light, called Pure Touch, I obtained by offering perfumed ointments. Another light, called Pure Phenomena, I obtained by embracing all dharmas. Another light, called Pure Earth, I obtained by cleaning and swccping the ground For the Buddha and the Sarhgha. . . . Another light, called Pure Aggregates, I obtained by offering my body to tsuddhas. Another light, called Pure Elements, I obtaincd by continuously cultivating kindness.s Anothcr light, called Pure Truth, I obtaincd by ncvcr uttcring false words. . . . Another light, called Revealingthe Meaning of the Truth, I obtaincd by comprehending emptiness. Another light, called Understanding Women, I obtaincd by rcmaining detached From the female appearance. Another light, called (Jnderstanding Men, I obtained by remaining detached From the male appearance. Another light, called The Awesome Power of Vajra. I obtained by having pure wisdom and pure karma. Another light, called Unfolding Emptiness, I obtaincd by revealingkarmic resultsto the world.6 Another light, called Awakening to Reality, I obtained by parting with wrong views.

THr MaNrrrsrArroN or LrcHrs Another light, calledElucidating the Buddha's Words, I obtained by piaising the dharmadhatu.T Another light, called Free from Faults, I obtained by praising superior understanding. Another light, called (Jniversal lllumination of Adornments, I obtained by praising the offering of lamps. Another light, called Forsaking Affection, I obtained by praising meditation and wisdom. Anothcr light, callcd Parting with Habit, I obtaincd by praising thc knowledge of past [states]. Another light, called Free from Attachment, I obtained by praising the wisdom Of the nonarising [of dharmas]. Another light, called Not Falling to Any Plane of Existence, I obtained by praising the wisdom of nondefilement. Another light, called The State of Renunciation, I obtaincd by praising the knowledge of suffering. Another light, called The Buddha's Miraculous Feats, I obtained by praising miraculous powers. Another light, called Transcending Play-Words, I obtained by praising all-knowing wisdom. Another light, called Manifesting Forms, I obtained by praising The power to perform miracles. Another light, called Delight in Spiritual Friends, I obtained by praising the nature of enlightenment. Anothcr light, calledThe Ultimate Exhaustion of the Eye,8 I obtained by praising nonexhaustion. Another light, calledBeing, I obtained by praising nonbeing. Another light, called Indestructible, I o b t a i n e db y p r a i s i n gt h e n a t u r eo f c e s s a t i o n . o Another light, called Limitless, I obtained by praising the unlimited.

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Oru rnr Ltcsr oE tsr TarnAcara Another light, called Formless, I obtained by praising the unconditioned. Another light, called Unvarying, I obtained by praising nondifferentiation. I have a light called Beyond Expression; It can bring all sentientbeings to maturity. I have a light called The Basic Nature of Dharmas; It can shake one million [Buddha-] lands. I have a light called Subduing Dcmons; Its awe-inspiring power can terrorize demons. I have a light called The llanner of Blessing; Onc who holds its name meets no dangers. I have a light called Powerful Banner; One who holds its rtanre Suffersno bittcr antagonism. I have a light callcd Tranquil Banner; One who holds its name has no dcsire. I have a light called The Banr.rerof Dhyina; Onc who holds its narne performs no misdeeds. I havc a light callcd The Banner of Pure Discipline; One who holds its namc breaksno precePts. I havc a light callcd Thc Banner of Wonderful Fragrance; Onc who holds its r-rame Is frec from filth and stench. I havc a light called The Profound l)harma; Onc who holds its name harbors no doubts. I have a light called Nonabidirrg; One who holds its name Is not attachcd to any forn-r of existence. I have a light called Free from I)iscrimination; One who holds its name clings to nothing.

Tsr MaNrresrATroN Lrcsrs or I have a light calledMount Sumeru: One who holds its name cannot be srr'aved. I have a light calledEsoteric Practiccl One who holds its namc has no attachmL'nts. I have a light calledActs of Liberationl One who holds its name is frcc from bonds. I have a light calledWell Subdued; One who holds its name Becomcs gentle and tender. I havc a light called Immovable; One who holds its namc Is not defiled by desire. I have a light cailcd Wcll Disciplined; One who holds its name Observcs thc prccepts pcrfectly. I have a light callcd All Good Dccds; Onc who holclsits namc is defiled by norhing. I have a light calledMuch l3encfit; Onc who holds its name is free from fault. I have a light called Supcrior Knowlcdge; Onc who holds its name is not bewildcrcd. I have a light called Sccking to Benefit ISelf and Others]; C)nc who holds its name harbors no hatred. I have a light calledJoyful Mind; Onc who holds its namc Gains pcaccand happiness. I have a light callcd No -BurningDesire; Onc who holds its name undcrstandsemptir-rcss. I have a light calledEmpty of Self-Entity; Onc who holds its namc Transccnds all play-words') I havc a light called Nor.rreliance; One who holds its name remains unshakable. I have a light called Free from Pcrplexity; ()ne who holds its namc does not vacillate.

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ON rsE LIcnt or rns TarnAcara I have a light called No Abodc; One who holds its name is free from ignorance. I have a light calledWeary of the Body; One who holds its name Does not take rebirth. I have a light calledNo GrasPing; One who holds its name Is not bound by written words. I have a light called No lgnorance; Onc who holds its name Is detachedfrom spoken words. I havc a light called Going Nowhere; Onc who holds its nanle forseesthe future. I have light callcd Reaching all Limits One who holds its name bcholds thc pastlo. I have a light called Frcc from Stain; One who holds its narnc ls not etlveloPed in ciarkilcss. I have a light callcd No Amorous Captivation; Or-rcwho holds its name is apart from reliance. I have a light callcd The Most Honored One; uninlpeded wisdom Onc who holds its name gains. I havc a light called Swift; One who holds its name Becomcsan accomplishedmonk. I have a light callcd Symbolic; Onc who holds its narnc I1 Con-rprehendsthe profor'rnd L)harma. I have a light calledBcyond Symbols; ()ne who holds its narne abandon, arrog"ttce.l2 I have a light callcd Nonarisir.rg; One who holds its name A t t e i r r st h c r t o t t a t t a i t r m e n t . I have a light called Rccollccting Buddhas, Wl.richis'exaltcdby thc Tathagatas. This light I obtained by cultivating Rigl.rtpracticesin many Buddha-lands.

Tnr MaNrrtsrArroN or Lrcsrs The lights emanating from the Buddhas' bodies Are as numerous as the dust-motes In countlessmillions of Buddha-lands, Lands as numerous as the sandsof the sca. Each of these lights, As numerous as those dust-motes, And has a retinue [of lights]. All of them Reach all tsuddhalesslands, Where each is transformed Into a pure body of a Tathagata To expound the subtle, profound Dharma And to establish scnticnt beings in patience. I havc a light called tsuddha; It can lead sentient beings To abide in thc Buddha's path. I have a light called Dharma; Its radiance is clean and pure, Without flaws or taints. I have a light called Sarhgha; It is always acclaimedby -Buddhas, Tathigatas. I have a light called Purity; It is most superb and rare. I have a light callcd Blossom; It can bcncfit and ripen sentient beings. I h a v c l i g h t s c a l l e dB r a h m a , S a k r a , Deva, Moon, Dragon, Yaksa, Asura, Garuda, King, Lady, Girl, and Boy. Each of these various lights Can by wholcsome dharmas Convert those beings designated its namc, by Causing infinite millions of sentient beings To achieveenlightenment. I have lights called Wisdom, Precepts, Kindness,Joy, Compassron, Lamp, Perfume, and Musrc. Each of these lights is named for its function And was achievedby receiving

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ON rrir Lrcsr oE rsl TarsAcara Innumerablescntient beings Into my following. I havc a light callcd Esteem, Praisedby Buddhas, Tathagatas. I achievedit as a result Of cver revering thc Buddha's tcachirrgs. Each porc of the Buddha gives forth lights As numcrous as the scntientbeings rvrthin his sight; And each of theselights is surrounded By its own retinue Iof lights]. Blesscdby thesetsuddha-lights, Sentientbcings are brought to maturity, lvith his inclinations. Each in accordance If onc rcjoices and brir-rgsforth deep aspiratton Upon hearing thcse lights describcd, He must have heard this sutra in past lives In Iother] Buddha-lands. I have a light called Supreme, With a retinue of cighty million [ights]. This I achieved By praising a tsuddha with one versc. I havc a light called Frcc from Worry, With a rctinuc of eighty myriad [lights]. This I achievedby upholding the Dharma Expour.rdedby a Tathagata. I have a light called Utter ['urity, With a retinue of eighty million lightsl. This I achieved By cultivating one samldhi.

In the past appeareda Buddha namcd Supreme, Whosc life span was immcasurable. When he attained enlightenment, Thcrc were eighty myriad people In his first Dharma-assembly. At that time, in the world, There was a king r.ramed Joyful Voice. He had fivc hundred sons,

Tsr MaNrrrsrATroNor Lrcsrs All handson-re, well-formcd, And pleasingto the beholdcr. A man of dignity and authorin', Thc king dccply and joyfullv Bclicved in thc ThrccJcwels. He offered to tsuddha ISupremel All his supcrb, magnificcnt gardens. Out of pity for thc king, his sons, And the others in the asscmbly, 'Sutra Buddha Suprcmc preachedthis of Absolr-rtc Lights. Upon hearing it taught, Thc king was ovcrwhelrned with joy. He chanted countlessvcrses In praiseof that Tathlgata, And offered to him Eighty millior.rwonderful, jewelled canopics. Each canopy was ornamcntcd With pcarls around its nct. The tassels cach canopy were again made of Of eighty million pearls, Lustrous and luminous, Shcdding lights clay and night. Each light rcachcda hundred leagucs And outshoncthc sun anclmoon. At that time, all scnticnt bcings, Even those in thc Akanistha Heaven, Came to the T'athagata's dwelling place To hear this sutra. Upon hearing it taught, Devas, dragons, yaksas,gandharvas, Mahoragas, asuras,and othcrs Were all overwhelmed with joy. They chantedhundrcds of thousandsof verses L.r praise of the Tathagata And brought forth bodhicitta. The devas, dragons, spirits, and asuras, With sincereand purc minds, Showcrcd flowers of the coral tree, pearls, And variousjewels from the sky As offerings to the Buddha. . . .

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ON rnr Lrcnr or rnp TarsAcara You, Moonlight, should know: King Joyful Voice, who made Various offerings to that Tath,gata, Was no other than you [in a previous life]. Since you heard this sutra in the past, You now ask me aboutit onceagain.
r**

Only those who havc pure faith in my teachings Can expound this sutra widely After my parinirvana, when the Dharma-wheel its Is about to cease turning. One who expounds this sutra in thc future Is the protcctor of my Dharma, Just as a good leader of a caravan Is the guardian ofthe valuables. In the coming Last Era, Onc who hears this sfltra And enjoys it at once Should know he is inspired By the tsuddha'sawesome powcrs r And the blessing of Manju5ri. Merely hearing this sutra Is tantamount to meeting many Buddhas, Who bestow upon the hearer Secretinstructions, and wisdom as well. One who is gentle and straightforward, Always makes offerings to Buddhas, Practicesthe teaching of no-sclf, And is kind and paticnt Will delight in this srltr;. One who bearsmalice, Insatiably sccksselfishgains. And has no aspiration for peace and tranquillity Will rrot delight in this sutra. One who makes offerings to Tathagatas, Comprehends the profound, wonderful Dharma, And has pure faith in the tsuddha's true wisdom Will delight in this sutra.

Tns MaNrrr.srArroN Lrcurs or
One who is distractedand impure in mind, Is enslavedby evil passions, Indulges in killing, And is hard to subdue W i l l n o t d e l i g h ti n t h i s s l t r a . One who enjoys living alone in a hermitase V/ith peace of mind, Detached from worldly gain and kinsfolk, Will delight in this sutra. One who follows bad company, Corrupts his own and others' wholesome dharmas, And loses dhyana and precepts Or regressesfrom thcm W i l l n o t d e l i g h ti n t h i s s r l r r a . One who has very pure aspirations. Often obscrves dharmas with wisdom, And is guarded by spiritual friends Will delight in this s[tra. One who is attached l To his friends, kinsmcn, or household members. Providing fruits and Ilowers to pleasethem, And has a mind not straight, but devious, Will not dclight in this sutra. One who always recalls the Buddha's bounty, Cherishes all wonderful good roots, And sincerely dedicatcsthem To the attainmenr of enlightcnment Will delightin this s[tra. If one is infatuated with a woman Who bedecks herself with splendid artire, And longs to play with hcr, He will not delight in this sutra. Onc who is earnest, Relies on nothing, ls not dcfiled by any passions, And never flatters for the sake of food and drink Will delight in this sutra. One who teachessentient beings That carnal desire is not full of faults.

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ON rnr LIcnr or rHs TarnAcara And who slanders the Buddhas Of the past, present,and future Will not delight in this sutra. One who holds fast to his faith and aspiration, Seeksthe Dharma vigorously, And is never weary or negligent Will delightin this sfitra. Onc who is enthralledby women, Always thinks of scx, And does not cultivate rvisdom to bcnefit others Will not dclight in this sutra. One who sits quietly in a mountain grove Attaining purity by cultivating wisdon'r, Without craving for food, clothes, etc., Will delight in this sutra. Onc who is bewildered and docs not understand The past and futurc statcsof the eyer3 Is a fool entanglcd in dcnrons' meshes And will not delight in this sutra. C)nc who clearly understands The past and futurc statcs of the eye Is frccd from demons' meshes And will delight in this srltra. One who is bewildcre'dand docs not understand The existcncc and noncxistence of the eye Is a fool entangledin denrons' meshes And will not delight in this sfitra. Onc who clearly undcrstands The existence and nonexistenccof the eye Is freed from demons' meshes And will dclight in this sutra. One who is bewildered and does not understand The formation and dcstruction of the eye Is a fool entangledin demons' meshes And will not delightirr this sutra. Onc who clearly undcrstands Thc forrnation and destruction of the eye Is frc'ed from demons' meshes And will delight in this sutra.

Tnr MaNrnrsrArioN or Lrcnrs As it is with lthe eycl. So it is with the ear, Nose, tongue, body, and mind; Forms, sounds, sccnts,tastcs, Texturcs. arrd mental objcctsl Earth, watcr, fire, air, substance, and nature: Events, sentient bcings, and suffering; Aggregatesand elcments;. Desire, hatred, ignorance, Conceit, craving, pretensc,and arrogance; jcalousy, flattery, Miscrliness, Deceit, and resentment. One who is bewildered and does not understand Thc ultimate exhaustion of the eyc, Falls to thc level of ordinary men, And will not delight in this sutra. One who clearly undcrstands,without confusior-r, 'l'he ultimate exhaustionof the eye Has riscn above thc actions of ordirrary men, And will dclightirr this strtra. Onc who is bewildercd and does not undcrstand Thc ultimate quiescencc the eye of Falls to tire level of ordinary men, And will not clelight in this sutra. One who clearly urrderstands, without confusion, The ultin-rate quiescencc the eye of Has risen above thc actionsof ordirrary men, A r r d w i l l d e l i g h ti r r t h i s s u t r a . C)ne who is beu'ildcredand does not understand That thc cye does not come or flo Falls to thc level of ordinary mcn, And will not delight in this shtra. One who clearly undcrstands,without confusion. That the cyc does not come or go Has risen above thc actionsof ordinary mcn, A n d w i l l d e l i g h ri n r h i s s r r t r a . ()ne who is bewildered and does not understand Thc nonself of the eye And the-nature of its ultimate exhaustion

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ON rnn Ltcsr or rnr TarnAcara Falls to the level of ordinary men, And will not delight in this sutra. One who clearly understands The nonself of the eye And the nature of its ultimate exhaustion Has risen above thc actionsof ordinary men, And will dclightin this sltra. One who is bewildercd and docs not undcrstand The naturc of the cye's ultimate exhaustion And the eye's emptincss Cannot acquire thc wisdom of dhiranrs And wili not delight in this sutra. One who understands 'lh(r naturc of the eye's ultimate exhaustion Will achieve the wisdom of dharalis, unattachedwisdom, And the peerlcss, will thcrcforc delight in this sutra. And Orre who does not dclight in this sr.rtra And is bewildered 's tsy thc nature of thc cye ultimate exhaustion Will suffer rcgrcssion fron-r dhyirras loss. Or tl-reir It will bc hard for hinr tc'rrealize peerlesswisdom. O n c w h o d c l i g h t si r r t h i s s l t r a And clearly undcrstands f'hc rraturcof tht' cye's ultimate exhaustion Will achieveall dhyanas Ancl easily realizepccrlcsswisdonr. One who diligently pondcrs, day and night, The nature of the eye's ultimate exhaustion W i l l a c h i c v ed h l r a n i s a t t . lc l o q u c n r c And will always be ablc to tcach this sltra. Onc wl-ro mcditates on this srltra And achicvcsthe wisdom of rnaniftstirrglights Will have the Tathagatasrcvcalcdbeforc him And realizethe emptinessof the eyc. erings If or-rcrnakes of-f of For countlessn-rillions kalpas, by lo all the scntictrt beings seer-r tsuddhas,

THr Mar.rrnrsrArroN or Lrcnrs Serving them as Tath-gatas, His merits cannot compare with those of one 'Who acceptsand practicesthis sutra.la Ifone accepts,upholds, and expounds Only a four-line verse of this sutra, He should be revered [by all] As a Supreme, Most Compassionate Lord. For hundreds of thousandsof kalpas, In the three realms of sarhsaric existencc. I made offbrings to Buddhas For thc sake of [hearingl this sr]tra. To master it, somctimes I offered To the Great Tcachers Countlessthousandsof lamps, With wicks as long as a league; Somctimes I offered to Buddhas' stupas Variorrs kinds t-rfllowers, Carlands, barrners, arrd canopies. I fulfilled thc wishes Of those in need: I gave them flowers, frr.rits,garder-rs, and groves; I gavc them bridges, wells, and drinking water; I gavc then-rsnow-white elcphants and unicorns; I gavc thenr precious steedsand beautiful maidens; I gave them gold bcds and jeweled curtains. I practicccl these kinds of giving untiringly, Hundreds of thousandsof times, For thc sake of [hearing] this sltra.

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"ln thc past, for the sake of [hcaring] this sutra, I kept the pure-preccpts, Cultivated meditation and wisdom, And gave charity to senticnt beings. In the past, for the sake of [hearing] this sfitra, I took pity on Villairrs who scolded rue lnstead of harming them.

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ON rnn Lrcnr or rnr TartrAcara In the past, for the sakc of Ihcaringj this sutra, I tulfillcd thc wishes Of thosc who came to ask for favors, And madc thcm happy. . . . Moonlight, you should know: In scarchof this sutra, I have, for innumcrablc kalpas, C u l t i v a t c ds o m a r ) y a u s t e r i t i e s That rro onc could finish countin€ithcm, Evcn in a hundred thousandkalpas. . . If monks and nuns Feel great cnotion ancl shed tears U p o r r h c a r i n gt h i s s u t r . r . Thcy will meet the Most Honored Onc; This I prophcsy. Moonlight, you should know that The Ruddhas, witl-rthcir rniraculuouspowers, 'lhoroughly know thc purity or impurity Of a pcrson's rr-rinrl, Ancl his faith and r.rnderstanding well. as You sl-rouldcxpouncl ttrc unexcelled Dharma With a firm mind, And transrnit this subtlc sr:tra I o t l r , -k i r r d l r c a r t c d . ' Moonlight, you should know: Just as a clever person Can skillfully handle flre To cook various dishes Without being burned by it, Whilc a clumsy fool Burns his palm with the fire; And just as one who becomesstupefiedand derangcd Aftcr taking poison Can be cured Cy burning out the poisorr with fire1sSo it is witl.r the wisc. tly means of tl-remind, They realize that the mind is cnlpty, So they are able to abide ir-rsari-rsara. By means of the eye, -fhis,

,

Tsr MaNrrrsr.{rroN or Lrc;trts Thcv rcalizc tl-rattl-reeyc is voic1, And do not attach thenrselves it. to If onc knou's this truth, Hc can usc his eyes Without afllictions. By rcalizing thc cnrptiness thc cvc. of Onc can achievetruc wisdom, And thereby can cnrarlate Ivarious] lights. C)ne u'ho realizes the enrptincss the c1'rof Can eradicatedcsircslbrcvcr; Frec of dcsirc, Hc can cmanatc various ligl-rts. As it is with desirc, So it is with hatrcd, Ignorance, clinging to the.ego, Prctensc,distrcss,avaricc, intole'rance, Jealousy,shamelcssncss, (lorrceit, pride, arrogancc, Flattery, deccit, sclf-indulgencer, Fraudulcncc,and so forth. One who acquirestruc rvisclom W i l l r c a l i z ct h c c y c ' s u l r i m a r eq r r i e s c c r r c t ' . And will thcn bc rblc to enranatclights. Onc who acquires truc rvisdor-n Will abiclcin thc essencc thc tsuddha-l)harma of And will then bc ablc to cmanatc lights. Onc rvho acquircstruc wisdom Will abidc in thc Br:dclha's ingcnuity, Ancl will thcn bc able to cmar-rate l'ights. Ncver havc I seenanyorre Ablc to cmar-rate lights Who has not crrltivatcdtrue lvisdonr And Ithcre'by] lrcccl himself frrrcver From hinclrances and afflictions. Onc who cultivatestrue wisdonr u'ith cliligcnce W i l l t i c c h i m s e l ft b r c v e r From hindrancesand afflictiorrs; Hc who contplies r,vith tl-rispracticc C)anernanate' ligirts.

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ON rue Lrcsl or rsl TarsAcara To seek the supremc practice, One should study this sfitra And make offcrings to Tathagatas; and ingenuity. Then one will acquire true vn'isdom ()nc who knows not T h e u l t i m e t c r ' 'n a t u r co f t h e e y ' c Cannot know the ultimate Inaturcl Of the arising of the eye. He is not olle Who can cnanate lights. . . . The samc is truc With the ear, nosc, tonguc, body, and minci; Forrns, sounds, sccllts,tastcs, Textnres, and mcntal objccts; ." Earth, water, fire, :urd air.

At that time, young Moonlight, having hcard the Dharma explained, fclt hc greatjoy. In the presenccofthc tsuc1dha, praiscd the Tathagatain verse: "The Tath-gata can display his pure wisdom thc ultirlatc cxhaustiottof the eye. Ilccauschc realizes tscing ablc to display purc wisdom, purc lights. Hc is cndowed with the lJucldha'sl7 Thc Tathagatacan utter purc voiccs he that the cyc has no self. l3ccausc understancls I l e i n g a b l et o u t t c r P u r cv o i c e s . He is endowed with the lluddha's perlcct voices. Thc Buddha can utter pure spcech Ilecausehe has benefitcd sentientbeings. With thc ability to utter pure specch, IIc can bcncfit innunrerable rvorlds. The Tathtgata can achicvcthc wisdom of dhtratli he that the eye lJecause realizers Is empty by naturc. lleing ablc to achievcthc wisdom of dharanr, Hc can nranifestthe Buddha's infinite lights. The-Tathagataknows the variationsof differcrrtcycs And thcir unlirnited, varied nar-nes. nanles, Knowing countle-ss Hc can emit the Buddha's infinitc iights.

THr MaxrnrsrArroN or Lrcurs Knowing the varietiesof words and languagcs, The tsuddha realizesthat the eye Is empty and beyond words. Thereforc, he can emit the Buddha's int'initelights. If one ponders That the eye is devoid of sell, He will kr.row that the Buddha speaksthc truth: One who knows that the Buddha speaksthe truth Can manifest the Tathagata'sabsolutelights. Having achievedthe supremc miraculous powcrs, The Tathigata realizes the destruction Of infinitc numbcrs of cycs. Bcing ablc to rcalizc the destructionofeyes, He can benefit all worlds. Thc Suprcrncly Honorcd One among humans and gods, T h e O r r e o f g r e a tc o r r r p a s s i o n . T h o r o r r g h l yr c a l i z c s h c a r i s i r r g , t Of infinite numbers of eyes. May I, too, soon rcalizc thc cyc's arising, I I A s t h e R r r d d h ad o c s . So rnay it be with the ear, Nose, tongue, body, and mind; Forms, sounds, scents, Tastes,textllres, and mental objccts. . . . l'he Supremely Honored One among humans and gods, T h e ( ) n e o f g r e a tc o m p a s s i o n . Has attained the paramita of giving. May I soon attain thc ptramitt o(iuitrg; As the Buddha has. The Supremely Honored One among humans and gods, The one of grcat conrpassion. Has attainedthe paramiti of pure discipline. May I soon attain the paramitl of pure disciplir-re, As the Buddha has. Thc Supremely Honored One among humans and gods, The One of grcrt conrpassion, Has attained the paramita of patience. May I soon attain the peramitt of patience, As the Buddha has. ','

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ON rur LrcHr or rsr TarsAcara The Supremely Honored One among humans and gods, T h e o n c o f g r c a tc o m p a s s i o n . Has attainedthe paramiti of vigor, May I soon attain the paramita of vigor As the Buddha has. The Supremely Honorcd Onc among hurnansand gods, T h e O n e o f g r e a tc o m p a s s i o n . Has attainedthe piramita of dhyana. May I soon attain the paramiti of dhvaua, As the Buddha has. The Supremely Honored One among humans and gods, T h c O n c o f g r c a tc o n r p . r s s i o r r . Has attainedthe paramita of wisdom. May I soon attain the paramiti of wisdom, As the Buddha has. The Supremely Honored Onc among humans and gods, T h e L ) n e o t ' g r e a tc o m p a s s i o n , Has attainedthe perlcct Dharma-body. May I soon attain thc pcrfcct Dharma-body, As thc Buddha has. Thc Sr.rprcmcly Honorcd One among humans and gods, 'fhc One of grcai compassiorr, Is er-rdowed with infirrite, pure fornrs.l8 M"y I, too, soon acquirepure forms, As the Buddha has. Thc Suprcmcly Honorcd Onc among humans and gods, Thc Onc of grcat cornpassion, Has achievedthe pure, limitless mind. May I soon acquire the same pure nrirrd As the Buddl.rahas. Thc Suprcrncly Honorcd Orrc arnong humans and gods, T h c ( ) n c o f g r c a tc o n r p a s s i o n . Can utter inflnrte, pure voices. May I soon attain thc sarncpurc voiccs As the tsuddha has. Thc Suprcrncly Honorcci Onc among humans and gods, Tlre Onc of grtat conrplssiorr. Accomplishes infinite, grcat, niraculous fcats. May I soon accomplishthc sarncfcats As the Buddha does.

. ..

Tsr MaNrrrsrATroNor Lrcsrs The Suprcnely Horrored Onc anronq hunratrsand gods, The Onc of great compassr.orl, l)wells in thc three realms of c'xistctrcc In ordcr to convert scllticnt bcings. May I soon collvert scnticnt beings, As the Iluddha docs. The Suprcmcly Honored Oue among hunratts.rnd qods. T h c O r r e o f g r c . r tc o m p a s s i o r . Has transcendcd thc countlessdeedsofsarhslra. May I, too, sooll transccndthose deeds, As the Buddha has. Having transcended desire, Thc Tcachcr bcnefits all "vorlds. Miiy I, too, achicvcthe wisdorn To bcncllt all worlds, As the lluddha docs. hatred Iand igr-rorancc], Having transcended The Teacher benefitsall worlds. May I, too, achievethe wisdom To beneflt all worlds, As the Buddha does. With surpassingwisclorn, 'fhc Tathigat:r knorvs clcarly All karmic resultsof thc world. May I also achicvc such wisclom To bcncfit all worlds. wisdonr, With surpassing Thc Tathigata knows clcarly All tlrc particular raturcs Of all things irr thc worlcl. May l, too, achicvcsuch wisdonr 'I'o benefit all u.orlds. wisdon-r, With surpassing The Tathagataknows clcarly the modes of practicc Leading to various plancsof cxistcncc. May I, too, achievesuch wisdom To bcncfit all worlds. With surpassingwisdom, Thc Tathagataknows clearly The various dispositionsof all bcings.

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C)N rsr LrcHr or rr]E TaruAcara Ma,v I, too, achievesuch wisdom To benefit all worlds. With surpassing wisdom, The Tathagataknows clcarly Thc practicc of mc'ditatiol. May I, too, achievcsuch wisdom To bcncfit all worlds. wisdorn, With surpassing The Tathagataknows clcarly T h c p r a c t i c co f l i b e r . r t i o r r . May I, too, achicvesuch wisdom To benefit all worlds. . . . ' I h c l a r h a g a r ac a l i z c s h a t b y n a t r r r c r t All dharmas arc like illusions, drcams, and mrrages. May I, too, achievesuch wisdom To benefit all worlds. I The Tathagatathorougl-rlyunderstancis All cor-rvcntional words, written and spokenMay I, too, :rchicvcsuch wisdom To benefrt all worlds. g W i t l r s ur p . r s s i r rc l o q u c n c t ' . The Tathagatarevealsthc ;rrofound, srrbtleI)harrna May I, too, achievesuch wisdom To bencfit all worlds. Thc Tathagata'sbody, speech,and mind Are weil subducd; He acts on wisdonr alone, May I, too, achievesuch wisdom To bcne-fitall worlcls. Knowing well thc three phases tinre,, of The Tatl-ragata.is frcc From grasping, attachment,and hindrances. May I, too, achievesuch wisdom To benefit all worlds. . . Thc Tathigata knows the whole world thoroughly, And seesclearly all plarres existence. of May I, too, achievethe wisdonr f'o know thcsc rcalms without doubt.

TnE MnNrrrsrArroN or Lrcnrs Fully realizing the ultimate exhaustion Of [the dharmas'] arising, The Tathagatais not perplexedat it. May I, too, achievethe wisdom To know such truth without doubt. Fully realizing quiescence, The Tathagatais not perplexcd at it. May I, too, achievethe wisdom To know quiescence without doubt. Fully rcalizing the flux of sarirsara, The Tathigata is not perplexedat it. May I, too, achievethe wisdom To know the flux of sarhsSra without doubt. Fully knowing thc past and future states, Thc Tathagatahas attaincd self-taughtwisdom. May I, too, achieve the wisdon-r To know the past and future stateswithout doubt. Fully rcalizing transmigration, The Tathigata has attainedself-taughtwisdom. May I, too, achicvc rhc wisclonr To know transmigration without doubt. Fully knowing the past and future statcs 'I'hc'l'athagata docs not hold To a nihilistic or eternalisticlviewl of tl.reeye. May I, too, achicvcthe wisdom To know thc past and future stateswithout doubt. . . . If onc docs not understand The past and future states, He is doomed to be fetteredby desire. Since tlre Tathigata realizes Thc past and futurc states, He is not defiled by desirc. If one does not understandbcing and nonbcing, He is door.rredto be fettered by desire. Since the Tathlgatr realizcs thcm both, He is not defiled by desrre. lf one docs not understand and nonexhaustion. Ultimate exhaustior-r

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216

ON rrrr Lrcur ornrr

TarnAcara

Hc is doomcd to be fcttered bv dcsire. Sincethc Tathlgata rcalizesthcnr both, He is not defiled by dcsire. ." At rhat time, knowing young Moonlight's earncst thouchts, the !ilorldHorored onc smiled graciously a'd shed a golden light u'hich illun'ri'atcd i'nurncrable Buddha-lands, and, after rcndcring bcncfit to thenl all, circled thc Buddha threc timcs and entcred thc top of his hcad. Thcreupo', Bodhisattva Maitrcya rose from his seat, barcd his right shouldcr, kr-rcltupo' his right kncc, bor"'ed with his head at the Buddha's fcct, thcn joi.cd his palms reverc'tly and spokc ir-rversc, praisir-rg Buddha and questioninghinr: thc ". . . The Tath5gatarvill take no further birth; He embraccsall rvorids with grcat compassron. May the Dhrrma king, The Supremely Honorcd One of rncn, Tell us why hc smilcd. Now, innumcrablc great IJodhisattvas And many au'e-inspiringgods Are all in thc air holding wonderful canopres, Whilc the great earth is shaking. In thc presence past Tathigatas, of 'Who practiccd wholesome l)harmas in thc long night? May the impartial, dclightful Lord ol- grcf,t compJssiol') Tell us why hc srnilecl. Who in the past madc offerings to rhe tsuddhas And rejoiced at hearing this tcachingcxpoundcd? May the Teacher, thc Supremcly Honorcd One of men Tcll us why he smiled. . . . The Supren-rely Honorcd One among humans and gods, The L)rreof grcat courpassion, Fully knows thc wishcs of sentier-rt bcrngs. He has obtaincd thc wonderful, unimpcded eloqucncb. May he tell us why hc snrilcd. The Tathigata has reachcdthe other shore; Hc is cndowed V/ith thc three insightsle And the six miraculous powers, And he manifesrsinfinite, pure lights. May he tcll us why he smiled.

Ttrr MaNtrrsrATIONor Ltcttrs Thc lluddha, for inrmcasurablckalpasin the past, Servedand made offcrings To hundreds of thousandsof World-Honorcd Oncs. Such decds do not go unrequited. May he tcll us why hc sn'riled. kalpasin thc past. The Buddha, for imnreasurable Abided in subtlc, wondcrful samidhis; thc arising And he realizes And ultimatc exhaustionof the eye. May hc tell us rvhy he snriled. Thc Grcat Teacherknows evcrything lrr the p.rst.prcscut. arrd [ururel His purc wisdom is uninrpededand inconceivable. May he tcll us why hc srnilcd."

217

arnid thc asscmbly, thc World-Honorcd Onc strokcd Moonlight's head with his golden-huedhand and then spoke in verse: "Lacl, listcn carcfully! I now entrust you With this tc:rchirrg cnlightcnnrcnt, of Thc Shtra of thc Manifcstation oi Lights, So that in tl-relater depravedage, When thc Dharna is about to perish, You m:ry rcvcal and cxpouncl it to scnticnt bcings. N u m b c r l c s sk a l p a sa g o , Thcrc u'as r ljr,rclclha namecl Diparhkara. I, as thc rsi Mat,avaka, ()flercd flowcrs to him. Thereupon, he prophcsicd That I would beconrea -tsuddha namcd Sikyamuni And would sit at thc I)harn-ra-site To expound this sfitra. You wcrc thcn a boy. Hcaring thc prophccy about my future, You felt joy, and becamepure in mind. You vowcd r'"'ithpalns.1oined, 'If Mirlavaka bccomcs a Buddha, I w i l l . r s s i sh i r r r i n p r e r c h i n g . t And will protcct and uphold his Dharma After his parinirvana.'

'l'hercupon,

21u

ON rnE Llcnr or rur TarsAcara When Diparhkara Buddha explained Thc Sltra of the Manifestationof Lights, Both Manavaka and the boy Listened, and held it dear. Once, in the past, I offered blue lotus flowers to that Buddha. You were prescnt on that occasion. Ancl vowed to acccptand uphold this sutra And preach and circulateit u.idclv In thc Last Era of nry l)harma. One who, r.rponhcaring this doctrinc. Does not fcel avcrsion, But acccpts,upholds, reads,and recitesit Is indeed a man of virtuc. You should in later agcs Uphold this scldom-heardteaching And clucidatcits rneaning widcly F o r a l l s c n t i c r rb c i n g s - . " t

When thc Workl-Honorcd C)nc finishcd teachingthis sutra, the boy Moonlieht and evcrvonLr thc asscnrbly,inch,rdingthe gods, hurnans, asuras,gandharirr las, and so forth in thc *'orlcl, were all jubilant over the tsuddha'stcaching. They acceptcdit with faith arrd began to practicc it with veneration.

NOTES
1 . A r n o n g t h c t n ' e n t y - t w o s u t r a s p r c s c n t c c li n t h i s v o l u m c , " T h e M a n i f e s t a t i o n o f Lights" is perhaps the most difficult onc to cornprchcncl. Thc central question concerns the r n e a n i n go f t h r s s o - c a l l e dl i g h t . I s i t s i m p l y a k i n d o f l u m i n o u s e n t i t y s u c h a s r a y s o r b e a n r so f light, or is it spiritualillurninatron-the mysticallight rcportcd by many meditators? o give T a n c x a c t a n s w c r i s c l i f f i c u l t . N o t i c c a b l y , t h c l i g h t s t r e a t e di n t h i s s u t r a a p p e a rt o d e n o t ea l l t h e d y n a m i c a s p e c t s f t s u d c l h a h o o d i,. e . , S a r i r b h o g a k a y a n d N i r m t r l a k i y a ; a l l n . r e r i t s n d f u n c o a t i o n s o f T a t h a g a t a h o o d a r e e x p r e s s e d n t e r m s o f l i g h t . l n f a c t , a l l t h e e s s e n t i ap r i n c i p l e s o f i l M a h - i r i n a B u d d h i s m s e e n l t o b e e x p r e s s e dn t e r n r s o f t h i s l i g h t . i " I n a b r o a c l s c n s c ,w c r n a y a s s o c i a t c m y s t i c a l L g h t " w i t h t h e D h a r m a k a y a . H o w e v e r , rhe lights clcscribcd in this sthtraarc not of the Dharmakaya, but of the Rupakaya ('bodv of f o r n r ' ) , w h i c h i s t h e f r u i t o r d y n a m i c n r a n i f e s t a t i o n f D h a r m a k a y a .T h e " r n y s t i c a ll i g h t " c a n o b e r e g a r d e d a s p r e l i m i n a r y t o a t t a i n n l e n t o f D h a r r n a k - y a , u ' h e r e a st h c l i g h t o f R u p a k 5 y a i s \ r ' q u e n t t o i t . T h i s , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t i n a n y s e n s eu n d e r r a t el ) h a r n r a k a y a ,f o r t h c d y n a m i c h q h t s o f R u p a k a y a c a n o n l y b e b r o u g h t l o r t h t h r o u g h t h e r c a l i z a t i o no f e m p t i n e s s ,a s i s . l c r r l v s t a t e di n t h i s s u t r a . ( ( 1 . C . )

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219

2 . T h i s m a y a l s o b e t r a n s l a t e da s ' D c c i s i v e L i g h t ' , o r ' C c - r t a i n L i g h t . ' 'Light' 'cvcnt'. is mcant lt is obviouslv a tcxtual error. 3 . T h e C h i n c s c t e x t r e a d sS , here. 4. 'Clouds'here doesnot refer to thc clouds in the skr'. It is a common ternr in sutrJs m , t o d c s c r i b ep r o f u s i o n , h u g e n e s s b o u n t i f u l n e s s , u l t i t u d c . l a r e e q u a l r t i t y , g a t h e r i n g ,a c c u m u lation, and so forth. 5. Since mind and body are interrelated, psychological tirnctions can alfcct the body a n d v i c e v e r s a . A n g e r c a n p r o d u c c b a d p h y s i c a l e f f e c t s ;k i n d n c s s ( i . e . , t o b e s t o w j o y u p o n others) can producc beneficialand purifying eflects on thc bodr. Hence, b-v cultivating k i n d n e s si t i s h e l d t h a t o n e a u t o m a t i c a l l yp u r i f i e s t h e m i n d - b o d v c o r n p l c r . ( G . C . ) ( r . R e a l i z a t i o no f e m p t i n e s sa n d u n d c r s t a n d i n go f t h e l a w o f k a r n r r a r e i n t e r d e p e n d c t r t . H e r c , b y r e v e a l i n g t h e k a r r n i c p r i n c i p l e t o t h e w o r l d , i t i s i m p l i e d t h a t o n e s r c a l i z a t i o no f e m p t i n e s si s e n h a n c e d . 7 . T h e T a t h 5 g a t au t t e r s t r u t h f u l w o r d s , w o r d s f r c c o f d e c e p t i o n ,* o r c l s i n a c c o r d r n c e h b w i t h s u c h n c s s , e c a u s e i s w i s d o r n i s n o o t h e r t h a n r e a l i z a t i o no f t h c d h a r m a d h i t u . o 8 . T h e u l t i r l a t e e x h a u s t i o r r f c o n d i t i o n e dd h a r m a s ,e . g . , t h e c y c , r e l e r s t o t h e s t a t eo f This is acconrplishedb1' cultivating attachmcnt to clharrnas. thorough libcration tiom sarirsaric thc unclerstanding and rcalization of the unconditioned dharmas such as emptiness and dependent llcncration. These unconditioned dharmas constitute not a dead void, nor an annihilation of things, but rathcr thc nonclinging, lacking in self-naturc, inexhaustible flow of events in the mtrltidimcnsional dharmadhatu. 9 . C e s s a t i o no f - t h c c a u s co f s u f G r i n g ; i . e . , t h e s t a t eo f n i r v a n a . t 1 0 . O n e w h o g o e s n o w h c r c a n d r c a c h c sa l l l i m i t s t r a n s c e n d s h c l i m r t s o f t h c t h r e e phasesof tirnc; thcrelore, he beholds the past and foreseesthe future. 1 1 . t s u d d h i s ts a g c sw c r c k c c n l y a w a r e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c eo f s y m b o l s , t h r o u g h w h i c h a rnalor portion of Dharma teaching is understood. This becomcs especially evident in thc doctrincsofTantrism. 1 2 . ( ) n e w h o n a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g a t t a i n a b l ei n e m p t i n e s si s a r r o g a n t , while one with true realization seesnothing attainablc in cmptiness and is naturally lree lrom arrogancc. 1 3 . H c r c , a s i n o t h e r p l a c e st h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t , t h e d i s c u s s i o no f t h e e y e i s o n l y a n examplc which can also be applied to the ear, nose, etc., and all conditioned dharmas, as e x p l a i n c db c l o w olferings, 14. No matter how innumerablc arc thc scnticnt beings to whom one q.rakes thc merits of such decds arc finite, but those who truly practice this sitra can realize suchn e s s ,a n d t h u s l y a c q u i r c i n f i n i t e m e r i t s . 15. Perhaps refers to moxibustion or cautcrization. 1 ( r .L i t e r a l l y , " l i m i t . " 17. Literally, "Tathigata's," here and below. 18. Seems to refer to thc purc, pcrfcct Sarirbhogakiya, the bod,v of iorrn. See Numcrical Glossary,"three bodiesof the Buddha." 19. The three insights: first, the insight of past lives, w'ith which one knows the past livcs of sclf and others; second, the insight ofbirth and death (otherrvise called the insight of the deva-eye), with which one knows the conditions of future births and deaths oF self and others; third, the insight of nondcfilcmcnt, with which one knows one's present suffering and knows whether all his dcfilements are ended.

N
On Consciousness

12 ^*ffiffitrs
The Elucidation Consciousnessl of

Thus have I heard. Once the World-Honorcd One rvas dwelling in the bamboo grove of ElclerKaranda, in thc grcat city of Rijagrha, togcthcr with twelve hundred fifty great monks r,r'ho were all Arhats. These monks had crrdcd thcir dcfilefi1ents arld were no longer subject to afflictions. Thcy had acquircd ease and achievedliberation front passions and from igrrorancc.They perccivcdthc past, the prescnt,and thc future without hindrancc.These grcat dragonsl had, in accordancc with thc Buddha's tcaching, dorrc what they had sct our to do and abandonedthe great burden [of sarirsara]. Thcy had gaincd bencfit fbr themselves.They had already freed thernselvcs from thc sr,rtTcrings caused by cxistcnce in sarhsara. By thc power of right wisdor-n,tl-reykncw wcll scrrtientbeings' propcnsities.These ;., g r e a tS r a v e k a s e r e l e d b y E i d c r S a r i p u r r l . w Also in the asser-nbly were innurncrablcBodhisattva-Mahasattvas. At thrt rinre, at the dwelling placc of thc World-Honorcd C)ne, most of the monks felt tirecl and lcthargic. Thcy looked listlessand could not dcport thenrselvesproperly. Thereupon, thc face of the World-Hor-rorcdOnc beanredlikc an opened lotus ll<>wcr. All the monks then becamc ftully alvakc ancl straightcned themselves up with dignity. They thought, "Now thc Buddha, thc WorldHonorcd ()r-re,en-ritsbright light fror-n his Iacc. What Dharnra will he rcach ro beneflt Iser-rtient beingsl greatly?" At that time, Wise Protcctor, a yourh, . joincd his palnrs rcspcctfully, borvcd down with his l-read the Buddha's fcet, and said to hin-r,"World-Honored at Onc, you always takc pity on all scnticr-rt beings and hold thenr ir.rvour cmbracc and protection. I wish to ask a few qucstions.May thc World-Hor-rorcdOne grant me permission."

Sutra39, Taisho347,pp. 178-186; translated Clhinese Divikara. into by

tf

1

ON CoNscrousNrss

Thc tsuddha said to Wisc Protector, "Your rcqucst is granted. You may Frcscnt your doubts and I will answcr them with detailcdcxplanations." Wise Protector asked the tsuddha, "World-Honorcd ()nc, although scnricnt bcings know that consciousness exists,they cannot undcrstandit thoroughly ifit is not cxplained clcarly,just as no onc knows that tl-rere a rrcasureif it is lockcd up is in a box. World-Honoreci One, what fornr docs tl-re consciousncss assume? Why is it called consciousncss? Whcn scntient beings arc dying, thcv franticallyjcrk their hands and li:ct, thcir cyes change color, thcv arc constrictcd and cannot move ticcly, thcir scnse-organs function no lnorc, and tl-rcirIfcrurl clcrncntsdisintegrate. After the consciousness lcavcs thc boclv, rvherc docs it go? What is its sclfnaturc? What form docs it takc on? Hou,' does it lcave thc old bodv to reccivc a new body? Hor.v can it leave onc body hcrc, and, taking all thc:cn:c-llcldst rvith it, bc born agair-r and again in various other bodics to undcrgo karnric results? Worlci-Honored Onc, how can scnticnt bcings prodr.rcc senseorsans agair.r alter thcir bodics dccay and clisiutegrate? How carl one bc rcu'ardcd in future lives tbr meritorious deedsperformed in this lifc? How can a futurc body cnjoy thc rcs'ards of meritorious actiolls perfornrcd by thc prcscnt body? How can thc consciousness r-rourished bc and grow in the body? How can the consciousness changc ancl rnodify itsclf in a c c o r d . u r cw i t h t h c b o d y ? " ' c 'l'hc IJucldhaanswcrcd, "Marvelous, marvelous!Wisc Protector, your qLrcstions arc cxccllcnt. Listcn attcntivcly and think wcll about this. I will explain it to you." Wisc Protector said to thc Buddha, "Yes, World-Honored One, I will acccpt your teaching with rcspcct." Thc l3r"rddha told Wisc Protcctor, "The consciousuess ntoves and turns, transmigratcs5 and cxpircs, arrdcorrres anclgocs likc thc u'ind. Wind has no color or shape and is irrvisible, yet it cen [gcncratc and] stir up things and causethcm to take or.r ditTerent shapcs. It r-r-ray shakc trccs so violcntly that they brcak or split u,ith a loud crack. It nray toucl.r scnticnt beings' bodics with cold or heat and makc them fbel pain or pleasurc. "Thc wind has no hands, no feet, no face, no cyes, and no sl-rapc; is not it black, white, yellow, or red. Wisc Protcctor, the sanrc is truc of consciousness. Conscicusncssis without color, shapc, or light,6 and cannclt be manifestcd. It shows its various functions only when Iproper] causcs and conditions arc met. The samc is true of the elc:ments t-eeling, of awarcncss, and dharnras.rThcsc clcments, too, are devoid of color and sh:rpc:rncl dependon [propcr] causcs and conditions to display thcir functions. "Wisc Protcctor, when a senticntbcirrg dics, the elements of lccling, awarencss, and dharmas, togcthcr with corrscioi:sness, lcavc thc [old] body. Taking all the elementsof feeling, awareness, ar-rd dharnraswith it, thc consciousness born is . r q a i nr n a n e w b o d y . "As ar-r illustration, when the wind passcs ovcr cxquisite flowcrs, the flowers

TnE ErucroarloN oF CoNsr;rctusNrss remain where thcy arc, whilc thcir fragrancespreadstar and widc. Tl-resubstancc of the wind docs not takc in a fragranccof thc cxquisite1'lo.,vers. substanccs The of thc fragrance,the wind, end thc org.ln of touch* havc-neithe shapcnor color, but r the fragrancc cannot sprcad far away without the pou'er of the lvind. Wisc Protector, in thc samc way, aftcr a sentient being dies. his consciousncss will take birth again togcthcr with thc clements of feeling, a\\'arcr)css. and dharmas. Accompanied by the elementsof feeling, awarcncss, and dharnras.the consciousness is rcincarnatcdthrough [thc union of] its parents, r.','ho arr' thc conditior-rs its of rebirth. "By virtue of Isweet] flowers, the nosesmellsfragrance; virtuc of thc sense bv of smell, thc fragrancc is cxpcricnced;by virtue of a wind, \\'e sec and f ccl thc effect of the wind, whose powcr spreads the fragrance far and s'ide . Sir-nilarlr., liorn thc consciousncss comcs fccling; fronr feeling conlcs awarcncss: trorn awarcnesscome dharmas;and as a result, one can tell good from evil. .') "Wise Protcctor, when a sentientbeing dies at thc exhalrstionof his karrnic results[for that lifel, his consciousness still bound by karmic hindrances.lAt thc is nloment of death,] the consciousness leavesthc body and its elementsto takc birth in anothcr body, just as thc consciousness an Arhat who has entcredthc dhyina of of ultimate quiescence disappears lrom his body. However, by the powcr of nrcmory, the consciousness knows both thc idcntity of thc clcceased and all hc has clonc in lifc, which occur clearly to thc dying pcrson and prcss him mcntally anclphysically. "Wisc'Protector, what is the'mcaning of consciousncss? Consciousness thc is seedwhich carrbrirrg fbrth the sprout of various bodily fornrs as a rcsult of karma. Pcrception,awarcness, conception,and mcmory are all comprisedin the consciousucss, so th:rt it can tcll joy frorn pain, good from cvil, and wholcsonc statesfrom unwholcsorr.rc oncs. For this rcason.it is calledconsclousness. "You ask how the consciousncss lc-avcs thc body and Itakc-s birth] again to undergo other karmic results. V/ise Protcctor, the consciousness movcs into a bodl' as a faceappears a mirror, or as the lettersofa sealrevealthcnrsclvcs thc in irr mud. Whcn thc surr riscs, darkncss disappearswhercvcr thc sunlight reaches. the sun setsand there is no light, darkncssrcappears. Wher-r I)arkncss has no fornr or substancc,and is ncither permanent nor impernrar"rent; is nou'here to be it fbund. Tl-resame is true of consciousncss: is devoid of form and substancc. it r'ct it manifcstsitsclf by fcclings and conceptions.Thc consciousness the bods is just in like the substance darkness;it cannot be sccn or grasped. of "A rnothcr cannot know whether the baby shc has conccivedis a bov or a girl; black-, white-, or yellow-skinncd; with complete or inconrpleteorgans;with wcll-ftrrmcd or dcformcd organs;or whether its hands, feet, ears,and eyesresemble hers. Whcn the mother eats or drinks something hot, horvever, her baby moves [in her won-rbl and she feelspain. Similarly, scrlticnt bcings come and go, bend and stretch, look arrd wink, talk and laugh, carry heavy burdcns, and do

226

ON CoNscrousNlss

other things. Through theseactivitiesthe consciousness manifestsitself, but no one can tell exactlv where it is except that it is in thc body, and no one knows what it looks like. "Wise Protector, the consciousness, its self-nature,11)pervades in everywhere [in the body] but is not tainted by any part. Although it dwells in thc six scnscand the five aggregates organs, the six sense-objects, which are defiled, it is not stainedby any of them; it only functions through them. "Wise Protector, a wooden puppet strung up somewhcrc can give a varicty of performances, such as walking, prancing, .1umping, throwing, playing, and dancing. What do you think? By whose power can the wooden puppct do so?" Wise Protector said to the Buddha, "l an not intclligent enough to know the answer." The tsuddha told Wise Protector, "You should know that it is by the powcr of the puppeteer. The puppeteeris out of sight; only the opcration of his intelligencecan be seen.Similarly, the body does everything by thc power ofconsciousness. Rsis, gandharvas,dragons, gods, humans, asuras,and other bcings in the various planes of existence all depend on the power of cor-rsciousness act. The to body is cxactly likc thc woodcn puppet. Consciousness devoid of form and is substance,but it upholds all in the dharmadhttullr it is fully etrdowed with the power of wisdom and can even know eventsof past lives.12 "Sunlight impartially illumir.ratcscvildocrs and such filthy things as stinking corpseswithout being taintedby thcir foulncss.Sirnilarly,consciousness may reside in a pig, a dog, or a being of another n.riscrablc plane who eats dirty food, but is stainedby none of them. "Wise Protector, alter leaving thc body, the consciousness Itakesbirth againl with its good and evil karm:rs to undergo othcr karmic rcsults. The wind becomes fragrant if it cntcrs a grovc of lragrant campakaflowersl-tafter coming out of a deep valley. However, if the wind passes through a stinking, dirty placewhere there are cxcrcmcnt and corpscs, it catchesan offensive smcll. If the wind passesthrough a placc which is pcrmcatcd with both a fragrant odor and an of-fensiveone, it carries good and bad odors at the same tirne, but the stronger of the two prcdominatcs. The wind is devoid of form or substancc.Fragranceand stench, too, have no shape' however, the wirrd can carry both fragrance and stench far away. The consciousnesstakes good and evil karmas with it from one body to anothcr to undcrgo diffcrcnt karmic rcsults. 'Just as a person who is dreaming seesmany images and events without knowing that he is lying asleep,so, when a blesscd,virtuous pcrson is dying and his consciousness departs,he is peacefuland unaware [ofhis deathl; he passes away fearlessly as if he were dreaming. "Thc consciousncss docs not leavefrom the throat or any other orifice.laNo one knows where it departsor how it goes out." The Elder Wise Protector bowed down with his head at the Buddha's feet and asked him, "World-Honored Onc, the egg-shell of hen, a goose, or the like is

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227

gct airtight all around rvhen thc egg has not hatched.Hou' can the consciousncss into it? If the embryo dies in thc egg and the egg-shclldocs not break, how can thc get corrsciousncss out of the egg-shell,wl-richhas no opening at all?" Thc Buddha ansu'ered,"Wisc Protector, aftcr bcing pcrfunred by campaka flowcrs, castorl5beansyicld a fragrant oil callcd campakaoil. u'hich smclls rnuch bettcr than ordinary castor oil. By itself, castor oil is not tr.rgrantl it becomcs havc been perfumed bv canrpak:rflolvers. The fragrant only bccauscthe bear"rs fragrancedoes not get into or out of the beansby breaking thcnr. Thor-rehit is in thc oil, the fragrancc has rro form or substance.It is the [-.on'crof causesand conditions that moves thc fragranccinto the oil to makc it aronratic. Lr thc samc of way, the consciousncss a chickcn or gosling cntcrs and lcavcs thc eqq. "The consciousncss trannligratcs [into a ncw body] iust as thc sr.rnshcds light, as a pearl shincs, or as wood produccs firc. lTransrnigrationl is also likc thc sowing of a seed.After a sceduncicrgocs trlnsformation in thc soil, sprouts. stems, -fhcn comc flowcrs of various colors, such as r.vhrteor red, and leavescmerge. manifcsting a varicty of powcrs and sccntsat nraturity. "This sar-r-re great earth provides l-lutrients composed of all the four clements to nourish plants, but diff-crentsecds will producc diffcrcnt crops. In thc sanrc way, from the same consciousness that upholds the entire dharmadhitu come all thc sarirsaric bcings with bodies of difftrcnt colors, such as white, black, yellow, such as !{cntlcncss rncl irascibility.r'' and rccl; and with cliffi:rcntclispositions, "However, Wise Protector, consciousness no hands, no fcet, no nlemhas bers, anclno languagc. " T l t c p o r v c r o f t t t c t t t o r yi s v e r y s t r o r r gi n t h e d h a r r r r a d h a t u . l ' s o l r c n t h c w conscrousncss lc;rvcs a scnticnt bcing's bocly at his dcath, it conrbincs lvith the power of memory to become the seedof his r-rext life. Apart from conscrousness, thcrc is no dharrnadhatu,and vicc vcrsa. " T l r e c o r r s c i o r r s n e s se i n c a r n . r t t t d g , c t l l ew i t h t l r t 'p r a r . r r - c l c n r c r r ta r " dt h u i r 'u r ,l r elementsof subtle memory, lbeling, and dharnras." Wise Protector askedthe Buddha, "lf so, why does the World-Honored C)ne is say that consciousness formless?" Thc Buddha answered. "Wisc Protcctor. form is of tu'o kinds: onc rs uris tcrnal; the other, external. Visual consci.ousness intcrnal, while the elc is c.rternal. Similarly, auditory consciousness internal, while the ear is extcrnal; is is olfict<>ryconsciousness internal, while the nose is external;gustatorv consclousnessis internal, while the tongue is external;tactileconsciousncss intcrnal, rvhile is body is cxternal. the "Wise Protcctor, supposc a man born blind seesa bcautiful woman ln a dream.le Her hands, feet, and featuresare all extremely pretty, so in the dream the blind nran bccomcs grcatly dclightcd with hcr. Whcn hc'wakcs up, therc is rlothing to bc sccn. In thc daytirnc, among thc crowd, thc blind man spcaks of thc pleasant 'I event in his dream, saying, saw a gorgeous woman in a magnificent garden, together with hundreds of thousar.rds people, all well-adorned and making merry. of

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Hcr skin was lustrous, her shouldcrsplump, and her arms long and round like the rrunk of an elephant. ISccing thcsc] in the dream, I was fillcd with joy, comfort, and admiration.' "Wise Protector, this man, blind fronr birth, has nevcr seenanything in his lrte. How can hc seethose forms in the dream?" Wise Protector said to thc Buddha, "May you explain this to mcl" Thc tsuddha told Wise Protector. "Thc forms seenin the dream are the internal objectsofthe eye. It is through the discriminationofintellect, not the physical cye, that the intcrnal objectsof the eye are sccn. Bccauscof the power of memory, of thc internal objectsof thc cyc appearfor a moment in the drcan-r the blind man. Also becauseof the power of memory, thc blind man renretnbersthem when he wakes up. Thus do the internal lbrms rclate to the conscrousness. "Furthermore, Wise Protector, u'hen a body dics, the consciousncss leaves As thc body to be reir-rcarnated. an illustration, considera seed:after being sown tn supported by the four clcments, it will gradually grow into sprouts, the soil ar-rd lcaves the dead stems, branchcs, and lcavcs. In like manner, the consciousness body to bc reincarnatedundcr thc control of four things-t-ncr-norv, fceling, wholcsome dharmas, and unwholesome dharmas." Wisc Protectr>raskcd thc tsuddha, "World-Honorcd Onc, how do wholcsornc and unwholcsonre dharmas control the consciousncss?" Tl-reBuddha answered, "Wise Protector, as an illustration, a piece of precious crystal looks white or black accordingto whcthcr it is put in a whitc or black leavesthe dead body to be reincarnated placc, Sirnilar'ly,wherr the conscior.rsness arrd undergo difftrcnt karmic results, it will become virtuous or nonvirtuous according to whcthcr it is controllcclby wholcsornc or unwholesome dharmas." Wisc Protector further asked tl.reBuddha, "ln what way is the body connected with the consciousness?" The Buddha answered."Wise Protector. consciousness does not accumulate or gr()w. As an illustration, thcre will be no sprout if thc sccd docs not grow or if it rots. It is when the seed changesand undergoestransformation that thc sprout efilerges.Wise Protector, what do you think? Where does the sprout abide?In the sced, branch, stcm, lcaf, or thc top of thc tree?" Wise Protcctor answercd thc tsuddha, "World-Honored One, the sprout does r-rotabide in any part of the tree." does not [The Buddha said,j "Similarly, Wise Protector, the consciousness abidc in any part of the body. It abides ncithcr in thc cyc, nor in thc car, nose, gains slight awareness may be thc consciousness tongue, nor body. The time wher-r compared to thc timc u'hcn thc sccd sprouts; the time when the consclousness acquires fbeling may be compared to the time when buds appear; arrd the time has during whicl-rthe conscionsness a body nray be compared to the time during r','hich thc flowcr blossoms and the tree bears fruit. "From consciousllcss body arises,ar-rd the consciousncss covers all the body in and its lin'rbs. V/hcn we look for conscior,rsncss thc body, wc cannot find it the anywhere; yet without consciousness, body cannot live.

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"Thc tree bears the seedsof futurc trees whcn its fruits are ripe, not when they are unripe. In the same way, when the body dics as the karmic rcsults [of one life] are scttled, the consciousncss-seed appears.Bccause there is conscrousness, there are sensations. Becausetherc are sensations, thcre is craving. Becauscof the bondageof craving, memory occursand is absorbedbv the cotrsciousness. Through thc union of thc parents, and in accordancewith its good and evil karmas, the consciousness takes birth again togethcr with the elementsof prir-ra,perceptions, and mcmory. "A mirror can reflect a person's facc, but if thc mrrror is 'ot clca' and bright, the face will 'ot be reflected.only whc' rhe mirror is bright can the image of the facc appear.A pcrson'simage in the mirror has no fccling or memory, but it bc'ds, stretchcs,looks up ar-rd down, spcaks,comcs, goes, advances.stops, and pcrforms other actsjust as the pcrson does. wise Protector, by r.l'hosc porvcr does the image appear?" Wise Protector answered the Buddha, "lt is by the power of that person: -Because there is thc face, thcrc is the image of that face.Thc image and the faceare the samc in color, and the image is exacrly like thc face, with or without completc organs." Thc Buddha said, "The facc is the causcof the image, and thc mirror is rhe condition of it. Through the combination of the causeand condition, thc image is produccd. f)ue to the consciousness [scrving as the causeof thc body], there are feelings, conceptions, inrpulses, and other mcntal functions. Thc parents are the condition [of the body]. Through the cornbinationof the causeand condition, the body is produced. "The image in thc mirror will disappear when thc body moves away, yer rhe body's image may be reflectedin water or in other places.In the samc way, after lcaving the body, the consciousness takcs birth again rogether with good and evil karmas to undergo othcr karmic rcsults. "Furthermore, as an illustration, consider the scedsof banyan and udumbara. Though srnall, thcse seeds can engender huge trees, which will in turn producc seeds.Thc new seedswill leave the old trces to produce new trees. In time, the old trees will becomc weak, sapless,withered, and rotten. Similarly, after leavin-g its small body, the cor-rsciousness a small sentient being mav takc of on a big body of some kind, according to its karmas. "Moreover, considcr barley, wheat, castor-oil plants, soybcans,grccn lentils, and so forth: thcir sprouts, stems, flowcrs, and fruits grow and ripen bccause of their seeds.Similarly, bccausethcy have a consciousness, sentient beings who are subjcct to transmigration havc awarencss.Becausethey have awarencss,they have feelings, and as a rcsult, the consciousness takes on different bodies tosether with good and evil karntas. "As a furthcr example, a bee rests on a flowcr and becomes attachcd to it. The bee sucks the nectar of the flowcr to nourish itself, and then leavcs the flower to rest on another onc. It may fly from a fragrant flowcr to a stinking one, or from a stinking onc to a fragrant one, and it becomes attached to whatevcr flower

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may :i rests upon. Similarly, bccauseof meritorious karmas, the consciousness may lose acquirethe body of a god to enjoy superior bliss. Then thc consciousness the body of a god and, becauseof [prcvious] evil karmas, bc reborn as a hclldrvcller to undcrgo many sufferings. Thc consciousnessis thus born again and again in various bodies. "The consciousness like the seedof a tulip, of a rcd or blue Ilotus] flowcr, is or of a giant white lotus flowcr. The seedsof thcse flowers are all white. If you break them, you will find no sprout, no flou'er, and no colors [other than white]. Yet when sown in thc soil and moistenedwith water, thc seedswill sprout and, in due time, produce abundant flowers and fruits, rvhich arc red, whitc, or other colors. Thc colors, sprouts, and so forth are not within thc sccd, but they cannot lc-aves body, the be produced if thcrc is no seed.ISimilarly,] after thc consciouness no features, sensc-organs,or scnsc-fieldsof the bodv are to be found lvithin the By wonderful vision, wonderful hcaring, sound, texturc, taste, consciousness. knows thc good and thc consciousness dharmas, nlemory, and the sense-fields, evil karmas it has donc and will acquire a [ncw] body according to those karmas and conditions combinc. whcn proper causes 'Just as a silkworm makes a cocoon in which to wrap itself and then leaves the cocoon behind, so consciousncssproduces a body to er-rvelopitself and then leavesthat body to undergo othcr karnric resultsIin a new body]. "Becausc thcrc is a seed, there are the color, fragrance, and flavor [of a scnselcavcsthc body, the sense-organs, plantl. ISimilarly,] after the consciousness goes.2') objccts, feeling, and thc clcmcnt of dharmasgo whcrcver the consciousrtess "Whcrc thcre is a wish-fulfilling pearl, there are con-rfbrts; where therc is the feeling, awarcncss, sun, there is light. The saure is true with the conscrousness: conception, the element of dharmas, and so forth go wherever tire consciousttess goes. "When the consciousness lcavcs thc body, it carriesall the body's attributes witl-r it. It assumes an [ethcrcal] form as its body;2r it has no body of flesl-rand bones. Because it has the senses,it has fcelings and subtlc mcmory and can tell good from cvil. kapittha, "The fruits of datc, pomegranate,mango, bimba, Persian date,22 and so on are pungent, bitter, sour, sweet, salty, or astringcnt. They differ not only in taste,but also in their capacityto quench thirst. After the fruits [ripen and] decay, thcir l"lavorsgo with the seedsno tnattcr where the seedsare sown. In the same way, fgqling, mcmory, and good and evil [karmas] go wherevcr thc conbecause knows that it has left one it goes. It is calledconsciousness sciousness-seed body to receiveanothcr one, knows the good and cvil karmas [it has performed], by knows that it is accompanied the karmas, and knows that it will be reincarnated togcthcr with the karmas to undergo duc karmic results.It is called consciousness it because knows all that the body has done. "Thc element air has no form to be graspedand no substance be held. to Hor'"'ever, when propcr causesand conditions combinc, it can manifest its exis-

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tence in many ways; it can carry cold and heat, waft fragranceand stench, sway trees, and blow violently to destroy things. In the sanrrrvay, consciousness no has form or substance, and cannot be seenor heard. Horve'cr, r.vhc' propcr causcs and conditions combinc, all its attributcs appear. Maintaincd bv consciousness, the body fccls pai' and pleasure,looks healthy, goes ancl comcs. advances and stops, speaksand laughs, cxperienccs loy and sorrow, and pertbrms clcarly visible actions. ISeeingthese,]one knows thcrc is a consciousncss. The Buddha said to Elder True Moon, ". Truc Moon. in the body born of parents, solid matter is of the clement carth, fluid is oi thc elemcnr warcr, warmth is of the elcment firc, and motiorl is of the elenrcnt air: that rvhich is aware of and remembcrs sounds, odors, tastes, tcxtllres, and so fbrth is thc " consciousness. True Moo' asfcd the lluddha, "world-Ho'ored onc, r'"'hen senricrlr a beirg is on thc point of dcath, how can the consciousncss leavc thc bodr'? Ho,, can it move into another body? How can it be aware of its own lcaving thc bodv?" The tsuddha replied to Truc Moo', "whcn a scntientbei'g rs rcu,ardedrvith a body according to.his karnas, thc consciousncss will maintain that body u'ithout intcrruption, likc a strearn. when the scnticnt being's life comes to arl end and his body dics, ttrc consciousness will lcave his body to take birth agair-r togethcr with his karmas. "As an illustratiorr,consider a nrixture-of watcr and milk: when it is boiled ovcr a firc, rnilk, watcr, and cream will all scrparate. Sirnilarly. True Moon, whcn the lifc of a sentic't bcing comcs to an end, his body, consci<.rusncss, sense-()rgans, and ser-rse-objects ell dispersebccausethe power of karrrrais cxhaustcd. The will consciousness will thcrr beconrcthc only rclianceIof the ethcrealnrind-body complcxl23and will cor-rtact various objccts, rnakc up Iall sorts of] notions about thcm, and bc reincarnated,rogcther with the good and evil karmas, to undergo other karnric results. "True Moon, ;rsan illustration, considcr the'grcat auspiciousbutter.'2aIt is preparcd by boiling a cornbination of various good mcclicinestogether with thc buttcr. Thc attributes of ordinary butter all vanish; instead, the buttcr beconrcs saturatedwith thc powers of thc good mediciners their six flavors: acnd, bittcr, and sour, salty, astringcnt, and sweet. It nourishes thc body and givcs it a sansr-rinc Iook and a pleasar-rt odor. Sirnilarly, after lcaving thc {deadJbodv, thc conscrousr-ress will takc birtl-r agairr to undcrgo othcr karn-ricresults, toeethcr u.ith the clcnrcrrtof dharmas and good and evil karrnas. "True Moor-r, the esscnccof such butter is like thc bociv. Buttcr combines with thc mcdicinesto become the great auspiciousbuttcr, just as rhc sense-orqans cornbinc with dharma-objectsto produce karmas. Karmas nourish the consciousnessin the sanlc way as the rncdicinesf1avorblltter to nrakc it the grcat auspicious buttcr. whcn nourishcd with tl-risbuttcr, o'e bcarnsand bccomes flll of c'ergy, peaceful,and frec lrom all discascs; similarly, when nourishedby good karmas, the consciousncss accluircs blisslul rewards. When lcd with improper butter, one turns

Or.rCoNscrouswrss
Falc instead of acquiring a rosy conrplexion; similarly, whcn nourishcd by cvil sufferspainful retributions. thc consciousncss karn.ias. "True Moon, though having rro hand, foot, or eyc, tht: prccious great ausbuttcr can absorb the colors, fragrances,flavors, aud powcrs of good F1.1oLl5 complex.2l nrcJicrncs.In a sinrilar nranner,after leaving thc body and scnsc-organ can takc up thc clcnrcnt of dharmas,fi'cling, and good karmas to rh.'conscrousness bctwecrrdcath and rcincartration anclacquirethe intcrmediatc existence rs5Linrr'thc lt rvill seethc six hcavcnsof thc I{calm of Desire and s'onclcrfulrncmory of a god.l'' the sixrccn hclls. lt will seeitself as havinq a body u'ith shapclylimbs and beautiful 'This rn"'as body the scnse-organs. Whcn it secsthe dead body it has lcft, it will say, o f m y p r c v i o u sl i l c . ' "It will also sec a cclcstialpalacc,r.vhichis high, inrposing and full of dc-corawhich have tiorrs. There are flowcrs, fruits, plarrts,and trccs cnt:rnqlcdu'ith vir-rcs ncw gold chains inlaid rvith various qcms. The sight will filI tcndrils as shiny as with exultation. tleirrg vcry fond of thc palacc, it will takc Ithc consciousness] birth thcrc. "For a pcrson u'ith €joodkarmas, to give r.rpone bodv and receiveanother is con-rfirrtable and painless,Just like a rider's dismounting from one horse and mounting anothcr. As an illustration, whcn a bravc man skillccl in fighting sccs hc cncmy troops corrrir.rg, will put or) strong arnror and ride on a brave horse to mcct them fearlessly. Similarly, whcn a pcrson cndowcd with good roots brcathcs last, his consciousncss will lhappilyI leave thr: loldI body and scnsc-organ his cornplcx2T arrclt;rkc birth again in the -tsrahml Heaven, or cvcn in thc Akanistha Heaven, to cnjoy worrdcrful plclsurcs." (ireat Mcdicine rose from his seat in the assembly, At that tin-re, Prir-rcc 3oincd his palnrs, arrclaskcd thc tsudclha,"World-Honorcd L)nc, what fornr does takc the corrsciousrrc'ss afier leaving thc Idead] body?" The Buddha answercd, "Marvclous, marvelousl Great Medicine, what you rrow ask conccrns thc great, prolbund state of thc tsuddha. No one except thc 'l'ath-gata it. carruncicrstarrd " raiscd by Princc At this, Wisc l'rotcctor saic'l thc Budciha, "Thc qr-rcstion to (lrcat Meclicineis indccd profound. lt shorvshis subtlc wisdom and quick mind." that his facc r.vas bcaming with joy like Sccirrgth.rt tluJdha r'vasbcnisn ar-rd (lrcat Mcdicinc bccamcjubilant. He lotus an arltul-r.l11 llorn'crin lirll bloom, Princc joined his palms and said r,vholehcartedly the tsuddha, "World-Honored Onc, I to lovc tl-rcprolbund l)harn-ra;I thirst aftcr thc profound I)harn'ra.I arn in constant havc no chanccto hcar ti'ar of thc Tath-gata's cntcring parinirv-na, bccauscI r.r,ill hir-ncxplain thc true l)harma. I will thcn be lelt among the senticnt beings of the renrain in safirsirato underqo sut-ferings live depravitics,r.vhoceasele'ssly because thcy arc confusccllncl too igtioraut to ktrow good lionr evil, rvholcsome from o u r r ul r o l c s o r r r c . r p c r l c c t l r u r r r i l t r p c r f t c t . '

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Princc Grcat Mcdicine than asked the Budclha Iagain], "World-Honored One, what is thc form of thc consciousness? Pleasccxplain it for me." The Buddha told Princc Great Medicine, "lt rs hkc one's imagc in watcr. Such an inragc is ungraspablc.It is ncithcr existentnor noncxistcnt;and it changes s h a p cw i t h t h e w a t e r . "Thc 'shapc' of good and cvil karmas ar-rd the tbrnr oi thc consciousncss are invisible. Just as a person born blind cannot scc sunrisc or \un\r't. day or night, brightness or darkness, so we cannot scc thc consciousncss. Tl-rerc arc thirsty desires,feelings, and thoughts rvithin oncself, but thesc arc also invisiblc. However, all thc Ifourl clcmcnts, the Itwelve] entranccs, and thc Itivc] aegrcgates rvhich constitutc onc's ,elfl8 arc nranifcst.rtions thc consciousness. of Both the rt1pas,2e such as the eye, ear, nose, tonguc, body, fbrm, sound, odor. tastc, and tcxturc, and the non-rupas, such as thc cxpcricnccs of pain and plcasurc. arc ofI Imarrifcstations thc consclousncss. "Great Medicine, when a pcrs()ntastesfood with his tongue, hc knorvs the food to bc swcct, bittcr, acrid, sour, salty, or astringent.The tongr.rc and the food arc visible and tangible, whilc thc tastc is not. Furthermorc, bccauscof bones, nrarrow, flesh, and blood, a persoll can bc awarc of scnsations. Bones and so forth are tar-rgible, but sensations are not. The sanrc is truc with knowing u'hethcr a consciousness nourished by blessings3" rrot." is or Then, bowing with his head ar the Buddha's fect, Wise Protector askcd thc Bucldha, "Is it possiblcfo know whcthcr or not a consciousncss blcssings?" has The Buddha answered,"Listen attcntivcly! No onc can seethc conscrousncss unless he has seen the truth. Unlike a nlango in the hand, thc consciousness rs invisiblc. It is not within the eye or othcr scnse-organs. the consciousness If were within thc eye or other sense-organs, could be seen if thc cye or other senseit organs wcrc disscctcd.Wisc Protcctor, I, like all otherBuddhas, numeyous the as as sands o.fthe ()anges, seethat the consciousness noJorm. T'he ronsciouyrcss has rannotbe seenby ortlinarypeople; it can he tlescrihcd only throughparables. .31 "Suppose a god, a ghost, a spirit or other being possesses pcrson. a Wl.rat do you think? Can wc find its cntity insidc the person's body?" Wise Protector said to thc Buddha, "Certainly not, World-Hor-roredOne. W h e n a g o . l , a g h o s t , o r a s p i r i t p o s s ( ' s s (a s e r s o r l . e c J n l r o ts c c i t s c r r r i t vc v c r ri I 'p w wc scarch for it inside and outside the person's body, because is formlcss and it " shapelcss. "\X/iscProtcctor," said thc Buddha. "ifa person is possessed a grcat god bv with sr.rpcrior rncrits, thcn fragrant flowers, supcrior inccnsc, dclicious lbod and drirrk, arrd clean quarters must be offcrcd to him, and the offerings rnust all be n-ragnificer-rt ur-rsullied. the same way, a consciousness ar-rd In nourishcd b1' blcssings will be rewarded with nobility and comfort. It will be rcborn as a king, a mirrister, a nobleman, a very rich n1an, a chieftair-r, a great mcrchant. It may or acquire the body of a god to enjoy wonderful celestialbliss. A person whose

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is consciousness nourished by blessingsacquiresblissful rewards,just as a pcrson possessed a god with superior merits should be given cxcellcnt flowcrs and by incense, as well as delicious food and drink, which will makc him happy and cure Thereforc, onc should know that those of high him of his illnesswhen he is sick.'r2 standing or great wealth acquire such blissful rcwards solely becausetheir conare sciousncsses nourished by blessings. "Wise Protector, when a person is possessed a lowly, evil ghost or spirit by . . . he will be fond of excrement,putrid things, nrucus,saliva,and so on; if offered such filthy things for relief, he will bc happy and cured of his illness.Owing to the power of the ghost or spirit, the person delightsin such impure, stinking things as excrement,just as the ghost or spirit delights in thcm. Similarly, a consciousness pervadedby sin will bc born of poor parents,or in miserableplanesof existcncc, such as the plane of hungry ghosts or thc plane of animals which eat dirty food. If is one's consciousness pervadedby sin, he will undergo painful karmic results. "Wise Protcctor, thc po*.rrt of a superior god who possesses person has a and no shape,but it can Imake the possessed pcrsonl obtain fragrant, no substance is nourished by blessings shapcpure offerings. In thc same way, a consciousness less,but it can [make the person it residesin] acquire wondcrful, blissful rcwards. to causcthc pcoplc tircy posscss takc irnpurc, bad food. Inf-crior,evil ghosts it pervaded by sin will lcausethe persor-r residesin tol Similarly, a consciousness undergo painful rcrributions. "Wise Protector, this you shoulclknow: thc consciousncss devoid of form is t o r s u b s t a r r c e . y e t . a c c o r d i r r g o w h e t h e r i t i s n o u r i s h e db y s i n o r b l e s s i n g si.t will Imake the person it residesinl receivepainful or joyous rcsults." . take on the Great Medicine askedthc Buddha. "How does the consciousness form of a god or a hell-dweller?" has The tsuddha rcplicd to Great Medicine, "The consciousness subtlc vision regarding thc element of dharmas. This subtlc vision does not depend on thc physical cyc in order to see. When this subtlc vision cncounters a blissful realm and sccs pleasures and merry-making in cclestial palaces, the consciousnessbecomes delighted and attachedto them, thinking,'I shall go there.'This thought of dcfiled attachment is thc causcof existence[in sarirsaral.Seeing the dead body forsaken in 'This corpsc is my good friend. Because it a cemrtary, thc consciousnessthinks, has hoarded good karmas, I am now rewarded with rebirth in heaven."' Grcat Mcdicine asked the Buddha, "World-Honored One, since the consciousness still has an attraction to the corpsc, why does it not return to the corpsc?" The tsuddha asked in turn, "Great Medicinc, can hair and beard, though black, lustrous, and fragrant, be inserted into the body to grow there again after being cut and discarded?" Grcat Medicine answered the Buddha, "No, World-Honored Onc. The hair and beard which have been cut and discarded cannot be inserted into the body to grow there again."

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Thc Buddha said, "Similarly, Grcat Medicirrc, thc consciousrless cannot rcturn to the castoff corpsc to undergo karn'ricrcsults." Great Mcdicine asked the Buddha, "World-Honorc-d One, consciousness rs indeed subtle and abstrusc.It has no substanccto be qraspedand no forn to be recognized.How can it maintain the body of a big scnricnrbeing likc an elephant? How can it get into a strong body as hard as a diamond? Hou' can it maintain the body of a strong man who even can tame nine elephants?" Thc Buddha replied, "Great Mcdicine, take the rl'ind ior instance. It is dcvoid of form or substance, . . yet it may become ficrcc enouqh to blorv Mount . Sumeru to dust-motes. Grcat Mcdicine, what is thc form anclshape of thc lvind, which can even dcstroy Mount Sumeru?" Great Medicine said to thc Buddha. "The wind is subtle and rvithout tbrm " or substance. The tsuddha said, "Great Medicine, the wind is [indccd] subtlc and rvithout fbrm or sllbstance. Thc consciousness also subtlc and without form or substance. is yet it can maintain any body, u'hether big or small. It can takc on the bodv of a mosquito, ancl it can aiso take on thc body of an clcphant. As an illustratron, considcr a lamp with a subtle flame. Wher-r put ir1 a room, thc lamp can dispcl all the darkness of the room, whether the roon is largc or small. Similarly, thc cor-rsciousness maintain a big or a srnall bocly according to its kannas " can Great Medicine asked the Buddha, "World-Honorecl Onc, what arc the char;rctcristics of karrnas? What causcs and conditions enable them to manifest themselves?" The Buddha replied, "Great Mcdicine, it is bccausc his Igood] karmas that of [a senticnt bcing] is rcborn in heaven, enjoying delicious food, peace,and happincss. Supposc t$,o thirsty personswalk in the wilderness;one finds cool, sweet watcr, but thc othcr finds nothing and has to suffer from thirst and fatigue. No one gives the former cool watcr or hindcrs the latter from obtainir-rg They it. acquire their fruits, blissful or painfrrl,accordir-rg their karmas. to "As an illustration, consider a seed which is sown in the soil; aftcrrvards, fruits appearat the top of thc trcc. Howcvcr, the seeddoes not go from branch to branch anclfinally rcach the top ofthc trcc. The seedis not found even ifthe trunk is clisscctcd. No onc puts it into any branch. When the tree grows up and the roots bccomc firm, thc sccdcannot be found. Similarly, all good and cvil karmas rely on the body, but no karma is found when the body is examined. Bccauscof the seed, there are flowers, but within the seedno flowcr is found; becauseof t'lorvcrs, there are fruits, but within the flowers no fruit is found. . . . Similarlv, because the of body, there are karmas, and bccause karmas, thcre is the bodr'. bur no karmas of are found within the body and no body is found within the karmas. "Fruits do not appearuntil flowers fall down at maturitv. Similarly, the fruit of karma does not ripcn until the body dies at life's end. Just as thc seedis the cause of the flower and fruit, so the body is thc causeof karmas, good and evil "Karmas have no form and give no sign of ripening. As an illustration,

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consider a person's shadow, which is insubstantial,unimpcdcd, ungraspable,and unattachcdto the pcrson. It advances, stops, goes, and comes as the person docs, vet it is not seen to come out of the body. In the same way, wherc thcrc is thc body, there are karmas, yet karmas are not found within the body or apart from it. "A dosc of good mcdicinc, whcther it tastcsacrid, astringent,or bitter, can curc a sick pcrson's discascand givc him comfort and a good complexion. When pcople see that person, they immediatcly know that hc has takcn fine medicine. The flavor of thc mcdicinc can bc tasted, but its thcrapeuticfunction cannot be seen. Though invisible and ungraspablc, [thc mcdicinc's potency] can bring a good complexion to thc pcrson who takes it. Similarly, though without form or substance, karmas can influencc a pcrson. Undcr thc inllucncc of good karmas, a person has abundant, splendid food and drink, clothing, and other internal and Hc has shapcly limbs and handsome features.He has sumpexternal ncccssitics. tuous houscs and a hoard of wish-fulfilling pearls, gold, silver, and other treasures. Hc is peaceful,h.ppy, well-amused, and satisfied.It should bc known that all these are the mar-rifestations good karmas. To be reborn in a lowly, distant, of poor region, to lack the necessities oflife, to envy others'happiness, have coarse to food or no foocl, to be shabby and ugly in appearancc,to stay in inferior placesall thesc, you should know, arc the manifestations evil karmas. of "A clear mirror reflects the beauty or r.rglincss a facc, but the image of the of face in the mirror is insubstantialarrd ungraspable.Simiiarly, under thc influence of good or cvil karmas, thc consciousness born in a plane of humans, gods, is hcll-dwcllcrs, animals, or othcrs. Great Medicine, y()u should know that karmas stay with the consciousness when it leavesone body for another.". Grcat Mcclicinc asked. "World-Honored One. how can this soft. subtle consciousncsspcnctratc a hard forrn?" The tsuddha answcrcd, "Grcat Medicine, water is extremely soft, yet torrcnts and cataractscan piercc mountain rocks. What do you think? How soft is water and how hard is a rock?" Great Medicine said, "World-Horrored One, a rock may be as hard as a diamond, while water is soft and plcasantto thc touch." [The Buddha said,j "Great Medicine, the same is true with the consciousncss. It is cxtrcrncly soft and subtlc, but it can pcnctratcinto a hard, big body in which to undergo karmic results.". Great Medicine askedthe Buddha, "World-Hor-rored One, how can the formgivc birth to a form by virtue ofcauses and conditions?. . ." lessconscionsncss The Buddha replied, "(lreat Medicine, two piecesof wood rubbed together can producc firc by friction. The fire cannot bc found within thc wood. Flowcvcr, *'ithout the wood. there would be no fire. The fire arisesfrom the combination of causcs and conditions; without sufficient causes and conditions, no firc is produced. No onc can find thc form of the firc within the wood. but the 6re which comes from the wood is visible to all. "ln the same way, Great Medicine, the consciousncssgivcs birth to thc

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corporeal body through the union of the parents. However, thc conscrousness cannot be found either within the corporeal bod1,or rpart from it. "(lreat Medicine, before the fire is built, rro attributesof fire appear,such as warmth and so on. Similarly, Great Medicine, u'ithout the body, there would bc feelings,conceptions,or in-rpulses. no appearance ofthe consciousnesses, "Great Mcdicine, thc sun shincsbrightly, but ordinarv pcoplc are unable to know whether the substanceof the sun is black. u'hite. r'cllorv. or red. bccausc they have not sccn it. However, from thc functions oi the sun, such as its giving forth light and warmth and its rising and sctting, ther, knou' that thc sun exists. " Sinrilarly, Jrom thefunctionsoJthe consciountess is knou,trthat thert i-ra rorr-sri orrsness. , it "What are thc functronsoi the con:ciousGreat Medicine askcdthc Buddha. ness ?" The lluddha replied, "Grcat Medicine, feeling, awareness, conceptron,lmpulsc, thought, grief, sorrow, and distress-all these are functions oi thc corrThe good and evil karmas, which have become seeds sorvn in thc sciousness. consciousness pcrvading it rcpcatcdly, also reveal the consciousness their by b1 functions.". Whcrr thc Buddhas had explaincd this sutra, all those in the assembly, including Elder Wise Protector, Prince (lreat Mcdicinc, thc n'ronks, BodhisattvaMahlsattvas, gods, asuras,gar-rdharvas, so forth, were jubilant over thc Budand dha's tcaching and bcgan to practiceit with veneration.

NOTES
1. Buddhisrn does not usually treat consciousncss s an individual unity, but as a a Howevcr, in this sutra thc totality ofdiffcrent conscrousgroup ofclilferent consciousnesses. nessesis viewed as a unity, This consciousnessdiffers lrom thc various component consciousnesses, strch as the eye- or visual consciousness, the ear- or auditory consciousness, and so forth. This sutra seems to be one of the forerunners or germinal sources of the Mind-Onlv philosophy ofthe Yogicara school. Thc rcadcr will find that the consciousness discussedhere i s i n m a n y w a y s s i m i l a r t o t h e Y o g a c l r a i d c a o f t h c ' s t o r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s 'a l a y a r l i l , r r r a )f.h e ( i s t o r c c o n s c i o u s n c s ss a l s o c a l l c d t h c ' f u n d a m e n t a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s 'r,v h i c h s t o r e s o r u p h o l d s n r e m o r y , i m p r e s s i o n s ,a n d k a r m i c p o w c r . S o m e B u d d h i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t r v i t h o u t i t . t h e d o c t r i n e s o f r e i n c a r n a t i o n ,k a r m a , s u p r e m e e n l i g h t e n m e n to f B u d d h a h o o d . a n d . u l t r n r a t e l r ' ,t h e a l t r u i s t i c d e e d so f a B o d h i s a t t v a w o u l d n o t b e p o s s i b l e .( G . C . ) ) . A s p e c i a lt c r m d c n o t i n g t h e s i x s e n s e organs and the six sense-objects sensations,rnaking up tu'elve entrancesto perccprion. or Here the text reads, "taking all the sense-fieldswith it." However, wc should not interpret this to mean that thc consciousnesscarries the biological sense-organs or their objects with it. Instcad, it may be prcsurned that this refers to the consciousness's carrying 2. A tcrnrofrcspcct. 3. Literally, "cntrances" (ayatana, h. C

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with it the impressions and habits of the former lifc's sense-organand sense-objectcomplex, thus creating a new, cornplete, ethereal mind-body complex of the intcrmcdiatc existence between death and reincarnation (Tib. bar-do).(G.C.) a 4 . T h e s e q r r e s t i o n s n d o t h e r s r a i s c dl a t e r a r e n o t a l l c l c a r l y a n s w c r e di n t h e t e x t b e l o w . have been ot.nitted in However nonc of the major points of explanation of the consciousness our translation. 5. The text herc readsS , literally meaning to move lrom one place to another, which w o u l d t r a n s l a t ea s ' t r a n s m i g r a t i o n ' . o.l of In certain passages thc tcxt, Thc Questions Kittg Milinda, the conccpt of transmi€ i r a t i o ni s s e v e r c l yc r i t i c i z e da n d r e f u t e d ;i n s t e a do f ' t r a n s m i g r a t i o n ' t h a t s u t r a s a y st h a t ' r e i n carnation' should be used. However, this rnay onl,v bc a problenr of semantics. As long as o o n e d o e s n o t c l i n g t o a n e t e r n a l ,u n c h a n g i n g , i n d i v i s i b l e s u b s t a n c c f ' s c l f ' t h c r e w i l l b e n o doctrine. (lonsciousness can transnligrate conflict with the basic Buddhist rto-self (anannarr) without being considercd as an eternal and indcstructible self-.Furthernrore, the problerrr of transrnigration and reincarnation can bc trcatccl on two differcnt levcls. On the rrtunclane c s l e v e l , t h e e x i s t e n c co f a c o n s c i o u s n e sr v h i c h t r a n s m i g r a t e s a n b c a d n r i t t c d . H o w e v e r , o n a o s h i g h e r l e v e l , e v e n t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e sis w i t h o u t s u b s t a n c c r c n t i t ) ' . ( G . C l . ) 6. It should bc noted that in other contcxts ancl Buddhist scripturcs, purc consciousness is said to have light. 7 . C h . * . E t ' E n - T h e s e c o n di t c m i n t h c s c r i e s ,E , i s h e r c t r a n s l a t e da s ' a w a r c n c s s ' . T h e u s a g e o f E h e r e i s r a t h c r u n u s u a l ; i t i s n o t l b u n d i n t h c r c g u l a r n t t n r c r i c a l s e r i e si n Buddhist terminology. i*4 is not uscclin thc usual senseof dharrnaditu. 'dharmas' (if) Thc word hcrc is also used in an unusual sense(seethe Glossary for its ordinary meaning). It probably relcrs to the impressions and habits lcft in thc conscrousness. (dharma-rcalnt) hcrc rcfcrs to thc univcrse or to the It is not clear to me whethcr i*F r e a l m o f e n t i t i c s .( G . C . ) 8 . B o t h t h e A b h i d h a r r n a a n d Y o g a c l r a s c h o o l ss e e m t o b e l i e v et h a t w i t h i n o r b e h i n d there is a correspotrding pure organ of lorm ( H€tR ). These cach of the five sense-orlaans organs arc invisible to ordinary hur.nan beings, and only those with the deva-cvc can see thern. H e r e t h c t c x t r e a d s ," t h e o r g a n o f t o u c h " ( 4 & ) , b u t t h e o t h e r v c r s i o n o f t h i s s u t r a , t r a n s l a t c db y J i r a n a g u p t a( T a i s h o3 1 0 , c h a p t e r3 9 , p . 6 1 0 ) , r e a d s" t h c o l f a c t o r y o r g a n , " w h i c h i s m o r c a p p r o p r i a t e .( G . C . ) con.rcslccling. . . ." This seenls to mean 9. Here the text reads, "From consciousness that lrom fundamental consciousness-the forerunner of thc concept of store consciousncssall fcclings, or sensations,can arise. That is to say, without the fundamental consciousness serving as a sLlbstratumto uphold the views and impressions inrpinging upon the sense-organ complex, no feelings could possibly arise. "Frorn feeling comes awareness"presumably mcans that from pleasant,unplcasant, or a n e u t r a l l e e l i n g sc o m c d i f f c r c n t k i n d s o f a w a r e n e s s , i . e . , p a i n , p l e a s u r e , n d s o f o r t h . 'seed' "From awareness come dharmas" seems to suggest thc Yogicira idea of the ( 6 E ) o r ' h a b i t ' ( € k ) o f c o n s c i o u s n e s sM e m o r y i s o n l y p o s s i b l ew h e n a n i m p r e s s t o n t s . plantcd. Impression is not possible without awareness, for impression simply means thc This, pcrhaps, is the awarenessofobjccts (dharmas) being impressed upon the consciousness. significance of thc statement "from awareness come dharrnas." However, it can also be of intcrpreted to nlean that when the consciousness a person leaves the dead body, it takes

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a l o n g w i t h i t t h e i m p r c s s i o n s a n d h a b i t s r e g a r d i n g d h a r m a s . T h e s e i n t p r e s s i o n sa n d h a b i t s r v i l l s e r v e a s t h e s e e do f h i s c h a r a c t e ri n t h e n e x t l i l e . ( S c ca l s o n o r e 7 a b o v c . ) I m p r c s s i o n si n c l u d e m o r a l i m p r e s s i o n sa n d j u d g m e n t s ; t h u s , " o n e c a n t c l l g o o d f r o n . r evil." (G.C.) 'Self-nature' (Ei4) 10. hcre does not implv the quaiin oi clinging to sclf-narure ( s u d b h a u a ) ,u t s i m p l y d e n o t e st h e p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e o f c o n s c i o u s n e sa s s c n t i e n t b e i n g s p e r b s celvelt. 11 . S e eG l o s s a r y .I n t h i s s u t r a i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i d c n t i f r , u ' h r c h n r c r n i n q ( o r n r e a n i t r g so f ) 'dharnradhatrr' arc intcndcd. 1 2 . H e r e r v e c l e a r l y s e e t h e e m e r g e n c e f t h e c o n c e p to i t h c s t o r c c o n s c i o u s n e s s . o 13. A kind of lragrant yellow flower. 1 4 . I r r o t h c r s c r i p t u r e s , u c h a s t h c L l a h d y i n a s a f u g r a h a s t r ar,i c d o t l n d s r . r r r ' m c n tts r a t s Sa i t h e c o t . t s c i o u s n e sc a v c s t h c b o d - v t h r o u g h a s p c c i f i c o r i f i c e . F o r i n s t a n c e . r i t h c b e i n g r s ls d e s t i n e dt o t a k e r e b i r t h i n h c a v e t r ,t h e c o n s c i o u s n c sn ' i l l l e a v e t h r o u g h t h c " p u r e o r i i l c e " o n s the headl if the being u'ill lall to hell, thc consciousncsswrll leave throueh rhe anus or teet, etc, (G.C.) 1 5 . P r e c i s et r a n s l a t i o no f t h r s p l a n t ' s n a m e i s u n c e r t a i n . 16. In the previous paragraph the consciousncssis conrpared to a seed fronr rvhich s r o w s a p l a n t ; i n t h i s p a r a g r a p hi t i s c o m p a r e d t o t h e e a r t h w h i c h n o u r i s h c sa l l p l a n t s . T h i s s c e m st o i n c l i c a t ct h a t ' c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' a s s e d i n t h e s [ t r a c e n r n c : l n e i t h e r t h c c o n s e i o u : n e s s u of a sentient br:ing, or thc cosmrc collsclollsness nderlying all scntient beings, or both. u ((].C.) the 1 7 . T h c t c x t r e a d s ." H E S # f , / : d 4 ; t . " T h e C l l i n e s e i * 4 h e r c s c c n r sn o t t o c l c n o t c 'elenrent o f c l h a r t r t ; r sw i t h i n t h e e i g h t c c n d h a t u s , b u t i n s t c a d i t s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t st h e '

clharmadh,rtu f totality which is embraced by and identical with thc root-consciousncss o ( f E ^ , # ) A g r i n , w c s c c a g e r m i n a l i c l c ao f Y o g - c i r a p h i l o s o p h v . 'lB. I h e C h i n e s e w o r d E \ m a y t r e t r a n s h t c c lc i t h e r a s ' u ' i n d ' o r ' a i r ' . I p r e s u n r et h a t herc it is the equivalerrt of fr which trarlslf,tcs the Sanskrit praqta. This rcrm can mean vitality, spirit, vital breath, or air. According to tantric doctrinc, the consciousness f a o s L - n t i L - n t i n g c a n n o t I i v e i n d e p e n d e n t l vo f p r a n a . M r n d a n t l p r i n a l b r n t a t w o - i n - o n c u n i t y . bc Mintl is thc firnctional awareness, r,','hereas prina has thc function of- activity and porvcr. A t t h e t i n r e o f c l c a t h , w h c n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s ls a v e st l i e o l d b o d y a n d t r a n s n r i g r a t c s l s e e c u ' h c r c , i t c a r r i e st h c s u b t l c p r l n a l v i t h i t . ( G . C . ) 1 9 . C o m m o t . t s e n s et e l l s u s t h a t a r r r a n b o r n b l i n d c l o c sn o t s e e c o l o r s o r s h a p e si n d r e a n t s . H o w c v c r , t h i s p a s s a g cr r t a y r e t i r t o o n c w h o c a n r e m c n r b e r h i s p a s t l i v e s . I t i s 1 t h r o u g h h i s r r 1 s 1 1 1 so fy p a s t l i v c s t h a t t h c m a n b o r u b l i n d c a n s e c f o r r t r si n : r d r c a r n . 20. This clocs not mean that the actual sense-organsantl sense-otrjcctsgo \\'ith the c o r . r s c i o u s n e sS c e n o t e 3 a b o v c - . s. 2 1 . L i t c r a l l y , " i t h a s t h e c a u s eo f f o r n r a s i t s b o r l y . " 2 2 . T h c t r a n s l a t i o n s ' b i m b a ' n d ' P e r s i a n a t e 'a r e u n c c r r a i n . a d 2 3 . T h i s r e f c r s t o a s e n t i e n tb c i n g i n t h e i n t c r m c d i a t es t a t e( T i b . l a r - d o ) .r n u h i c h t h e r c i s a n e t h e r e a lb o d y w i t h o u t t a n g i b l c b i o l o g i c a l c o n s t i t u e n t s . 2 4 . T h e t r a n s l a t i o no f # a s ' b u t t c r ' i s u n c e r t a i n . 25. Litcrallv, "elements." 2 6 . T h i s p a s s a g e n l y r e l e r s t o t h e c o n s c i o u s n c so f a s e n t i c n t b e i n g w i t h g o o d k a r o s nras, who is destined to bc born in heavcn.

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C)N CoNsctousNess

27. Literally, "clcmentsand entratrces." 28. Literally, "the bodY." , R i p a ' m a y b c t r a n s l a t e d i t h c r a s ' f o r r n , ' w h i c h m e a n st h e o b j e c t o f v i s i o n , o r r t e 29. 'objcct' or 'matter', which rcfers to altv phcrlomenal thrlrg. ln tlrc fornrcr usagc, rup.r is otlc i n d i c a t e di n t h c o i t h e s i x s c n s e - o b j e c t sI.n t h e l a t t e r s c n s e ,r u p a c o n t r a s t su ' i t h t h e n l i n d , a s of rhpa and mind' p Clhinesc hrase€'L':i* ,'trvo dharmas Sanskrit 30. Thc Chinesc r,vord nA is an abbreviation {br crther fiE# or nFffi Thc '" ' v i r t u e , ' ' l u c k ' , ' f o r t u l c ' , ' a u s p i c i o u s t r e s sb l c s s i s p u t t y a ,w h i c h c a r tn l e a n ' n r e r i t ' , cquivalcnt Although rve translatc i n g s , , c t c . S i i l c e t h e n r c a n i n g i s v c r - vb r o a d , i t i s d r f f i c u l t t o t r a n s l a t c . ' b l e s s i n g s ' ,i t s h o u l d n o t b c u n d c r s t o o d i n t h e t h e o l o g i c a l s c n s e . l t h a s b e c n it hcre as t t n c c c s s a r yo t r a n s l a t eh i s r v o r d a s ' r n c r i t ' o r ' v i r t u e ' i I r o t h e r c o n t c x t s ' . 5 s 3 1 . T h i s p . l s s J g c t a t ( . o n c o f r h r . c e n t r J l n l c s 5 J H co f t h e \ u t r J . v i z . . t h . t t c o n s c i o u s ordinary ncss has no fornr, and yet it can manifestall tbrms; cannot be sccn or known by o the conrprehcnsion f the ordinary mind, and p c o p l e ; i t s p r o f u n d i t y a n d r v o n c l e ra r c b e y o n c l o it thercforecan be clcscribcd nly bv parablcs. 3 2 . T h i s s c e n t st o r e l c r t o t h c s i c k n c s sr e s u l t i n g l r o m p o s s c s s i o l l ' 3 3 . L i t e r a l l v , " c n t i t Y ."

andDiscipline On Virtwe

13 #lrmsffi€
Bodhisattva Surata's Discourse

have I heard. ()nce the Ruddha was dwellirg i' the gardc' of Anithapindada, in the Jeta (lrove .car Srivasti. rcspectfully surrounded by frve l-ru'dred Sravakas,ten thousandBodhisattvas,and others. At that tinre, a Bodhisattvanamcd Suratawas living in Srivasti. In his past livcs, hc had planted good roots of all kinds in tl.rclanc'ls innumcrablc Buddhas, of had served and n-radc offerings to thosc tsuddhas,and had attair-red nonrcgression lrorn thc pursuit of supreme enlightenment. Dwclling in great kindness, he was frcc of angcr or resentmcntat heart. l)welling in great cornpassion, ncvcr tired hc of saving others. Dwclling in grcat .1oy, he was always in harnrorry with thc dharmadhatu. Dwelling in grcat equanimity, he saw the equality of misery and happincss.l Hc atc sparirrgly ar-rd the propcr time, had feu'desires, and was at content. Senticnt beings were always glad to scc him. Out of his compassionfor the people in the city, hc consranrlytaughr rhem thc five lay preceptsand the eight spccialprccepts,and urged them to cultivatc lthe piramitas ofl giving, discipline, paticnce, vigor, mcditation, and wisdom; also kindness, compassion,.1oy, and equanimity; and pure conduct. Onc day, Bodhisattva Surata,surroundedby an assemblyof scntientbcines, was about to lead them to seethe Buddha and hear thc Dharma. Sakra, king of the gods, saw with his clear deva-eyc that Surata cultivated austeriticsand observed the pure precepts, both with remarkable diligcnce, and that he r.r'asfirnr in his efforts to dclivcr sentientbeings. Sakra thought ro himsclf, "surata never neglects to cultivate pure conduct. Does he not intend to usurp my thronc? Is he not greedy for kingship and pleasures?" With this in mind, Sakra conjurcd up four srrong nten, who wcnt to the Ilodhisattva and abusedhim with all kinds of foul language,bcat him with sticks, Sutra27, Taisho310, pp. 536-540; translated into Chinese Bodhiruci. by

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ON VIn'rue aNo DtscIPuNr

hr,rrthim with knivcs, and thrcw tiles and stonesat hinr. Howevcr, abidirrgin the and patiencc,the tsodhisattvaendured all this without fceling pou'cr of kindr-ress anger or hatrcd. Then Sakra conjured up four ntorc men, rvho went to thc Bodhisattva and said, "Surata, those wickcd men scoldedand insulted you with evil languagc, and harmed you with tiles, stoncs,knives, and sticks,for no rcasonat all. Why not lct us avcnge you? We will kill thosc mcn for you." Surata said to them, "Good men, do not say such things! Killing is evil Evcn if somcone should cut mc into as m.anypieccsas thc leavcsof a date karr-na. tree, I would not think of killing hinr. Why? Becausca killer will fail to thc plane of hcll-dwellers, hungry ghosts, or aninrals Even if he gains a hunran body, he will always bc dctcstedby pcople, and even his oq'n parcntswill not lovc him. "Good mcn, all dhan-nasnray gcnerally be groupcd into two catcgories: wholesome and unwholesomc. (Jnwholesone dharmaslead to rcbirth in the miscrable plancs of existcncc,while wholesome dharmaslcad to benefit and blessing." Then llodhisattva Suratarcpcatcd this in vcrse: "As in planting, happiness arrd miscry Resuit frorn thc dceds performed. How can a bittcr seed Yicld a sweet fruit? Sccing this univcrsal truth, The wisc shouid think: Evildoing brings painful results, Whilc good deedsalways lcad To pcaccand happincss." Hcaring this, the nretrwhom Sakrahad conjurcd up rcalizedthat thcy would ncver bc ablc to causeSuratato kill, and they at oncc disappeared. Then Sakra magicaily produccd a huge amount of gold, silver, and other to treasurcs,alolg with some men! who brought thc treasures the Bodhisattva, if "You may take thcsc trcasures you like. They arc at your disposal." saying, At this, Surata told them, "Good men, do not say such things. Why not? lJccausethe karma of stealing can make senticnt beings poor, lowly, inferior, and helpless.Evcn if I wcrc so poor that I could not maintain my life, I would never takc anything r-rotbelonging2to -.. You should know that ordinary people arc silly, ignorant, and envelopedin desire.How can a wisc person take anything not belonging to him?" Then Bodhisattva Surataspoke in verse: billior-rs "One who accumulates And is greedily attachcd[to his wealth],

Bopntsarrva Sunara's Dtscounsl Unable to give it awaY, Is said by the wise To bc r man ever poor in thc rvorld. A pennilcss man Who will readily give whatever hc has Is said by the wise To be the noblest and richest on carth. The wise, being free from all cvii, Have forms of pcrfect magnificence; But fools, due to their transgressiotrs, Arc ugly from head to foot. The wise pcrsuadcothers to do good; Fools arc always for evil. It is better to be scoldedby the wise Than to be praisedby fools."

245

Whcn thcy hearcl this, the men corrjured up by Sakra wcnt away disaPThcn Sakrahimsclf wcnt to test Surata.Taking with him a great amount poir.rted. said, "I have been in contention with of gold, hc approachcdthc Bodhisattva at-rd some people in Srlvastr [in the court of] King Prasenajit.I nced someonc to give f)lse testimony for rnc. If you can be my witness, I will givc you all this gold'" The Bodhisattva told Sakra, "Virtuous one, you should know that it is evil karma to lie. A liar lics to himself as well as to gods, dragons, yaksas,gandharvas, asuras,garudas,kinnarasand mahoragas.Lying is the origin ofall evils; it leadsto to rebirth in thc miscrable plancs of exister-rce, breach of the pure preccpts, and to corruption of the body. A liar's mouth will often reek, and his words will be despised." scorned ar-rd Thcn Bodhisattva Surataspoke in vcrse: "A liar's mouth will give off a stench. He will fall to the miserable realms, Where no onc can rescuehint. A liar lies not only To gods, dragons, mahoragas,and others; He also lies to himselt-. Know that lying Is thc origin of all evils; It destroys onc's pure disciplinc And brings one to rcbirth In the thrcc rniserable realms.

216

ON Vrnrur aro DrscrplrNr Even if you gavc mc cnough gold To fill the entire world, Never would I tcll a lic. "

Hcaring this, Sakra disappcarcdat oncc. Then hc ordered thc goddessesr Saci. Survaprabha,Pafrcacuda, and others to go to Surata to tcst him again, by trving to make him break thc precepts.Along with five hundrcd young goddesses, Sacr and the others anointed thcir bodies rvith perfumed ointment and adorned themselveswith flowcrs and other beautiful ornaments. Thcy wcnt to the Bodhisattvalatc at night, saying, "Wc are lovc-l\'n'omen in the primc of life. Wc wish to shareyour pillow and bed so that \'ve mav cnjoy cach othcr." Looking at those wonen with his stainless cvcs, Suratasaid to them, "You are relatives and friends of hell-drvellers,animals, beirrgs of thc Yama Realm, lunatics,evil-minded people,and atrocionsriksasrsJ thar gorgc rhcnrselves stinkon ing, filthy pus and blood and indulge in impure lovc. You do not belong to thc purc family of gods'." Thcn thc Bodhisattva sooke in verse: "Confuscd anci full of impure thoughts, Fools arc attachedto the stinking, filthy body Filled with pus and blood. All that they desire.though, Will quickly pcrish Ancl passinto nought. Thcn, sucl.rfools will fall to hell, The rcalnr of Yarna. and there renuin. Even if all the won-ren in the world Wcrc translbrmed into goddesses As lovcly as you, My mind would remairrpristine, Innocent of evcn thc subtlcst dcsrre. I would regard them all As drcarnsor cnemies." Saci and thc othcr goddessesflirted to thc utmost, but the Bodhisattva was not in thc lcast stirrcd to passion.They returned to the celestialpalaceand told Sakra,"We lbund Suratato be resolute.No doubt he will attain supremecnlightcnment. Why? Becausehe is free of cvcn thc slightcst craving for us. He abhors us a l l ." Although Sakrahcard this, hc was still worried and upsct and fclt as though hc had becn shot by an arrow. Again and again he thought, "No doubt hc will ruin me and deprive me of what is mine. I must now test him once again to " determine his true purpose.

^ l

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With this in mind, Sakra went to Surata. Giving up his conceit and arrogance and prostrating himself with his head at the tsodhisattva's feet, he asked ln verse: "Virtuous one, you are most diligerrt In cultivating pure conduct. 'What, then, is your aim? To be a sun-god, a moon-god, An indra, or a brahma? I)o you strive for the throne Of any king in thc three realms?" Bodhisattva Surataanswcrcd in vcrsc: "To mc, thc rcwards of being a sun-god, A rnoon-god, an indra, or a brahml; Or of bcing a worldly king ln the three realms Arc all impcrmanent and insubstantial. How can the wise seek these?" Hearing this, Sakra inqirircd, "lf you speaktruly, what thcn do you seek?" The Bodl-risattva answcrcclin vcrsc: "l covct not u'orlclly pieasure, But scck only that bodys Subjcct to ncither birth nor death. TirelesslyI cultivate ingcnuity To dclivcr scnticnt bcings, So that toqether we nray trcad The path to enlightenment." When he heard this, Sakra felt happy and securc, and was surc ar lasr rhar Surata clid rlot strivc for his throrrc. C)verjoyed, he praised thc Boclhisattvarn
VCTSC:

"You say you rvish to save sentientbeings Crcat is yt-ruranrbitit-rnIndeed, it is unequalcd. May you dcf'catthc der-non-hordes And rcalizc the ambrosial [)harnral, And thcnceforth turn forcvcr Thc sublime Dharma-whccl."

2-1tt

ON Vrnrut aNr l)tsctPt-tNn

Aftcr hc spokc this vcrsc, Sakra rcspcctfully circumanrbulatcdSurata,prosirr treted hinrself with his head at thc Bodhisattva'sfect, and then disappearcd an instant. makirrg his rourrds tcachThe ncxt nrorning, when Bodhisattva Suratarn.as hc found a gold beJlmadc at thc beginning of the ine pcople in the city of Sravasti, kalpa, which was worth morc than thc world itself. Thc Bodhisattvahcld the gold bell in his hand and called out at thc mairl crossroadsof thc city, "Who is thc I givc l.rinrthis bcll." poorcst in thc city of Sravastr? sl.rall citv heard this, hc canre running and said to whel thc oldcst eldcr of thc Surata, "l am thc poorest it-rthe cit-v.Yott nlav givc nlc that bcll." poor. whv do I say so? Ilccausein the Surata told the clcler,"You arc 11or is the poorcst of tl-rcpoor. I shall givc him thc bcll." city there is a good man who The eldcr askcd. "Who is this nran?" is Surataanswered, "King Prasena-jit thc poorcst in thc cit.v." is Kins Prasctrajit said to Surata, "Do not say so. Why? -Becausc The elder and precious things very rich and rroble; his trcasury is ovcrt'lowing r.vith r.vealth Why do you say hc is the poorest of thc poor?" that will ncver be exhausted. Surrourrded by thc assembly [hc had been tcaching], the Rodhisattva answcrcd itr verse: "lf one has a trcasury of billiotrs And yet, duc to grccci,is still ur.rsatisfled, He is likc a great occan, Which nevcr has cnough Of thc nryriad strcamsit swallows. a Sucl-r fool is the poorest of thc poor. If such a fool allows his grccd 'I o grow, sprcad, and PcrPettlate, be He will alr.vays nccdy In his prcsent and future livcs." assclnbly to see Aftcr spcakiug this versc, tlodhisattva Suratl wcnt rvitl-rtl-rtKing Prasenajit.At that tinrc, the king, with llve hundrecl clcicrs,r'vascountinll and chccking the valuablesin his treasury. The Bodhisattvaapproachcdthe king and said, "Tl-rismorrrirrg wthcnI was nraking my rounds teachingthe pcople in thc ci6', I found a gold bcll nrade at thc bcginning of thc kalpa, which is worth more 'l than thc world itsclf. At that time, I thought to nryself, should takc the bell and 'Thc poorestin the city is qivc it to thc poorest person in the city.'Then I thought, Hrs Majcsty.'Now I want to offer the bell to Your Majcsty. SinceYour Majesty is the poorcst, pleascacceptit fron-rme." Having said this, thc tsodhisattvaspoke furthcr in vcrsc:

Boonrsarrva Sunara's l)rscounsn "Such a senseless rnar.r Who is nlonstrously grccdy And amasses riches ir-rsatiably Is callcd the poorest of all. Yor"rrMajesty, you'lcvy harsh taxcs And punish the innocent for no rcason. Inlatuated ith your sovcrcigrriry. w You ncvcr hcccl Thc future effectsof your karmas. While you cnjoy powcr in this world, You do not piotect your subjects, Ar-rdhave no pity For thc poor and srrffering. You indulge in womcn's company Without any fear of lalling To thc' miserablcplancsof existencc. You arc not even conscious Of your outragcouswickedness Arc you not poor? If one practiccs mir-rdfulness diligerrtly And dclights in self-control, Hc is callcd rich and noble, And his wcalth of goodncssu.ill bring him Etenral peaceandjoy. As a roaring conflagratior-r Never has enough wood to consunrc, So, O King, your avarice Is nevcr satiated. As the watcr can always engulf rnorc clouds, And tl-rcoccan ncvcr ovcrflows with water, So arc you, O King, Ncvcr satiated. As thc sun arrd rnoon Incessantly course through spacc, So you, O King, will nevcr rcst lrr all your life. A wise person, though, Like roaring flamcs

249

250

ON Vrnrul aNl DrscrptrNn Insatiably devouring wood, Never ceases do good. to As the water can ever engulf morc clouds, And the occan never overflou's with water, So a wise man is never satiated With his ever-increasing goodncss. Although the throne gives por,vcr, It is, after all, impernranent. All such things arc impurc; The wise should abandon thcm."

Whcn hc hcard this, King Prascnajitfclt shame and rcmorse, but he said to Surata, "Well said, virtuous onc. Although you are vcrv pcrsuasive,I still do not believe you. Is all that you have said merely your own opinion? Can sornconcclse bear witness to its truth?" The Bodhisattva replicd, "The Tathagata,the Worthy Or.re,thc Supremely Enlightcned One, who is endowecl rvith all-knowing wisdorn, is now dwclling near Srdvasti in thc garden of Arrithapindada in the Jeta Grovc, toBcther with countlessgods, humans, gandharvas, asuras,ar-rd forth. L)o you not know that? so Hc will bcar witncss that Your Majcsty is a poor man." The king said, "Virtuous one, if what you say is rruc, thcn I will go with you to see the Tathigata, listen to his teaching, take rcfugc in him, and rnake offerings to him." Thc Bodhisattva said, "Your Majcsty should know that the state of the Tathagata cannot be fathomed by ignorant, ordinary pcrsons. He is frec of all afflictions and arrogancc, and has great compassion for sentient bcings. He knows thc prcscnt anclthe future through his saintly wisdom. He will protect anyone who has good roots and superior aspirations,cven if he is far away. If he knows that I wish to convincc Your Majesty, hc will surcly come here and be my witness." Then, in the presence ofthc king, Suratabared his right shoulder,kflt on his right knee, respectfully joincd his palms, and with this verse invited the Tathigata to aFpear: "The Tathigata, with truc wisdom, Has compassionlbr sentientbcings. May hc disccrn the depth of my mind And bc so kind as to be mr{witncss." The moment the Bodhisattvafinishedspeaking,the ground suddenlyquaked and burst open, and the Tathagata sprang from the chasm, surrounded by five hundrcd Sravakas;ten thousand Bodhisattvas;brahmas, Sakras,gods, dragons, spirits, and countlessother sentientbeings.

Bolsrsarrva

Sunara's I)rscounse

251

Bodhisattva Suratathe' approachcdthc Buddha with his palms rcspectfully joincd, and said, "world-Honored one, this morni'g whc' I was teachi'g peoplc in the city, I found a gold bell made at thc beginni'g of thc kalpa, which is worth more than the cntire world itselt-.I thought, 'l shall civc this bcll to thc poorest person in thc city of Sravasti.'Ther-r thought, 'King Prascnajitis the pooresr in I the city.'Why? Presumptuously resting on his thro.e, His Malcsty has no sympathy for senticnt beings. He oppresses,exploits, cheats. a'd robs them, a'd harms them unreasonably.He is wrapped in insatiablcgreed a'd passion.Thcrcforc, I consider him to be thc poorest of men and wish to givc hinr thc gold bcll. "His Majesty asked me, 'You say that I am the poorest. Who can provc it to be true?' "I lnswcred, 'The Tathigata, thc Grcat Master, the Worthr. ()ne, thc Suprcrncly Enlightcned one, is lrce of rll afflictions, without thc slightest rrace of hatrcd, and treats all sentient bcings irnpartially. He will prove thc trurh of mv statcnlcnt.' May thc world-Flonored one instruct, benefit, and gladdcn usl" Thereupo', wishirrg to subdue King Prasenajit,the Tathagata told hinr, "Your Majesty should k.ow that from one viewpoi't, Surata is poor but your Ma.lestyis rich. From another vicwpoint, Your Majcsty is poor but Suratais rich. why? Being enthroncd, Your Majesty has worlcily powcr, and your trcasury is full of'gold, silver, pearsl, sapphires,and corals. In this rcspect, surata is poor but Your Majesty rich. "Howcver, Surata cultivates purc conduct diligently, dclights i' thc pure precepts, has lcft the household life, has acquired great learning, shuns self-indulgencc, and tirelesslydeliverslarg6 nr.rnrbers people by teachingthem thc five of lay prcccpts a'd the eight specialprcrccpts. Any one of thesc rnerits is enough to show that Your Majesty is poor but Suratarich. your Majesty should know that all the wcalth and treasuresof thc scntient bcings in the kingdonr of Kosala6cannot cqual one hundredth, onc thousandth, or one millionth of Surata's[treasury of'] firmnessand purity i'kecping the five lay precepts and the eight specialpreccprs." Flearing for himself thc true teaching of the Tathagata, King prasenajit aba'doncd all his conccit and arrogance.Looking up at surata atrenrivcly,hejoined his palms and said in verse: "How wonderful! You have thwarted my arrogance. You will acquirc The suprcmc body of a Tathigata. I will abdicatemy thronc in your favor And wish to remain forever Among your er-rlightened assembly. I am irrdeedpoor, but you are rich. Now I know your words arc true.

t5l

ON Vrnrur ANn Dtsctpt-tNr A thronc is or-rlya causeof great suffering, Compclling onc to act againstgood doctrincs And bc rcborn in thc miserableplancsof existcnce."

After speaking this vcrse, King Prasenajitsaid to the tsuddha, "WorldI Honorcd One, I now vow to attaitr sttprcnrcc-nlightenment. wish that sentrent beings may bc secure,h"ppy, and frcc fronr thc bondage of sarirsara. of "I will now dividc all my wcalth and trcasures gold, silvcr, and so forth into thrcc parts. Onc portion l will offer to thc Tathtgata, the World-Hor-rored Onc, and to thc assembiy of monks. Another portion I will give to the poor, distressed,and hclplcss peoplc-in thc city o[ Srivasti. Thc third portiorl will be rcserved for state use. I will offer all r-ny gardet-rs,ponds, flowcrs, and fruit trccs to the Supreme Tathagata and to thc asscnrblyof mor-rks.May the WorldHonored One be so kind as to acccptthem!" Seeing this occur, fivc hundred elders of Kosala all cngendercd supreme bodhicitta. Thcn Bodhisattva Surata said to thc Buddha, "World-Honored Onc, may of the Tatiragatateach thc cssence the Dharma to thc asscmblyso that those who havc nct thc Tathagatanlay not have met him in vain!" Thc World-Honorcd One told thc asscrnbly,"Good people, there are threc evcn provisions of immeasurablc nrc-rits,.rrerits which cannot be fully cr-rumcrated 'I'athagatas, What arc the three?To or lct alone by Sravakas Pratyekabuddhas. by protect ar.rduphold thc true Dharma, to bring fortl.r bodhicitta, and to Persuade others to make uncxccllcd vows. "Furthermore, there are thirty-two l)harmas that good men and good women in practicc industrior-rsly order not to have met the Tathagatain vain: 1-nust (1) To have indestructiblefaith in Tathegatas; (2) to protect and uphold the true l)harma so that it rnay endure; (3) to cstcerr tlre rnembers of the Sagha and never to slight them; with Arhats; (4) to rcspectand closely associate mind toward what is lovable or hateful; (5) to have an equal (6) always to be lbnd of hearing thc trr'rc Dl.rarma and to respect it; (7) to abide securely in quietude and tranqrrillity and to shun noise and disturbance: (8) to teach the Tathagata-vehiclc untiringiy; (9) to tcach the Dharr-rra,but not for thc sake of famc or profit; in with it; (10) to strive for thc truth and practiceassiduously accordance (11 to practicegiving; (12) to observc discipline; (13) to havc paticnce; 1 l - 1 )t o s t r i v c w i t h v i g o r ; (15) to cultivate meditation;

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253

(16) to develop true wisdom; u'ith their wishes; (17) to takc good care of sentientbeings in accordancc (18) to bring all serltient bcings to maturity, so that they may not fall away from the l)harmal (19) always to subdue oneselfwell; of (20) to subdue others by skillfuily making use of the csscnce the Dharma; (21) not to be contaminatedby any defilements; (22) ro dclight in lcaving the household life; (23) to live in a forest hermitage; (24) tc> rejoicc in cultivating the four noble practices; (25) (26) (27) (28) diligently; to practiceausteritics to give up unwholcsonre dharmas; to bc firm in one's great vows; to lead the lifc of a forest-dweller conscicntiously; (29) to plant good roots; (30) always to abidc itr scl{'-control: (31) to abandon thc vicws of the two vehicies;and (32) to praisethe Mahlyina."

When thcy heard this doctrine prtached, five hundrcd monks were freed from defilcrncnts and achieved the pure Dharma-eye; twelve thousand sentient bcings resolveclto attain suprenleenlighterrment. After bcr.rcfiting sentient beings by preaching the Dharma, the WorldHonorcd One, togethcr with tl.remonks and others who had appeared [with him in the king's trcasury], suddenly disappcared. Having sccn all this, King Prascnajit was jubilant. He gavc Bodhisattva Suratatwo garmcnts, cach of which cost one hundred thousandtaelsof gold, and said, "Wondcrful, virtuous onc! Plcascbc so kind as to accePtthese." Bodhisattva Suratatold thc king, "Your Majcsty should know that I should not take these two garments. Why so? BecauscI have a patche'drobc, which I oftcn hang on a branch in lieu of a closet. No one has ever thought of taking it away from me by fraud or by force. Purc arc thc gifts given by those who but also causeothers not to bc attached arc not orrly free of avarice thernselves, to anything." At this, King Prasenajitsaid, "lf you do not accept them, please,for my in sakc, trcad upon them to bring nre the benefit of peace and happir-ress the long night [of sarirsira]." For the king's sake, Suratatrod upon the two garments. King Prasenajit then told the Bodhisattva, "Now you have personally acccptcd the garments. What is thc usc of them to me?" Bodhisattva Suratatold the king, "Takc thc garmentsto the poor, distressed pcoplc in the city who have no one to depend on." As instructed by the Bodhisattva, King Prasenajit called the poor people together and gavc them the two garments. When they touched the clothes, the

251

ON Vtnrur aNn DisctprtNr

lunarics regained their sanity, the deaf regained thcir hearing, the blind regained their sight, and the deformed werc made whole again, all becauseof Surata's a\\'esomemiraculous power. The people said in unison, "What can we offer tsodhisattvaSuratain rcturn for his kindness?" A voice from thc sky told them, "Know that you cannot rcpay his kindness b,v offering him flowers, incense, food, or beverage; you can do so only by i m m e d i a t c l yc n g c n d c r i n g o d h i c i t t a . " b When thc fivc hundred poor people hcard this voice from the sky, they all spoke in verse: "Now we resolvc to attain bodhi. We shall bccome perfectly enlightencd Ar-rdteach thc superb doctrines, To givc pcaccandjoy to sentientbeings. We delight in bodhi, For we havc obtaincd the Buddha-Dharma." Then King Prasenajitsaid to turata, "Wondcrful, virtuous onc. Pleasetell me whcn you will go to seethe Tathigata. I shall follow you." Boc'lhisattva Surataadvisedhim, "Your Majesty should know that it is very rarc to meet a Buddha and hear thc truc Dharma. Your Majesty should not go alone. Irrstead,be a good fricnd to sentientbcings and order all thc people in the city of Sravastr to follow you tl-rcrc. Dccrce that anyonc who disobeys your instructions will be punishedaccordir-rg the royal ordinancc.Why? IJecausc just as to a Bodhisattva is adorned by the retirruesurrounding hin, a king should also be thus adorned." King Prasenajit askedthe llodhisattva, "What is the retinueof a Bodhisattva?" Surata replied, "To pcrsuadesentient beings to cngender bodhrcitta is the retinue of a Bodhisattva, becausc causes it them to be enlightencd. "To persuade sentient beings to scc thc Tathagata is thc rctinue of a tsodhisattva, bccauscthcy will then not be misled. "To persuade sentient beirrgs to hear the truc Dharrna is the retinue of a Bodhisattva, becausc causes it them to havc grcat learning. "To persuadesentient bcings to see the noblc assenrblyT the retinue of a is Bodhisattva, bccauscit enablesthem to have virtuous fricnds. "The four inducementsare the retinue of a Bodhisattva,because they attract scnticnt bcings [to the Buddha-Dharmal. "The six piramitis are the retinue of a Bodhisattva,becausc thcy enhance the sro\\-th of cnlightenmcnt. "The thirty-seven ways to enlightenment are the retinuc of a Bodhisattva, thev lead to the bodhi-site. because

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"Adorned and guarded by such a retinue, a Bodhisattva can dcfcat the demonhordes, make the lion's roar, and ascendto the supreme state." At this, King Prasenajit and the entire assemblywere overjoyed. Nine thousand sentient beings were freed from defilements and obtained the clear [Dharma-] eye. r A f t e r t h e B u d d h a h a d s p o k e nt h i s s l t r a , 8 B o d h i s a r ra S u r a r a K i n g l ) r a s e n a j i t . . the gods, humans, gandharvas,asuras,and so forth u.erejubilant over the Buddha's teachingand began to practiceit with veneration.

NOTES
j, 1 . K i n d n e s s , c o r . n p a s s i o no y . a n d e q u a n i r r r t y a r e c a l l e dt h e f o u r i r n r n e a s u r a b l e s . 2. Literally, "givcn." :., J. Lc., )rRrr \ ('0Irsorls. 4 . R a k s a s a s r e d e m o n i c , t e r r i f y i n g s p i r i t s d h a ta r e s a i d t o d e v o u r h u r n a n b t - i n g s . a 5. This probably refers to tl.rel)harnra-body of the Bucldha. 6 . T h e c i t y o f S r a v a s t iw a s l o c a t e d i n t h e k i n g d o m o f n o r t h e r n K o s a l a ( U t t a r a k o s a l a , t h e m o d e r n O u d e ) , o v e r w h i c h K i n g P r a s e n a j i tr e i g n e d . " K o s a l a " i s s o r n c t i n r c s s p c l l c d "Ko:iala" irl othcr texts. 7. I.e., the Sarirgha. '6. Although Surrte p r e a c h e dm o s t o f t h i s s r l t r a , t h c t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c l u s i o n h a s b e e n r c t a i n c d .O n c m i g h t s a y t h a t S u r a t a ' s r e a c h i n gw a s i n s p i r e db , vt h c B u d d h a a n d h i s t e a c h i n g s . p

L4 f,ts.€k's
Sumati's Questions

Thus l-raveI heard. ()nce the Iluddha was dwelling on Mount Grdhrakhta near by Rijagrha, accon'rpanicd twelve hundred lifty great monks lnd tcn thousand llodhisattva-Mahlsattvas. I Surnati, who was only eight years At that timc, an cldcr's daughtcr tt:rrnccl olcl, was living in the city of R-jagrha. She had graccful lcaturcs and was cxof quisitcll, bcautiful. -Bccausc hcr bcauty and gracc, shc was adored by evcryor-re closely with innumcrablc tsudwho saw hcr. Irr hcr past lives, shc had associated dhas, hacl nradc offerirrgsto them, and had planted good roots of every kind. Whcr-rshc arrived, shc One day this young girl wcnt to visit thc Tatl-rigata. and by paid hornagc to the Br.rdclira bowing down with her head at his 1-eet circumambulating hirn thrcc tiures to thc right. Tl-ren,kneeling with her palms joined, she spokc to thc Buddha in versc: "Uncxccllcd, Pcrfcctly Enlightcncd One, Cireat,brillant light of the world, Please listcr-r my questions to of About thc Dracticcs a llodhisattva." The tJuddhatold Sumati, "Ask whatcvcr questionsyou wish. I will explain the answersto you and rcsolvc yor-rrdoubts." Thcn Surnati asked thc Buddha in versc:
"How does one obtain graccful fcatures,

Or great wcalth ancl nobility?

b S h t r a 3 ( ) . T a i s h o 3 1 0 , p p . 5 4 7 - 5 4 9 ; t r a n s l a t c ciln t o C l h i n e s e y B o d h i r u c i

Suuarr's QursrroNs What causes onc's rebirth Among harmonious relativcsand friends? tsy what ncans may one be born ethercally, Scatcdupon a thousand-petaled lotus, To worship thc Buddhas face to facc? How can onc obtain a free contnand Of superb, miraculous powers, journey to countlesstsuddha-lands And thr.rs To pay homage to myriad Iluddhas? How can one be tiec frorn ennity And causeothcrs to believeone's words? llow may all hindranccsto Dharma be removed Ancl cvil decdsforcver cast away? At thc cnd of onc's life, How may one seenrany Buddhas, And therr,free of pain, Hear thern prcach the pure Dharrna? Most Conrpassionatc, Supremely Honored Orrc, Pleasctr:Il rnc all this."

257

The Ruddha said t. thc you.g girl Sumati, "Exceller.rt, excellert! It is good tl-rat you raisesuch profouncl qLrestions. Now, listerrcarefully and think well about this. I will tell yorr." Sur.nati said, "Ycs, World-Honorcd One, I will listen with plcasurc." Thc- Brrddha said, "Sumati, if a Bodhisattvaachicvcsfour things, hc will be cndowcd with a graceful appearancc. What arc thc tour? (1) (2) (3) (4) Not to be ar.rgry[evcn] with a bad fricnd; to havc great kir.rdness; to rcjoicc in the truc Dharma; arrd to make irnagcsof Buddhas."

The World-Honorcd Onc rcpeatcdthis in verse: "Harbor no hatred, which dcstroys good roots. Rcjoice in thc Dharma, be kind, A n d m a k e i m a g e so f B r r d d h a s . Thcsc will givc you a well-formcd body, An ever-delightfulsight ro all." The lluddha continued, "Furthermore, Sumari, if a Bodhisattva achieves four things, he will be endowcd with wealth and nobility. What are the four?

258 (1) (2) (3) (4)

ON VIntur aNo DtscrPuNe To give timely gifts; to give without contempt or arrogance; to give cheerfully; and to expect no reward."

The World-Honored One repeated this in verse: "To give timely gifts without contempt or arrogance, To give gladly without expecting a reu'ardOne who diligently practiccs thesc Vrill be reborn with wealth and nobilitv." The Buddha continucd, "Furthcrnrorc, Sumati, if a Bodhisattva achieves four things, he will have harmonious friends and kinsmen. What are the four? (1) To avoid using words that causcdisagrccncnt; (2) to help those witl.r wrong views to have right view; (3) to protect the true L)harma from extinction, causing it to endure; and (4) to teach sentientrbeings pursue the Buddha's enlightenment." to The World-Honorcd Onc rcocatedthis in vcrsc: "Sow no discord, help uproot wrong vrcws, Protcct thc truc Dharnra from cxtinction, And bring all beirrgswithin the secureembraceof bodhi. For this you will have harmonious friends and kinsmcn." . The Buddha continued, "Furtherrnore, Sumati, if a Bodhisattva achieves four things, he will be able to live among people without enmity. Wl.rat are the four? (1) To be closc to virtuous fricnds without using flattcry; ( 2 ) n o t t o e n v y o t h e r s 's u p c r i o r i t y : (3) to rejoicc whcn somcor-re wins a good reputation; and (4) not to slight or defarne the practicbsof a Bodhisattva." f'hc World-Honorcd Onc rcpcatcd this in vcrsc: "If one does r-rotwin friends by flattery, Is not jealous of others' superiority, Always rejoiccs when othcrs gain fame, And never slandersa Bodhisattva, He will be free of enmitv." The Buddha continued, "Furthermore, Sumati, a Bodhisattva'swords will be trustcd if hc practiccs four things. What arc thc four?

Suualr's QursrroNs (1) (2) (3) (4) To be consistentin word and deed; not to conceal one's cvil from friends; never to find lault with the Dharma one hears:and not to fostcr malicc againsta teacherof thc l)harrna."

259

The World-Honored One repcatedthis in vcrse: "One who is consistentin word and dccd. And ncver hides misdeedsliom lriends. Nor finds fauluwith a sfitra or its preachcr Will havc his words believcd." The Buddha continued, "Furthermorc, Sumati, if a Bodhisattva achic'es fbur things, hc will mcct no obstaclcsto [his practicc of] thc l)harma and r.vill quickly gain purity. What are thc four? (1) To embracethe three rules of conductr with deepjoy; ( 2 ) r r o t t o d i s p a r a g e r o f b r r n ds I r r a s w h e n h c a r i n gr h e n r : p (3) to treat a newly avowcd Bodhisattva as ar-r All-Knorn,ing One; and (4) to bc equally kind toward all beings." The Worlcl-Honorcd ()ne repeatcdthis in vcrse: "lf one, with dccpjoy, en-rbraccs rulcs of conduct; [Jnderstandswith faith thc profound discourses; Honors a novicc as a -tsuddha; And is equally kind toward allThen such a person'shindrar-rces vanish.,' will The Buddha continucd, "Furthermore, Sumati, if a Bodhisattva achicves four thirrgs, hc will be protected from dcmons. What are the four? (1) T'o understandthat all dharmas are equal in nature; (2) to strive vigorously for progrcss; (3) to rccollect the Buddha continually; and (4) to dedicateall good roots [to the univcrsalattainment of ellighrenmt-1r]." The World-Honored One repeatcdthis in verse : "If one knows that all dharmas are cqual in nature, Constantly makes energeticprogress, Is ever mindful of the Buddha, And dedicatesall roots of virtue [To the atrainmenrof Buddhahood by all], No dcmon can devisea way to attack him."

16rI

C)N Vrprur auo l)rscrpr-rNr

Thc Buddha continued, "Furthcrmorc, Sumati, if a Bodhisattva achieves tirur thinqs. Buddhas will appear to him at the timc of his death. What are the tbur? (1) To satisfy those in nccd of charity; (2) to understandand deeply believein virtu'ouspracticcs; (3) to provide Bodhisattvaswith adornmcnts;and (,1) to make frequent offcrings to the ThreeJe'"vels." The World-Honored One repeatedthis in verse: "One who fulfills the needsof a scekcr, (Jndcrstandsand bclievesin the profound Dharma, FurnishcsBodhisattvaswith adornments. And makcs frequent offerings To the ThreeJewels, the fields of blessing, Will see Buddhas when he dies." . . .

\'

Then Mairjr,r5ri,the Dharna Princc, askcd Sumati, "ln what L)harma do you abide, that you are able to make such a sinccrcvow?" Sum:rti rephed. "Manju(ri, this is not a propcr qucstion. Why? -tsecause thcre is no abiding in the dharmadhatu." "What is bodhi?" " N o n d i s c r i m i n a t i ( ) in b o d h i ." ) s "Who is a Bodhisattva?" "One who knows that all dharmas havc the same nature as empty spaceis a " tsodhisattva. "What arc thc cnlightcncd deedsIof a -tsodhisattval?" "Deeds that are like mirages ar-rd echocsare the enlighteneddeeds." "Upon what esotericteachingdo you bascyour statcncnt?" "l do not seeanything in this that is csotcric or otherwise." "lf that is the case,every ordinary person should be an Enlightened Ole."3 "Do you think an ordinary person is different from an Enlightcned One?aDo not take such a vicwl Why? Becar.rsc they both sharethe sante nature, that of the dharr-nadhatu; there is nothing in eithcr to grasp or abandon, to accomplish or dcstroy." "lJow many people can understandthis?" "Thc illusory bcings who undcrstandthis are equal in numbcr to the illusory " n r i r r d s n d m c r r t a lf u n c t i o r r s .5 a "lllusions do not cxist; how can thcrc be minds and mental Mairju5ri said, functions?" "They are like the dharnradhitu, which ncithcr existsnor does not exist. Thc same is true of the Tathacata." . . .

Suuau's QursrroNs

261

NOTES
1. The threc mles of conduct may reler to the thrcc rulcs for protecting onc from evil, l n a m e l y , d i s c i p l i n e , m e d i t a t i o n , a n d t r a n s c e n d e n t au ' i s d o m . T h e y m a y a l s o r e l e r t o t h e B o d h i s a t t v a s 'p r e c e p t s ,w h i c h i n c l u d c t h r c c b r a n c h e s :t h e d i s c i p l i n eo f p u r e c o n d u c t ( P r a t i m o k s a ) , t h e d i s c i p l i n co f a l t r u i s t i c d e e d s ,a n d t h e d i s c i p h n eo i c m b r a c r n g a l l v i r t u o u s d e e d s . 2 . L i t e r a l l y , " T h e D h a r m a o f n o n d i s c r i m i n a t i o ni s b o d h i . " 3. Literally, "every ordinary personshould be bodhi." 4. An Enlightened One: literally, "bodhi." 'rnental functions'. but it can also mean 5. The Chinese tcrm ,L'ffi is hcrc rcndercd as the oualitics and conditrons of mind.

15 @w.ffie
Vinava The Definitive

Thus have I heard. Orrce the Buddha was dwclling in thc gardcn of An-thapi'lclada,in thcJcta Grovc ncar Srivastr, accornpanicd twclvc hundred fifty great by fivc hundrcd thousand Bodhisattva-Mahisattvas. monks ar-rd The World-Honored One cast his eyes upon the assembly and surveyed it like a king of dragons or elephants.Then he asked thc tsodhisattva-Mahlsattvas, "Good men, which one of you can, in thc Last Era, protect and uphold the true Dharma?"Which one of you can cmbrace the Dharma leading to supreme cnlightcnrnent thc Dharma which took thc Tathagatair-rcalculablc hundrcds of thousands of Imillions ofl billions of myriads of kalpas to accumulate-and abide securely in thc csoteric [tcachings] to bring scnticnt bcings to maturity by various skillful means?" Then tsodhisattva Maitreya rose irom his seat, bared his right shoulder, knclt on his right kncc, joincd his palms, and said, "World-Honored One, I can, in the Last Era, protect and uphold the Dharma leading to supremeenlightenmentthc Dharma which took the Tathigata incalculable hundreds of thousandsof [millions of] billions of myriads of kalpasto accumulatc." Bodhisattva Lion Wisdom said, "I can abide securelyin the esoteric[teachingsl and bring sentientbeings to maturity by various skillful means." Bodhisattva Infinite Thought said, "l can libcrate inexhaustiblc rcalms of scnticnt bcings by my great vows." llodhisattva Worthy said, "l can causeall sentient beings who hear my name to rttain maturity without fail." . . .1 tlodhisattva Ren-roving Obstruction said, "I can releaseselltient beings from the shackles defilements." of

24, Sutra Taisho310,pp. 514-519; translated Chinese Bodhiruci. into by

Tnr DtrrNrrrvl VrNaya

263

BodhisattvaWisdom Banner said, "l can rid sentienrbeinqs of the shroud of " ignorance. Bodhisattva Sun Banner said, "l can constantl,vbring scnticnt bcings ro maturity by giving them pcaceand joy." . . . Bodhisattva Good Eyc said, "l can give senrienrbcings the pcacc and happiness that arc in their self-nature." Bodhisattva Avalokitc(vara said, "I can exrricatc se-ntient bcinss from the miserableplanesof cxistcnce." llodhisattva lJnivcrsal Virtue said, "I can causesenticr)tbcings to libcrate thcmsclvesby remembcrir-rg suffcringsthey cndurcd in the past." the Bodhisattva Wonderfully Pliant said, "l can brinq to nraturirv the lou'ly, inferior beings who have littlc rvisdonr." . Bodhisattva Great Might said, "I can close thc doors to all the n-riserablc pianesofexistcncc for scntient beings." . . . Bodhisattva Moonlight said, "I can givc sentient beings ultir-r-rate peacc and h . r p p i ns s . e " Bodhisattva Sunlight said, "l car-r bring to maturity those scntient beings who have not yet nraturcd." Rodhisattva Unclefiled said, "l can causc sentient beinqs to fulfil all thcir aspirations.". Bodhisattva Fearlesssaid, "l can attract sentierlt beir-rss into the Buddhal)harma bv praising and benefiting thcm." -BodhisattvaImt-neasurable said, "I can show sentient bcir-rgs the unconditioncd truth that underliesall dharmas." .BodhisattvaFcarlesssaid, "l can r-nakewhatcvcr kinds of maniti.stations s c n t i c n tb e u r g sw i s l r . " . 'I'rove BoclhisattvaTrcasurc said, "I can delivcr scnticnt bcinss from all hindranccs." . Ilodhisattva l)ianrond said, "l can rcvcal to senticnt beings the right path." BodhisattvalllessedAppcarancesaid, "l can liberatcsentientbcings by plcasing them." . . Bodhisattva Undefiled said, "l can love and protect all sentient bcinss and thcrcby bring thern to rnaturity." (iolden Light said, "l can appcar in various corporc:rltbrms to ,Bodhisattva bring sentier-rt bcings to rnaturity." . Thc youthful [tsodhisattva] Net of Light said, "l can manitt'sr lieht lbr sentientbeings to eliminatc thcir afflictions in thc Last Era." When Sariputra heard thc Bodl-risattvas valiantlv nrakc thcsc srcat vows to bring senticntbeings to maturity, he marvclcd at this unprccccler.rted cvent and said to the Buddha, "Most extraordinary, World-Honored ()ncl Thcse Bodhisattvas are inconceivablc.They arc filled with great compassionand ingcnuity; thcy adorn themselveswith valor and vigor. Thcy cannot be fathomcd or corrupted by any being, nor can they be outshone by any brilliance. World-Honored One, I will

261

ON Vrnrul aNt l)rs<;tpull

crrol thc crtrlordinary feats of thc Bodhisattvas:they can lrcclv givc anything rhcr' h,rvc to anyone who asks for it, including their heads, cycs, cars, rloscs, feet. World-Honored C)nc, I ofien think that if a llodhisattva is boJrcs. hands, ar-rd nor atraid or fainthcartedevcn whcn forccd to givc up all hc has, external and inrcrnal. then he must be an inconccivablc,libcratcd IJodhisattva." T h c B u d d h a r o l d S l r i p r r t r , r " l t i s s . r . i t i s s . r .j u s r a s y o u s ; r y .N o S r i v r k a o r . l)ran'ckabr,rddha know thc statc of .,visdonr,ingenuity, and sam5dhi in which can thcsc Bodhisattvasdwcll. "siriputra, thcsc grcat Bodhisatn'as,like Buddhas, can pcrform miraculous teatsto satisfythc dcsircsof sentientbeings, rvhilc thcir nrinds remain unnovcd by ant' dharma. "lf senticnt beings are lbnd of thc houschold lifc, haughti', and unrestrained, these Ilodhisattvas can appear as qrcat laynrcl-r arr"'csonrc of virtuc to teach those senticnt bcings thc Dharnra, so that thcy nray bc brought to nraturity. "lf sentient beings with great strength become arroqant, thc Ilodhisattvas can appearin the form of a gigantic Nlrayana and explain the l)harnra to thcrn, so that thcy may be subdued. "lf sentient beings wislr to seek nirvina, thcsc Boc'lhisattvas can appcar as Sravakas ar-rd explain the l)harr-na to thcl-r-r, thcreby liberating thcnr. "lf ser-rtient beir-rgs like to contcnrplate dependent origination, thc Ilodhisattvascan appear as Pratyckabuddhas'ar-rd explain thc l)harnra to thosc scnricnt beings, thercby liberating thcrn. "If scntictrtbcings wish to attain suprenrccnlightcnmcnt, thcsc Bodhisattvas can appearas Buddhas and lead thenr into thc Buddha-wisdom, thereby libcrating them. "Thus, Sr.ip,ttrr, thcse Bodhisattvasemploy various skillful nlearlsro perle'ct scnticnt bcings and causethcm all to dwell securelyin the Buddha-Dharnra. 'l'athagata's Why? tsecause only thc wisdorlr can result in libe-ratior-r ultimate and nirv-rra; there is no other vehiclc that can carry onc to salvation. It is for this rcasorl that the Tatl-r-gatais called a Tathigata. Bccausc the Tathlgata knows thusnessas it is, he is called a Tathigata Ia Thus-Conrc Onc]. Bccausehe can do arrything that scnticnt bcings wish, hc is callcd a Tathlgata. Ilecausehc has pcrlected the root of all wholcsomc dharmas and cut off the root of all unwholcsomc he dharrr-ras, is calleda Tathagata.Bccausc- can shor,v hc scnticnrbcings the parh to libcratiol, hc is callecia Tath-gata. IJccause can causcscnticlrt bcings to avoid he \\'ron!l paths and rcnrain on the right path, he is calleda Tath-gata. Because can he cxplairrthe true'meaning of tl-re enrptincss all cihlrmas, hc is callcCa Tathigata. of "Siriputra, a Bodhisattva knows thc various aspirationsof scntient bcings, .rnd bv preacl-ring l)harnra to thcnr accordingly, hc libcratcsthcm. l'{e reveals thc tnrc u'isdom to ignorant peoplc. He carr producc all kinds of illtrsory splcndors n'rthout af-tcctingthc clharnradhatu, and crusc scnticnt bcings to niove uradually ' t r ' \ \ . r r dr l t , r h , r r t t r l ' n i r v a n a . "Furthcrniorc, St.iput.", a lav Bodhisattva who dwells in kindncss and

THI l)ruNrrrvl

VrN,qya

harmlcssncss should practicc two kinds of giving. What arc thc two? The first is thc giving of Dharma; the secondis the giving of rnate rial possessions. "A Bodhisattva who has left thc householdlife should practicc four kinds of giving. What arc thc four? (1) (2) (3) (4\
\'/

To give pens [with which to copy sutras]; to givc ink; to give scriptures;arrd r-o r '' -i v e i r r s r r r r c r i oiln t h c l ) h e r r r r a . r ' b

"A Bodhisattvawho has achievedthe Realization the Nonarising of Dharof nras should always bc rcady to givc in thrce ways. What arc thc thrce? To qive his throne; l-ris wifc and sorr;and his head, cycs, and lin-rbs. givc thus is srcat, rnost To rvonde-rtul giving. "2 "World-Honored Onc, arc these lJodhisattvas Sariputra asked thc Br,rddl-ra, not :lfraid of dcsirc, hatrcd, and ignorance?" 'I'he Buddha answcrcd. "S-ripLrtra, all Bodhisattvas should guard against two breraches discipline What arc thc two? First, to break thc disciplinc out of of . hatred; second, to brcak the disciplineout ofignorancc. Both are qravc breaches. "sariputra, if a breach of disciplineis comrnitted out of desire, it is a finc, srrbtlefault, but hard to eliminatc; if out of hatred, it is a gross, seriousfault, but easy to eliminatc; i[ out ofignorancc, it is a very gravc, decp-seatcd fault and very harcl to clirninate. "Why? Desire is the seed of all kincls of existencc;it causesonc to be involvcd in sadrsira cncllcssly.For this rcason, it is fine and subtle, but hard to scvcr. Onc who breaksthc prcccptsout of hatred will fill to thc miserablcplancsof cxistcncc,but rnay quickly get rid [of hatredl. Onc who breaksthc prcceptsout of ignorance will fall to thc cighr grcrrt hells.r and have grcat difficulty in being r c l c a s c d f r o n r i g r r o r a r r c cIl . I "Furthermore, Sirip.rt.a, if a Bodhisattvahas commirrcd a pirijika,s he should carncstly and sincerely confbss his misdecd to ten pure monks (bhiksus).If a tsodhisattvahas cornmitted a sarhghave6esa,('hc should earncstlyconfcsshis misdccd to fivc purc monks. If a Bodhisattvais affcctcdby a woman's passion, oris attractcd to her becausethey have exchangcdglances,he should carnestlyconfesshis misdccc'l one or two purc monks. to "slriputra, if a tsodhisattvahas conrmitted onc of the five grave oti'enses, a partjika, or a sarirghivaiesa; has dorre harnr to sttlpasor nronks: or has comor mrtted some other crime, l-rcshould sincerely rcpcnt in solitudc dar. and night bcforc thc thirty-five Buddhas, saying: "'1, so-and-so, takerrefugc in the Buddha, the Dharnra. ancl the Sarhgha. NamoT Sikyamuni Uuddha; namo IndcstructibleDiamond Buddha; namoJewelled Light Buddha; nanlo Noblc Dragon King Buddha; namo Vigorous Soldier Buddha; namo Joy of Vigor Buddha; namo Precious Flamc Buddl-ra; namo Precious Moonlight Suddha; namo Manilbstillg No Ignorance Buddha; namo PreciousMoon

266

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Buddha; namo Unsullied Buddha; namo CourageousGivBuddha; namo Stainlcss inq tsuddha: namo Pure Buddha; namo Pure Giving tsuddha; namo Sa-Liu-Nan tsuddha: namo Water Deva Buddha; namo Firm Virtue Buddha; namo Sandals'ood Merit tsuddha; namo Infinite Quantities of Light Bud{h-a; namo Brilliant Virtue tsuddha; namo Confident Virtue Buddha; namo-.$iiiiyana Buddha; namo Flon'er of Merit Buddha; namo Performing Miracles with Lotus Light Buddha; namo Wealth and Merit Buddha; namo Virtuous Thought Buddha; namo Good Reputation and Merit Buddha; namo King of Red, Flaming Banner Buddha; namo Roaming Wcll in Merits Buddha; namo -Battle-Winningtsuddha; namo Good Wayfarer tsuddha;namo Surroundedby Glorious Merits Buddha; namo Roaming among PreciousFlowers Buddha; namo King Residing Well among PreciousLotuscs and SalaTrees Buddha. "'May all these and other Buddhas, World-Honored Ones of all the uniott verses,stay in the world forever. May thcy havc conrpassiotr nrc. "'I now reperrt all the transgressions which I have committed by myself, abettcdothcrs to commit, or been glad to sceothcrs comnrit, in nry presentlife, in sarirsira. my past lives, and cvcr since my involvement in beginninglcss " ' l r e p e r r tt h t ' c r i r r r c s o f s t e a l i r r g r o m s t u p a s .f r o m m o n k s . o r f r o n t t h e f common possessions thc Srrhghain thc four quarters-crirrrcs'whichI havc conrof mittcd by mysclf, abcttcd others to comnit, or been glad to scc othcrs commit. "'l rcpcnt thc fivc grave offenseswhich I have committccl by mysclf, abetted othcrs to commit, or been glad to seeothers contrnit. "'I repent the ten evil deeds which I have comn.rittedby myseli abetted others to commit, or been glad to seeothers commit. "'l repent thc crinres I have committed, which, whether I hide them or not, will cause me to fall to the miserable planes of existence-the planes of helldwcllcrs, hungry ghosts, and animals-or causeme to be reborn in the frorrtiers;as a lowly, infcrior being; or in a land of barbarians.May the tsuddhas,the Worldand take care of me. Honorcd Oncs, be rny witnesses "'In thc presenceof the Buddhas, the World-Honorcd Oncs, I will further say: if in my presentlifc or other lives I have planted any good roots, such as the good roots of giving, even giving only a handful of food to an animal; of kccping the di"cipline; of leading a purc lifc; of helping sentient beings; and of cultivating enlightenment and thc uncxcelled wisdom-then, I will gather up all thcsc good roots, calculate them, neasure them, and dedicate them to [the universal attainment of] supreme enlightcnmcnt. I will make the same dedication as that made by all the Buddhas of the present, past, and futurc. "'All my transgressions now repent. I I rcjoice in all othcrs' blessings. And in the virtues of Buddhas. May I achieve the unexcelled wisdom

Tnn I)prrNrrrvr VrNay,q The Buddhas of thc past, prcsent! and fururc Arc suprenrcamong all bcings. I now take refugc in and pay hontagt-to The lmmcasurablc Oceansof Vrrtue.' "Thercfore, Sr.ip.rt.r, the llodhisattva should first oi all contcrnplatcthose thirty-five Buddhas singlc-mi'dedly, then pay homagc ro all Tarhrgatas,and rhus rcpcnt with a pure mind. If his transgrcssions have bccn purit-icd,thc Buddhas will immediately appcar belbrc hinr. "Furthcrmore, in order to dcliver scntientbeings, IJodhisattvas u.ill. without affccting thc dharrnadhatu, manifest tl-renrsclvcs diffcrcnt fbrn-rs to lultll thc in various wishes of scnticrltbcings, thcreby liberating thcrn. "Seripnt.r, if a Ilodhisattva entcrsthe Samadhiof Great Co'rpassion, hc can appcar in thc realrnsof hclls, animals, or Yarna to bring scntientbeir-rgs nlaturto ity. If he enters the Samidhi of Great Magnificc'ce, he ca' appcar as a' cldcr t<r bring sentient bcings to maturity. If he enters thc Samadhi of Supremacy, he ca' appcar as a universalmotrarch to bring scntientbeirrgsto maturity. If hc cntcrs the San-radhi Awcsornc Effulgcncc, he car-r of appear in thc wondcrful form of a (akra or a brahn-rito bring scrlticntbeings to maturity. If hc cntcrs thc Samadhi of Orre l)irectiorr, he can appcar ls a Sravakato bring serlricntbeings to maturity. If he cntcrs the Samadhi of Purity, hc can appcar as a Pratyekabuddha bring scntient to bcirrgs to natlrrity. lf he entcrs the Samidhi of Tranquaillity, he can appear as a tsuddha to bring scnticnt bcirgs to maturity. If he entersthc samldhi of the Free commarrd of All Dharrrras,hc carr manifcst all kinds of forrns as he wishcs to br.ittgscutrentbcings tcr matr:rirr'. "A Bodhisattva may appearas a 6akra,a brahmi, or a universalmonarch in order to bring scntient beings to maturity, but hc does not aflcct the dharmadhitu in doing so. !7hy? Becauscalthough he appearsi'all forrns to comply with Ithe desiresofl senticnt beings, hc sccsno bodily forrn a'd no se'ricnt being, for both arc inapprehensiblc. "Serip.rtr", what do you think? Can a snralljackal roar like a lion?" Sa.iprrtraanswered,"No, World-honored One." "Car a donkey bear thc sane hcavy burdcn borne by a large elephant?" "No, World-Honored Onc. " "(lan a poor, humblc person bc as awe-irrspiringand free as a jakra or a
DrannlJ i

"No, World-Honored Or-re. " "Can any small bird soar like a powerful, golden-wingcd garuda, the king of birds?" "No, World-Honored One. " T h e B u d d h a s r i d , " s i r n i l a r l y , S e r i p u t r a ,b y t h e i r w i s d o r n o f r e n u n c i a r i o n , tsodhisattvas who have good roots and courage can purify their transgressions,be

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tice oiuorrv atrd rcmorse, and thcrcby seeBuddhas and achievesamidhis. Howcannot rid thcmsclvesofthe tvcr. ordinan'peoplc, Srivakas, and Pratyekabuddhas hinlranccs causedby thcir transgressions. ''Ii a Bodhisattva repeatsthc names of thosc tsuddhasand docs the three his thrn!:s nrentioncd aboveeday and night, he can eradicate offcnses,be free from norrv and remorsc, and achievesamadhis." At that time, Upali cmcrged from concct-ttrationand werlt to see the Budcircumambulating thc After bowing with his hcad at the Buddha's feet ar.rd .1ha. three times to his right, he stood to onc side and said to him, "Worldtluddha 'When I Honorecl One, as I was sitting alonc in a quiet placc r-t'reditating,thought, the World-Honored Onc was cxplainine thc Pritinroksa-the pure disciplirre-to and Bodhisattvas,hc said, "You should rather givc up Pratyekabuddhas, Sravakas, body and life than brcak thc prcccpts."'World-Horrored ()nc, what should your ar.rdwhat should bc thc bc the Pritimoksa of Srivakes and Pratyekabuddhas, Pritimoksa of Bodhisattvas, rvhilc thc Buddha stays in thc world and after he entcrs parinirv[r]a? The Worid-Honored C)ne says I an-r forcmost in preccptkccping. How should I understandthe subtlc mcaning of the Vinaya? If I pcrsonally hear it from thc Buddha and acccpt and practiceit until I achievefearlcssness, then I can cxtcnsivcly cxplain it to othcrs. Now that tl-reBodhisattvasand monks lrom all placeshavc gathcrcclhcrc, may the Buddha discourseextensivelyon the " defirritivcVinaya to resolvc our doubts." Thereupon, the World-Honored One told Upali, "Now, Upili, you should kr-row that the purc precepts observed by Bodhisattvas and thosc observed by Srivakas are diffbrent both in aim and in practice.Upali, a purc precept observcd A by Sravakasmay be a great brcach of disciplinefor Bodl.risattvas. pure precept for Srlvakas. observedby Bodhisattvasmay be a great brcach o[discipline "What is a pure prccept for Srdvakasbut a grcat brcach of discipline for Bodhisattvas?For cxample, Upali, not to engender a single thought of taking flrther rebirth is a pure precept for Sravakasbut a great breach of discipline for but a grcat brcach of disBodliisattvas. What is a pure precept for tsodhisattvas cipline for Srivakas? For example, to lbilow the Mahayina doctrine and to tolcrate nunber of kalpasis a pure precept for an incalculablc rcbirths, without abhorrence, lbr Bodhisattvasbut a grcat breach ofdiscipline for Sravakas. "For this rcason, the Buddha tc-achcs Bodhisattvaspreceptswhich need not bc strictly and literally observed, but teachesSravakasprcccpts which must bc srrictly and litcrally observcd; hc tcachcsBodhisattvasprcccptswhich are at once Sravakas prcccptswhich are only prohibipcrnrissiveand prohibitive,l0 b.tt teaches tive; he teachestsodhisattvaspreceptswhich are for the dcpth of thc nrind, but preceptswhich guidc thcnr step by step.lr Sravakas t!'aches "Why do thc Bodhisattvas' precepts not need to be strictly and literally obrcrvcd rvhile thosc for Srlvakas must be strictly and literally observed?Whcn kecp.vlqthe pure precepts,Bodhisattvasshould comply with sentient beings, but prcccptsneed not be strictly and not; therefore,the tsodhisattvas' Sravakasshor-rld

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literally observcd while those for Sravakasnlust be strictly and literally observed. "why do Bodhisattvaskecp preccptswhich arc at once permissivea'd prohibitivc, while Sravakas keep prcceptswhich arc only prohibitive? "lf a Bodhisattva who has resolved to practice the Mahtyana breaks a preccpt in the morning but does not abandon his detcrmination to seek all-knowing wisdom at midday, his discipline-bodyr2 remains undestroycd.If hc breaks a precept at midday but docs not abandonhis detcrminationto seekall-knowing wisdom in the afternoon, his discipline-body remains undestroyed. If he breaks a precepr rn the afternoon but docs not abandon his determination to seek all-knowing wisdom in thc cvening, his discipline-bodyremains undestroyed.If he breaks a preceprin the evening but docs not abandon his determination to seek all-knowing wisdom at midnight, his discipline-body remains undestroycd. If he brcaks a precept at midnight but does not abandon his dctcrmination to seek all-knowing wisdom before dawn, his discipline-body remai's u'destroyed. If he breaks a precept betbre dawn but docs not abandon his determinationto scck all-knowing wisdom in the morning, his discipline-body remains undestroyed. "For this reason, people who follow the Bodhisattva-vehicle keep precepts which arc both permissiveand prohibitive. If they violate any precepr,they should not becomc dismayed and afflict themsclves wirh unnecessarygrief and remorse. "However, if a Sravakabreaks any precept, he destroyshis pure discipline. '[/hy? Because Srivakas, to eradicate their dcfilements, must keep the preceprs with such inte'sity as if they wcrc saving their heads from fire. They aspire to nirvana only. For rl.ris rcason, they kcep preceptswhich are prohibitivc only. "Furthermore, Upali, why do Bodhisartvaskeep preceptsfor the depth of thc mind, while Sravakaskeep preccptswhich guide them step by step? "Eve' if tsodhisattvas enjoy the five sensuous plcasures with unrestricted freedom for kalpas as numcrous as the sands ofthc Ganges, as long as they do not givc up their bodhicitta, they are said not to break thc precepts.Why? Because Bodhisattvasarc skilled in protecting their bodhicitra,and dwell securelyin it; they are not afflictcd by any passions,even in dreams. Further, they should gradually root out their defilcmcnts instead of exterminating them all in one lifetime. "In contrast, Sravakasriper-rtheir roots of virtue as hurriedly as if tney were saving thcir heads from fire. They do not likc to entertain even one thought of taking furthcr rebirth. "For this reason, followers of thc Mahayina keep precepts for the depth of the mi'd, prcccpts which are both permissiveand prohibitive and which need not bc strictly and literally observed;while Srivakas keep preceptswhich gurde them step by step, which are prohibitive only, and which must be strictlv and literally observed. "Upeli, it is very hard for those who pursuethe Mahiytna to attain supreme enlightenment; they cannot achieve it unless they are equipped with great, magnifice't [virtucs]. Therefore, Bodhisattvas never feel abhorrence even if they are constantly involved irr sarhsira for an incalculable number of kalpas. This is why

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rl-rcTathaqata.through his observation,finds that hc should not always teach thc doctrinc of rcnuncrationto followers of the Mahayana, nor should hc always teach rhcnr rhc \\'r.\' to realizenirvana quickly. Instcad, thcv should bc taught the prot,runl. u'onde-rtul, undcfiled doctrine which is in unison r.vithkindnessandjoy, the .ltrirrlnr oi detachment and freedom from gricf and remorse, the doctrinc of unhindc-redcmptincss, so that after hearing it, the Bodhisattvaswill not tirc of t'L-1ng involved in sarhsara and will attain suprcmc enlightetrmcntwithout fail." Then Upali asked the tsuddha, "World-Honorcd One, suppose a Bodhisatn'abrcaks a prccept out ofdesirc; another doesso out ofhatred; and still another docs so out of ignorance. World-Honorecl One, u-hich one of thc three offensesis the most serious?" The World-Honorcd One ansn'eredUpili. "lf, while pracricing the Mahayana, a Bodhisattva continucs to break preceptsout of desirdlbr kalpasas numcrous as the sands of thc Ganges,his oifcnsc is still minor. If a Bodhisattva breaks preceptsout of hatre{ evcnjust once, his offcnseis very serious.Why? Becausca -tsodhisattva who breaks preceptsout of desire [still] holds senrienrbeings in his embrace, whereas a Bodhisattva who breaks precepts or.rtof hatrcd forsakes sentient beings dltogether. "Upali, a Bodhisattva should not be afraid of the passionswhich can help him hold sentient beir-rgs his embrace, but hc should fear the passionswhich can in causehim to forsakc scnticnt beings. "Upali, as the Buddha l.ras said, dcsircis hard to give up, but is a subtle fault; hatrcd is casy to give up, but is a seriousfault; ignoranccis difficult to give up, and is a very serious fault. "Upali, when involved in dcfilcments,Bodhisattvasshould toleratethe small transgressions which are hard to avoid, but should not toleratethe grave transgressions which are easyto avoid, not even in a drcam. For this rcason,if a follower of the Mahayana breakspreceptsout of desire,I say he is not a trans€lressor; if he but brcaks prcceptsout ofhatred, it is a grave offense,a gross fault, a scrious,degenerate act, which causes tremendoushindrancesto the Buddha-Dharma. "Upili, if a Bodhisattva is not thoroughly conversantwith the Vinaya, he will be afraid when he transgresses out of desire, but will not be afraid when he transgrcsscs out of hatred. If a Bodhisattva is thoroughly conversant with the Vinaya, he will not be afraid when he transgresses out of dcsire, but will bc afraid when he transgresses ofhatred." out Then, from among the asscmbly, Manju5ri, Prince of the Dharma, asked the Buddha, "World-Honorcd One, all dharmas are ultimately Vinayr,. Why arc regulations necessary?" The Buddha answered ManjuSri, "lf ordinary people knew that all dharmas are ultimately Vinaya, thc Tathagata would not tcach them the regulations, but becausethey do not know that, the Tathagata gradually teachesthem the rules to enlighten them." Upili said to the Buddha, "World-Honorcd One, the Tathasata has dis-

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coursed on the definitive Vinaya, but Manju5ri has not said anything on this subjcct. May thc Worid-Honored One command Manju(ri to explain it breifly." The Buddha told ManjuSrr, "Now you should expound the subtlc meaning of the Ultimate Vinaya. Up5li will be happy to hear it." Manju5ri, the I)harn-raPrincc, said to Upili, "All dharmas are ultimately quiescentwhen the mind is quiesccnt;this is calledthc Ultimatc Vinaya. "No dharma is found to have a self-entity whcn the mind is not defiled or attached;this is called thc Vinaya of No Regret. "All dharmas are purc by nature when the mind is not confusedIby wrong vrcws]; this is called thc SupremeVinaya. "All dharrnasare suchness itsclf when the mind is dcvoid oiall viervs:this is callcd the Pure Vinaya. "No dharnra comes or goes whcn the mind does not discriminatc; this is callcd thc InconccivablcVinaya. "No dharma abides or clings when thc mind ceases from monlcnt to monrcnt; this is callcd thc Vinaya of the Purification of the Planesof Existencc. "All dharmas abidc in emptinesswhcn the mind is lrec of all signs; this is called therVinaya oi Intrinsic Transccndcnce. "Dharmas have no past, present,or future, for they arc inapprehensiblc; this is called the Vinaya of thc Equality of the Thrce Phases Timc. of "No dharma can be cstablished when thc mind is lrec from discrimination:13 this is called the Vinaya of thc PcrmanentResolutronof l)oubt. "Upeli, this is thc Ultimate Vinaya of thc dharmadhatu,by which tsuddhas, World-Honorcd Oncs, have attained tsuddhahood. A good man who does not observethis wcll is far from keeping the pure prcceptsof the Tathigata." Thcreupon, Upali said to thc tsuddha, "World-Honored One, the doctrines " Manju6rr cxpounds are inconccivablc. The World-Honorcd Onc told Upili, "Manju5rr cxpounds rhe Dharma on tl-rebasis of inconccivablc, uninrpeded libcration. For this reasorl,whatever doctrine he preaches enables one to be frcc from mental forms, which is the liberation of mind. He causes the arrogant to give up thcir arrogance." Up-li asked the Buddha, "What corrstitutcs rhe arrogancco[ a SrJvakaor a Bodhisattv,?" The Buddha replied to Up5li, "lf a monk thinks he has eradicatccl sire, hc de is arrogant. If hc thinks he has cradicatedhatred and ignorance, hc is arrosant. If he thinks that desireis diffcrent fron'r thc Dharma of Buddhas, hc is arrosant. If he thinks that hatreciis diffcrcnt from the l)harma of Buddhas, hc is arroeant. If he thinks that ignoranceis diffcrent from thc Dharma of Iluddhas, hc is arroeant.laIf he claims to have gained something, he is arrogant. If hc claims to have realized something, hc is arrogant. If hc claims to havc attainedliberation. he is arrogant. If he claims to perceive emptiness,signlessness, and rvishlessness, is also arhc rogant. If he claims to perceivc nonarising and nonaction, he is arrogant. If he claims to perceivc the existenceof dharmas, he is arrogarrt. If hc claims to pcr-

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'What is thc use -eivc thc impermanenceof dharmas, he is arrogant. If he savs, ,i sincc all dharmas are empty?'hc is also arrosant. Upali, these conf.ractice, - : : : u t (t h c s r r o g a n c c f a S r d v a k l . o "What constitutesthc arrollanceof a Bodhisattva? a Bodhisattvathirrks hc If .:r.-uld resolvc to seek all-knowing wisdonr, he is arrogant. If he thinks hc should 'Only thc pl'amitt of wisdom ::,1.ucr the six paramitas,hc is arrogant. If hc savs. -'.,:r dcpendedupon to achicvclibcration; thcrc is no other way out Iof the threc bc and anothcr :rrlnrsl,'thcn he is arrogatrt.If hc saysonc doctrinc is very profout-rd arrogant. If hc saysotre doctriuc is pure and anothcr is not, thcn :: not. he is agair-r 'This is thc doctrine of lluddhas; this is tl-redoctrine of hc is arrogant. If he says, of this is the doctrir-rc Srlr'.ikas.'he is also arrogant. If he says, Pratvekabuddhas; 'This 'This doctrinc . s h o u l db e d o n c a n d t h a t s h o u l dn o t , ' h c i s a r r o q a t r t I f h e s a y s , is profound and that is not,' hc is arrogant. If hc sa)'s onc doctrinc is close [to 'This is a right path cnliqhtcnmcnt] and another is not. he is arrogant. If he savs, 'Catr I attain supremc cnand that is a wrong otie,' hc is arrogant. If hc asks, 'All d h a r n r a s r ei n c o n c e i v a l i q h t c n n r e n t u i c k l y o r n o t ? ' h e i s a r r o g a n t .I f h e s a v s , q .rblc and only I can understand thcm,' then hc is arroqatrt. If hc thinks of thc inconccivablcsupremc cnlightenmcnt and becomcsgrcatlYatt4chcdto it, then he is thc Jrrogant. Thcsc cor-rstitute arroganceof a Ilodhisattva." Upali asked the Buddha, "World-Honored Onc, how can r monk bc free ti-om arrogance?" Upali, "If he is not attached to any doctrrnc, no Thc tsuddha atrswerred it mattcr how irrconceivable is, he is completeiy free from arrogancc." tn.r., to cxplain the teaching furthcr, the World-Honored Onc spokc in u.rr.,

"A11play-words arise from thc nrind; should be made No discriminatior-r Bctwecr-rwhat is dharnra and what is trot He who secsthe dharna as inconccivable Will always dwcll happily in the world. Bcing dcluded, ordinary mcn Arc turned by their o'uvnminds; For kalpas, thev circlc and circle I r r t h c v a r r o u sr r ' l l n t s o f s a r i t s i r r . It is truly inconccivablc llaturc of dharmas To know that tl-re Is no naturc. If a rnorrk stays mindful of the Buddhas, His thought is not proper Ar-rdhis mindfulnessnot right;15

Tttr DerlNtrtvr VtNava Vainly making distinctions about Buddhas, FIe seesno truth whatsoevcr. Onc who thinks about thc teachingof emptincss Is a fool, lingering on thc wrong path; Expianationsof emptincssare mere words; Both words and emptinessare inapprehensible. One who contcmplatesthe teachingof quicsccnce Should know the mind is cmpty and unboru. The mind's reflections and observations Arc all futilc and meaningless. To havc no thought [and makc no distinctions] Is to scc all dharrnas, For all dlrarrrras apart frorn thought, xre And all thoughts and ideasare empty. Onc who cnjoys colltenplatioll on emptincss Should transcend even the statc without thought. Dharmas, like grasses and trees,have no awareness; Apart frorrr the mind they are inappreher-rsible. Scrrticnt beings are devoid of selGcntity; So are all dharmas. The eye can seewhile there is sunlight, But it sccs nought when night falls. If the eye could seeby itself, 'Why should it rely orr corrditions to act? It is cntircly due to various lights That thc cyc can scc all coiors. Since sight dcpcnds on conditions, It is obvious that by itsclf thc cyt) cannot see. A pleasantsound vanishesas soon as it is heard; One knows not whcrc it goes. It is due to discriminationThat the concept of sound arises. All dhannas arc but thc sounds of words, And thc words are merely arbitrary fabrications. Not knowing that these sounds Are neither dharmasnor nondharmas, Orclinary persons vainly cling to thenl. Ii praise)giving,for the sake of the world, But giving is intrinsically mpty. e

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ON Vrnrus auo l)rsctpuNn I teach, though there is nothing to teach; Inconceivable indeed is the Buddha-Dharma! i I often praisethe observance pure prcccpts, of But no bcing ever breaks any precepts. Prcccpt-breaking empty by naturc. is And so is prcccpt-keeping. I s a y i t i s s u p c r bt o b e p e t i c n t , But paticnceis apart from views And by nature does not arise. Thcrc is really nothing to causeangerTo realizcthis is called supremepatiellcc. I say it is unexcelled To work vigorously day and night, And to remain alert even in sleep. Yet, even if one has practiced[vigor] Diligently for kalpas, His cfforts do not incrcaseor decrease anything. I teach rncditation, liberation, and samadhis To show the world thc cloor to truth; Yet, the Dharma-nature is never stirred from the bcginning, And meditation of all kinds is fabricated Merely to comply [with scnticnt beings]. That which obscrvcsand comprehendsis calledwisdom; One who understands dharmasis called wise. all Yet, dharmas bv lature do not exist, And there is no one who obscrvesor comprchends. I often praise austerepracticcs And extol those who delight In such ways to tranquillityBut only those who know That all dharmas arc inapprehcnsible May really be called pure, contcnted ones. I describe thc sufferings in the hells, So that countless people may abhor Falling to the terrible realms after dcath; But, in reality, there arc no such miscrable places. No one can produce thercin Knives, cudgels, or similar means of torture; It is discrimination that causesone to see them And to suffer immeasurable tortures put to him.

Ttrn DluNtrlvr VtNaYa Gardenscovered with various lovcly flowcrs sparkling with numerousjcwclsAnd palaces Thesc things [of heaven] are crcatedby no one; They all arisc from the discriminating, delusivemind. The world is dcceivedby fictitious dharmas 'Which confuse one who is attached to them. However onc discriminatesamong mlragcs, Whether acccptingor rejecting them, They arc empty just the same. the worlds I say it is supreme to ber-refit pursue enlightcnment; By resolving to But, in truth, enlightenment is inappreher.rsibie, And there is no one who resolvesto attain it. l The mind by nature is ever pure and bright; o U n s u l l i c d b y f a l s e h o o d r p a s s i o n i.t i s t r u e. Ordir-rary pcrsons discrimrnatc And engcndcr attachment; Yet, from the beginning, Their dcfilemcnts arc enpty. Al1 dharmas are aiways quiescent in thcir sclf-naturcHow can there bc dcsire,hatred, or iguorance? One who secsnowhere passton. To gencratcdcsirc or rellor.lr'rcc nirvltra. I s s a i dt o l t a v c r t t l i r r e d Bccauscone's mind is never [truly] defilcd, One is able to achievcgreat enlightcnrtent. Srriving for various Dhrrrrr.r practices For countlesskalpas, I havc dclivered myriad sentientbeings, Yet scntictrtbeings thcmselvesarc inapprehensible; Irr reality no bcings are evcr delivered. If a great magician produces A rnagic crowd of a billion beings, A n d t h t ' n d e s t r o y st l r c r t ta g r i n . No harm or good is cver done To thcse magic creaturcs. All beings are illusory, likc magic; can be found. No bordcrs or lir-n'its of One who knows this abscnce linits Will never tirc of living in the world.

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C)N Vtnrut aNl DrscrprrNn To one who knows the rcality of all things, Constant involverncnt in sarhslrais nirvSna;16 Amidst dcsires,he is not dcfiled; It is only to subdue sentientbcings That hc speaksofthc renunciationofdcsires. The Most CompassionatcOnc benefitsall beings, But there is actually no pcrson or life. To benefit senticnt bcings yet 5gcthsm nogThis is difficult indecd, a grear wonder. One may solacca child with an cmptl' fist, Saying it containssomething for him, T h o u g h t h c c h i l d r r r a yc r v a g a i n When thc hand opens and rcvealsnothing. Likewise, thc inconccivabletsuddhas Subdue sentientbcings skilllully. While thcy know dharrna-naturc empty, is Thcy fabricatcnanlcs for the world's sakc. With great kindncss and compassionthey urge you: 'In my L)harma is supremc happiness. Lcave your houscholds And abandorryour loved ones! You will then attain thc superb fruit S o u g h tb y a i r a n r a ' l a . ' Aftcr onc lcavesthe houschold life And practiccsthe Dharma rn earncsr, He attairrsnirvina at lf,st through his practicc. I{e then reflectsat length Upon thc truth of all dharnas. To his wonder, hc discovers That no fruit whatsocve-ris thcre to attaill. No frr.rit,and yet rcalizationis achicvcd! [Awcstruck,] he begins to marvcl: 'How wonderful it is That the Most Compassionate Lion of Men Is so skillful in tcaching the Dharma In compliancewith reality! All dharmas are like enlpty spacc, But hc establishcs nunlerous namcs, words, and doctrines. He spcaksof meditation and liberation; [Je speaksof roots, powers, and enlightenmcr-rt;

Tnr DrrtNirtvr VINaYa But, from the beginning, These roots and powers do not arise, Nor do meditation and enlightcnment exist. and ungraspablc,thesethings Formlcss, shapeless, Are only skillful means to illuminate living beings'' When I speak of the practicc that leadsto realization, I mcan detachment from all forms. If one claims to havc achievedanything, Hc is far from realizing the 6ramana'sfruit. No dharma has a scllentity; What is there to rcalize? The so-called rcalization is no attainment at all: this is called attainntent. To ur-rderstand Those who have obtained the fruit Are said to be superior, But I say all beings are unborn fronr the beginning. Since there is no sentient bcing in the first place, How can there be anyonc achicving the frr,rit? If no secd is sown, How can any sprout come forth, Even from a fcrtile field? Whcnce can realization cornc If there is no sentient being? All beings are by naturc quicscent. Arrd rro one can find their origin. One who understands this doctrine V/ill be in parinirvana forcvcr. Of the countlcssBuddhas in the past, None could dcliver sentient beings. If scntient bcings were truly existent, No one could have achieved nirvlna. All dharmas are quicsccnt and empty; Never has a dharma arisen. He who can see all dharmas in this way Has already transcendedthc three realms. This is the unhindcrcd enlightenment of BuddhasYet, ultimately, nothing exists therein. lf one knows this doctrinc, I say he is free from desires."

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when thc world-Ho'ored one finished speaking in versc, two hundred arroqarltmonks cnded their defilements permanentlyar-rd becamelibcratedin mind; an!-l sixtv thousand Bodhisattvas attained the Rcalization of thc Nonarisine of Dharnras. Then Upali askedthe Buddha, "what should this sfitra be cared?How shall u'c uphold it?" The Buddha told Upali, "This sutra is called'The Dcfir.ritiveVinaya,,or Elimination of the Mind a'd consciousness.'you should acceptand uphoid i t b v t h e s en a m e s . " When thc Buddha had taught this sfitra, the vcnerablc Up5li, thc monks, Manjuiri, the great Bodhisattvas, humans, gods, asuras,and so forth wcre exceedi'gly joyful over the Buddha's tcachi'g. Thcy accepted wirh faith and bcgan it 'The to practicet with vcncration. i

NOTES
1. For brevity, wc have omitted several dcclarations irr this sectiol. C)rnissions arc indicated by ellipsr-s. 2. This passageis relevant to the qucstions concernir.rgthe Bodhisattvas' practices of e x t r c m c c h a r i t y , s u c h a s t h c g i v i n g o f o n e ' s e y e s ,l i m b s , k i n g d o m , e t c . , m e n t i o n e d i n r n a n y Buddhist tcxts. Herc, it is stated that only those Boclhisattvaswho havc attaincd the Realization of the Nonarising of Dharnras arc able to practice extrcme charity; for other peoplc, this practice n'ray serve no purpose and even harm themsclves and others. 3. Thc cight grcat hells are: ( 1 ) the Reviving Hell, where after great sufferi.g, the ofli'der and rcvives,only to be tortured again; is coolcd by a wind

(2) the Black Rope Hcll, whcre' the sufferer is bound with black chains and choooed
or sawedasunder; (3) the converging Hell, whcre many implen.rentsof torrure converge upor one; (.1) tire Wailing Hell; (5) thc Grcat Wailing Hell; (6) the Scorching Hell; (7) the Crcat Scorching Flell; and (8) the Uninterrupted Hell, whcrc sullering is continuous. 4. The soundness of translating ffi as 'ignorancc' here may be scriously qucstioned. I{norancc ofthe basic truth or no-self (andttnan) emptiness causes or one to wander in sarhsira, : : : ' ' l u d r n gb o t h h c a v e n a n d h c l l . H o w e v e r , i g n o r a n c e( S k t . c r i d y a l a l o n e c a n n o r b e t h c c a u s e : i r l h n g t o a h e l l . T o b e i g n o r a n t o f a c e r t a i nt r u t h o r l a w ( o r s i m p l v t o l a c k k n o w l e d g e o f a .-:::::r brrnch of scicr.rce) cannot bc considcred a great ollense against moral principles, ,-l'Mni one to lall to a hell. Herc ffi probably inrplies serious wrong views, such as nihilism ' : : h . i r r i d a ) a n d s o f o r t h . A l t h o u g h ' w r o n g v i e w ' i s a m u c h b e t t e r r r a n s l a t i o nh e r e . t o

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compll' with thc cstablishedformula and sequencc,we are forccd to translate *i as ignoralrce. T h e r c a d e r sa r c r e m i n d e d t h a t ' i g n o r a n c c ' h c r c d o e s n o t n l c a n ' l a c k o f k n o w l c d g e ' , b u t r a t h c r ' r v r o n g v i e w s ' o n f u n d a n r c n t a lI n o r a l a n d r c l i q i o r ' r s r i n c i p l c s . ( G . C . ) p 5 . P e r a j i k ai s t h e r l o s t s e r i o u st y p c o f o f f e n s e f o r m o n a s t i c s .F o r n t o n k s , t h c r e a r e f o u r ( l i s t e d i n t h e N u m e r i c a l ( i l o s s a r y a s t h e " f o u r h c a v l ' t r a l r s g r c s s i o n s " )s e x u a l i n t c r c o u r s e , : , s t e a l i n g ,n r a n s l a u g h t e r a n d l y i n g . s 6 . A s a r i - r g h i v a i e si a a r r o f l e n s c s c c o n d i n g r a v i t v t o a p i r i j i k a . I f a n r o n k d o e s u o t purily the offcnse through repentancc and confession, hc Itrat' be expcllcci. n 7 . N a n o i s d e r i v c d f r o m t h e S a n s k r i t a n , m c a n i n g ' b o u t o ' o r ' p a v h o n r a g et o ' . 8 . T h e C h i n c s c r e a d s* t s $ , b u t t h e n r e a n i n g a n d o r i g r n : r lS a n s k n t a r e u t r k n o n ' n t o thc translators. 9 . ' l h e t h r c c a r e : c o n t e n r p l a t i o no f t h c thirty-fivc Buddhas, paving horlagc to all

T a t h i g a t a s , a n c lr e p e n t i n g r v i t h a p u r e m i n d . 1 0 . T h c I l o d h i s r t t v a p r e c e p t sp r o h i b i t u n n ' h o l c s o m c a c t i o n s , b u t t h c v p c r r n i t t h o s e Jctions irr certain circurnstarrces.In Yogtrfirya-Bhini-Sasfta, attribtrtcd to MaitrcYr. \'c tlttd ( r h c f o l l o r v i n g p a s s a g e T a i s h o 1 5 0 1 ,p . 1 1 1 2 ) : T h o s e B o d h i s a t t v a sw h o o b s e r v c t h c p u r e B o d h i s a t t v ap r e c e p t su ' e l l n r a \ ' . a s a s k i l l f u l m e : r n st o b e n e f i t o t h e r s , c o r n m i t s o m e m a j o r r n i s d c c d s .l n d o i n g s o , t l i e v i c l o n o t v i o l a t e t l r c l J o d h i s a t t v ap r e c e p t s ; n s t e a d ,t h c y g e n c r a t cn r r t r v r t t c r i t s . F o r c x a m p l e , s u p p o s ca l 3 o d h i s a t t v rs e c st h a t a v i c i t t u s r o b b e r i n t c n d s r o k i l l S . o u n l a n ) p e o p l cf o r t h c s , r k c l w e a l t h :o r i r r t e r r dts l r r r r r tr i t t t t , , t t s r a r a k . r sP r t r v e k a huc{dhas,or L}odhisattvas;or ititends to do othcr things that w'ill causchint to fall tcr t h r - L J n i n t c r r u p t e dH e l l . W h e n s e e i n gt h i s , t h e B o d h i s a t t v aw i l l t h i n k , " 1 1 - Ik i l l t h a t p e r s o n , I w i l l f a l l t o t h e h c l l s ; i f I d o n o t k i l l h i m , h e w i l l c o r r r r n i tc r i n r e sw h i c h w i l l lead him to thc Unintcrruptcd Hcll, rvhcre he u'ill suffcr greatly. I rvotrld rather kill hirr and fall to the hells m1'sclf th:rn let hirn underqo grt-at sul-fcring in tl.re'Unintcrruptcd Hell." f T h c n , d c e p l y r e g r e t t i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y o r t h i s a c t i c r r ,a n d w i t h a h e r r t t u l l o f c o m p a s s i o n ,h c r v i l l k i l l t l l a t p c r s o n . L r d o i n g t h i s , h e d o c ' sn o t v i o l a t e t h e t s o d h i s J t t v ap r c c c p r 5i:n s t c r J . h e H (r r r 'rrl ( \ t t t r t t r t l l c r i t s . 1 1 . T h e l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n r c a d s : " b u t t e a c h c sS r l v a k a s t h c g r a c i u a lp r c c c p t s . " T l r i s .tplrcltrsto contradict thc text below, rvhcrc it is statctl that thc Hinavina follorvers are lll a grcat hr.trry to cxtr-rminatc all their defilements in one lifl'timc. It may rncan that thc llodhis J t t \ : a s 'p r c c . p t s p e r t a i n d i r c c t l y t o t h e m i n d , w h i l e t h e S r i v a k a s ' p r e c c p t s m o s t l V r e g u l l t c ( ) u t c r a c t i o u s ,l e a d i n g s t e p b y s t c p t o m c n t a l w h o l e s o n l c n c s s . s. 1 2 . A c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n H i n a , v a n as c h o o l s , s u c h a s t h e S a r v a s t i r ' : r c l i r rr v h c t r o n e p o b t a i n s t h c & h i f r s u r c c e p t si n f b r n r a l o r c l i n a t i o n ,h e a c q u i r e sa " d i s c i p l i n e - b o d v . " f h r s b o c l v , r h o u g i i i n v i s i b l e t o o r d i n a r y p e o p l e , i s s a i c lt o b e v i s i b l e t o t h o s c u ' i t h t h t - d c v a - c v e .T h ( ' t c r n l nra)' alsobc interprctcdto nlean sinrply one's own discipline. 13. Literally, "is equal." i l . t . C l e a r l y , t h c t s u c l d h as s p e a k i n gn o w o n a h i g h e r l e v e l t h a n h i s c a r l i e r d i s c o u r s co n precepts. 1 5 . E v c n t h e c o n c e p t so [ ' B u d d h a ' a n d 'Buddhahood' are enrptl', and must be relrrrquished if one is to attain full enlightcnmcnt. 16. An irnportant Mahtyana concept of nirvlna, radically diffe rent lrom Hinayana J o c t r i n e s . S e eG l o s s a r v , " n i r v l n a . "

16 H%w@
Abidingin GoodandNobleDeportment

I
have I heard. o'cc the Buddha was dwelling o' Mount Grdhrakurancar thc city of Rijagrha, acconpanied by cight thousand great monks. At that tirnc, sixteen thousand rlodhisartva-Mahisattvas who did not regressfrom pursuit of supreme er-rlightenntent, and who were dcstined to become tsuddhasin thcir ncxt lifetinrcs, came from dilfcrcnt lluddha-lar-rds the ten directions to join thc assembly. in -fhat day, Mahaka(yapaaskedthe tsuddha,"The World-Honorcd One speaks of Srarrranas. What is a iramana?" The tsuddha replied to Ka6yapa,"A Sramana one who can: is attain ultimate quiescence; keep himsclf undcr control;
. - . r a-(- ('cr l r rln-e r -e r-c :n-l. n g 5 i r^ L . obscrvc thc pure prcccpts; enter dhyinas;

'I'hus

acquirc wisdom; strive for liberation by undcrstandingthc nrear:ingoi reality; havc no doubts about the three doors to liberatiou; abide securelyin the practiccsof saints; skillfully cultivate the four mindfulncsses;r avoid all unwholesome dharmas; sccurelydwell in the four right efforts; .relcptly cu]tivatc thc four basesof miraculous powcrs; Sutra Taisho310,pp. 63&64t3; 44, translated Chinese Ven. Tao Kung. into by

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achieve the five roots-to have firn faitir in the Buddha, the l)harma, and the Sarhgha;not to believc in any doctrinc other than the BuddhaI)harma; to strive to eradicateall defilementr.l avoiding all unwholcsomc dharmas but cultivating all r",'holcsonlconcs in accordancc with the truth; to know thoroughly the skilltul mcans to acquire right dharmas tn knowledge and right mindfulncss, keeping r'"'holesome mirrd exclusivcly;and to know well the skilliul mcansto attain dhyana and wisdom; achievethe five powers so that he is not disturbcd bv env afflictionsl cultivate well thc scvcn factors of enlightenment lso that] he thoroughly knows the skillful means to oerceivethe causcsand conditions of all dharmasl know well the skillful nrcans to follow thc lcightfold] noblc path, rvhich includes right vicw and right conccntration; obtain the power of thc four kinds of Iunhindered]eloquencc; disbelievein heterodox doctrines; rely on thc mcar-ring[of thc Dharma] rathcr thar-rwords, on [intuitivc] wisdom rathcr than intellect, on thc sutraswhich convcy thc ultimatc truth rather than the shtras which do not, and on the I)harn-ra rather t h a r rt h e p c r s o r rl t c r c h i r r gi t l l r be apart lrom the fcrur demons; thoroughly undcrstandthc fivc aggregates; uproot all afflictions; reach the last lifetime Ibefore nirvana]; s h r r nt h e w a y s l e a d i r r g o s a r i r s i r a : t bc frcc frorn all craving; perseverein comprehending suffbring, stopping thc arising of suffering, rcalizing thc ccssation suffering, and cultivating thc path leading to of thc ccssatiorr suf-fcring, of thus perceivingclearly the four noble truths; rcjcct all hctcrodox doctrincs after taking refuge in the -tsuddha-l)harma; .rcconrpliswhlt hc sct out ro acconrplish: h c l i m i n a t ca l l d e f i l c m e n t s ; c u l t i r a t c t h c c i g h t f o l dl i b c r r t i o r r : be praisedby 6akrasand brahmis; from the beginning devote himself to the practiceof the path; delight in living in a secludedforcst; establishhimself securelyin the noblc Dharma; rcjoicc in Buddhist ritcs; b e m e r r t a l l yu n d i s t u r b e d : avoid closc associations, cithcr with rnonks and nuns or r.vithlaypcoplc; errjoy beirrg alone, like the single horn of a rhinoccros; be alraid of bustling crowds; errjoy living by himself;

282

ON Vrnrul aNo DrscrprrNE alrvavs fear the three realms; achicvc the true frr-ritof a Sramana; havc no longing for anything; shun the eight worldly dharmasa-gain, loss, praisc, blame, fame, ridicule, pleasure,and pain; be as steadfast and immovable in mind as the great carth; guard againstany conflict of will betwccn himsclf and others; be serene; c u l r i v a t er i g h r p r a c t i c c s l achievca mentality [as pure] as space;and have a mind rvhich is not tainted by or attachedto forms and appearances, just as a hand moving in empty spaccis not hindered by anything.

KaSyapa,if a pcrson can accomplishthese,he rcally is a (ramana." Then MahikaSyapa said to thc tsuddha, "World-Honored Onc, the Tatha_ gata's skilllul discourseon the meritorious decds of a iramana is extraordinary. world-Honored one, if Sramarras future agesfalsely clainr to bc true jramanas in or to practice pure conduct, then thcy havc trespassed the supreme cnlightenon nrcnt cultivated and perfectedby thc Tathagatafor countlcsskalpas." Thc tsuddha said to Ka5yapa, "The offense of trcspassi'g on rhe suprene enlightenment of the Tathagata is so monstrous that no one could ever finish dcscribing it. Ka6yapa,after I cnter nirvina, you and my other great discipleswill also enter nirvana, and thc great Bodhisattvas of this world will go to other Iluddha-lands. At that time, irr my ordcr, therc will be deceitful monks (bftiftsris) who will do everything with crooked ninds. Kaiyapa, r'row I am going to cxplain the corruption of a Sramana; that is, the faults and transgressio'sof a sramana. "K-5yapa, in the coming Last Era, thcrc will be mo'ks who will not cultivatc morality or disciplirre, nor will they cultivate their minds or wisdom. They will bc as ignorant as children; thcy will move toward dark'css unaware. Because they will not subdue rhcir rni'ds, they will be corrupr 6ramanas. Kadyapa,what is the corruption of a Sramana? "Ka5yapa, the corruption of a 6ramana is of thirty-two kinds. or-re who has renounced the houschold lifc should keep them all at a disrance. What arc the thirty-two? (1) To feel desire; (2) to fccl hatred; (3) to feel annoyance; (4) to praise oncself; (5) to defame others; (6) to seek matcrial gains; (7) to seek profit for its own sake; (8) to spoil orhers' blessings resulting from almsgiving;S

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(9) to concealone's own misdeeds; (10) to be intimatc with lay peoplc; (11) to be intimate with monks or nuns; (12) to take pleasurcin noisy crowds; (13) to seek by devious means material gains not belongirrgto otreself; (14) to long for the material gains of others; (15) not to be contcnt with one's own material posscssions; (16) to envy others' matcrial possessions; (17) always to find fault with others; (18) not to seeone's own errors; (19) not to keep strictiy the preceptslcading to liberation; (2{i) not to have a senseof shamc and remorsc; (21) not to rcspcct others, but insteadto be arrogant, unrcliablc, and shameless i (21) to arousc onc s passiorrs; (23) to contradict the twelvc lir.rksof dependent origination; ( 2 4 ) t o h o l d e x t r e m ev i e w s ; (25) not to be tranqui'land frcc of passions; not in nirvana; (26) to dclight in sadrsara, (27) to enjoy hctcrodox scripturcs; (2tt) to be errvelopcd in the five covers so that afflictions arise; (29) to have no faith in karn-ricresults; t(]O; t" fear thc thrcc doors to liberation; (3i) to slander the profound, subtle Dharma instcad of cultivating the pracand ticcs lcading to rrltimate quiescence; (32) to havc no respectfor the Thrcc Jcwels. All dreseare corruptions of a Sramana.If a iramana can cleansehimself of thcsc kinds ofcorruption, he is a true iranrana. "K-6yapa, furtherr.nore, cight thirrgs can destroy the lgoodl deedsof a (ranrana. What are the eight? (1) Not to bc rcspectfuland obcdicnt to tcachcrsand supcriors; (2) rrot to esteenrthe l)harma; (3) not to havc proper thoughts; (4) to slandcr the l)harma aftcr hcaring it cxplaincd for the first tirle-; (5) to bccorne frightened whcn hcaring the l)harlna lvhich teachesthe nonexistenceof scnticnt bcings, sclfl,life, and personaliclcntitr': (6) to undcrstand only cor-rditioncd dharn-ras, not urrconditionedones, even aftcr hearing that no phenomenaever arisefrom thc bcslinninq; doctrinc;7and (7) to fall into thc huge, deep pit" after hearing thc graclr,ral (8) to bc perplexed and confuscd to hear that no dharma arises,has a selfentity, or goes anywherc.

28't

ON Vtxr uu Ar.rp lsclprrtl D

Ka5yapa,thcsc cight thirrgs can dcstroy the Igoodldeedsof a Sranana. A Sramana who has left thc household life should shun thcsc cight things. "Kadyapa,I do not say that those who shavetheir headsand dressin nonastic robes are Sramanas; say that thosc who are fully endowed with virtues and I good deportment arc Sramanas. "Ka6yapa, a Sramanadrcsscdin a nronasticrobe should kcep his mind far away from dcsire, hatred, and ignorancc. Why? BecauseI allow only those who havc no desire,no hatrcd, and no ignorancc to dressin monastic robcs.sKaSyapa, Sranranas who arc dressedin monastic robes but have desire,hatrcd, and rgnorancc irr mind and do not keep thc prcceptsare burning their monasticrobes, whilc those who observe the prcccpts single-mindedlyarc not. Why? Ilecauscrronastic robcs should bc worn by thosc who have thc attributes of a saint, dwell in r.rltimate quicsccncc,practicekindnessand compassion,and arc lrce from passions. "Ka5yapa,now, listen to me . There are twclvc signs of a saint. What are the twelve? (1) To observethe discipline; (2) to develop mcditation; (3) to cultivate wistlorn; (4) (5) (6) (7) to to to to achicvc libcration: acquirc the knowledge and awareness derived from libcration; comprehcnd the four noble truths; comprehend the twelve links of dependentorigination;

(8) to fulfill thc four imrncasurables; (8) to practice the firr.rrdhyanas; (10) to pract'ice the four dhyin:rs of thc Rcalm of Fornrlcssncss;q (11) to errtcr right concentration,leading to the four fruits [ofthe Sravakavehiclel:1{r and (12) to eliminatc all onc's dcfilcments. K-iyapa, thcse are the twclvc signs of a saint. Ka6yapa,I say thc monks who are not filly cndowed with thc twclvc signs of a saint yet dressin monastic robes do not cultivatc thc Buddha-l)harma or approach nirvina, nor do they procccd toward ultimate quiescencc; ir-rstcad, they perforrn cvil, sarhsaric deeds.They do not cross [thc sca of] sadrsSra, but are caught by demons; they do not maintain thc true L)harma, but fbllow wrong doctrines. "Thcrcforc, Kaiyapa, a monk who has lcft thc householdlife but has not yct achieved the fruit of a Sramanashould esteem in eight ways thc monastic robe u.hich he wears. What arc the eight? When he wears a monastic robc, he should brins forth: , I ) t h c t h o r r g h to f a s t u p a : r r t t h e r h n r r o h ro f t h e W o r l d - H o n o r c d O n c ' (3) thc thought of ultimate quiescence;

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thc thought of kindness; the thought of respecting[the robe] as a Buddha; thc thought of shame; the thought of remorse; and the thought that the robc will free him of desire, hatred, and ignorance and will causchim to fulfill the right practicesof a 5ramanain future lives.

Ka6yapa,a monk should esteema monastic robe in thcsc eight ways. "K56yapa, if Srantanas arc not content with the four noble practices,but violate the right practicesof a 6ramana,and do not estccnla monasticrobe in these eight ways, they are falsc 5ramanasand will fall to minor hells. Ki5yapa, false Sramanas suffer pain in hell: their clothing, bowls, and bodies are all ablaze;the places where they sit or sleep arrd the things thcy use burn intenscly, like big furnaces. Falsc dramanasundergo such sufferings. Why do they fall to such a nriscrablcstatc?Bccausethey havc committed impure deeds,words, and thoughts. "Ka6yapa, suppose a precept-brcaking monk falsely claims to be a true 6ramana and to practice pure conduct. When meritorious, prcccpt-keepingpeople make offerings to him and respectfully circun-rambulatehim, he accepts all this without even knowing his own wickedness.That wicked monk will, bccauseof this evil root, reap eight contemptiblc attributes [in a futurc life]. What are the cight? (1) To bc foolish; (2) to bc mutc; (3) to be short in staturc; (4) to have such ugly, distorted lcatures rhar anyonc who seeshim laughs at him; (5) to be born female and work as a poor servant; (6) to be weak, emaciated,and die young; (7) to bc notorious instead of respected;and (U) not to encountertsuddhas. K-Syapa, if a precept-brcaking monk allows precept-keeping people to pay homagc and make offerings to him, he will have these eight contemptiblc attributes [in a futurc life]. K55yapa, a precept-breaking mor.rk should, after hcaring this explained, not accept the homage and offerings of a precept-kccping monk. "Ka5yapa,if a precept-breaking monk falselyclaims to bc a true 6ramanaand to practicepure conduct, hc docs not deservea spacewide enough for him to spit, let alone a spaceto raise and lower his feet, to go here and there, to bend down, or to stretch out. Why? Becausein the past, grcat monarchs oflercd large tracts of land to virtuous precept-keepersto serve as thcir dwelling-places while they pursued the path. Kt6yapa, a precept-breaking monk is not worthy of any offerings given by faithful donors, not even a space to raise and lower his feet, let alone a place with rooms for resident and visiting monks, or a place to take walking

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exercise. He is not worthy of any offerings given bv faitl-rful donors, such as a house, a bed, a garden, a garment, a bowl, bedding, or mcdicine. "Ka5yapa, now I say that i[ a precept-brcakingmonk falsely claims to be a true Sramanaand to practice purc conduct, hc cannot rcquite thc kindness of faithful donors, not even with a blessingas riny as rhc rip of a hair. Why? Like the vast ocean,noble ficlds of blessings are suprcmc and most wonderful. A donor who, out of purc faith, sows a sccd of giving in the ficlds of blcssingsmay think that he has made an immeasurablcgift. Ka6yapa,when a wicked, prccept-breaking monk acceptsfrom a faithful donor any offering, even as little as onc hundredth of a split hair, hc will causchis donor to forfcit blisslul rcrvards thc size of thc vast occan;such a monk cannot repay at all thc kindnessol'his donor. K-6yapa, thcrcforc, a monk should have a pure mind rvhen acceptine an offering from a faithful donor. Ka(yapa, this you should learn." At that time, in the assembly,two hr.rndred monks u'ho wcre pure ir-rdeed, had few desires, and wcrc free from Ithe fbur] yokcs *'ipcd a$.ay thcir tears aftcr they had heard this doctrinc cxplained, and saicl,"World-Honorcd One, now wc would rather die than acccpt even one meal from a faithful donor without first having achicvcd thc lruit of a iramana." Thc Buddha said, "Exccllcnt, excellelrt! Good men, sincc you lecl shamc and renlorsc, ariclyour lear of futurc lives is as strong as adanrant,you nay bc compared in this lifc to necklaces preciousjewels. Good me'n, I say now that in the of world therc' arc only two kinds of people worthy of offerings givcn by faithful donors. What arc thc two? ()ne is those who cultivate fthc Dharnta] with vigor; the othcr is those who have achievedlibcration." Thc Buddha told thesemonks, "If a nronk has achicvcdliberation, pracuces wholcsornc dharmas, strictly keeps the prcccptsas I havc taught, contemplates all phenomenaas impermanent and pairrful and all dharmasas devoid of sclf, and also contemplatesthe ultirnate quiesccncc nirvina with a desirc to attain it-thcn, of everr if he accepts frorn faithful douors a pile of offbrings the sizc of Mount Sumcru, hc will surely be ablc to reward the donors with cornrnensuratc blcssings. "lf such a monk acceprsoffcrings lrom a faithful donor, hc will causc thc donor to obtain great ber-refits and great rcwards. Wh1'? tsecause blessingsalways result lrom thrcc things: constant giving of food, building tcmplcs and monasteries,and the practice of kindness. Of these thrce, the practice of kindncss resultsin thc supreme blessings." The tsuddhacontinued. "If a monk entcrsthe immcasurablcdhy-nalr after he acccptsclothing, a bowl, bcdding, food and drink, or medicinc from a donor, he can causehis donor to obtain lirnitlcssblissful rcwards. Ki(yapa, all the vast oceans in a billion-world universe may dry up, but the blissful rc',vards which the donor rhus acquires cannot bc exhausted.KaSyapa,you should knor.v that a preceptbrcaking monk damagcsthe blessingsof a donor. If a monk pertbrrns misdeeds atter he accepts offerings from a faithful donor, hc will wastc the donor's olfcrings. "Ki(vapa, thereforc I discourscon the corruption of a 6ramana,the faults

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lnd transgressions of a Sramana, the dc'ceit anci crookedncss oi :r Sranrana, and thc thievery among Sramanas. arvav from all those unwholcsomc "Ka6yapa, a precept-keeping n-ronk should be sinqle-rnincled and rcmlin lar dharn-ras.Ka(r'apa, a (ranrana is onc who docs

not lct his cycs, cars, noscr, tonguc, body, or nrind bc attr:rcted by anv objects. C)nc who protccts his six scnsc-organs from bcinq attracted Ito ob.lccts], comprehends the six nriraculous powers, concentrates on the six nrindfuhrcsscs,lr ebidct s c c u r e l y i n t l - r es i x k i n d s o f r e v e r e n t h a r n r o n y i n a n r o n a s t c r . . l t r.aluable dharmas'a is callccl a 5ramana." .rr,.lpr.lcticcs thc six

II
Then tl-reBuddha told Ka6yapa, "Onc who can dcstroy his aft'lictionsis callcd a nronk. Onc who can break up the thoughts of sclf, a scnticnt bcing, a pcrsonal idcntity, a nran, or a wonlan is callcd a nronk. Furthermore, Ka(yapa, one lvhcr cultivatesdisciplineand wisdom is calleda monk. Furthcrnrorc,Kaiyapa, onc who is fc':rrlcss; cxtricatcshimsclf frorn the thrcc rcalnrsarrdthc four currcnts,l- rcct thci. faults and distresses, and avoids thcnr all; and situatcshimself securclr, tl-re on path of f earlessr-resscalled a monk. is "Ka(yapa, if a nronk does not frrllll this or othcr soocl doctrincs dcspitc his knowledge of thenr, but givcs up all good doctrincs and treacls diffcrcnt paths, hc is not my disciple anclI am not his tcacher. "Ki(yapa, there arc nrany rvickccl rnonks who do harm to my l)harnra. Ki(i'apa, it is not the ninety-five kinds ofhctcrodox dcvotccs, nor othcr kinds of "' heterodox devotees,but the igr-rorant personsin nry ordcr lr'ho cau cJcstroynly Dharma. For example, Kaiyapa, after a lion, thc king of beasts,dies, no trgcr, ri'olf^, bird, or other bcast can eat its flcsh; Ior-rlvlthe wornls living in its body can r-at its flesh. Kadyapa, in my ordcr, thcrc are wicked monks *'ho arc grccdv tor materia'lgains and overu'helmed by avarice.They do not climinatc unu.holcsortre clharmas, do not cultivatc wholesome dharmas, ar-rddo not cease to tcll lies. it Ka61'apa, is thcsc monks who can destroy my I)harma. "Ki5yapa, a monk who harbors lour things is wickcd. What are the iour? (1) Dcsirc; (2) hatrcd; (3) ignorancc; and (4) arrogance.lT "Furthermore, therc arc four attributes oi a u'ickcd rnonk. What are the tbur? (l) To be corrceited; (2) to be insensitiveto shame;

28U

ON Vtnrur aNo DrscrpuNr (3) not to feel remorse; and (4) to be carelcssin speaking. "Moreover, thcre are four deedsof a wickcd monk. What are thc four? (1) To be unstable; (2) to look down on others; (3) to seek material gains grecdily; and (4) to pcrform misdccds frequcr.rtly. "Furthcrntore, thcrc are four [other] deedsof a wickcd monk. What are the

four? (1) To be villainous and deceitful; (2) to delude and confusc others; (3) to earn a livelihood in an iniproper way; and (4) to use abusivelanguage. "Moreover, thcrc are four [other] deeds of a wicked nronk. What are the lbur? (1) (2) (3) (4) To acceptfavors from othcrs without rcturning favors to them; to clo small favors for others and expcct great rcwards; to forget favors prcviously bestowcd by othcrs; and to do harm to rclativcsand friends.

"Furthermorc, there arc four Iothcrl deedsof a wickcd monk. what arc the four? (1) Not to requite the kindnessof faithful donors with blcssingsa1d rewards after acceptirrgthcir offerings; (2) not to protecr thc disciplinc well; (3) to despisethe preceptsone has receivcd;and (4) not to keep the prcceptsstrictly. "Morcover, a monk who gives discoursespreaching four doctri'cs is a wickcd monk. What are the four? (1) (2) (3) (4) That there is a self; that thcre is a scntient beirrg; that there is life; and that thcre is a pcrsonalidentity. [other] decdsof a wicked monk. [/hat arc the

"Furthermorc, therc are four
I OUT:

('1 ) (2) (3) (4)

Not to respectthc tsuddha; not to respectthe Dharma; not to rcspect the Sarhgha;and not to respecrthe discipline.

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"Moreover, thcre arc four [othcr] deeds of a wicked monk. What are the four? (1) To bc unhappy whcn there is harmony rvithin the Sarhgha; (2) to dislike living alorre; (3) to enjoy being in crowds; and (4) to talk of worldly affairs all the rime . "Furthermore, thcrc are four [other] deedsof a wickcd nronk. What arc the four? (1) (2) (3) (4) To strive for material gains; to pursue grcat fame; to form many acquairltances; and not to abide in the Ifour] noble practices.

"Moreover, thcrc are four [other] deeds of a wicked monk. What are the tbur? (1) To bc bound by demons; ( l ) t o b e p e r v e r r e db y d e r r r o r r r : (3) to indulgc in Icxccssivc]sleep;and ( 4 ) n o t r o c r r j o y p r a c t i c i r r g r r rr r t . . v "Furthermore, there arc four [othcr] dcedsof a wicked monk. What are the tbur? (1) To causcthc -tsuddha-l)harma degcncrate; to (2) to bc a sycophant at heart; (3) tt-rbe harmcd by defilenrerrts: and (4) not t() pursue the liuit of a Sramana. "Moreover, a ntonk who burns with four things is a wicked monk. What are the four? (1) (2) (3) (4) To burn with sexual desire; to burrrwirh hatrcd: to burn with igtrorance;and to burn with any othcr defilemcnts.

"Furthermore, there are four [other] deedsof a wicked monk. What are the tor-rr? p) (2) (3) (4) fo visit brothels frequcntly, without knowing thc harm it does; not to bc content; not to be content in spite of having much learning;l8and to bc always rniserly and not to sharenecessities with others.

"Moreover, there are four [othcr] deeds of a wicked morrk. What are the fo u r ?

ON Vrnrur aNo DrscrplrNe (1) To go from darknessto Imore] darkncssand from ignorance to [rnore] (2; to doubt thc four noble truths insteadsf nerceirrirro th.'m' (3) to be always bound by sarirsira;and ro 1-1.1 closc rhc door to nirvina. "Finally, a monk who is deceitfulin four ways is a wickcd rnonk. What arc the four? (1) (2) (3) (4) To be deceitfulin body; to be deceitful in speech; to bc deceitful in mind; and to be deceitfulin manner.

"What is it to be deceittulin body? To bc dcceitful in bocly is to [preter.rd to] walk with composurc. To be deceitfirlin body is to [pretcnd tol look ncithcr to the right nor to thc lcft. To be dcccitful in body is to [prctend to] look only a fcw fcct away if one looks right or lcft. To bc dcccitful in body is to dress in a nronastic robe while relyir-rg improper mcans of livelihood; to live in a secludedplacc in otr order to gair.rpraise, without fulfilling the purpose of living rhere; to beg for food in ordcr to gain praisc, without contemplatirrgthe reasonsfor food-begging; to w-cara garnlcnt of cast-off rags in order to gair-r praisc,without knowing that it is meant to €lerlerate hurnility; to live in a cavc or under a tree in ordcr to gain praisc, witlrout studying thc twclvc links of dcpcndcntorigination; to takc stale,discardcd nredicincitr ordcr to gain praisc,without scekingthc an-rbrosial I)harnra-nrcdicine. Ka(yapa, all this is callcd bcing cleceitful body. in "Ki6yapa, what is it to bc deceitfulin spccch? is to say:] 'He knows me'; [It 'He 'l 'l invites me'; obtain what I seek'; do not seek material gains, but l-regivcs 'l theirl to rnc'; havc acquired every fine, wonderful offcrirrg, and grcat matcrial 'l gains as wcll'; oftcn practicc wholesome dharmas, so offcrings should bc rnadc 'l 'l to mc'; arn good at debating'; knorv the forms of the dharmas in direct ordcr and in inverted order';1e'l know the right and wrong trcanings of all dharmas';'lf he asks me this, I can answer him, convince him, and silence him with my 'By alrswer';or spcaking,I can please cveryone, and I can also nrakc pcople admire and praiseme. I can make them invite me [to their homes], make offcrings to me, and ask me to return often after I acccptthcir offerings.'Ki(yapa, if a person docs not control his speech and says cvcrything contrary to propriety, he is deceitful in speech. Ka6yapa, this is called being deceitful in spccch. "Ka6yapa, what is it to be deceitful in mind? To be deccitful in mind is to 'I sav, do not want such material supports as clorhing, bowls, bedding, food and drink, and medicinc,'whilc one's mind is [reallyl concernedwith nothing but the pursuit of these. It is to say falsely that one is content while actually one is seeking nany things." Then the World-Honored One spoke in verse:

AstoINc tN Gooo aNo Nosrn l)rponrueNt "lf a person seeksmaterial gains A n d p u r s u c st h e m i n a n i m p r o p e r w a y . While claiming hc is content, Thcn hc is forever miserable. Being falsehearted, This person is dcceitful to all; His mind is utterly impurc. Gods, dragons, spirits, Thosc who have the deva-eye, And lluddhas, the World-Honored Ones, All know and see this.

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"Ka5yapa, sr,rchr wicked mor-rk is apart from wholesome dharmas and behavior, and earns a living 'in an improper way; he will fall to thc thrcc miscrable planesof cxistence."

III
of Ka5yapa,an outThe Buddha told K5Syapa,"What is the outcastca) irarnanas? casteoften g()esto a graveyard looking for a corpse, and is glad to sce onc. He rreats sentient bcings without kindness or compassion. Similarly, KaSyapa,the has no kindncss. Hc goes to a donor's housc with cvil intenoutcasteof Sramanas values highly what hc obtains. He does not teach his dorrors thc Budtions, ar-rd ar-rddiscipline after he accepts material offerings from them. He asdha-Dharr-r-ra sociatesclosely with laypeople fbr thc sakc of material gains, not for thc sakc of KaSyapa,this f)harma. He has no kindnessand always seeksmaterial possessions. is what is meant by the outcasteof (rarnanas. warriors, brlh"Ki6yapa, all pcoplc, including ministers, elders, prir-rces, thcmsclvcsfrom atr outcaste.Evcn thc ntost nrins, and ccmmon people, dissociatc Similarly, Ki(yapa, all people, acquaintance. lowly slavcs avoid his presenceat-rd including virtuous, respectcdprcccpt-kccpcrs,monks, nuns, laymcn, lavu'omen, qods, dragons, ghosts, spirits, and gandharvaskeep aloof fronr the outcaste of becausethey know that he breaks the preceptsand practicesevil dharSrarnanas, nras. KaSyapa,this is what is meant by the outcasteof Sramanas. "Ki5yapa, an outcastc'sclothing, food and drink, and the things hc uscs are procurcs shunnedby virtuous people. Similarly, Ki5yapa, the outcasteof Sramanas of his rnonasticrobe, bowl, and other necessities life by breaking the prcccpts;by perforrning irnproper decds with body, speech, and mind; and by practicing flattery. Precept-keeping Sramanasand brahmins shun the things which the outcaste

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of Sramanas has procurcd impropcrly; they havc Ionlyl pity for him. Kaiyapa, this is what is meant by the outcastcof Srama!as. "Ki5yapa, an outcastcshamcfully begs for food with bowl in hand. Similarly, Ki5,vapa,an outcastcof 6ramanas shamcfully entcrs his own room, others' homcs, or the prescnce peoplc;he gocs to the Buddha shamcfully; hc sharnefully of pays hornagc to the sthpa ofthe Tathigata; he comes and gocs, bcnds and strctches shancfully; and he walks, stands,sits, a'd lies dow' shamefully. To summarizc, hc does cverything shamefully bccause conceals he his cvil dharmas. "Ki6yapa, an outcastenever goes to a good placc, no matter wherc he goes. Why? Becauschc practicescvil dharmas hinrself. Similarly, Kajyapa, rhe outcaste of (ramanasdocs r-rotgo to any good plane of cxistence,no mattcr where hc goes, because performs nany bad dccdsand actionslcading to rcbirth in thc miserable he planesof existcncc.K-5yapa, this is what is mcant by the outcasteof Sramanas.

"Ka6yapa, what is a corrupt Sramana? Ka5yapa,thc sedimcnt of wine which rcmains at the bottom [of a jar] aftcr the good, sweet winc has been takcn out rs useless and is clcspisecl pcoplc. Similarly, KiSyapa, a corrupt Sramana by who gives up the flavor of thc Dhanna and insteadclings to the dregs of afflictionsis useless and is abhorred by people. Hc srnells thc offensive odor of afflictions, not the fragrance of disciplirre. He can benefit ncither himsclf nor others, no matter whcrc l-regocs. Kaiyapa, this is what is meant by a corrupt Sramana. "K-Syapa, corruption may be compared to the transformation of food into durrg, which is fctid, impurc, and disgusting.Thus, Kaiyapa, a corrupt 6ramanais like dung, bccausche is impurc in decd, word, a'd thought. Kaiyapa, this is what is meant by a corrupt Sramana. "K-Syapa, a spoilcd seed sowrr in the grcat earth will not sprout or bear fruit. Sirnilarly, KiSyapa, a corrupt 5ramanancither plants good roots nor achieves thc fruit of a 6ramana,though he takcs rcfuge in thc Buddha-I)harma. Ka6yapa, this is what is meant by a corrupt 5ramana.

"Ka5yapa, what is a box-6ramana? KtSyapa,just as an ornate box madc by a skilllul craftsman may be fillcd with stinking, dirty things, so, Ki5yapa, a box6ramanaoutwardly acts as a Sramanashould act; inwardly he is full of filth and practicesevil deeds.KaSyapa,this is what is meant by a box-6ramana

"KiSyapa, what is an amaranth-Srlmana? KaSyapa, an anaranth is vcry prcttv, but its substanccis as hard as wood or stone and its odor as offbnsive as du'g. Thc wise will not come close to or touch an amaranth, and avoid even the sighr of it, while fools who do nor know its defectsapproach and smcll it when thel' seeit. Sir'ilarly, K5(yapa, an anlaranth-6ramana actslike a (ramanain appearance, though actually he is rude, indelicate,proud, conceited,filthy, and impure.

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He breaks the prcccpts, deports himself very badlv, and docs nor hold proper views. Kl5yapa, thc wise do not associate closely with an amaranth-Sramana or respectfully circumambulate him to his right; furthcrmore, thcy keep far away from him, becausehc is an evil man. Ka6yapa, only those as silly as childrcn associate closely with him, make circurnambulationsto his right to honor him, and accepthis words with faith, just as a stupid person gocs to pluck an amaranth. K-Syapa, this is what is meant by an amaranth-Sramana.

"Ki6yapa, what is a profit-sccking 5ramana? KiSyapa, a flatterir.rg, deceitful pcrson is always rniscrly and wrappcd in desire. When he seesanother pcrson's property, he is so eagcr to stcal it that he docs not feel shameor rentorsc for using a sharp knife or a cudgcl to attain his goal. He has no pity, and ahvays harbors harmful intentior.rs. When walking by a desolate marsh, in a forest, or in a village, he is intent on stealing othcrs' property, so he often l-rides himsclf. "Similarly, Ki5yapa, a profit-sccking iramana is always miserly and chokcd by desire. He is never contellt with his own gains, but always covets others' property. Hc gocs to a city or a village for the sake of matcrial gains, not for the sake of wholesomc dharmas, but he concealshis evil ways. Thinking that good monks know hc brcaks the prcccpts and that, when they discourscon discipline, they may act on their knowledgc by clriving him away from the order, a profit-sccking irarnar.rabecomcs vcry learful of good monks. Insidc, he is flattering and deceitful;but outside, he behaveswcll. "All gods, dragons, ghosts, spirits, and tl-rose who havc the deva-cyc know this nror-rkfor what he is: whcn hc comes, hc comes as a thief; whcn he goes, hc soes as a thief; and similarly, as a thicf hc-walks, sits, lics down, riscs, takes his robe, puts on his robc, enters a village, leavcsa village, eatshis meal, drinks, and his hair. sh:rvcs "K-6yapa, thc going, conring, and all other actions of this fbol are known and seenby gods, dragons, ghosts, and spirits. They rcbukc this evil monk wher-r 'It thcy see what hc docs, saying, is such bad men who destroy the Dharnra of S-kyamuni Buddha.'Whcn the gods, dragorrs,ghosts, and spirits seea Sramana or brahmin who keeps the prcceptsand cultivatespure conduct, thcy will belier.ein, 'Such honor, and csteemhim, saying, a persorrdcserves naterial offcrings accordirrg to thc Buddha-l)harnra.'Ki6yapa, though a profit-sccking Sramana leavesthe houschold life to take refugc in thc Buddha-Dharma, he cannot generareevcn a single thought of ultimatc quiescence a passionless or mind, lct alone acquirc thc fruit of a Sramana. is absolutclyimpossiblc for him to acquirc it. Ki6r'apa, this is It rvhat is meant by a profit-seeking :irarnana.

"Kaiyapa, what is a darnel-5ramana? Ka6yapa,the darnels in a wheat-field look exactly like wheat, so a farmer says that all the plants are good wheat, but later, when the kernelsof whcat cmerge, hc knows that he was wrong to say that.

ON Vrnrur aNo Dlscrpr-rxr Ki6yapa, similarly, a darnel-Sramana a group with other 6ramanas in seemsto be a virtuous precept-keeper, and when a donor sccsthe group, he saysthat all ofthem However, actually that fool is not a Sramana, are Sramanas. though he says hc is. He does not cultivate pure conduct, though he says he does. He is corrupt from the outset and does not keep any precepts.He does not belong to thc order, either. He lacks the vital wisdom of the Buddha-Dharma and will fall to the miserable planes of existence after death. He is likc the darnels among good whcat. "In thc futurc, whcn gods, dragons, and those who have the deva-eyesee 'This that fool fall to a hell, they will say to eachother, fool looked like a iranrana in the past, but he performed unwholesomc dharmas.Therefore,now hc has fallcn to a great hell, as he deserves. From now to the far distant future, he will not be able to achicvc thc virtuous dccds or thc fruit of a iramana. He is like darnels among good whcat.'Kaiyapa, this is what is meant bv a darnel-dramana.

"Ka(yapa, what is an undeveloped2lSramana? K-5yapa, undcvcloped rice plants are so calledbecause they are not mature yet. They arc not firm, so they are blown away by the wind. They are rlot strong or sturdy. They look like rice, but actually they are not yet rice. Ka(yapa, similarly, an undcvclopcd :(ramanalooks like a Sramana appearance, in but no one has taught or correctedhim. Becauschc lacks the power of virtue, he is blown by thc wind of demons. He has no vigor and lacks the power of discipline.He learns littlc and his rrrcditationlacks power. He has no wisdom and cannot destroy the theives of afflictions.Such a Sramana is mean, inferior, and powcrless, and is bound and controlled by dcmons. Hc is subrncrgcd in alflictions and blown by the wind of dcmons, just as undeveloped rice plants are blown by the wind. "Ki6yapa, just as undcvclopcd ricc plants havc no scedsto be scattered a ir-r ficld and sprout, so undcvelopcd :(rarnanas have no seedsof the path to scattcr in thc ficld of thc Buddha-Dharma, and cannot liberate themselvcslrom sari-rsira by thc doctrincs of sagcsand saints. Kaiyapa, Sramanas who break the preceptsand do evil are called undeveloped6ramanas.

"Kaiyapa, what is a falseiramana? Ka(yapa, a skillful smith gilds a picce of copper so that it is the color of gold, but thc copper articleis dif-fert'nt from golcl in valuc and pcoplc will know by rubbing it that it is not gold. Similarly, a false 5ramana likes to adonr hinrself. Hc bathcs oftcn, dressesneatly, and conducts hrmself strictly in accordance with the rules of a Sramana, rvhcthcr going, conring, bending, or stretching.Howevcr, he is always plagucd, not onlv by desire,hatred, and ignorance, but also by greed for material gains, rcspcct, and praisel :rnd by p.ridc. rrrogancc, and ali other defilements.Although hc is highly esteemedby pcopie, he in flct is not worthy of esteemat all. l-le constantlyand carelully decks his bod1,r'ith ornaments. Hc longs for good food and drink. Hc docs not scck thc noblc Dharrna, and has no fcar for future lives. He may win temporary honor, but

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not lasting honor. All hc gains is weight. He depcndson materialsupports, not on the Dharma, and is entanglcd in various bonds. He handles his property assiduously, like a layman. He thinks like a layman, and as a result hc reactslikc onc: he feels pain and plcasurcas a layman does, and he is plagued by attachmentand aversion. He has no intention to practicethe lau' of a (ranranacxcept in ritcs and nanners. Hc will dcfinitelv fall to thc miserableplanes of hcll-dwellers, hungry ghosts, and animals, because is not a 6ramanain realitv, cannot be qualificd as hc one, and does not deservethe nanc. Ka5yapa, this is n'hat is rncanr by a false Sramana.

"KtSyapa, what is a bloodless6ramana? K-5yapa, a ntan, \\'oman. bov, or girl whose blood has been sucked by ghosts rn'ill becorne cmaciatcd and rveak, becauseof the loss of blood. Ki6yapa, dcprived of blood, hc or she cannot bc curcd by any medicine, spell, knife, or cudgel22 and will dcfinitclv die. K-:ivapa, similariy, a Srarnana calleda bloodlessSramana he lacks thc blood of disciplinc, is if meditation, wisdom, liberation, ar-rd the knowledgc and awareness dcrived from joy, and cquanimity; tl.rcblood of libcratiorr;thc blood of kindness, compassion, giving, sclf-control, and thc guarding of his bodily, verbal, and nrcr.rtal acrions;rhe blood of abidirrg sccurcly in the fbur noble practices;the blood of good dcportnreut; anclthe blood of purc dccds, words, and thoughts. "K-5yapa, though hc acccpts thc l)harn-ra-medicincs the Tath.rg.lrr, a of bloodlessSranrana cannot savc hinrsclf. I he l)harma-medicinesare: to contcruplatcthe impurity of thc body when or-re feelscarnal dcsirc; to practicekindnesswhcn one feelshatred; to observe thc twclve links of deper-rderrt origination whcn onc is deludcd; to ponder afflictions rightly; to give up fondnessfor crowds; to rcnounce everything onc has; and to takc care of three monastic dharmas, namely, to be pure in discipline, to subdue or-re's mind, and to bc conce-ntrated not distracted. and Ki(yapa, though bloodlessSramanas takc thc Dharma-mcdicincsr','hichI prescribc and allow thcrn to takc, thev canllot save themselves.KaSyapa,[thcsc l)harnrarncdicirrcsl arc supramundancdoctrincs: the conternplationof emptiness,signlessness, nonaction; and thc knowlcdgc of thc lfivc] aggrcgatcs,thc Icighteenl elcnicnrs. and thc Itwclvc] entrances; the four noblc truths: and the-twelve links of dcpendentoriginatior-r. Kaiyapa. bloodlessiramanas cannot savc themselvcscvcn by taking these Isupranrunclanc]Dharma-rncdicincs.Kaiyapa, 6ramanas this kind are stinking, filthy, of end impure. Becausethcy brcak the preceptsand have few blcssings,they will be

ON Vrnrur aNo ])rscrpr-rNr born in thc lowliest domains. Becauseo[ thcir arrogancc, after death thcy will surely fall to the great hells, and nowherc clsc.Just as pcoplc who losc their blood Sramanas this kind will certainly fall to the hells after of will dcfinitcly die, sc.r death. K-(yapa, this is what is mcant by a bloodlcss(ramana."

flvc hundrcd monks abandonedthe Whcn these doctrincs had bccn spoker-r, nlonastic preccpts and returned to the lay lifc. At oncc, othcr monks rebuked tl-rcnr,saying, "It is not good or propcr for you to regressin the -Buddha-Dharma and return to thc lav life." The Buddha told the monks [rvho blamed the five hundred monks], "Do what they do is rn complarrcc lvith the Dharma. If not say so! Why? I-]ccause nronks rctunr to thc lay lif-e becausethey do not wish to accept offerings from faithful dorrors, they complv with the l)harn-ra.Thosc rnonks feel repentant bccause of their faith in and understandingof the I)harma. Whcn they hcard my 'Vy'c probably did inrpurc dccds, and thcn accepted offbrtcachings,thcy thought: ir-rgs from faithful donors. Wc should fccl rcpcntant and return to thc lay life.' "K-6yapa, now I say tl-ratafter death those monks will be reborn in the Tusita Heaven, whcre BodhisattvaMaitreya dwells, and when Maitreya Tathagata appearsin the world, thcy will bc among thc members of his first assembly."

IV
Therr Mahaktiyapa askedthe Ruddha, "World-Honorcd Onc, what kinds of n-ronks niay take charge of aftairs?" The Buddha replied to Kaiyapa, "l allow tu'o kinds of monks to take chargc of aflbirs. What are the two? ()nc kind is a monk who can kccp thc purc prccepts, and tl-re other is a monk whose fear of luture livcs is as strong as adamant. Furthermore, therc arc two othcr kinds of monks who nray take chargc of affairs. Wl-rat arc thc two? Or-rekind is a nronk who is aware of karmic results and the othcr is a rnonk who is rcpcrltant ancl sensitivcto shanrc.Furthcrnrorc, the'rc arc two other kirrds of monks who may takc chargc of affairs.What arc thc two? One kind is a nronk who l-rasattainccl Arhatship and thc othcr is a monk who can cultivate thc cightfold libcration. Ki(yapa, I permit thesekinds of monks to take thenrselves and concharge of affairs. Why? Bccausc,Ki6yapa, thcy arc blamcless sidcrateof others, which is a rare achicvcment. "Kt(yapa, there arc many kinds of peoplc who havc left the householdlife tcr rake refugc irr thc Buddha-l)harma. Thcy diflcr in naturc, mcntality, libcration, of anrl thc craclication passions.Sornc arc forcst-dwcllcrs, sorllc practice begging s r i ' r ' t o o d . s . l n r cl i k c t o l r v c r r r m o u n t a i r rg r o v e s .s o n r ce r r . l o y t a y i n gn c a r e v i l l a g c . 5onlc arc purc in clisciplinc,sonlc can frcc thcrnsclvcsfrom the lbur yokes, some

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are diligent in learning much, somc debatcdoctrines,some keep the preccptswell, somc behavethcmselvcswell accordingto the vinaya, and some tcach thc Dharma to people in cities and villages. The administrativemonks must well discerp the varlous tempcramentsof all thesekinds of monks. "Ka6yapa, a monk who dwells in a secludcdforcst needsto have rcisure,so thc administrativemonk should not assignhim anv *'ork. If it is a forest-dwelling nronk's turn to do a job, the administrativemonk should do it for him if he can; otherwisc, he should ask another pcrson to do it. Hc should not order a forcstdwelling monk about, but may give him a small task to do if the nronk is not engagecl thc practicc of the path. in "Ka5yapa, thc admi'ristrativc monk should give good food to those who practice food-bcgging. Hc should give monks who can free thenrsclvcslrom the four yokes anything they 'ccd, such as clothi'g, food and dri.k, bcdding, and mcdicirrc. He should not shout loudly himself or allow othcrs to shout loudlv lear the dwelli'g-placcs of rnonks free frorn the four yokes, in order to protcct them. Thc administrative monk should cxtend respectto such monks, regard thern as world-Honorcd oncs, and think, 'Thcsc monks can be the pillars of the BuddhaDharma, and I should givc thcm anything they nccd.' "Kajyapa, if there are 'ronks who are dilige't in learning much, the ad_ nrinistrativc rnonk should encouragethem, saying, 'you virtuous ones diligently pursue kr-rowledgc, and read and recite so as to havc thorough comprehcnsion.I should bc at your service.You virtuous, crudite ones arc like necklaces ofprecious stonesalrlorlg tire monks. Y<tu can ascendto high seatsand elaboratcon the true l)harma, and also gcneratcwisdon-r your own.' The admirristrative of rnonk should not ask them to work at wrong times but should help them so that they can devote themsclvcsto extcnsivelcarning. "Ka5yapa, the administrative nro'k should afford everything to a monk who teachesthc Dharma, should accornpanyhin to cities and villagcs and persuade people to hear hirn cxplain the I)harma. Hc should providc a teaching site and make a high, cushioncd seat for him. If any monk interrdsto hurt thc Dharmarnastcrby forcc, the administrativcmonk should make pcacebetween the two. Hc should also go frcquently to the l)harma-master to of-ferhis praise. "K-Syapa, thc admir-ristrative monk should often visit the monk rvho keeps thc pure prccepts well, and who undcrstandsthe mcaning of the Vinat,a, saving, 'How should I n-ranagc things, s. that I n-ray commit no misdecdsand do no harm to myself or othcrs?' The monk who undcrstandsthe meaning of the Vinaya should observethe mind of the administrativemonk and teach him the.Dharma in accordancc with his managcrialdutics, advising him hor,vto act. "The administrativemonk should with all his heart havc faith in, pay homase to, and rnakc offerings to those who kccp the preccpts.At the proper times, he should give monks thc things they need and are cntitled to, and should lot conceal thosc things. whe' he distributcs things, he should not do so with an evil mind, nor in an improper \ ray, nor with a mind full of desire,hatred, ignorance,or. fear.

Or.r Vrnlur

AND I)IscIPLINE

"The administrative monk shoulcl act in accordanccwith thc laws of the with thc laws of thc laity. Hc should act according to Sarhgha,not in accordance the rcgulations of tl-reSarirgha,not according to his ou'n rcgulations. Hc should not bc free with the things which bclong to thc Sarhgha.Hc should consult other arbitrarily by himself. monks even on trifling nrattersand not dccidc n'ratters thc "As regrrds the articlesuscd, r"ramely, thc resident nrotrks' posscssiorrs, the and Buddha's possessions, thc visiting monks' posscssions, administrativemonk should diffcrentiatethem. Thc residentnronks'belongings should not bc given to and rcsidcnt monks' possesthc visiting monks, and vice vcrsa; and thc "'isiting nrotrks' things should not sions should not be mixcd up. The rcsidcrrtand visitir-rg be mixed up with the Buddha's things. "lf the residentmonks'bclongirrgs are plcntiful and thc visiting rnonks need somc of then-r,the administrativc rnotrk should sunrmoll the residcnt monks and ask them to give away some of thcir thngs. If thc,v agrec, tl-renhc should give some of their belongings to the visiting tnotrks. "Kt(yapa, if thc stupa o[thc Tathigata ncedssomc rcpair or is going to ruitr. thc adnrinistrative arrd the residcnt and visiting nronks have many posscssions, monk shoulcl sunlntolt the monks anci ask thcm to votc whcthcr to give awal' 'The tsuddha's st[Pa is goirrg to ruitr, and ueeds sorne of thcir things, saying, are Virtuous t-uonks,it is timc lbr while the monks' posscssions plcntifr.rl. rcpair, you obtained you to conselltto my requcst. lf you consentto givc away thc tl-rings fronr donors, I shall takc and usc thcrn, whcther thcy bclong to the residentmonks stupa.' If the monks vote for it, the or the visiting monks, to rcpair tirc Buclcll-ra's froni selling] thc nronks'possessions monk should use [the proccccls adnrin'istrative monk to repair the Buddha's stupa. If the rnonks votc againstit, thc adnrinistrative persuadelay devotccsto contributc nloncy to repair the Ruddha's stupa. sirould "K-6yapa, Ihowever,] if thc tsuddha'sthings arc plcntiful, the adninistrative rnonk shoulcl not distribute then-rto thc resident or visiting monks. Why not? Because should rcgard the Buddha's things as the World-Honored Onc. Everyhe thirrg belonging to the Buddha, cvcn a piece of thread, has been givcn to the Buddha by faithful donors. Therefbre, gods and humans considcr cvcn such [trivial] things to be the tsuddha's stupa, lct alone precious things. If a garment has been .-rfferedto thc Buddha's stalpa,it is better to let the llarment be blown by the wind, rained upon, and worn out than to cxchangeit for a prcciottsthing. Why? [First,l becauseno one can fix a price on anything in the Buddha's stllpa; and the tsuddha needsnothing. second,because "Ktiyapa, a good, pure administrativemonk should not mix up the belongings of the ThrecJcwcls. Furthermore, he should be constantlycontent with what and he himsclf possesses not think that the bclongings of thc ThrceJewels are his. "Ki6yapa, if an administrativemonk, out of hatrcd, arbitrariiy orders about whonr people resPectfullycirand crnploys as servantsvirtuous precept-keepers, a great hell bccauseof his hatred. lf he is born as a cumambulate, he will fall to

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human, hc will be somcone'sslavc,rvill bc put to hard labor by his rnastcr,and will be whippcd. "Furthcrmore, Ki6yapa, i[ an administrativc monk arbitrarily makes new regulations stricter tl-ranthe ordinarv regulationsobcl'cd b1' thc monks, upbraids and punishes monks [according to his own ncu' resulations], and makes thcm work at unnecessary times, he will fall to thc mir.rorhell of manv nails bccause of tl.ris bad root. When hc is in this hell, his body rvill be prcrced by hundreds of thousands of nails, and will blaze with fire, enittins ereat llames like a big furnacc. "lf the administrativenronk frightcns virtuous prcccpt-kecpcrs uith serious matters or speaksto thcm n'ith hatrcd, he will be born in a hcll u'irh a ronque 'lcagucs five hu'drcd long- His torlguc rvill bc picrced bv hur-rdrcds thousa'ds oi of nails, each of whicli will givc forth great flames. "Kidyapa, if the adn-rinistrativc monk bcgrudses or hidcs tl-renror-rks' belongirrgs, or distributes thenr at the wrong times, unwillinglv, bitte.rlv, lcss thar-r he should, not at all, or to s()me and not to othcrs, the' bccauseof this bad root he will fall to the niscrablc planc of hungry ghosts aftcr dcath, and will have only pills nraclc of dung to eat. At that tinrc, other huugrv ghosts will show him lbod without givi'g it t. hir'. Longing to procure thc food, hc will gaze at it so inteDscly that his cycs will not blink at all. Hc will be hungry arrcl thirsty, but u'ill have nothing ro cat or drink for hundreds of tlrous:rnds of years. After tl-rat, will sometirncsobtairr food, but thc foocl will soon changc hc i'to cl''g or bioody pus. why? Becausehe abuscclhis authority by making it dilllcult fbr respectcd precepl-kcspgrs obtain from hin-rtl-reir to rightful posscsslons. "Ka6yapa, the admirristrativel-Ilonk will receivc a very painful karnric rctributiorr for a kalpa or nrorc if hc himsclf useswithout distinction the possessions of thc resident monks, the visiti'g mo'ks, or the lluddha. why? Ilecausche has encroachcdon the possessions thc Threc Jcwcls. of "Kaiyapa, if an administrativcnonk hcarssuch transgressior-rs explaincdand knows thcy are transgressio's,but is recalcitrantand hates the preccpt-keepers, I say that hc cannot bc rcformed eve' by the Buddhas, thc world-Honored o'cs. "K56yapa, therefore, rn administrarivemonk should guard well his dccds, q'ords, and thoughts aftcr heari'g such tra'sgressio's cxplained. He should protect both hirnsclf and others. "Ki(yapa, an administrativemorrk should prefer to eat his os,n tlesh rather than use without distinction thc bclongings of the Threc Jcwels, such as clothrng, bowls, food, anclclrink." Mahakaiyapathen said to thc Buddha, "World-I-lonorcd O'c, cxtraordi'ary are these doctrines, which the Tathagata teachcsout of kindncss. Hc speaksof sharnclcssness those who are inscnsitivcto shameand speaksof rernorscto those to who are sensitivcto shame."

-lr )0

ON Vrnrur RNo l)rscrpltrl

V
Then Mahakaiyapa asked thc Buddha, "\)7orld-Honorcd Onc, some monks declarc themselvcsto be forcst-dwelling monks. World-Honored Orre, how should a monk act to be callcd a forest-dwclling monk? How should a monk act to bc called a food-begging monk? How should a monk act to bc called onc who wears a qarnlcnt of cast-off rags? How should a monk act to bc called one who dwells undcr a tree? How should a monk act to be callcd one who wandcrs in a graveHow should a monk act to be calledone who livcs in the open air?" -vard? Thc Buddha replicd to KaSyapa,"A forest-dwclling monk must delight in a secludcdforest and livc in it. KaSyapa,a secludedplace is a placc where thcrc are no loud noises and no dcer, tigcrs, wolves, flying birds, robbers, cowherds, or Therefore, l)harn'ra-practice. shepherds.Such a placc is suitable lbr a Sramaua's in such a monk should dcvotc himself to L)harma-practice a sccludcdplace. "A monk should think of eight things if he wishcs to livc in a secludcdplace. What arc thc eight? (1) To renouncc the body; (2) to renouncc lifc; (3) to rclinquish matcrial possessions; (,1) to leavc all bcloved places; (5) to dic on a nlountain, like a deer; (6) to perform thc dceds of a forest-dweller when in a secludcd place; (7) to live by thc Dharma; and (8) not to abidc in afflictions. K-Syapa, a monk who wishes to live in a sccludcdforest should contemplatethese eight things, and thcn hc should go to a sccludedplace. place,he should "Kidyapa, after a forcst-dwclling monk arrivcs at a secluded follow thc Dharma of a fbrest-dweller arrd perform eight dccds to show kindness for all scntient beings. What are the eight? (1) To benefit scntient beings; (2) to gladdcn scntient beings; (3) not to hatc sentient beings; (4) to be straightforward; (5) not to discrin-rinate amonll senticnt beings; (6) to be compliant with scntient beings; (7) to contemplateall dharmas;and (8) to be as pure as spacc. KJivapa, a forcst-dwelling monk should perform thcsc eight deedsto show kind:::ss tbr al1scntient beings. "Ki(r'apa, when a forest-dwelling monk arrivcs at a secluded place, he

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should think, 'l have come to this rcmotc placc alonc, with no companion. No one teachcsor rcbukes me, whethcr I practicc virtue or nonvirtue.'Hc should think further, 'However, therc are gods, dragons, ghosts, spirits, and Buddhas, the !7orld-Honorcd oncs, who know that I apply mv mind c'tircly to devotion. They ca' be my witncsses. Now I am herc to practice s'hat a forest-dweller should. If I bear malice, I shall not be free and at easc.Now I a'r i' this remote place all alonc; I associatc closcly with no one and have nothing to call my own. I should 'ow bcwarc offeelings ofdesire, hatred, annoyance,ard so forth. I should not be likc those who are fond of crowds or arrached villages.If I anr, I shall be to dcceiving the gods, dragons, ghosts, and spirits; and the lluddhas will 'ot like to seeme. If I now follow the right practiceof a forest-dwellcr,the gods, dragons, and spirits will not upbraid me,,and thc Buddhas will be glad to see me., Flhosts, "K-Syapa, when a forest-dwelling mo'k livcs in a secludedplacc, he should practicethe right actions of a tbrest-dwellcr: to persist, with all his heart, in keeping the prcceptslcading to liberatron; to maintain well the preceptsof evcry category, and purify his ow.r dceds, words, and thoughts; not to practiceflattery or lraud; to eanr his livclihood in a proper way; to kcep his mirrd ir.rclir.red dhylnas; to to memorize thc Dharma hc has heard; to cultivate right tl.roughtdiligcntly; to rlovc toward passiorrless, quiesccnt,and ccssative nirvJna; t o b e a f r , l i do f s a r i r s J r r ; to rcgard thc five rggregrtcs :rs cncrnies, the four elenrentsas porsonous snakes,and thc six senses uninhabitcd villascsl as to be adept in devising skilllul means; to contemplate the twelve links of depender-rt origination in order ro parr with the views of cfcrnalism and nihilism; to contemplatc the crnptinessof a senticnt bcing, of a self, of a personal identity, and of a lite; to undlrstand that the dharmas are clevoidof signs, and to practicc signlcssness; to decrease actions gradually and to practiccnonactior.r; his to fear the activitics of the three realnts: always to practicc thc Dharma diligc'tly, as if to save his head rronr bcing burncd: always to strive with vigor and never regress; to contcmplate the reality of the body, thinking anclcontemplating so as to know the origirr of suffering, to severthe causcof suffcring, to realize the ccssatiorr ofsufferirrg, and to cultivateassiduously thc path leadirrg to the ccssation of suffcrinq;

302 to to to to to to to to to to

Otv Vrnrur auo DtscrPI-tNl practicekindness; abidc securcly in the four mindfulnesses; avoid unwholesomc dharmas and enter thc door to wholesomc dharmas; establish himself in the four right efforts; nlaster the four basesof miraculous powers; protect the five good roots and to have a command of the fivc powers; be awakened to thc seven factors of enlightenment; practicethe eightfold noblc path industriously; develop dhyina ar.rdsamadhi; and discriminateall thc forms of dharmasby virtue of wisdom.

"Kadyapa,a forcst-dwelling monk adorns himsclf with such doctrines.Havi1g adorned himself in this way, he should live in a mountain grove, and diligently cultivate the various practices even it-tthe early and late parts of the night without sleepingthen.23He should always bc eagerto attain the supramundaneDharnra. "Ka5yapa,a forest-du'ellingmonk should constantlycultivatc the path wherevcr he is; hc should not decoratc his body with flne clothes; he should gather withered grass to cushion his scat; he should not takc things lrorn rcsiderlt or visiting monks. In a secludcdplace, a forest-dwelling monk shouid, in ordcr to practicethe noble path, bc content with any garment which can covcr his body. "Kadyapa, if a forcst-dweiling n'ronk goes to a city or a viilage to bcg for 'I to have cor.ne this city or village from my secludedplace food, he should think, deprcsscdrror elated, whether irr order to beg for food; my mincl should be r-reither I obtain food or not. Indced, ifI am not givcn food, I should bc c()ntentand regard it as the karrnic retribution [for dccds] in nry prc'viouslives, and from now on I should cultivate virtuous dceds industriously.' Furthcrnrore, he should remembcr that even the TathSgata did not always acquire lbod rvhcn he bcggcd for it' "A forcst-dwelling monk should adorn himsclf with the I)harma bcforc he begs for food in a city or a village, and should go to bcg only after hc has done so. How does he adorn himself with thc Dharma? He should not bc contarninated with or attached to thc sight of pleasantforms, nor be angry at thc sight of unpleasantforms, and likewise with pleasantor unplcasantsounds, odors, tastcs, lrorn being attracted, tcxtures, and dharmas. He should protect his scnse-organs and should gazc no farthcr than severalfcet ahcad. He should control his mir-rdr,vell and kccp in rnind the Dharma he has contemplatcd.He should practiccbegging for food without defiling his n'rind with lbod. Hc should bcg for food fron door to door without feeling attachment to a place where he is givcn food or leeling at aversiontoward a place where he is not. If hc obtains rlothillg aftcr beggirl€i ten 'Thcse eldcrs and or nlore houscs, hc should not be worried, and should think, They have ncvcr evel1thought of brlhnrins do not give me food for many reasons. n1c.not to speakof giving me food.'Ka(yapa, a forest-dwelling nronk will not bc atraid u'hen begging for food if hc can think in this way. "Kl5,vapa, if a forcst-dwelling monk seesnlen, wonlerl, boys, girls, or an-

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imals when begging tbr food, hc should have kind'ess and compassiontoward them and think, 'l strivc with vigor so that I can make thc vow thar scntientbcinss who see me and those who givc me food rvill all bc reborn in heavcn.' "K56yapa, aftcr a forcst-dwclling monk obtai's iood, whcther it is coarseor of high quality, he should look for poor pcople in thc crtv or village a'd sharehalf the food with them- If hc does not see any poor pcople, he shouid think, .l Imentally] give the best of thc food I obtain to the scntier-rt bcrpgsr,",homl do not seewith my eycs. I am the donor and thcy arc the recrpients.' "Ki6yapa, a forest-dwelling mo'k should returr to his secludeddwellingplace with the food giveu to him and v,'ashhis hands and fce-t.Accordilg ts thc purc rules of dcportmer-rt a Sramana, should arrangca scat n'ith qrrss he has for he gathered, sit cross-lcggcdon the seat, and cat without artachmcnt.pridc, hatred, or distraction. when hc is about to eat, he should think, 'ln nry boclr., thcrc are cighty thousand worrrs which will be securca'd happy when thcy obtai' thc food I eat. Now I attract rhcse rvorms to my following with food; but rvhen I attain supreme enlightenment, I shall attract thcm to my lbllowing with the l)harnra., "Ki3yapa, when a forest-du'elling monk does 'ot havc enough to eat, hc shoulcl think, 'Now that my body is light, I ca' cultivatc parie'cc, purity evils, and have less excremc't and urine. My mi'cl is light when my body is light. Therefore, I can slecplittlc ar-rd have no clcsirc.'Hc should think i' this way. "Kiiyapa, if a forest-dwclli.g r'o'k is giverr much food, hc shourd gladly put a handtirl of-it on a cleanrock, thinking, 'l give this to thc birclsand beaststhat can cat it. I am the donor and thcy are the recipients.' "Ki6yapa, after cating, a forest-dwclling monk should wash and dry his bowl and rinse his hanrls a'cl nouth. He should put away his patched robe a'd walk near his secludcdplacc, pondrrirrg rhq forms of dharmas. "Ki6yapa, a forcst-dwclling monk who is still an ordinary nlan and has not yct achicvedthe'fruit of a iramana may bc approacl-red times by tigers or rvolvc-s at as hc cultivatcs the practicesof a forcst-dr.r.cllcr. wherr he secs thesc bcasts. he should not fear thcnr, but should think, 'Sincc I camc to this secludecl placc, I have relinquishcdmy body and life; thcrcforc, insteadof being afraicl,I shor.rlcl clltiyatc kindnessand rid nryself of all cvils and fears.If tigers or wolvcs kill nre and car rpr. flcsh, I should tl.ri'k that I am greatly be'efitcd, for I shall gct rid of rnv iracilc body and gairra stablcorte.24 have no fbod to give to thc tigcrs or wolves, bLrtrl-rcr, I will bc cornfortableand happy after thcy cat my flesh.'Ka(yap:r,a lbrcst-du'cllinq monk shoulcl re'li'quish his body and lifc in this way whe' hc follo*.s the right practicc of a fbrest-dwclicr. "Kaiyapa, when a forcst-dwclling mor-rk follows thc right practiceof a forcstdwcllcr, n.nhumars rnav co'e t. his place in eirhcr beautilul or uglv forms. Toward such nonhumans, hc should gcneratcneither love nor hatc. "Ka3yapa, if the gods who have rnct thc Buddha conle to thc placc of a forcst-dwelling monk and bring up many questions,thc monk should explain to thcn as best hc can the doctrincs which hc has studied. Ifhc cannot sive an answer

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to a diificult qucstiorrwhich a god puts to him, hc should l1ot becomc arrogallt, 'l say have not lcarned much, but do not despisemc. From trow ou l but sl-rould and stuCy thc Buddha-Dharnra morc diligently, so that one day I shall cr,rltivate rnal- bc Ithoroughly] conversantwith the Buddha-l)harma aud ablc to atrswcr all c q l l e s t i o n s . ' H c s h o u l d a l s o u r g c t h c g o d s I t o p r e a c h ] ,s a y i n g , ' P l e a s e x p l a i n t h e 'May you me. I shall hear and acceptit.'Hc should also say gratcfuily, I)h:rrnra to rcquest!' not refuse my "Moreovcr, Ka(yapa, a forcst-dwelliug mor-rkwho follorvs the right practice oi a forcst-dwellcr should cultivatc u,cll thc thoughts of a forcst-dweller: Just as grass, trees, tiles, alrd stoncs have no [innerl mastcr, selt, or owncr, so it is with thc body. There is rro sclf, no litc, no pcrsonal idcntity, no scntient bcrng, no coltclltion. The body arisesfrom thc combination of conditions. If I contemplate it rvcll, I shall scver all u'rong vieu's.'A forcst-drvcllingrnonk should always think atrd uotractiotr. signlcssncss, of tl-redoctrine of en-rptincss, "Kaiyapa, when a forcst-dwellingmorrk follows the right practiccof a forcstdwcllcr, he will find that fiuits, herbs, grass,and trccs arisc fronr the combinatiou '['hcsc external things havc tro masof conditions and ccasewith thcir dispersion. 'l' naturaily, yet thcy ariscnaturally and cease or'nrine,'and no cotrtcntiotr, tcr, no Ki6yapa, just as grass,trees,tilcs, and stones there is no entity that ariscsor ccascs. have no [irrncr] self, nraster,or owner, so it is with thc body. Therc is no sclf, no iderrtity, t-tosentient bcing, no colrtentiolt. All dharmas arise from life, no 1-rcrsonal thc combinatiorrof conditions and ceascwith their dispcrsion.h-rreality, no dharnra arisesor ceases. when hc "KaSyapa, a fbrcst-dwclling rnonk should cultivate this doctrir-re forest-drvelling monk who practiccs this stays in a secludcd place. K-5yapa, a quickly if hc lollorvs the Srivakadoctrine will achicvc thc fruit of a Sranrana 'is hindered frorn achicving thc fruit of a Sranrana this life, he will in vchicle. If l-re Buddl-ra,or two, or at nlost without fail end all his dcfilcrncntsafter sccitrgotrc thrcc. If he follo',vsthe llodhisattva-vchicle,hc will obtain in this lifc the Rcalizatior-rof the Nonarising oII)harnras and thc l)harn-raof Nonobstruction, see future Buddhas rvithout fail, uid attaitrsuprcmc enlightcnmentquickly." Wherr this discourscon the forcst-dwclling monk was spokcn, five hundred and achievcdmcntal liberation. monks elirninatcdall their dcfilenrents

VI
Thc Buddha told Ki6yapa, "What is a food-begging monk? Ki(yapa, if a nronk abidcs sccurelyin his past vow to lead a monastic lifc practicing begging for food, hc n'ill be single-mindedand will not usc llattcry or dcccit, will declinc all invitar1orlsto dinncr, will acccpt no food olfercd to a community of monks, and will adorn hirnself witl.r dignity.

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"A food-bcgging monk should not think of the flavor of any dishes. When he is given delicacies, should warn himself, thinking, 'I am like an ourcasre. is he It nry body and mind which should bc pure, nor my food and beveragcs.Why? Because all delicious food, when eatcn, will change into stinking, filthy, and irnpure excrcmcnt. I should not seek any finc food.' "Having subdued his mind in this way, a food-begging monk should not think when he begs for food from door to door in a city or a village: 'lt is a man, not a woman, who gives me food'; or 'It is a wonlan, not a mal1, who gives mc 'It food'; or is a boy, not a girl, who gives mc food'; or 'It is a girl, not a boy, who 'l gives mc food'; or should bc given delicacies, not coarsefood'; or 'l should be given good food, not bad food'; or 'It is the time to givc me lbod'; or 'lt is not thc time to give me food'; or 'lt should bc casy, not difficult, lbr me to obrain food'; 'I or should bc given food quickly, not slowly'; or 'l should bc respectcdarrd not despisedwhen I cnter a villagc'; or 'l should be given freshly cooked food, not 'I lcftovc'rfood'; or should acquiref<rodfrom the rich, not from thc poor'; or 'Men and womcn should wclcome me.' Ka6yapa,a food-bcgging monk should not have theseunwholcsonrc idcas. "Ki(yapa, a fbod-beggirrg r.nonk shor.rlcladorn himself with the rules of tbod-bcgging: whcn begging frrr fbod, he should not feel sad orjoyful, whether he is given food or .ot; he should not considcrwhether thc food he is givcn 1scoarse or of high quality. [ihy? Because many sentientbeings perforrn evil dc-eds owing ro their attachmeutto dclicacies, and as a rcsult they fall to the miserableplanesof hell-dwellers, hungry ghosts, or animals. Thosc who are content are not grccdy fi>r delicacies.Therefbre, a food-begging monk should not seek high-quality food but acccpt coarse food. He should not lct his senscof taste become attachedto dciicacies, but should feel conte't v"'ith ary kind of food. Evcn when he is given the coarsest food, he should be conterlt with it. Thus, hc will be reborn in heaven or as a human after death and, if he is reborn in heaven,hc will Ithen] have celestial dclicacies. "Ki5yapa, a food-bcgging monk should subdue his mind by dctachment lrom delicacies. He should not be unhappy evcn if he eats nothing but beans for '!ilhy? scvcn days. Becausehe should ear lonly] to livc. Hc is ablc to cultivatc the path aftcr eating; he should eat for this reason. "K-6yapa, if a food-begging mor.rkobtains a bowl of food in a proper rvav, it is a proper material support. Thc monk should share it with thc monks q.ho cultivatc purc conduct. "Ki6yapa, when a food-begging monk is sick and has no food ro eat bccause he has no attendantto beg food for him, he should subduc his mind in this way: 'I am alone without any companion, for I havc left the houschold life. Thc Dharma is my companion, so I should keep thc l)harma in mind. No'uv I suffer from illness.I should thir.rkof the Dharma I have heard before, fbr the World-Honored ()ne said that monks should keep the Dharrna in mind. What should I think of? I should contemplate the body as it is. Having contemplatcdthe body as it is, it is

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qurte possiblethat a wise person can achievethe tirst dhyanaif he is singlc-minded. Those rvho acquire thc joy of dhyana can live on dhyina and bccome cheerful in mind ior one day, two days, or cvcn sevendays [without food].' "Ka5yapa, if a food-bcgging monk does not achievedhyana whcn hc practiccs in this way, hc should practice more diligcntly and abidc securelyin wholesome dharmas. As many people know, gods, dragons, and spirits will offer food to such a person as a result of his frecdom from the yoke [of attachmentto food]. "Ka6yapa,when a food-begging monk cannot go out to beg for food bccause of heavy rains or strong wind and dust, he should live on kindncss and adorn himself with it; he should abide securely in and ponder upon the Dharma hc 'There practiccs. If he has nothing to eat for two or three nights, he should think, arc many sentierlt beirrgs who tlll to the plane of hungry ghosts becausethey have performed evil karmas. They are miserable; for a hundred years they do not even have salivato wet their throats. Now, I abide sccurelyin Dharma-doors. Although physically and rncntally I am weak, still I can bear hunger and thirst. I should cultivate the noble path industriously and not regressfrom it.' "Ktiyapa, a food-begging monk should not associatc closcly with laypcople, whether they are men, women, boys, or girls. "Ka(yapa, if a foocl-begging r-r-ronk asks a lay dcvotec to rcmovc dirt from his food, the nrorrk should teach the l)harma to him while sitting there, until the food is clean and givcn back to him. Thcn hc should rise from his seat and go away. "KiSyapa, a food-beggirrgmonk should not be preter.rtious. How may he be 'Today pretentious? is pretentiousifhe saysto others, the food I have begged is He coarseand inadequate, arrd yct I am sharing it with many people. Therefore, I have eaten little, and bcing hungry and thirsty, I will become emaciated and weak.' Kadyapa,a food-begging monk should avoid such pretension. "Kaiyapa, a food-begging mor.rk should be detached fiom all things. He should, without feeling unhappy or glad, accept arly food put in his bowl, whethcr coarse or of high quality, little or much, pure or impure. He should always purify his mind and contemplate the forms of dharmas. He accepts food in order to survivc and practice the noble path. "Ki5yapa, if a food-beggir.rgmonk is not given any food and leaveswith his empty bowl in hand after he begs food from door to door in a city or villagc, he 'Even should think, thc Tath-gata, who has grcat, awcsomc virtuc, who renounced the throne of a universal monarch and left the household life, and who has eradicated all evils and fulfilled all wholesome dharmas, left a village with his empty bowl in hand after he had begged for food. How can I, who have few virtues and do not plant good roots, not come back with my bowl empty? Therefbre, I should not be grieved. Why? tsecauseit is absolutely impossiblc that thc monks who do not plant good roots can obtain food, coarse or of high quality. have Norv, I am not given any food, probably becausedemons or their messengers prevented brahmins and laymen from giving me food. Thercfore, I should be

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diligcnt in cultivation so as to stay away front the four dcmons and eradicate all defilements. If I cultivate the path assiduously,neither Pipiyan, thc king of demons, nor demons' messengers can gct in my way.' "Ki5yapa, a food-begging monk should uphold the noblc practicesin this way."

UI
The tsuddha told K56yapa,"A monk who wcars a garmcnt of cast-off rags should 'l think whcn he picks up rags, pick up cast-off rags lrorn garbagebccauscI am not because want to adorn nrvself r.vitha I sensitiveto the shanlc [of nakedncss], garmcnt; bccauseI have to protect mysclf lrom thc wind, thc sun, mosqurtos, gnats, and harmtul objects; and becauseI abide securelyin the teachingsoi the tsuddha, not bccauscI scck anything purc and finc.' "l:le should engcndcr two kinds of thoughts when he is picking up rags. What are the two? One is the thought of contentmentand the other is the thought of convenient support. "Furthermore, he should engendcr two [othcr] kinds of thoughts: onc is thc thought ofgiving up arroganccand thc other is the thought ofupholding the noble practlces. "Moreovcr, hc should engender two [other] kinds of thoughts: one is the thought of not adorning thc body and thc othcr is thc thought of purifying thc rnind. "Furthcrmorc, rf a monk who wcars a garmcnt of cast-offrags stops picking up rags from a rubbish heap when he sees his relativcs or frierrds arrd thir-rks, 'Perhaps thcy will scold mc, saying, "You are a dirty person,"'Ki6yapa, I say that this rnonk is not pure in conclrtct,Why? l3ecauscthe rnincl of a monk who wears a garmcnt of cast-off rags should be as firm as a rock, so that nothing cxtcrnal car-r penetratcor movc it. "Ki6yapa, a monk who wears a garment of cast-off rags should wash the cast-off rags until thcy arc clean, dye them after they are washed, and thcn makc a patchedrobe with them. He should patch them up well and wear the patchedrobe carefully so that it will not burst at thc scams. "Ki5yapa, to fiee himself tronr desire, a monk who wears a garnrcnt of cast-off rags should wear it with constantcontcmplation upon thc inrpuritv Iot'thc bodyl. To free himself from hatred, hc should wear it with kindness. To lrec himself fiom ignorancc, hc should wear it with contemplation upon the trvelve all links of dependentorigination. To eradicate afflictions, he should rvear it with right thought. To kr.row the [nature of the] six scnscs,he should vr'earit while protccting his sensc-organs from bcing attractcd. f'o rnakc gods, dragons, and spirits happy, hc should wear it with no flattery or deccit.

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"Kl6yapa, why is such a garment calleda garment of cast-off rags?Kadyapa, lust as a repugnant corpse that no one wants to own is usually abandoned,so is a q e r m L - no f c a s t - o f f r a g s I t h a sn o t h i n g t o d o r v i t h I t h c n o t i o n so f ] ' I ' a n d ' m i r r e . ' I t t . is casv to obtain. lt was acquircd in a proper way, not by bcgging or currying tavor n'ith othcrs. It was discardcd as rubbish and docs rlot belong to anyone. Thcrcibrc, it is called a garment of cast-off rags. "Ki6yapa, a garment of cast-off rags symbolizes the Dharma-banncr, becauscit is the sigrr of thc Grcat Rsi; it symbolizesonc's caste,because is thc sign it oithe castcof saints;it symbolizcsonc's nraintenancc a noblc nature, bccause is of it the sign of the noblc practices;it symbolizcs one's conccntrated[right] thought, because is the sign of wholcsome dharnras; syn-rbolizes it it onc's skillful protccrion of precepts, becauseit is thc sign of disciplinc; it symbolizcs that one r-noves toward the doors Iof libcration], bccause is thc sign of dhytna; it symbolizesthat it one's mind abides securcl,v, bccar.rse is thc sign of wisdom; it symbolizes that it onc's body bclongs to nothing, because is thc sign of libcration; it symbolizcs it one's compliance with the Dharnra, becauseit is thc sign of the knowledge and awareness rived liom liberation. d "Ka5yapa, thus, monks who wear laarmetltsof cast-off rags achicve great 'lhcy blcssings. do not lon!! for anything. They are not grccdy:rnd arc attachcdto 'I'hey nothirlg. can free thcir minds from pride ar-rd abandon the heavy burdens [of af{lictions]. "K-6yapa, becauscof his contcntment, gods, dragor-rs, ghosts, and spirits all like to see a monk who wcars a garment of cast-off rags. "Ka5yapa, if a rnonk who wcars a garment of cast-oflfrags enters dhyana, then Sakra, Brahrna, and thc lbur deva kings will kneel upright before him, join thcir palrns, arrd bow with thcir headsat his feet, let alonc other, minor gods. "Kaf yapa, if an evil monk strives to procurc a garnent to bcdcck himseli outwardly nranifestingpure conduct but inwardly bcing full of desire,hatred, and iguorancc, thcn thc gods, dragons, and spirits will not go to his placc to pay homage and make offerings to him. Why? Because they know that this monk strives to acquirc a garment to bedcck himself insteadof Istriving to] climinate the filth of his mind and mental faculties;knowing this, they avoid hirn. "Ka5yapa, you saw that Srimancra Qdnda picked up impure, stinking, and dirty cast-offrags [for his garmentl and, after having beggedfor food, wcnr ro thc Lakc of No l}urning Afflictions in order to wash the rags thcrc. At that time, gods ri.ho livcd by the lake canlc to greet hirrr and bowed with thcir l.reads his fcet. at Thosc gods all like to be clean and pure, but they took fronr Srarnancra Cunda thc inrpure cast-offragshc had picked up and washedout thc dirt for hinr, thcn bathed s'ith thc same water. Those gods krrew that Cunda kept thc pure precepts,could L-nr.r various dhySnas, and had great, awesontc virtue; thcrcforc, they came to \ \ L l , u n l ca n d s a l u t c i m . h "Ki6_vapa, you saw that when Brahmacirin Virtue desircdto go ro thc Lake oi No Burning Afflictions after having begged for food in a purc, clean garment,

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the gods who lived there stood five miles2s from the four sides of thc lake and prevented him from coming near it, for fear that he might defile the lake with his impurc leftover food. "K-5yapa, now you have seen these things. Becauseof his saintly right action and awesome virtue. Sramanera Cunda receivedthis rcward: the gods took his unclean cast-off rags and washed them, then bathed with the samc watcr. However, those same gods stood five miles from the lake to prevent Brahmacarin Virtue from coming close to it. K5(yapa,'wholwill not cultivate and study the noble Dharma aftcr hcaring of thcsc cvcnts?Both gods and humans bow with their heads at the feet of the saints and pay homage and make offerings to them. K-Syapa, it is in order to seek such saintly virtue that monks wear garmcnts of cast-off rags. "Kaiyapa, a monk who wears a garment of cast-off rags should sccurely abidc in the noble practicesand should not be worried. [Seeing] his garmcnt of cast-off rags, he should gcncratcthc thought of a stupa, the thought of the WorldHonorcd One, the thought of the renunciationof the world, and the thought of 'I'and'mine.'Only the nonexistcnccof after such contemplationshould he wear a , garnrcnt of cast-off rags and subduc his rnind accordingly. Bccausche is pure in l rnind, hc is purc in body; it is not truc that bccausc is purc in body, he is pure in hc nunc1. KaSyapa, a monk should thcrcforc purify his mind and not decorate his body. Why? In light of thc Bucldha-Dharma,it is due to mental purity that a monk is said to have cultivated pure conduct. "Ka6yapa, if a rnonk who wcars a garmcnt of cast-off rags can lcarn in this way, he is following in my footstepsand yours also. "Ki6yapa, as you can wear such a coarsegarment, you are content with the culrivation of the noblc practices. "Ki5yapa, when you take walking cxcrciscin your uppcr garment, leaving vour patched robe on a couch or a seat, hundreds of thousands of gods pay homage to your patched robe, which, though used to cover the body, is oierrted by [the fragrance ofl discipline, dhyina, and wisdom. Ka5yapa, you should know that even your robe is so highly esteemedand honored, let alone yourself. "Ka5yapa, I renouncedthe throne ofa universalmonarch and left the household life to fcllow the path. Before, I wore garments made of the most wonderful silk and cotton, but now I am content with following the noble practices.For the sakeof others, I gave up my fine clothesto wear a garment made of rags picked up in graveyards.Future monks should follow my example, when they hear of this deed of mine. "K-Syapa, you formcrly had a finc, golden, silk garmcnt, and u'hen I asked vou for it, you gave it to me. Ke5yapa, it was out of compassion for -vou that I I I .lccepted your garment, not because covetedyour garment or because wanted to h e d e c km y b o d y w i t h i t . "Ka(yapa, thcrc arc evil monks who follow neithcr my way nor yours. Engulfed in dcsirc, thcy collcct many monastic robcs and bowls, hoard food and

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drink s'ithout giving anything away, and accumulategold, silver, lapis lazuli, ricc, co\\'s. goats, chickens, pigs, donkeys, carriagcs,and farm tools. They seek and hoard articleswhich a lay family nceds. "The wise can increase their wholcsome dharmas,cvcn if they lcad a lay life, but the ignorant can never achieveany wholesome dharmas,even if thcy lcave the householdlife. How can wise laymcn increase thcir wholesome dharmas? Ka6yapa, some monks put their monastic robes around their necks, do not perform thc deeds befitting a Sramana,are occupicd with many secularthings and bound in various ways, and seek fine food and clothing. After they don their monrstic robes, lay devoteessaluteand respectthcm on sight; givc thcm clothing, food and drink, bedding, and mcdicinc; wclcome them whcn they arrive; and see them off when they leave. Kadyapa, lay dcvotees can do such wholesome things, while those monks cannot. Why? Becausethose monks scck many things thcy do not need and give nothing to others. "[However,l Ka6yapa,in rhe futurc thcre will be mor-rks,who own man., robcs, bowls, and other things and are saluted,estccmcd,and praiscd on sight by lay devotees.Why? Bccausc[in that agel thc lay devoteeswill think, 'The monks havc bccn given many things by others, and they n-raygivc-nre sonrc of thcm fror.r tirnc to timc.' "K-5yqpa, [in the futurc] there.will [also] be monks who keep thc preceprs. Seeing the faults and evils of thc world, they will cultivate wholesome dharmas assiduously and rid themselves of all defilcrrlcnts as urgently as if to savr- their heads from being burr-red;they will bc contcnt and seldom engage in r,,orldly activities; thcy will practicc the Dharma diligently for their own benefit ar.d break with all peoplc who arc attachedto thc sourcesof evil. Nevertheless, not a singlc lay devotee will go to scc those virtuous monks, associate closely with them, salutc, cstccm, or praise them. Why? Because the lay dcvorees [thcn] will bc flippant and shallow. They will see only the benefit of this life, not that of future 'I lives. They will think: can gct no profit from these virtuous monks. Why should I associate closelywith them, or salute,revere,and extol them?' Only poor pcoplc, those who have some good roots, and those who arc bound to rcvcrc them becauscof a connectionin their past lives will associate closely with thcsc monks, salutc, revcrc, and extol them, and considerthem as good fricnds. "K-Syapa, two kinds of pcrsonswill be pleased with what I havc said Iin this sutral. What are the two? Those who perceivethe four noblc truths and those who pcrccivc thc faults and evils of sarirsara. Furthermore, there are two [other] kinds: those who strive to free themselves from the four yokes and thosc who wish to achicvethe fruits of a Sramana. Moreover, there are two Iother] kinds: thosc who contemplatekarmic results wholeheartedlyand those who wish to understandthe mr'anir-rg the forms of dharmas. of "Ki5yapa, now I closc thc door on all lazy pcrsons;namely, those who are arvarc ncither of karma nor of karmic results; those who have no good dcportment, those u'hose blindness to [consequent]faults and cvils in future lives is as

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immutable as adamant;thosc who perceivconlv bencfitsfor this lifc, not for futurc lives; and thosc who have not a single thought to lnovc tou'ard thc doors to liberation. "Ki6yapa, nou,' I say that cvil monks should rrot rvish to hear this doctrinc '"vhcnthcy hear it cxplair-rcd, explainedor to comc acrossit, Ibccausel thcy, knowing their orvn [cvil] deeds, will not understand the profor-rndnreaninq of it but instcad will slander it, saying, 'lt is not what the Buddha tcachcs.It is concocted by a commentator or spokcn by demons'; and they vu'illalso trv to convincc others of this. In this way, thosc cvil monks will hurt and dctlle both thcnrselr.cs and others, and they cannot benefit anyonc." Then Mahikiiyapa said to the Buddha, "World-Honorcd Onc. our ot'conrpassionas grcat as that of all tsuddhasIcombined], the Tath-gata has in this sutra dcscribcd how the motrks who have devotcd thcmselvcs to culrivltror.rloi thc I)harrrra]achievccornnrancl all dharnras.World-Hor-rored of C)ne,if sentrcntbcings, aftcr hcaring tiris sutra explaincd, believe,comprchcnd, read, and rccite it, and arc inclincd to fbllow the real l)harnra, it should bc knolr,n that the FJuddhas havc already acccptcdthern into thcir following." 'I'hcn thc -tsuddhatold Ananda, "li scntir-ntbeings can accept ancl uphold this strtra,it is bccause thev havc alrcady planted good roots i' thc prescnccofpast lluddhas. Now, rf such goocl nren and good women wish to rcad anc'lrccite this sutra with thorough comprchetrsiotr ordcr to achicvcliberatior-r, in thcy rvill surcll' bc ablc to eradicatc thcir dclllemcr-rts attain nirvlna by this doctrinc, rvhcther all and r l r c y s r r r d yi r a s r l r c r r r b t . r s[ t l r c o r c l c ro r : i s l a y p c o p l c . " u Ananda said to tl.rclluddha, "World-Hor.rored Onc, I wish to uphold this sr.rtra. What should it bc-nanrccl,and how should it be upheld?" T h c B u d d h a t o l d A r r e r r d . r",T h i s s i r r r ei s n r m c d ' l h c C h o i c c o f A l l l ) h . r r rna-Jcr,vels,' or'Abidirrg ir-rGood and Noble Dcportnrcnt,' or'Acccptinu PreccptKccpers into the Order,' or 'An Analysis of Precept-Brcakers,' 'Thc l)rccious or B r i d g c s , ' 2o r ' A C o l l e c t i o r o f T r c ' a s u r c s , ' o r ' T h e r c a s u r c - S t o r e , ' . r ' T h cP r t c i o r s 6 r T l)harn-ra])oors. "' After MahlkaSl'apa finished askilg Ithc tsuddha abogt] "1'hc Strtra of thr. Prccious Bridgcs of thc Mahayina," the monks u'ere ovcrjoyccl to hcar u'hat thc Budclhahad trught and bcgan to practiceit with veuerarion.

NOTES
1. This group antl thosc- n thc lollowing list (up to and inclurline thc crehttold noble r p a t h ) m a k c u p t h e t h i r t y - s e v e nw a y s t o e n l i g h t c n m e n t . 2 - T h e p h r a s e" c u l t i v a t c w e l l t h e s c v c n f a c t o r so f e n l i g h t e n r n e r l t " o c c u r s h e r e , b u t i t i s i v i d e n t l y m i s p l a c e di n t h i s g r o u p i n g a n d i s r e p e a t e dl a t c r . W e h a v e o m i t t e d i t .

312

ON Vtnrur

aNo I)tsclprtNr

w 3. Thesc are the four reliances hich guide a Buddhist. SccNumerical Glossary. 4 . A l s o c a l l e dt h e c i g h t w o r l d l y w i n d s . 5 . A s c x p l a i n e d a r l c n g t h b e l o w , i f a r e l i g i o u s p c r s o n a c c c p t so l l c r i n g s l r o m d o n o r s t b u t d o c s n o t o b s c r v e t h e p r e c c p t s ,t h e k a r m i c b l c s s i n g s h a t w o u l d h a v c a c c r u e dt o t h c d o n o r ( h a d t h e r e c i p i e n tk e p t t h c p r e c e p t s )a r c l o s t . 6. Probably, thc nirvana ofthe tu'o vchicles. 7 . P r o b a b l y , t h e t e a c h i n g so f t h e t w o v c h i c l e s . 8. This is probably a hyperbole. in 9 . I ) h y 5 n a i n t h c s t a t c o f i n f i n i t e s p a c c ,i n t h e s t a t c o f l i m i t l e s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h c s t a t c o f n o t h i n g n c s s ,a n d i n t h e s t a t eo f n c i t h e r t h i n k i n g n o r n o n t h i n k i n g . ( 1 0 . T h c y a r e : S t r c a n r - e n t e r e r i r o t i p a n n n ) ,( ) n c e - r c t u r n c r ( : a k r d n . g i n i t t )N o n r c t u r n e r ( a n a g d n i u ) , n d A r h a t . S c eG l o s s a r y . a 1 1 . T h i s p r o b a b l y m e a n s d w e l l i n g i n t h c f o u r i m m c a s t t r a b l cc i l i y a n e s . 12. Thc six thoughts to dwell upon: the tsuddha, the l)harma, thc'Sarhgha, the p r c c e p t s ,g i v i n g , a n d t h e . j o y s o f ' h e a v c n . b 1 3 . T h e s i x k i n c l so f r e v c r c n t r r n i t ; i n r n r o n J s t e r y : o d i l - vu n i t y i n w o r s h i p , o r a l u r i t y i n c h a n t i n g , n r e n t a l u n i t y i n { a i t h , m o r a l u n i t y i n o b s c r v i n g t h c p r c c e p t s ,d o c t r i n a l u n i t y i n v i e w a n d e x p l a n a t i o n ,a n d c c o t t o r n i cu n i t y i n t h c c o n t n l u t t a l g o o d s . 1 - 1 . ' r o l r a b l yt l r e s i x p a r a m i t a s . l 1 5 . A l s o c a l l e dt h e f o u r y o k e s . S c c N u m e r i c a l G l o s s a r y . 1 6 . S o r r r es a y n i n e t y - s i x : a l l c g c d l y t h c s i x f o u n d e r s o f h c t c r o d o x s c h o o l s , e a c h w i t h fiftccn strb-schools, Thc cclitor confesseshis ignorance of the trames and doctrincs of the a n i n c t y - s i x s c h o o l s ,a s h c h a s n e v e r e l l c o u n t e r e d n y s o u r c c p r o v i d i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t r o n . i l , 1 7 . I n t h i s a n d t h e f o l l o u ' ' i n g 1 5 p a r a g r a p h s t h c o p e n i n g s e n t c n c c s r c p c a t c ca t t h e e n d w o f t h c p a r a g r a p h .I n t h c i n t e r e s to f c o n c i s e n e s s , c h a v c e l i n r i n r t e d t h e r c p c t i t r o r r . , 1 8 . T h i s r e f c r s t o l c a r n i n g w h i c h d o e s n o t f u r t h e r o n c ' s w i s d o n r o r c o m p . r s s i o r to r w h i c h i s n o t c o n c l u c i v et o d e v o t l o n o r c n l i g h t e n n r e n t . 1 9 . T h i s p r o b a b l y r e f e r s t o t h c s c q u e n t i a la n d r c v e r s e o r d e r s o f t h c t w e l v e l i n k s o f ' origination. deper.rdent 2 0 . I n t h i s s e c t i o n , r h e t s u d d h a , w h o s c t e a c h i n g so f c q u a l r t y s t r i d c n t l y c o n t r a d i c t t h e p r c v a l c n t c a s t es y s t e r l ro f I n d i a , e x p e d i c n t l y u t i l i z e s t h a t v c r y s y s t e n l t o n r a k c a p o i n t a b o u t T e v i l S r a r . n a n a s .h e B u d d h a w e l c o m c d m c r n b c r s o f a l l f o u r c a s t e sa n d o u t c a s t e si n t o h i s l o l l o w i n g . w i r l r o u td i : c r i n r i n a t i o n . 21. Literally, "ncw-borIr." 2 2 . A k n i l e i s o b v i o u s l y a n i n s t r u n l c n t w h i c h c o u l d b c u s c d f o r s u r g i c a lp u r p o s c s .T h e a p p l i c a t i o no f a c u d g e l f o r l n c d i c a l t r e a t m e n t , t h o u q h c x t r c n r c l y r a r c , s e c n t sa l s o t o e x i s t i n lblk mcclicinc. 2 3 . T h e n i g h t i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r c c p c r i o d s o f t h r e e h o u r s c a c h . A f o r e s t - d w e l l e r ,i n o , l i n e w i t h t h i s p a s s a g es h o u l d s l e ' c p n l y d u r i l r g t h e n r i d d l c p e r i o d . 2 4 . T h i s p r o b a b l y d e n o t c st h e a d a m a n t i n cI ) h a r r r a - b o d y . 25. Litcrally li,9. 1 The Clhinese l is rnuch shorter than a rnilc, but lacking an exact e q u i v a l c n t ,w e h a v e u s c d t h c r v o r d ' n r i l e ' h e r c . 2 6 . " B r i d g c s " l c a c l i n gt o t h e o t h e r s h o r c , I r i r v i n a .

VI
On PureLand

L7 r"ffirux€
Tathagata of The Dharma-Door Praising Merits Akgobhya's

I
Thus have I heard. Once the tsuddha was dwelling on Mount Grdhrakuta near R-lagrha, together with an assen.rbly twelvc hundrcd fifty great monks. All of these monks wcrc wcll-known Arhats who had cxtinguishcd all dcfilemcnts and suffcrcd afflictions r1o nlore. They were liberated in mind and in wisdom,l and were as frcc and unhindercd as grert dragons. They had donc what should be done and abandoncdthc hcavy burdcns. They had bencfited themselvesand severedall bonds of existence.Thcy were convcrsantwith thc truc teachingand had rcachcd i t l r c o t l r c r s h o r e . l A r r r o r r gt h e r r t . l o r r l yA n a n d a r e r t r a i n e dr r r h e s r a g co f l c a r n i n g . At that time, the VenerableSariputrarose from his seat,uncovcred his right shoulder, knclt on his right knee, joined his palms toward the Buddha, and said, "World-Honored One, how did Bodhisattva-Mahisattvas the past resolvc to of pursue suprenrc cnlightcnncnt, cultivatc all purc dccds, and wcar thc arnror of vrgor, aclornirrgthcrnsclvcswith rncrits?How did thosc Bodhisattva-Mahisattvas u'ear thc armor of vigor, which cnablcd thcrn to attain nonrr'gressiontiorn the pursuit of suprcrnc cnlightcnnrcnt?May thc utterly kind World-Honorcd One reveal and expound their dccds, thcir vows, and thcir cngcndcring of bodhicitta. for World-Honored One, those tsodhisattva-Mahlsattvas, the benetlt, peace,and happincssof gods and humans, exerted themselvesto cultivatc all purc-deedsand s'ore the armor of vigor; thereby they rer-rdered bcncfit, pcacc,and happir-rcss all to sentientbeings, and illumir-rated the Buddha-Dharma for Bodhisattvasof'the pre12; into by SItra (r, Taisho310,pp. 101-1 translated Chrnese tsodhiruci.

316

ON Punr LaNo

sent and future. By praising merits and obtaining good roots, thcy caused thc BodhisattvasIof the presentand future] to lcarn ar.rd cultivatc diligcntly Ithe insight intol suchncss,the Dharma-nature, and to attain supremc cnlightenment without fail after hearing the Buddha-Dharma cxplained." The Buddha said, "Excellent! k is excellent,S"riputra, that you can ask me about past2 Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas' purc dccds, their illumination, thcrr great arnlor, and their praising of merits for the sake of cmbracing BodhisattvaMahisattvas of the futurc. Now, listen attentivelyand think in accordance with the truth. I will cxplain this to you." S..iput.. said, "Ycs, World-Honorcd One, I am willing and glad to listcn." Thc Buddha told Sariputra."A thotrsandworlds from here to thc cast, there 'I'athtgata is a Buddha-land named Wondcrful Joy, where Great Eyes, thc Worthy Onc, the Perfectly Enlightencd One, oncc appcaredto expound the subtle, wonderful Dharma to Bodhisattva-Mahisattvas, beginning with thc six piramitas. - r rrrat "S;-;*,,r-, Jdrrpurrd, ar + L - time, a monk rosc from his scat, uncovercd his right shoulder, kr.rclton his right kncc, joined his palms toward thc tsuddha, and said, 'World-Honored ()ne, I am determincd to follow thc wav of thc tsodhrsattvaas t a u g h tb y t h c B u d d h a . ' "l'hat lluddha said, 'Now, good rnan, you should know that the way of the IJodhisattva is vcry difficult to follow. Why? Rt-causea Bodhisattva bears no nralicc againstscntient bcings.' "Thereupon, thc rnonk saicito thc Buddha, 'World-Honored Onc, I now engendersuprenlebodhicitta. I will scck all-knowing wisdom by doirrg away with crookednessand dcccit, and by invariably speaking the truth. If I bear malicc egainstsentierltbcings from now until my attainmentof supremc cniightenmcnt, I will be disobcying all the Buddhas, Tathagatas,who are now expounding thc l)l-rarmain numbcrless,countlcss,boundlessworlds. "'Worlcl-Honorcd One, now I have resolvedto pursue all-knowing wisdom and dcdicate myself to this. lf, during this pursuit, I fecl any inclination to be a Sravakaor Pratyckabuddha,I will be deceivingall Buddhas. "'World-Honorcd One, now I have rcsolvedto pursuc all-knowing wisdom and am dedicatcd to this. If I gcnerate any desire, hatrcd, or ignorance toward scnticrltbeings, or arn pronc to stupor, arrogance,or misdccdsfrom now until my attainmcnt of supreme enlightenment,I will bc dcceiving all Buddhas.l "'World-Horrored One, now I havc resolvedto pursuc all-knowing wisdom and am firr-nly dedicated to this goal. If I generate any doubt, any intention to kill or stcal, any wrong view or impure dccd; or if I am pronc to lying, duplicity, or hersh languagc;or if I hurt others in othcr ways fronr now until my attainment of sr.ifrrcnle cnlightcnrncnt, I will bc dcceiving all tsuddhas.' "Sr.iput.r, at that tinre, certain othcr monks thought,'After hc has first L.rolrsht lbrth bodhicitta, this Bodhisattva-Mahdsattva will wear thc armor of vrqor. and will never be moved by hatrcd or thc like toward any sentientbeing.' Siriputra, then, becausc their thought, the Bodhisattvawas calledAksobhyaaof of

PnarsrNc TarnAcara ArsocHya's Mnnrrs

317

the Land of Wonderful Joy. V/hen Tath-gata Great Eyes, the Worthy One, the Perfectly Enlightened One, saw that this Bodhisattva had obtained rhe name 'Aksobhya,'he rejoiced over the name and acclaimcd it as exccllent. Thc four deva kings, Sakra, and Brahml, upon hearing his name, also rejoiccd over it. "Se.ip.rt.r, in that Buddha's prescnce,Bodhisartva-MahisartvaAksobhya 'World-Honored continucd, One, now I havc resolved to pursue all-knowing wisdom and am dedicated to the attainment of suprcme enlighter-rment.If my practice, from now until my attainment of supreme enlightennrcnt,is evcr contrary to thesewords, then I will be deceivingall the Buddhas, the Tathagaras, who expound the Dharma in numberless,countlessworlds. "'World-Honored C)ne,now I have made this great decisionarrd have dedicated myself to it. If I say anything that is not in harmony with the recollcction of thc Buddha or with all-knowing wisdom from now unril my attainment of enlightenment, therr I will bc dcceiving all Buddhas. "'World-Honored One, now I have brought forth this aspiration and am dcdicatcd to it. If I remain in the household lifc instead of renounci'g ir in any lifetin-re from now until nry artainmcnr of supreme enlightenment, then I will be disobeyirrgall Buddhas. "'World-Honored One, now I have rcsolved to pursue all-knowing wisdom. If I leave the houschold life in cvcry lifetime, but do not beg for food, take only onc mcal a day, practicc temperancein eating, . . . limit my clothing to the thrcc garrrrents,5wear garments of cast-off rags, sit anywherc, practice never lying down, live in a secluded forest, rcst under a trcc, sit in the open air, or live among gravcs from now until my attainn-rerrt suprcme enlightenment, then I will be of deceiving all Buddhas. "'World-Honored One, now I have resolved to pu.rsuc great enlightenment and am so dedicatcd. If I cannot attain unin-rpeded'eloquencc expound the to wonderful Dharma from now until my attainment of all-knowing wisdom, then I will be deceiving all Buddhas. "'World-Honored One, now I have thus resolved.If I do not remain dignified in standing, sitting, and walking from now up to my atrainment of supreme enlightenment, then I will be deceiving all the innumerable Buddhas. "'World-Honored One, now I have thus resolved. If I commit anv maJor offenseagainstsentientbeings, or lie, or speak iq_aworldly or boisterousmanner, or have any inclination td defeat others in argument from now until m-v attainment of all-knowing wisdom, then I will be deceivingall the countlessBuddhas. "'World-Honored One, now I have resolvedto pursuc all-knou'ing u.isdom and am firmly dedicated to the attainment of supreme enlightenment. If, when cxpounding the Dharma to women, I do not keep in mind inrpermanence, suffering, cmptiness,or thc absence self, but am attracredby the womcn's appearance of and smile broadly, then I will be deceiving all Buddhas. "'V/orld-Honored One, I have now resolvedto pursue all-knowing wisdom and am firmly dedicated to the attainmenr of supremc enlightenmcnt. If I look

318

ON Punr LaNp

around and gesture frivolously when expounding the Dharma, or do not regard other Bodhisattvas as grcat mastcrs whcn I scc thcm, thcn I will be dcceiving numberlessBuddhas. "'World-Honored One, now I have resolved to pursuc all-knowing wisdom. From now until my attainment of supreme enlightenment,if I sit down to listen to [heterodox] doctrincs or pay homagc to hctcrodox 6ramanasand brahmins, instead of flistening to the Dharma and paying homage to] Buddhist Sramanas and dcvotees,then I will be deceivingall Buddhas. "'World-Honored One, now I have brought forth this great aspiration. From now until I attain supreme enlightenment, if, when practicing the giving of matcrial things or the giving of the Dharma, I am partial or discriminate anlong the recipients of my offerings, then I will be deceiving all Buddhas. "'World-Honored One, now I have resolved to pursue all-knowing wisdom. From now until I attain suprene enlightenment, if, wherr seeingcriminals about to bc punishcd, I do not savc thcm cvcn at thc risk of my own lifc, thcn I will be deceiving all Buddhas.'6 "Sr.iput.r, from the time when this Bodhisattva began to cultivate such a great practice up to his attainmcnt of suprcmc enlightenment, not a single sentient being about to be punished for some crime was not rescued by him. "Sa.iput.a, at that time, a monk thought, 'The Tathagatawill be the witness for this Dharma-practictioner,as will thesegods, humans, asuras,and so forth.' "Sirip,rt.a, thereupon, perceiving what the monk thought, Tathigata Great 'So it is, so it is; Eyes, the Worthy One, the PerfectlyEr-rlightened One, told him, the Tathigata, the Worthy One, the Perfectly Enlightened Onc, will be his witncss, as will these gods, humans, asuras,and so forth. Monk, any BodhisattvaMahasattva who thus wcars the armor of grcat vigor to pursuc supremc cnlightenment will surely attain it.' "Sa.iprt.r, after that, the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva Aksobhya further said to 'World-Honored One, now I have resolved to pursue all-knowing thc Buddha, wisdom. If I mention any offense committed by, or any dissensionamong, monks, nuns, laymen, or laywomen from now until my attainmcnt of suprcmc cnlightenment, then I will be disobeying all Buddhas, the Tathigatas. World-Honored Or-re, I will devote myself to the practice of this vow until I attain supreme cnlightenment, so as to make my [tsuddha-] land vast and pure and the Srivakas there all faultlcss. "'World-Honored One, from now until my attainment of supreme enlightenment, if I, who have resolved to pursue all-knowing wisdom, have any sensual desire resulting in an ejaculation,even in a dream, then I will be disobeying all Buddhas, the Tathagatas.World-Honored One, I will follow this practiceuntil I realize supreme enlightenment, so as to makc the monastic Bodhisattvas rn my larrd free fronr ejaculations. even in drcams.T "'World-Honored One, I have resolvedto pursue all-knowing wisdom. If, however, lvhen I have attained supreme enlightenment, the women in my Bud-

PnarsrNt; TaltrA<;lra Axsr)sHyA'sMrnrrs

319

dha-land have the same femalc faults as those of womcn in other lands, then I will relinquish suprcme enlightcnment.If I do not relinquishit, then I shall bc cheating all tsuddhas.'. . . "Sa.iput.a, at that timc, Tath-gata Great Eycs prophesiedBodhisattvaAksobhya's attainment of supreme cnlightenment, saying, 'Good man, in a future life you will become a tsuddhanamed TathagataAksobhya; the Worthy O'e, thc perfcctly Enlightened one, thc one Pcrfecti' Learning and co'ducr, thc well-Gone One, the World-Knowcr, the Unexcellcd One, thc Great Tanrer, the Tcacher of Gods and Humans, thc Buddha, the World-Honored Onc.' Thc prophecy was similar to l)iparhkara Buddha's prophccy of my attainment of suprenrc cnlightcnrncnt. "Siriput.", when lJodhisattvaAksobhya reccive-d prophco,, rhcre was a the grcat light that illuminatcd the whole world, and the carth quaked rn the six u-avs, as did thc billion-world univcrse u,'herr realizedall-knowing wisdom. I "Furthermore, Sariput.", at thar tinrc all thc tlowers, trees, a'd.junglcs of the billion-world univcrsc leancd toir"'ardthat Bodhisattva,just as all the srasscs and treeslcancd toward mc rvhen I realizedcnlightenmcnt. "Furthermorc, Srrip,rtr., when BodhisattvaAksobhya receivedthc prophccy lrorn thc -tsuddha,all the gods, rlrasons, yaksas,asuras,garudas, kinnaras, and mahoragasof that billiorr-world univcrscjoincd their palnrs anil prostratedthcmselveswith their headsat thc Bodhisattva'sfeet to pay honragc to him, just as all the gods, dragons. a'd so forth of thc Sahaworld did to me whcrr I rcalizedercat crrlightennrent here. "Furthcrnrorc, S,riputra, at the momc't when Bodhisattva Aksobrrya received thc pr'phccy, all the pregnanr wonrc. in the world gave birth to rhcir childrcrr safely and pcace{ully, u'ithout travail or difllculty; the blind rccovercd their sight and the deaf restorcd their hcaring, all just as ir was whcn I attaincd Buddhahood. "Furthcrmore, Si.i1-tut.., at the tw() moments-whe' thc IlodhisattvaMahasattva Aksobhya resolved to pursuc suprcme enlightenr-nc't,and n,hcn TathagatirGreat Eycs, the worthy o'c, rhc Perfcctly Enlightencd o'c, prophcsicd his attainnrentof enlightenmcnt-no scntientbeing died an unnatural dcath, jr-rsr.rs it was when I realizccl all-knowing wisdom. "sariputra, when Bodhisattva Aksobhya receivcdthc prophecy, the scrtient bcirrgsof thc ll.calm of Dcsire brought superb dclicacies him and plavcclcclcstial to music tbr him, as oflerings. "Se.ip.rt.", such arc thc mcrits achieved by thc Bodhisattva-Mahisattva Aksobhya alter hc receivedthe prophccy." Therr the Venerable S..tpr,t.a said to the tsuddha, "Worlcl-Honored One, most extraordinary is thc Tathagata,the Wortl-ry or-rc, the Pcrlcctly Enlightened orrc, who is so skillful i' cxplai.i'g the inconceivablestatcs of tsuddhas, the inconceivablcstatesofdhyinas, the i'conceivablc statesofdragons, and the inconccivable karmic rcsults. world-Ho'orcc'l one, whcn the Bodhisattva Aksobhya

32()

ON PupE Lauo

abidc-din the initial generation of bodhicitta, he embraced the before-mentioned mcnts: u'hen hc rcccivcd the Tathagata'sprophecy, he perfectedthose great, inconccivablemerits." " The Buddhatold Sariputra, So it is. so it is, asyou say." Ananda saidto Sariputra,"Most virtuous onc, thc WorldThen thc Venerable Honorcd One has explained only a small portion of that novice Bodhisattva's nrcrits of wearing thc armor of vigor, not all of them." Sa.iput., said, "So it is, so it is. Thc Tathtgata has only touched upon thenl briefly. Why? Becausc when that Bodhisattva first brought forth bodhicitta and donned thc armor of vigor, he achievedinconccivablc,immeasurablemerits." Sa.ipnt., said furthcr to thc Buddha, "World-Honored Onc, now you have praised briefly tsodhisattva Aksobhya's superb merits of wearing the armor of vigor. May the World-Honoreci ()ne elaborateupon thcm for thc sake of gathcring in Bodhisattvasof thc prcscnt and futurc." The Iluddha told SJriputra. "lnconcervableare thc merits of Ilodhisattva Aksobhya whcn hc first brought forth bodhicitta and donncd the armor of vigor. Now I will further relate to yorr a small portion of them. Listen attclltively and thirrk wcll about thcrn." Sa.ipr.tt.,said, "Yes, World-Honored One. I am willirrg and glad to listen." 'Evcn Aksobhya oncc madc this vow: if Thc Buddha said, "Thc tsodhisattva not withdraw from my grcat,vows.'Bccausc of this cmpty spacechangcs,I shal1 vow, IJodhisattva Aksobhya acl-rieved merits quickly. S-ripr.rtra, I cannot find all any Bodhisattva in thc Worthy Kalpa who wcars thc arrnor of vigor as Bodhisattva Aksobhya did. S5.ip.rt.r, thc practiccscultivatcd by Bodhisattva Precious Banrrer were less than a small part. or everl an infinitesimal part, of those cultivated by Bodhisattva Aksobhya. "Si.iput.r, in wcaring the armor of vigor, Bodhisattva Aksobhya had no peer among countlcss thousandsof other -Bodhisattvrs.Siriputra, with his firm vows, Bodhisattva Aksobhya has realizedsupremc cnlightenment. Now he is living in the World of WondcrfulJoy and is named TathagataAksobhya, the Worthy Onc, the Perfectly Enlightened One. ."

II
At that time, Sariputrasaid to the Buddha, "World-Honorcd Onc, the tsuddha has Aksobhya when he was cultivating the cxplained the merits acquircd by Tatl.ragata Bodhisattvapractices.I hope that the World-Honored One will reveal and elaborof atr- Lr[]ol1 the merits and magr-rificence the present land of Tathigata Aksobhya. \\'hr'? So that sentientbeings who follow the Bodhisattva-pathmay dclight in the rncrits of that land after hearing them and desire to scc, worship, and make ot-terings thc Buddha thcrc; and so that scntientbcings in thc Srlvaka stagewho to

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have realized Arhatship may also wish to worship, makc offcrings to, and servc that Tathagataafter hearing of the merits and magnificcnccof his land." Thc Buddha told Siriputra, "Well saidl It is cxcellent that you can make a requcst of such significance. Now listen attentively and think well about this; I will explain it to you in detail." Setiput." said, "Ycs,'World-Honored One, I am willing and glad to listen." Thc Buddha told Sariputra. "Whcn Tathigata Aksobhya, the Worthy One, the Perfectly Enlightcned Onc, realizcd all-knowing wisdom. he emitted a great light ovcr thc entirc billion-world univcrsc. At the same time, thc earth quaked in the six ways. Knou'ir.rgthat TathagataAksobhya had realizedsupreme enlightenment, the sentient beings of that world did not think of food, hungcr, thirst, fatigue, a resting place, or sleep for seven days and nights; thcy telt only peace. joy, love, and kindness. At that time, all sentient beings irr that land, happiness, including the gods in the Realm of l)esire, were rid of sexual desire. Why wcrc beings ablc to errjoy such blessings that lifetime?It was bccausc those sentier-rt in of powcr of that Tathagata's the original vows. Sariputra,when TathagataAksobhya, thc Worthy One, the Perfectiy Enlightcncd Onc, realized all-knowing wisdom, all the sentient beings in that land joined their palms with utmost sincerity toward hirn. Duc to this carncst aclnrirationfor the lathagata, they were able to cnjoy such innumerablc blcssinss in that lifctimc. "Furthermore, Sa.i-put.r,that tsuddha-larrd peerless merit and magnifiis in cencearnong the innumerableBuddha-lands.Sariputra,that Tathigata has achieved a supcrbly adorncd Buddl-ra-land bccauschc made those great vows when following the Bodhisattva path, just as I have now achievedwhat I originally vowed to achicvc. "Sa.iput.a, when Tathagata Aksobhya, tl.reWorthy One, thc Perfcctly Enlightcncd Onc, rcalizcd suprcmc enlightenment, at that instant, at that very moment, all the sentient beings of that billion-world univcrsc, with or without the dcva-cye, could see Tathtgata Aksobhya. S5riprt.", it was also the fulfillment of that Tath-gata's original vows that caused the sentient beings to attain this blessing. "Morcover, Sr.ipnt.r, whcn TathagataAksobhya rcalizcd supreme enlightenment while sitting orr the bodhi-site, Papiyan, the king of demons, did not try to hinder him. Also, innumerablehundredsof thousandsof gods made offerings to the Tathagata with fragrant flowers and celcstialmusic; and each one brought firre, powdered sandalwood to sprinkle over the tsuddha. The powdered incenseand garlands of flowers formed a canopy in thc air. Seriputrr, all this was made possibleby the power of TathagataAksobhya's original vows. "Furthermore, Sariputra,when that Buddha attainedenlightenmenr,a grear light illuminated the whole billion-world universe, outshining the lights of the sun, moon, and heavens.The appearance this auspicioussign was also due to of thc fulfillment of TathagataAksobhya's past vows." At that time, Siriputra said to the Buddha, "World-Honored One, when

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-)zz

ON Punc LaNo

BodhisattvaAksobhya was following the Bodhisattvaparh in thc past, hc wore the great armor of vigor and was thereforeablc to rnake those grcat vows. Because he had cultivated the practices and vows of a Bodhisattva,he could causcinnumcrable hundreds of thousandsof sentientbeings to plant good roots leading to suprcmc enlightenment. He further dcdicated those good roots to thc attainment of supremc enlightenment and of a pure Buddha-land, which were both fulfilled throush the power of such a vow of dcdication."s The tsuddha told Sariputra, "Morcover, in that Buddha-land, thcre is a bodhi-tree made ofthe seventreasures, one leagucin height. The trunk ofthe tree is half a milee in circumferencc; the shadeof its branchesand lcavcs, onc leaguein circumfercncc. Under thc tree is a platform, four leagucs in circumference, with stepsleading down to thc ground. That tsuddha u'as seatedon the platform when he realized enlighter-rmer-rt. Around the bodhi-tree are rows of palm trecs and jasmine trees, which, in thc gcntle breeze,gave lorth a harmonious ar-rd elegant sound surpassingall worldly nrusic. "Furthermorc, Siriput.a, that Buddha-land docs not have the three miserablc plancsof existcnce.what are the thrcc?They are: the plane of hcll-dwellcr, the planc of animals, and the rcalm of Yama.ro All ser-rtient beingsin that Buddha-land have accomplishedthe te' good deeds. f'he ground is as flat as a palm and the color of gold, with no gullies, brarnblcs,or gravcl; it is as soft as cotton, sinking as soon as one's foot stepson it and rcturning to its origirralstateas soon as the foot is liftcd. "Se.iprtrr, that Buddha-land is free of three ki'ds of sick'css. what are the three?Thcy are: the discases causcdby wind, coldness, a'd phlcgm.11Se.iputra,i' that lluddha-land, ali scntientbeingsare free from lying, an ugly appearance, bad a odor, and filth. Thcy have little desire,hatred, and ignorancc.There are no jails or prlsoners. "S5.iputr., i' that Budclha-land,no one lcar's or follows hcterodox doctrines. Thc trees thcre are always laden with flowers and fiuits, and thcrc is also a spccialkind of trcc named kalpataru,which producesfine garments of five colors. The garments remain bright, beautiful, fresh, clean, and cxtraordinarily fragrant all the time. Just as celestialflowers give forth various kinds of fragrance,so do the garmcnts. The fragrance issuing from the bodies of those who wear these garments is exactly thc same as that issuing fron-r the garmcnts. Thc sentient beings in that land, likc people in this world who are rich and happy, have plenty of wonderful garments to wear as they please. "Se.iprrt.r, the sentient beings in that land, like thosc in thc Heaven of the Thirty-Three, obtain rhe food and drink they need whenever they wish; and they do not discharge excrement, filth, or anything impure. "Se.ip,.ttt", the palaces and towers of that land are all decorated with the sevcn treasures and surroundcd by many ponds filled with the watcr of eight meritorious qualities, to be enjoyed at will. There are also many gardens and pavilions, all pure and clean. The sentient beings there all live with joy in the Dharma.

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"Sariput.r, in that ,land, there is no jealousy antong human bcings. Every woman is bctter than thc best in this world, and has achievedcclestialmcrits of which earthly merits arc less than o'e hundredth, one thousandth, onc hundred thousandth, onc of a hundrcd thousand million myriad parts, onc of any numbcr of parts, numerical or figurative, down to one inflnitesinralpart. "Sa.ip.rt.r, the people of that land possess lavishlv decoratcdcouchesmade of the seven trcasures, accordancc in with their karmic results.when thcy sleepor rcst, thcy usc pillows madc of cotton floss. All thesc splcndid things arc achieved by virtuc of TathagataAksobhya's past vows. "siriputra, the food ar-rd drink of thc people in that land arc thc sanre as those ofthe gods ir color, fragrance,and taste.Justas thc pcoplc ofUrtarakurur2 have only o'e ki'g, so thc peoplc of the Land of wondcrfulJov havc only Trthagata Aksobhya as tl-rcirDhrrma-Lord; rnd just as the gods of the Hca'cn of thc Thirty-Thrce attend o' Sakra. so thc pcople of the Land of wo'clcrfr.rl loy all 'I'athagata attend on Aksobhya. "Sr.iput.r, you should know thc r.neritsand magnificence of Aksobhya Buddha's land. Sariputra, none of thc sentie't bei.gs of that land arc mentally unrestrained-why? It is also becausc the por,l'erof TathagataAksobhya's origof inal vows." At that timc, hearing the Iluddha praise thc mcrits of the Buddha-land of TathagataAksobhya, a nronk becamegreedily attachecl it and said to the Budto dha, "Y/orld-Ho'orcd c)nc, now I wish to be bor' i' Aksobhya lluddha's land." The Buddha told the rnonk, "With your lbolishnessand delusion, how can you be born there?Why? Recause onc with any passionor attachment cannot be born in that tsuddha-land. o'ly thosc who havc planted good roots and cultivated pure conduct can be born there." T h e r r h e a d d r c s s c d t r i p u t . r a g a i n . " F u r t h e r n r o r c . i r i p u t r : r ,i n t h a t l a n d . i f ' S S the sentient beings wish it, a clean pond will appcar at their thought, filled with the water of cight meritorious qualities,fit for drinking, rinsing the mouth, washing, and bathing. If anyone dislikesit, it will immediately disappear. "Sarip.ttrr, in that Buddha-land, there is a fragrant brcczc, gentle, agreeable, antl plcasantto everyonc'smind. The fragrant brccze carriesfragranceto all gods and humans who likc it, but not to those who do not likc it. Seriputra, all these mcrits and splendors are brought about by the powcr of rathigata Aksobhva's original vows. "Furthernrore, i' that land, mothcr and child are safe a'd u.sullied. from conception to birth. How can this be? All this is duc ro the pou'cr of Tathigata Aksobhya's original vows. Siriputra, in rhat Buddha-land, thcre is such peaceand bliss. "Sa.iput.a, in thc land of TathagataAksobhya, the Worthy One, the perfectly Enlightened one, there is neithcr trade nor trader, neither farms nor farming; there is happiness at all trn-res. "Sariputra, in that Buddha-land, singing and playing do not involve sexual dcsire. The sentient beings there derive their joy exclusively from the Dharma.

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ON Pune LaNo

"Sariputra, in that Buddha-land, therc arc rows ofjasrnine trccs and palm trccs, which, when stirred by a gcntle breezc, rvill give forth a harmonious and clegant sound that surpasses evcn thc celestial music played by gods. "Sariputra, any Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who intends to acquire a tsuddhaland should accumulate such merits, adornments, and purity for his tsuddhaland as Tathagata Aksobhya did for his wher.r he was following the Bodhisattva practices. "Sa.iputra, therc is no darkncssin that Buddha-land. It has sur-rs and moons, but they do not givc out light. Why? BecauseTathagataAksobhya has an evershining light which illuminates the cntire tsuddha-land. "Si.ipr..,t.r,if a wish-fulfillir.rg pearl is put in rhc cenrerof a high, large rower with its windows and doors closcd tightly, the sentient beirrgstherein will scc a brilliant light day and night. Lr thc same manncr, the sentient beings of that Buddha-land always scc thc radianceof the Tathigata. Siriputra, thc large tower standsfor the world of wonderful Joy; thc wish-fulfilling pcarl standsfor Tathigata Aksobhya; the light of thc wish-fulfilling pearl, the light of tl.ratBuddha; and thc scnticnt beings within the tower, the sentientbeings in thc World of Wonderful Joy. "Se.iputra, wherever Tathagata Aksobhya walks or stands, a thousandpctalcd lotus appcarsspontaneouslyto support his [cet. The flowcr is goldcn in color; there is rrothing like it in this world. Sariputra,this is also achievedby the supcrb powcr of the vows of TathagataAksobhya, thc Worthy Onc, the Perfectly EnlighterredOne." Thcrcupon, S"ripr.lt., asked the tsuddha, "World-Honorcd One, whcn TathagataAksobhya enters_a room, will a golden lotus support his feet or not?" Thc BLrddhatold Siriputra, "Why do you bother to ask such a trivial question? When that tsuddha, the World-Honored Onc, cnrcrs a village or a house, a thousand-petaled lotr,rs appearswith him. If any good man or good women thinks, 'V/hcn the Tathigata condescendsto enter this roonr, may the lotus beneath his feet close its pctals,'the flower will do so immediately. If anyonc wishes the lotus to stay in the air, the flower will also do so immediatcly. All this is due to that Tath-gata's awcsome power. "Sariputra, the lotus which holds the feet [of thc Tathagatal will then be given to the people, and they will build a stfrpa for it and make offerings to it. "S.rip.rt.r, that Buddha, the V/orld-Honored Onc, travels through the whole billion-world universe to expound the Dharma; and whcrcver he goes, a flower appearswith him. Moreover, in whatever land that Tathigata manifests himself, in that land golden lotuses also appear. By the awesomc power of that Buddha, his cntire billion-world universeis adorncd with thousand-pctaled goidcn lotuses."

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"Furthermore, Sa.iput.r, when Tathigata Aksobhya cxpounds thc Dharma, he can skillfully subdue countlesssentientbeings, rnaking thcm all attain Arhatship; numerous are those who will dwell in the mcditation of thc cightfold liberation. "Sa.iputrr, Tathigata Aksobhya, the Worthy Onc, thc Pcrfectly Enlightened incalculable number. I cannot fir-rd in One, has a host of Sravakas any arithmetician or any arithmetician'sdisciple able to compute how manv hundreds of thousands of millions of billions of trillions of Sravakasthcrc arc ir.rthc host. Siriput.a, ,,o onc can asccrtain thc total numbcr of the Srlvakas in ternrs oi thosc figurcs. Si.iput.", just as the nun-rber of good men r,vho have attained thc fruit of e Strcanr-enterer, thc fruit of a Oncc-rctunler, or the fruit of a Nonrcturncr irr ury land is difficult to asccrtain, so is thc nurnbcr of good men r,r,hohavc attair-rcd thc fluit of an Arhat in that land. "striputra, [irr my land,] indolent people can attain thc lruit of a Strcamrnorc timcs and bc further taught the cnterer. They will bc born as humanp'scvcrr'i Dharrna bcforc thcy can attairr thc supcrior fruit [of an Arh:rt]; thercfbrc, I call ';reople tl-rer-r-r of seven rebirths.' Siriputra, Iin thc land of Tathigata Aksobhya,j inclolcnt pcoplc can attain thc fruit of a Stream-entercrat Tathlgata Aksobhya's first discourseon the l)harnla, thc fruit of a Or-rcc-returner the secondcliscoursc, at thc fruit of a Nonrcturncr at thc third discoursc,and the fruit of an Arhat at the fourtl-r discourse. They are said to be indolcnt bccauscr thcy lail to cnd all their detllen-rents one sittirlg. at "Sa.iput.a, ir-r that tsuddha-land, those who have attained thc fruit of a Strcam-cntcrcrwill bc clcanscd all dcfilcmentsin one lifetime, unlike the Streamof enterersof this world, who have to go through scvcn morc births. Those who have attained the fruit of a Once-returner will be frecd frorn all suffcring in onc lifctimc, unlikc thosc calicd Oncc-rcturncrsin this world, who have to EJo through one more birth. Thosc who have attained the fruit of a Nonrcturncr r".ill bcconrc Arhats in one lifetime, unlike those callcd Nonrcturncrs in this world, who have to be born in thc uppcr rcalms Ibeforc they are liberated],though thcy will not rcrurn .13 to this carth. "Furthcmrorc, Sa.iput.a, in that Buddha-land, thcre art: stcps rnadc oi thrcc precious materials-gold, silvcr, and lapis lazuli-extending from Janrbudvipa to the Hcaven of thc Thirty-Thrcc. Siriputra, when the gods of thc Heaven oi the Thirty-Threc desirc to sec TathagataAksobhya, to worship and nrake oittrinqs to him, thcy can dcscendthc prccious stcps to thc Iluddha's place. Whcn thc,v find that the peoplc of [that] Jambudvipa are rich, prospcrous. and have cvcrything 'Wc gods havc thc good fortune of thcy need, they will become dcsirousand say, people ofJambudvipa have the good fortune of human beings. Now gods, and the I seethat thcir fortunc is as excellentas ours. What is morc, thc pcoplc ofJambuours: Tath-gata Aksobhya is expounding dvipa have a good fortune even surpassing

ON Punr LaNo of the true Dharma there. This is why we gods always prefer the human world.' "Saripntr", the pcople of that Jambudvipa havc no dcsireat all to be born in 'ln the heavens.Why? Because[they think,] the human world, Tarhigata Aksobhya constantly cxpounds the true Dharma to benefit us, and our good fortune is not different from that of the gods. The gods of the Heaven of the Thirty-Three are no match for us.' "Sariprtr", in that land, by the Buddha's divine power, gods and humans can see each other. Just as the people of this Jambudvipa scc the moon and stars, so, Sa.iputra, the people there can look upward and see thc palacesof the gods above. Sariputra, this is also achievcd by the power of the original vows which Tath-gata Aksobhya made when he was cultivating the Bodhisattvapractices. "Se.ip,rt.", the voice of the Iluddha expounding thc Dharma spreadsovcr thc cntirc billion-world universe, and is heard everywherc by the four kinds of devotees. "Sa.ipnt.r, the Sravakasthere wish for no othcr food than Dharma-food. When listening to thc Dharma, they are singlc-minded and calm; they do not fecl tired physically or mentally, whether sitting or standing. Siripurra, Tathagata Aksobhya stays in midair whcn cxpounding thc l)harma to rhc assembly. The Sravakas, whether or not they themselveshave miraculous power, all stay in rnidair by thc awcsomc power of the Buddha when they listen to the essence the of Dharma, bcaring thcrnsclvcswith dignity in thc three deportnrerrts. What are the t h r e d ? a l k i r r g .s t a r r d i r r ga n d s i t t i n g . W , "When these Srivakas intcnd to enter parir-rirvlna, they sit cross-legged and then immediately enter it. At that ntoment, the earth quakcs. After thcir parinirvlna, all gods and hurnans conle to makc offcrings to them. "When the Arhats arc rcady for parinirvana, they producc fire fron-r their bodies to cremate themselvcs;or become extinct spontaneously, lcaving no relics behind; or roam in thc' sky like clouds of fivc colors, and thcn disappearin an instant, without leaving a trace; or stand in thc sky and then vanish like rairr falling to the ground. "Se.iput.r, this is also because, while cultivating thc Bodhisattvapracticcsin thc past, Tathtgata Aksobhya, the Worthy Onc, the Perfectly EnlighterredOne, 'lf madc this vow: I rcalizesupremc cnlightcnment. thc Sravakas nry land] will Iin cntcr parinirvarlawith dignity in thc threc deportmcnts.' "Furthermore, S.riput.,r. nrany Srlvakas of that tsuddha-landhavc attained thc fbur fearlessnesses, even nrorc havc attainedthe four bascsof miraculous and powers. Sa.iprrt.", thc Sravakasof that land have accomplishcdthesc complcte nrcrits." At that timc, Sariputra said to the tsuddha, "World-Horrorcd Onc, illustnous, great, and vast indccd are the merits accomplishcd by thr- Srivakas of Tathlqata Aksobhya, the Worthy ()nc, the PerfectlyEnlightened Onc."

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At that time, the VenerablcSr.iput.r thought, "The World-Honored One hasjust now discussedthe merits of the Srivakas. Mav thc Tathigata also cxpound thc completc mcrits of the Bodhisattvas.Why? Becauscall othcr nrcrits comc 1-rom them." Then, knowitrg S;.iput."'r thought, the tsuddhatold hinr, "ln that Buddhaland, innumerablc hundreds of thousandsof Imillions of] billions of Bodhisattvas attend the assembly,and, by thc divinc powcr of the lluddha, all thc Rodhisattvas who havc icft the household life can understand,accept, uphold, rcad, and rccite what they have heard. "siriputra, thc Dharma which I havc cxpounded ir"rthis rvorld rs a r.'crv small part-less than one hundrcdth, onc thousandth, onc hundrcd thousandth, onc hundred billionth, one of any number of parts, onc minutc part, or cvcn orlc expounded by Tathigata Aksobhva. infinitcsimal part-of the I)harma-treasure "sariputra, this is all bccauscTathagata Aksobhya, thc Worthy One, thc Perfcctly Enlighter-redOne, made this vow when cultivating thc Bodhisattva prac'When I attain Buddhahood, may all thc Bodhisattvasin my land, by my tices: awesome power, be able to understand,accept,uphold. read, and recite rvhatever they hear lliom the lluddhal.'Siriputra, by thc divine power of thc original vow made by that Tathigata, those Bodhisattvas are ableto understand,accept,uphold, read, and rccitc with facility all that thcy havc hcard from thc Buddha. "Furthermorc, Si.ip.,t.", if thosc Bodhisattvaswant to go to anothcr Buddha-land, they arrive thcre as soon as they think of that land, wcaring the nativc costumc, spcaking thc local languagcwith no acccnt,and acting in harmony with make offerings to the Tathigata of the customs of that land. They pay homage ar"rd that land, listen to the true Dharma, and ask pertinent questions.When thcy have done all they can, they return to Aksobhya Buddha. "Sa.iputra, nine hundred ninety-six Buddhas will appearin this world durwho wishcs to scc thescTathagatas should ing this Worthy Kalpa.raA tsodhisattva make a vow to bc born in Aksobhya Buddha's land. "Sariput.a, if good mcn or good womcn Iwho follow the Bodhisattva-path]. after their dcath in this Buddha-land or anothcr Buddha-land, have becn born. are beirrg born, or will be born in the tsuddha-landof TathagataAksobhva. thcr. u'ill not believe or abide in the stageof Sravakas.Why? Becauscthosc r,r'hotbllou' the tsuddha-pathwill always meet the Tathagata,and give thc cclcstialdemon Pipivan no opportunity to hinder them. They will give up thc-two vchiclcs tbrcver, and participate in that attain supremc cnlightcnrncnt without fail. Thcy will alu'a-vs Tathigata's great assemblies. "Seriputra, you should know that thosc scnticnt beings who dwcll in the purc Buddha-land of Tathagata Aksobhya will nevcr bc subjcct to dcgcneration,

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whatever thcy say, and they will respectonc another and regard ollc another as teachers. "Furthernrore, S..iput.r, oI thc ]lodhi:attvas in that lluddha-land, fi-'w are 1i I householdcrs;many are nronks. By thc tsuddha'sdivinc power, thcy can underi stand, accept, uphold, rcad, and rccitc rvhatever thcy have hcard [fronr thc Buddhal. Sariputra, thc lay llodhisattva-Mahasattvas who are unablc to participareill the assemblylscan by thc tsuddha's miraculous pou,cr hcar, undcrstand, accept, uphold, read, and rccite with facility the l)harma expourrdcd,wherevcr they are, whether sitting or standing.The tsodhisattvas r,vhohavc lcft the householdlife and are not in the assemblycan do the sane. Also, thcsc Bodhisattvas,in thc courseof decease and rcbirth, never forgct the sutras thcy have hcard, and can be born in arry Buddha-land thcy wish. Sariputra,rhis is also achievedthrough thc merits of Tath-gata Aksobhya's original vows. "siriputra, if a llodhisattva wishes to scc numcrous hundrcds of thousands of [nrillio's ofl billio's of 'ryriads of Buddhas in onc lifetime, he should vow ro be bor' i' thc la'd of Tathigata Aksobhya. After his birth there, hc will see i''umcrable Buddhas a'd plant all kinds of good roots; he can also expound the cssence the Dharma to llumcrous hundreds of thousandsof sentient beinss to of increase their good roots. "Sariprtr", if tsodhisattvas, afrcr their death in this world or orhcr worlds, havc bccn born, are bcing born, or will be born in the tsuddha-landof Tathagata Aksobhya, thcy will all attain thc stagc of nonregrcssion.Why? Becausein that Buddha-land, one is not obstructcdby the cclcstialdemon Pipiyan or disturbedby demonic influences. "Sitiput.r, a vcnomous snakc subjugatcdby a magic spell cannot hurt anyonc, and insects or wornrs will not be worricd or afraid upon sccing it. Yet, harmlcssas it is, it is still calleda vcnofilous snakcbecausc has reccivcdthe form it of a snake as a result of its previous karmas. Siriputra, thc sanreis rruc with the celestialdemon P-piyan. Whcn TathSgataAksobhya was following thc Bodhisattva practicesin the past, hc vowcd to dedicatehis good roots thus: 'Whcn I realizc supreme enlightcnnrcnt, I will subjugateall dcmons so that they will not c:ruschindrancesor troublcs. They will not hinder or trouble the Bodhisattvas, Srar-akas, ordinary peoplc, or othcrs in the wholc billion-world ur-rivcrsc.'ISubiug.rtud iis thcy arc,l the demons remain in demons' forms bccauseof their previous karmas They regret this in thc hcaven whcrc they arc born, and blame thenrselvcs bcing incarnatcdas beings called'dcmons' owning to thelr prcvious for

'

seduction, or regressior-r; thcy will abidc in the pursuit of suprcmc enlightcnment, have grcat power, bc immovable, and never regrcss. "S..ip.rtrr, if good men or good women arc born in that land aftcr their death in this world or othcr worlds, thcy rvill, at thc time of thcir birth, have this 'I thought: have enteredthe Tathagata'sroorn and havc taken up my abode in thc city of fcarlessness.' "siriputra, those tsodhisattvas will comply u'ith thc p-ramita of wisdom in

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time. In spitc of the powcr thcy cnjoy, they karmas perforned from beginningless loathe their state. When that Tathagata expounds thc Dharma, thc dcmons and thcir retinues are often among the listeners.After hearing the Dharma, thcy bc'How come pure in mind and ycarn to bc Srtvakas,thinking, can we, too, abidc in tranquillity, havc fcw dcsircs, and bc contcnt?' Bccause those demons have a constant dcsire to leavc the houschold lifc and have no intention of hindering Bodhisattvas,and ordinary peoplc in that land can all abidc in others, the Sravakas, pcace and happiness.This is also due to thc awesomc po\\'cr of that Buddha's previous vigor and great vows. Sariputra, this is also a superb adornmcnt of Aksobhya Buddha's land. . . . "sariputra, thosc Bodhisattvaswho have receivedmy prophecv and attaincd nonrcgrcssionwill bc born in Aksobhya lluddha's land. Howcver. Siriputra, this does not mcan that I forsake the Bodhisattvas born in that Buddha-land. If an anointed ksatriya king lcarns that the army of a hostile nation is coming to stcalhis 'My wealth and throne, he will think, queen, concubincs,and bclovcd children are not strong enough to resist the enemy. I will kccp them, together with mv treasures,in the palace,out of harm's way.'Then he will ovcrcomc his encmy, so that his country is blesscdwith pcaccand frccd from danger, and there is no longcr any fear of disaster.Sa.iput.r, jr-rstas the king docs not abandon his treasures, beloved cl-rildren, queen, and concubines,so I do not forsake the Bodhisattvas,and thosc who follow the Boclhisattva practiccs should know this. Like the palacc, that tsuddha-land is free from fear; like thc lcadcr of thc cncmics, the celestial demon Plpiyan [in my land] tries in every way to hinder those who follow the Bodhisattva practices;and like the great kirlg who is not disturbcd by thc invading encmics, thc Tathagatais not harassed the celestial by demons. "Sa.iput.., suppose a nran, afraid of his creditor, runs far away to the frontier. He will be spared pcrsccution at the hands of the creditor and others conccrned.Why? Becausethe creditor and his farnily cannot rcach him, due to the great distanceand danger involved. In the same way, thc Bodhisattvasborn ir-r the Land of Wonderful Joy are beyond the reach of Pipiyan, who is kept away by the insurnrountabldifficulty of thcjourncy.ro c "Seripr.tt.", in this billion-r'u'orld universe, the celestial demon Papiyin hinders Bodhisattvasand Sravakasin every way. In the Land o[ Wondcrful Jor'. thc celestial dcmons do not do dcvilish deeds.The Bodhisattvasborn there in thc past, prcscnt, and future are free from fcar fbrcvcr. Why? Becausewhen that Tathagata 'When hc was following the tsodhisattva-path, dedicatcdall his good roots thusi I realizesupreme enlightenment, the celestialdenons will not hindcr anvone or do any dcvilish dceds.'Siriprrt.r,just as poison losesits toxicity and bccomesfood for a strong man who can take it skillfully and digest it, so the cclestial demons of that land, insteadof doing harm, are always bcneficial. "Sa.iputrr, innumerable such merits are achievedin that tsuddha-land." At that timc, Sariputra thought, "Now I wish to scc Tathigata Aksobhya, the Worthy One, the Perfectly Enlightened Onc, and the Srivakas o[ that Bud-

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dha-land." Thereupon, perceiving what was in Siriputra's nrind. the WorldHonored One, by his divine power and without risins from his scat, caused Sa.iput.. to seeall of them. Thc Buddha asked Seriputra,"Havc yolr sccn thenr now?" Sa.ip.,t.. answered, "Ycs, I have." T h c t s u d d h a s k c dS l r i p u t r a ," l ) o y o u s c ca r r l ' d i f i l r e n c c . u c h a s s r r p e r i o r i r y a s or inferiority, among thosc gods and humans?" Seriputra answercd, "No, I do not. Why? BccauseI see that thc clothing, lbod and drink, and valuable objects enjoyed by thc humans of thc Land of Wonderful Joy are gods' implcmcnts of plcasurc.Tathigata Aksobhya, expounding the Dharma to the asscmbly, is like a gold nountain, shining briliiantly. There are innumerable, limitless Srivakas.Just as thc horizons in the four directions arc boundlessin the eyesofonc sailing upon the great occan, so the Srrvakas t h c r c a r c l i n r i t l e s s r r r r u n r b c rt o t h c b c h o l d t ' r .W h c r rt h o s c S r a v a k . rrs c l i s t c n i n gt o i r tl.re Dharma, they keep their bodics and minds as still as if they had entercd dhyana, unlikc the people in this world, who sway and stir, sonlctimes cvcn rn meditation." . . . At that timc, a thougllt occtrrrcd to Ananda: "Nor"' I should test the powcr of Venerablc Subhuti's.'e"l,oquencc." With this in mind, hc said to Subhuti, "We should have a look at Tathlgata Aksobl.rya, his disciplcs,anclhis tsuddha-land." "lf Subhuti told Anar-rda, you wanr to scc that Tathtgata, you should look upwards." After Ananda had looked upwards, he said to Subhuti, "I have looked upwards as far as I could, but I saw nothing except emptincssand stillness." Subhnti said, "Tathagata Aksobhya, his disciples,and his Buddha-land are similar to what you saw when you looked upwards." Then Sariputra said to thc Buddha, "World-Honored One, as the Buddha has said, the Bodhisattvasin this world whosc attainmenrof tsuddhahoodhas been prophesied are not different frorn thc Bodhisattvas born in that land. WorldHonored One, now I do not know why they are cqual." The Buddha told Siriputra. "Becauscof the equality of the dharmadhatu, there is no diffbrence between them."

V
At that time, the Vcnerable Sa.ip,rt.a thought further, "The World-Honored One has spoken of the infinite merits of Tathagata Aksobhya, the Worthy One, the Perfectly Enlightened One, in following the Bodhisattva-path. He has also spoken of the vast, great adornments of that land and the excellent, virtuous deeds of the Sravakasand Bodhisattvas there. I hope that the World-Honored One will further tell us about that Buddha's parinirvana and his deeds ofdeliverance thereafter."

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Thcn, knowitrg Sa.ip.rt."'s thought, the World-Honored One told him, "Seriput.a, on thr: day of Tathigata Aksobhya's parinirvana, his magically produced bodies will appear throughout all thc worlds, including the hells, and will expound the wonderful Dharma. He will subduc with thc Dharma numerous sentientbeings, all of whom will attain Arhatship. As a result, thcrc will bc morc people who have attained the stage beyond learning than therc r.vcrebefore that Buddha's parinirvina. "On that day, he will also predict Bodhisattva FragrarrtElcphant's attain'After ment of Buddhahood, saying, my parinirvana,vou u,ill become a Buddha, named TathagataGolden Lotus, the Worthy One, the Pcrfectlv Enlightened One.' ;Furthcrnrorc, Siriputra, thc mcrits of Tathigata Golden Lotus's tsuddha-landand the number of his discipleswill be the same as those of Tathigata Aksobhya. "Furthermore, Seriputr., when TathagataAksobhya enters parinirvana, the grcat carth will quakc all ovcr, and the whole billion-world universc will roar in the quake. The sound will reachup to the AkanisthaHcaven. [/hen the gods hear thc sound, they will know that the tsuddha has entered parinirvana. "Moreover, Sa.ipl-rtr", the forcsts and herbs of that Buddha-land will all incline toward the placewherc TathagataAksobhya is enreringparinirv.rna.At that humans will all scatterover the Buddha garlandsof flowers, timc, thc gods ar-rd many kinds of incense,and clothing. Thc scatteredfragrant flowers will pile up around the Buddha to a height ofonc lcague. "Furthcrmorc, Se.iputrr, when TathagataAksobhya is entering parinirvana, all the gods, dragons, yaksas,gandharvas,asuras,garudas, kinnaras, and mahoragasof the billion-world universewill join their palms to salutehim; also, by the divine power of the Buddha, the gods in other lands will be able to see that Buddha enter parinirvina. For scven days and nights, these gods will bc overwhelmed with grief, will dcsist from the amusements of gods and humans, and 'Tathagata will fecl no dcsire. They will say to one another, Aksobhya has been the light of the world and the eye of sentier.rt beings. Alas, why does he enter parinirvana so soon?'. "Furthermore, Sa.ip..t.", Tathigata Aksobhya, the Worthy One, the Perfectly Enlightened One, will issue fire from his own body to cremate himself. All his relics will be goldcn in color. Just as the timira tree revcals a swastika sign17 its cross-section in wherevcr it is cut, so will the relics of that Tathlgata. "Moreover, Sa.ipnt.r, every relic of Tathagata Aksobhya will bc round, with the auspiciousswastika sign both inside and outside. Sa.iput.r, just as the pulaka tree revealsthe auspiciousswastikasign both inside and outside rvhereverit is cut across, so will the relics of that tsuddha. "Sa.ip,,tr", the sentientbeings of that land will build strlpasout of the seven treasures for thc relics all over that billion-world univcrse, and will offer to the stupasthousand-petaled golden lotus flowers. These stipas and lotus flowers will then serve as splendid adornments of that billion-world universe. "Furthermore, Se.iput.", after Tathagata Aksobhya has entered grear nrr-

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vJna. thc truc Dharma will endure in his world for a hundred thousand kalpas." Thereuporr,Seriputr. askedthe Buddha, "World-Hor.roredOne, for [a hunJred rhousand] kalpas of what kind will the true I)harma of Tathlgata Aksobhya :-n.lLlrrir-rthe world?" The Buddha told Striputrai "Twenty small kalpasmakc onc kalpa,rsand the truc Dharma will endurc for a hundrcd thousand such kalpas. "siriputra, aftcr thc cxtinction of thc true Dharma, thcrc will be a grcat light rllurninating all the worlds in the ten directions, and all the earths will quake, nraking a great sound. However, [you should know that] the true Dharma cannot be destroyedby thc cclcstialdcmons, nor will thc Tathagataand his disciplespass pcoplc of that timc will lack interest rnto oblivion of thcir own accord. It is bccausc in learning thc Dharma that those who can expound the Dharma will go away from them. Hearing little of the true Dharma, the people will become more irrcredulous, and as a rcsult, they will not strivc to practiccthe Dharma. Seeingthe indifference of the people, monks well-versed in the I)harma will naturally withdraw into seclusion and preach the Dharma no more. In this way, the subtle, profound teachingof the tsuddha will gradually disappear."

VI
At that time, the Venerable S"riput." asked the tsuddha, "World-Honored One, what causes and good roots enable Bodhisattva-Mahlsattvas to be born in that tsuddha-land?" The Buddha told Siriputra, "Bodhisattva-Mahlsattvas who wish to bc born in the World of Wonderful Joy should follow the Bodhisattva practices cultivated by TathagataAksobhya in thc past, and make a great vow to be born in that land. These practices and this vow will enable them to be born in that Buddha-land. "Furthermore, S"tiprtr., if Bodhisattva-Mahisattvas,when practicing the plramiti of giving, dedicatethe ensuing good roots to the attainment of supreme cnlightenmcnt and wish to meet Tathagata Aksobhya, then they will consequently be borir in that Buddha-land. The same is true if they do likewise when practicing the paramiti of discipline,and so on up to the piramit- of wisdom. "Moreover, Sariput.., the light of Tathigata Aksobhya shinesover the whole billion-world Buddha-land. One should vow to realizesupreme enlightenment in a future life as a result of seeing this light, so that, after attaining great enlightenment in that way, he will in turn emanate a light from his own body to illuminate the n'hole world. Seriputr^, a Bodhisattva who so vows will be born in that land. "Furthermore, Se.ip.,t.", Tathagata Aksobhya, the Worthy One, the Pertecth' Enlightened One, has a limitless number of Sravakas.One should vow to see them and, afterwards, to perform deeds leading to the attainment of the Buddha's enlishtcnment. This will enable one to have the same limitless number of

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Sravakasafter hc rcalizes cnlightenment. Sariputra, a Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who so vows can be born in that Buddha-land. "Furthermorc, Seriputra,in that tsuddha-land,there are innumerableBodhisattva-Mahasattvas. One should wish to see these Bodhisattvas, to learn from them thc practiceof meditation, to be with them at all times, to study with them the same vehiclc, and to attain the ultimate goal together with them. One should wish to meet those who pursue perfect, great kindncss and compassion,who seek enlightenment and (ramanahood,who forgo the intentiorr to follow the two vehicles, who abidc in thc real emptiness,and who are constantlymindful of the name of the All-Knowing Buddha, the Tathagata,and the names of the Dharma and thc Sarhgha. "Si.ipttt.", even those good men and good women rvho have heard the namcs of such Bodhisattvaswill be born in that Buddha-land, let alonc thosc who plant good roots in harmony with the plramiti of wisdom and dedicatethem to fathtsata Aksobhya, thc Wt-rrtlry()nc. thc Pcrfcctly Enlightcncd Onc. 55rrputra. thcsc arc causesand conditions which enablc onc to bc born in that Buddha-land without fail. "Furthermorc, Se.ipnt.r, Bodhisattva-Mahlsattvas who wish to be born in that Buddha-land shouid often visualizethe Buddhas, the Tathtgatas, expounding the subtle, wonderfu'l Dharma in the innumerable easternworlds, together with 'I their disciplcs.Thcy should vow: will rcalizcenlightcnmcnt, expound the subtle, just as those Budwonderful Dharma, and have [a limitless number of] disciples, d h a sd o . ' "S"ripr.rt.", thcsc Bodhisattvas should cultivate thc good roots of the three thcy should wish to practicc rccollcction together with all kinds of recollcction;1e sentient beings cqually, and dcdicatc thcsc good roots to thc attainmcnt of supreme enlightenment. "Sariput.., the Bodhisattvas' good roots thus dedicatedare limitless. Suppose all sentient beings, each holding a container with the same capacity as that of 'Great man, plcasegive me somc of [ail] space,said [to onc of thc Bodhisattvas], your good.oorc.'Sa.ip.rtra, these good roots, supposing they were material arrd given to the senticnt bcings, would fill all their containers and the containcrs would be taken away without exhausting the good roots. [Why?] Becausethese good roots are dedicatcdto thc attainment of supreme enlightenment, and so arc infinite and unchangeable. "Sa.ip,rtr", becauscof thcsc good roots, which arc achicvcd through these thrcc kinds of recollectionand are dedicatedto all-knowing u.isdom, one rvill be Siriputra, you followed land protected] by thc Threc Jewcls whcrcvcr he gt.rcs. should know that if a Bodhisattvahas achievedthescgood roots, he'rvill not fall to any miscrable planc of existence,he will be able to subjugatePapiyin and other demons, and he will bc born as hc wishcs in any Buddha-land in the east, south, west, north, northcast, northwcst, southeast,southwcst, the zenith, or the nadir. Therefore, a tsodhisattva-Mahlsattva should accumulate the good roots of such

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recollection, and, having accumulated them, dedicate them to Tathigata Aksobhya. In this way he can be born in that Buddha-land. "Furthermore, Sa.ip.rt.", the merits and vast adornmcnts of the Buddhaland ofTathagata Aksobhya cannot be found in any other ofthe countless Buddhalar-rds. Bodhisattva-Mahasattva, A therefore, should resolve thus: 'By virtue of these good roots, I wish to see that land, acquire its adornments, and see the Bocihisattvas there.'By doing this, Sariputra,the Bodhisattvawill be born in that Buddha-land. "Sa.iputra, Bodhisattva-Mahisatrvas who wish to be born in that Buddhaland should generatean intense aspirationfor it. Siriputra, i[ good men or good women have generated such intense aspiration, I will predict thcir birth in that Buddha-land. "Sa.iput.", a city is not magnificent rvithout such cmbellishmcntsas rowers, gardens, groves, ponds, and placesfor elephantsand horsesto roam, though its r u l e r m a y h a v e p o w e r t o n r a i n t a i n e a c e n d o r d e r . S i m i l a r l y .S a r i p u t r a s i n c em y p a , Buddha-land does not have the same mcrirs Ias TathagataAksobhya's], it is not as magnificently adorned. "Si.ipnttt, Tathigata Aksobhya leadsthe Bodhisattvas and followers of other vehiclesin other lands as well as in the World of Wonderful Joy. Siriputra, if good men and good womcn, after hearing the t)harma-door of Tathigata Aksobhya's mcrits, are well able to acccpt, uphold, read, recite, and comprehend it, and wish to bc born in that land, thcn Tathigata Aksobhya will always prorect and remember then-runtil the timc of their death, and will keep demons and der'ons'rctinues from causing them to rcgressfrom their determinatron. "S5riputra, you should know that right up to their attainment of supremc enlightenrnent, thcse good men ar-rdgood wonlen will be lree from the fear of regression;frcc from harm by water, fire, kr-rives, cudgels, ferocious beasts,and poisonousinsects;and frcc from the terror of Ievil] humans or nonhumans. Why? Becausethey are always protected and remembercd by Tathigata Aksobhya, and will be born in his Buddha-land. "Sa.iput.., just as thc sun, though far away, gives light to the scnricnr beings of this world, so Tathegata Aksobhya, though far away, illuminates the Bodhisattvasof other worlds. "Si.iput.a, just as a monk who has the deva-cyecan seediffcrent things2') in the distance,so TathagataAksobhya, while renrainir-rg his own land, can seethe in lbrms of all kinds of Bodhisattvasin other worlds. "Sa.iput.", furthermore, just as a monk who has acquircd thc perfect comnrand of thc powcr of [knowing others'] thoughts can rcad the ninds of senticnt bcings cvcn if he is renotc from them, so TathagataAksobhya can perceive the nrinds of thc Bodhisattvasin other worlds. "Siriput.r, just as a monk who has attainedthe dcva-earcan hcar any sound at a distance,so TathagataAksobhya can hear thc scntient beings living in other 'l s'orlds sar', rvish to be born in that land.'Sariputra, Tathigata Aksobhya knows

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the names of all such good men and good women; he knows, protects, and remembers all those who accept,uphold, read, recite, and comprchcnd this Dharma-door of merits." Sariputra then said to thc Buddha, "lt is rnost cxtraordinary, World-Honored One, that that Buddha, the World-Honored One, protects and rcmembers " thosc Bodhisattva-Mahisattvas. Aftcr Seriputrasaid this, the tsuddhatold hin, "So it is. so it is. As you say, Why? TathagataAksobhya protcctsand remembersthoseBodhisattva-Mahasattvas. by Because, protecting and remcmbcring Bodhisattvas,hc protcctsand rcmcmbcrs all senticnt beings. "S5.ip.rt.", an anointcd ksatriya king who has many barns full of grain and beanswill strictly command thc keeper to guard them well. Why? Ilecausehe will then be able to relieve [the hunger ofl sentientbeings when lamirre occurs. Similarly, Sariputra, the Tathagata renders good protection to those Bodhisattvasso that, after his parinirvlna, they will realizesupremeenlightenmentand servc as an ahundant harvest during the famine of the truc Dharma. "Se.iput.r, in this world, there are -Bodhisattvas who, aller hcaring the Dharma-door of Tathigata Aksobhya's merits, can acccpt, uphold, rcad, rccite, and comprchend it, and wish to be born in that tsuddha-land.You should know that thesepeople have attainednonregressiorl. "Sariput.a, good men and good wonlen with purc faith should expound this Dharn-ra-doorto others at all times- Those who do so will be nrerit-praisir-rg cleansed all dcfilcmcnts in thcir prcscnt lifctimcs, or Iat mostl in two lifetimes. of "Furthermore, Se.iputr., this Dharma-door of praising Tathagata Aksobhya's merits cannot be acceptedby foolish, shallow people. It can be accepted and upheld only by thosc with profound, vast wisdom. SJriputra,those good men and good women [with such wisdom] u'ill see Buddhas and will certainly obtain this merit-praising Dharma-door in their present lifetimes. "Serip.rt.r, supposc thcrc arc pricelesspearls taken from the sea. Who do you think will be the first to obtain thesc priceless treasures?" Sa.ip,rtr. said to the Buddha, "World-Honorcd One, kings, princcs, and ministcrs will bc the first to obtain thenl." The B',rddhatold Siriputra. "ln thc sanreway, Bodhisattvaswill bc thc first to acquirc the l)harma-door of that Buddha's mcrits, and those Bodhisatn'ass'ill attain the stageof nonregression. They will surely be able to accept,uphold. rcad. recite, and comprehend this Dharma aftcr hearing it; they will drligcnth studv thc nature of suchness for the purpose of attair-ring suprcmc cnlightcnmcnt." s'ish to S-riputra said to the tsuddha, "World-Honored Onc, if Bodhrsatrvas abidc in thc stagc of nonrcgrcssion,thcy should acccpt, uphold, rcad. rccitc, and l)harr-r-ra-door conrprehendthis n-rerit-praisir-rg after hearing it. Why? RccauscBodhisattva-Mahasattvas who abide in this Dharma-door will not rellressfrom Itheir " rcelizationofl thi' Dharma-nature. Thc Buddha told Sariputra, "lf a man, in order to hear this Dharma, gave

ON PunE LaNo

arvay cnough gold to fill the entire world, he might still bc unable to hcar it. Why? Bccauscthis meritorious l)harnra cannot be upheld by scnticntbeings rvith meager blcssings. "Furthermore, Sa.iputra, if followers of rhe Srivaka-vehiclcacccpt,uphold, r c a d . . r n d r e c i t c t h i s m e r i t o r i o u s D h a r n r a - d o o rr [ t c r h c a r i n g i t . a r r d p r a c r i c c i t diligently in order to conform to supremc enlightenmcnt and suchness, thcy will attain rcalization2l thcir ncxt lifetinres;thcy will attain candidacyfor Buddhahood in in trvo lifctimcs; thcy will attain suprcmc cnlighterrment in no more thar{' threl) liti'rinrcs. "Furthermore, Sa.iput.", if, in pursuit of this l)harma-door, good men and good women listen to, accept,uphold, read, recite, and circulateit irr a villagc or to$'n, and for this purposc live in the houscsof laypcoplethough they themselves are monks or nuns, I will sav they are faultlessand will allou' thcn-rto stay in such places-Why? Becausethese good mcn and good women arc trying to keep this l)harma from falling into oblivion after their death. Striputrr. cvcn if the village or town is far away, thcsc Bodhisattvas still should go and stay thcre to accept, uphold, read, and recite this I)harma-door, and revcal arrd cxpound it to othcrs. "Setiputr", good mer-r arrdgood wonlen should makc this vow: 'I should not think of rcgrcssing from the pursuit of suprcme enlightenment, for I have heard thc nanrc of thc Dharma-door22of TathagataAksobhya." . . . "World-l lonored ()nc, this l)harma-door can Siriputra saiclto thc l3r-rddha, bring vast merits." T h c B u d d h a t o l d S a r i p u t r u " S o i r i s . s o i r i s , a s y o u h a v c s a i d .S e r i p u r r ai.l ' a . c()untry is assailed hailstorms, untinely thundcr, or other tcrriblc things, good by men and good women should concentrate their minds on Tathigata Aksobhya and invokc his nane;2-rthis will put an cnd to all the disastcrs. lWhy?] Becausein the 'I-athagata past, that hclped l-rundreds thousandsof dragons out of their sufferof ings.2aBecausehis compassionatc original vows arc glcnuineand sincere,and becausehe wishes to firlfil the dedicationof his good roots wirhour fail, all those who invoke his namc will have their sorrow and distressrclicved spontaneously, except thosc scntient beings whose prcvious [evil] karmas have ripencd." Sariputrasaid to thc Buddha, "World-Honored One, Bodhisattvaswho wish to realize supreme cnlightcnment in this lifc should act as Tathagata Aksobhya acted when he was fulfilling his vor,vs." The Buddha told Siriputra,"So it is. so it is. . . ." At that time, the gods of the Realnr of l)esire and the gods of the Brahma Hcavcn all joined their palnrs toward IAksobhya] tsuddha, prosrraredthemselves to pay homage to hin'r, and chanted thrcc tirnes: "We pay homage to Tathigata Aksobhya, thc Worthy One, the Perfectly Enlightcncd One, who is most extraordinarr'; and we takc refuge in Tathigata Sikyamuni, thc Worthy One, the Pertcctlv Enlightcncd One of this world, who is so skillful in cxpounding this mcrit" praisinq Dl-rarnta-door. Then the gods of the Rcalm of l)esire strewed flolvers of the coral tree and

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celestialincense over the Buddha. In the air. thc incenseand flowers fuscd and tbrnred a canopy. Furthermorc, thc gods scattcred thc celestial flowers and incense tor.vardAksobhya Buddha as offerings from afar. . When thc Buddha had expoundcd this l)harma-door, five hundrcd monks acquircd mcntal libcration concerning thc undefiled l)harn'ra;fivc thousand Bodhisattvas,six thousandnuns, cight thousar-rd laynren, tcn thousalld laywomen, and nunlerous gods of thc Rcalm of I)esire all wished to be born in that lluddha-land. Thcrcupon, thc Tathagatapredicted that thcy would all bc born in that tsuddhaland. When the Buddha finishcd cxpoundirrg this sfrtra, Slripurr:. thc gods, humans, asuras,gandharvas,garudas,kinnaras,and mahoraqasrvcre alljubilant over Tcaching. They acceptedit with faith and began ro practicc it q'itlr thc -tsuddha's vcncration.

NOTES
1 . T o b c l i b c r a t c d i n w i s d o m r n c a n st h c c o m p l e t e e r a d i c a t i o no f s u b t l e i g r r o r a n c co r r n n a t ee g o - c l i t r g i n g ,w h i c h r s t h c o b s t r u c t i o n t o w i s d o r n . T o b c l i b c r a t e di n m i r . r di m p l i e s t h e l i b r ' r a t i o nf r o m p a s s i o n s n d d e f i l e r r r c n t s . h i c h a r e t h c o b s t r u c t i o n st o m e d i t a t i o n . a u 2 . T h c t e x t r e a d s " p a s t a r r c lf u t u r c . " b u t t h i s $ ' a s n o t t h c q u e s t i o n a s k e d . A l s o , i t i s t n a p p r o p r i a t ch c r e , l o r t h c c n t i r e s u t r a i s a n a c c o u n to f A k s o b h y a w h o i s a p a s t B o d h i s a t t v a . Thereforewc have dclctcd "ancl futurc." 3. This von' and many others in this sutra arc sublirnc and ex;rlted. They sccm to be of 5 u p c r h u m a nn a t u r c , b c y o n d t h e r e a c h o f o r d i n a r y h u r n r n b c i n g s . H o w , c v c r , t h r s c a n a l s o b c n ) t c r p r c t c da s m c a n i n g t h a t i t r v a s b e c a u s e f A k s o b i r y a l l u c l d h a ' ss u p e r h u r n a nc f f o r t t h a t h e o r r r s a t r l c t o c r c a t c s u c h a n e x t r a o r d i n a r yp u r e l a n d , t h u s e n a b l i n gt h c s o t t i e n t t r e i n g st h c r c t c r f r a c t i c c D h a r r n a e a s i l y i n p c a c ca n c ij o y . ( G . C . ) , 1 . A k s o b h y a n r e a n s' t h e I n r m o v a b l e O n e ' . 5 . B h i k s u s s l . r o u l d a v e n o m o r c t h a n t h r e e s c t so f r o b c s . M o s t o f t h c i t e n r s i n t h i s l i s t h r r e : r n l o n g t h e t w e l v e a s c c t i cp r a c t i c e sa l l o w c d b v t h e B u d d h a . 6 . I f A k s o b h y a l i v c d i n o u r S a h aW o r l d , I d o u b t i f h c w o r . r l dh a v c t i m c f b r a n v t h i n q . 1 s c .( C l . C . ) 7 . T o t h e b c s t o f m v k n o r v l c d g e , n e i t h e - r n H r n a y a n a ,M a h a y i n a , n o r T a n t r i c r c l c h i r r t q si s a " w c t d r e a n r " o r s c x u a l d c s i r e i n a d r c a n r c o n s i d e r c dt o t r c a v i o l a t r o r ro i 1 . p . . - . 1 . 1 r . r . r ' c l l s c a p u r e l v p h y s i c a l , i n v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n c a n n o t b c c o n s t r u e da s a n o l i c n s c . t ( i . t i . ) 8 . A l t e r n a t e t r a n s l a t i o n :" . h e c o u l d c a u s ci n n u m e r a b l c l . r u n d r c d s i r h o u s a n d so f o - . ' r l t i c n tb e i l r g s t o p l a n t g o o d r o o t s l c a d i n g t o s u p r c m e e n l i g h t e n r n e n t . l l d t o d e . l i c r f c t l r o s c a : o o d r o o t s t o t h e a t t a i n m e n to f s u p r c n r ec n l i g h t c n r n c n ta n d o i a p u r e t s u d d l t . r - l a n dT h r o u g h . : r c p o w e r o f h i s d c d i c a t i o nh i s v o w s r v e r e a l l f u l f i l l c d . " 9 . T h e t e x t r e a d s" h a l f ' a k r o ( a . " A k r o 6 a i s t h e c l i s t a n c ch a t t h c l o r v i n s o f a r r o x c a n b c t :rlrrrl.

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ON Punr LaNo

10. Thc three miserable plancs of existence arc usually listed as the plancs of helld s e l l c r s . l . r u n g r yg h o s t s , a n d a n i m a l s . 1 1 . I n s t e a do f " c o l d n e s s "( * ) , t h c r c x t r e a d s" y e l l o w n e s s " ( F ) , w h i c h w c t h i n k m a y b e r rrrisprint.(Scc iF-Ff 6K , Taisho 2122, p.986). Wc clo not know exactly what kinds of t d i s e a s c sh c t h r e e a r e . ( W . H . ) 1 2 . O n e o f t h e f o u r c o n t i n e n t si n B u d d h i s t c o s m o l o g y 13. A Nonreturner will not return to this world, the Realm of l)esirc, beforc he is liberated. but he will be born in either the Realm of Form or the Realt.nof Formlesslress. 14. This rcfers to the tradition that in tl.rc Worthy Kalpa, a total of one thousand B u d d h a ; w i l l a p p c a r .S i n c c S l k y a n r u n i B u d d h a \ v r s r h e f o u r t h , 9 9 6 m o r e w i l l a p p e a r . 1/15-ll-iterally, "who are not thinking of the assembly." 16. This seltcnce is a lree translatiot.t.Thc text litcrally reads: "similarly, lconcerningl b t h o s e t s o d h i s a t t v a s o r n i n t h e L a n d o f w o n c l e r f u l J o l , P a p i y a n ' sr o a d i s e n d e c l . " s 1 7 . A s w a s t i k ai s a n a u s p i c i o u s y m b o l i I r B u d d h i s n - r . " 1 8 . S u c h a k a l p a i s c a l l e da " n r c c l i u n l k a l p a . " S c e C i l o s s a r y , k a l p a . " 1 9 . T h c t h r e e k i n c l s o f r e c o l l e c t i o na r e p r o b a b l y t h c r c c o l l e c t i o t ro f t h e B u d d h a , t h e Dharrna, antl the' Sarhgha. 2 0 . L i t c r a l l y , " g o o d a n d b a c lf o r n r s . " 21. Literally, "rcach achicvernent." 2 2 . H c r c w e s e e t h e p o w c r o 1 - t h c n a m c o f t h e D h a r m a - D o o r o f P r a i s i n gT ' a t h i g a t a A k s o b h y a ' s M c r i t s . A s f a r a s t h e p r a c t i c eo f t h c P u r e L a n d t e a c h i n gi s c o n c c r n e d ,h o w e v e r , i t n is most irnportant to rccollcct and repeatthe Buddl-ra's ame constantly. ()nc should also recollect the Br,rddha'soriginal vows, his rnerits, purity, lancl, etc. Sincc we treat this sutra as a a P u r e L a n c ld i s c o u r s e ,i t s e e r n s p p r o p r i a t et o s t r c s st h e i n r p o r t a n c eo f r e c o l l e c t i n g T a t h a g a t a Aksobhya'snamc. 2 3 . T h i s i s a n c x a r n p l eo f t h e p o w e r o f r c p e a t i n gt h c B u d d h a ' s n a m e . s 2 4 . A c c o r d i n g t o B u d d h i s t m y t h o l o g y , d r a g o n s c a u s es o m e n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s u c h a s floods, thunder, ancl hailstorms. Becausc he helped the dragons in thc past, Tathagata Aksobhya has tlre power to influcnce them to stop causillg srich disasters.

18 ffi€#rux€
Bliss TheLandof Utmost

I
Thus have I hcard. Oncc thc lluddha was dwclling on Mount Grdhrakuta ncar thc by city of Rajagrha,accon-rpar-ried twelve thousand great nronks, who were grcat Srdvakaswcli known to cvcryonc. Anrong them, thc lbrenrost were the Vencrable . . . . Mahaki(yapa, Si.iputra, Mahinraudgalyayarra, . . Rihula, and Ananda. Surrounding thc Buddha wcrc also such lcading Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas as tsodhisattva Samantabhadra,Bodhisattva Manju(ri, IJodhisattva Maitreya, and of other Bodhisattva-Mahisattvas the Worthy Kalpa. . . . All these Bodhisattvasfollowed the path of Samantabhadra, They had fulillled all the practices and vows of a lJodhisattva. They abided securely in all rncritorious dharrnas, and had reached the ultirnatc othcr shorc of tsuddha-Dharmas. They aspiredto attain supreme enlightenmentin all the worlds. At that timc, thc Vcnerablc Ananda rosc fronr his scat, adjustcd his robc. bared his right shoulder, knelt on his right knee, joined his palms toward the Buddha, anC said, "Most virtuous World-Honored One, your body and organs are cornpletely pure, shedding an awesornelight as bright as that of a pile of gold. and shining like a clear mirror. I havc never seensuch a sight before. I am fllled rvith joy to have this rare chance to gaze at them. World-Honored Onc, r'ou have perfected thc dccds of a Tathigata and havc skillfully cstablished the dceds of a Great Man. Now, entering the great, tranquil dhyana, you are thinking about past, present, and luture Buddhas. World-Honored One, why do you have such a thought in mind?" Thereupon, the Buddha askcd Ananda, "How carl vou know this? Is it Sutra5, Taisho310,pp. 91-101; translated Chinese Bodhiruci. into by

ON Punr LaNo becauscsome gods havc comc to tell you? Or becausc vou seeme and know it by l,oursclf?" Ananda answcrcd thc tsuddha, "World-Honored Onc, this idea occursto me becauscI scc the extraordinary, auspiciouslight of thc Tathigata, not bccauscthe godshavetold rne." I hc tluddha told Ananda, "Exccllent, cxccllcntlYou have askeda very good qucstion. It is becauseyou are very observantand wonderfully eloquent that you can ask the Tathagatasuch a question. You have brought up this question so that in this world may appcar al1Tathagatas,the Worthy Ones, the Perfectly Enlightcncd Oncs, and thc great Bodhisattvasas wcll, for thcy all abidc sccurclyin grcat compassionto bcnefit scrlticntbeings, ancltheir appearance the world ls as rare in as ther blossoming of an udumbara t'lou''er.It is also bccauscyou take pity on sentient beings and wish to benefit ar-rd gladden then-rthat you ask thc Tathagata this qucstior-r. "Ananda, the Tathigata, thc Worthv One, the Perfcctly Enlightcncd Onc, is skilled in revealing immeasurableknou'ledge ar.rdviews. Why? Becausethe Tathigata is unhindcred in his knowlcdgc and views." Then the tsuddha t,-rldAnanda, "An innumerablc, incalculablenumbcr of great kalpas ago, there was a Buddha . named Freestin thc World, thc Tathagata, thc Worthy Onc, the Perf-ectly Enlightcncd Onc, thc Onc Pcrfectin Learning ancl Concluct, the Well-Gone One, thc World-Knower, thc Uncxccllcd Onc, thc Great Tamer, the Teacher of Gods and Hur-nans,the tsuddha, the World-Honored Onc. "Anar-rda, thc cra of that tsuddha, there was a monk named l)harmikara. irr He rvas a man of superior deedsand vows, and had strong powcrs of mindfulness imn-rovablcin mind. Hc had grcat blcssingsalld and wisdom. He was flrm ar-rd knowlcdge and his fcaturcswerc handsome. "Ananda, [one day], Monk Dharmikara wcnt to thc Tathigata Frccstin thc World, bared his right shoulder, bowed down with his head at the -tsuddha's feet, joincd his palnrs toward thc Buddha, and praiscdhirn in vcrsc. "Ananda, after Monk I)harnrakarahad praisedthe Buddha's nrerits, he said, 'World-Honored One, now I anr dctcrnrined to pursue supreme enlightenment. Ma1' the Tathlgata expound to nre thc doctrines that will causeme to attain the grcat enlightennent unequaledin the world, and to develop a pure, magnificent Iluddha-land!" "That Buddha told the monk, 'You should devclop a purc Buddha-land by yourself.' "Dharmakara said to that Buddha, 'World-Honorcd Onc, I havc no power ro develop one. May the Tathigata relate the purity and magnificenceof other Bucldha-lands! I swcar to cndow [rny tsuddha-land with thosc purc, magnificent qualitiesl after hearing them revealed.' "Thereupon, that !ilorld-Honored One told him in detail the perfect adorn-

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ments of two billion one hundred rnillion purc Buddha-lands. It took that Buddha a hundred million years to do this. "Ananda, Monk Dharnrlkara assimilatcdall the pure, magnificent qualities of these two billion one hundred million tsuddha-lands. Then hc cngaged in contemplation and practiceof [fulfilling] thcm for five complete kalpas." Ananda asked the Buddha, "World-Honored Orre, ho.,v long did Tathigata Freestin the World live?" The World-Honored One answcrcd, "That Buddha lived tbr forty kalpas. Anar.rda, the Buddha-larrdwhich Monk Dharmakara would develop surpasses any of thc two billion onc hundred million Buddha-landsmentioned abovc. After he had assimilated [all the practicesfor developing a Buddha-land], he went to Tathigata Frccst in thc Wogld, bowed down with his head at that Buddha's fect, circumambulatcd him 'iirv-en timcs to the right, stood to one side, and said, 'WorldHonored Onc, I havc assirnilatcd Iall thc practicesto dcvclopl a pure, n-ragnificent Buddha-landwith full merits.' "That Buddha said, 'lt is time for y<-ru rcveal the practicescompletelv, so to joyful, and also cnablc thcm to develop perfect that you can makc thc asscrnbly Buddlra-lands.' "Dharnrikara said, 'May thc World-Honored One be so kind as to listen. N o w I a m g o i n g t o p r o c l a i n rn r y g r e r t i o w s : (1) I shall not attain suprene enlightcnmcnt if thcrc would still be the planes of hell-dwellers,hungry ghosts, and aninralsin my land.r (2) I shall not attain supreme enlightenment if any sentient being from my land woulc'l fall to thc thrcc miserableplanesof existence[in other landsl. (3) I shall not attain supreme enlightenrnent if the scnrient bcings in my land would not all be endowed with a complexion of gcnuine gold. (4) I shall not attain supremc cnlightenementif thcrc would bc such distinctions as good and ugly appearances among the sentient beings in my land. (5) I shall not attain supreme enlightenment if any senricnt being in my land r,';ould fail to achieve the powcr to remember the past lives of himself [and others]-even eventsthat happenedhundreds of thousandsof Inrillions of] billions of myriads of kalpasago. (6) I shall not attain supreme enlightenmcnt if any sentient being in mv land would not be endowcd with thc dcva-eye,enabling him to scc hundreds of thousar.rds Imillions of] billions of myriads of Buddha-lands. of I shall not attain suprcmc cnlightenmentif any senticntbc.rngin my land would fail to obtain thc dcva-car, cnabling him to hcar thc Dharma expounded by another Buddha hundreds of thousandsof [millions of] billions of myriads of leaguesaway.

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ON PunE LaNo (ti) I shall not attain supreme enlightenment if any sentient being in my land would not be endowed with thc power of knowing othcrs' minds, so that he would not know the mcntalities of the sentient beings in hundreds of thousands of Imillions of] billions of myriads of othcr tsuddhalands. (9) I shall not attain supreme enlightenmcntif any sentientbeing in my land would fail to achieve the perfcct mastery of the power to appear anywhere at will,2 so that hc would not be able to travcrsc hundreds of in thousandsof Imillions of] billions of myriads of tsuddha-iands a llash of thought. (10) I shall not attain supremc cnlightcnnrentif any sentientbeing in n-ryland 'l'and'mine.' would entertain vcn an iota of the notion of c (11) I shall not attain supremecnlightcnment if any sentientbeing in my land would rrot certainly achieve supremc enlightcnrncnt and realize grcat nrrvana. (12) I shall not attain suprerne' cniigirtcnmcnt if my light would bc so limited hundrcds of thousands of [millions of] as to be unable to illur.rrirrate billions of r.r.ryriads-or any number-of tsuddha-lands. (13) I shall not attain suprcmc enlightcnmcnt if my lifc span would be limitcd to cvcn hundreds of thousands of [nrillions of l billions of myriads of kalpas,or any countablcnumber of kalpas. (14) I shall not attain suprcnle enlightenment if arryone would bc able to knou' the llumber of Srivakas in my land. Even if al1thc scnticnt beings and Pratyckabuddhas in a billion-world universe exercised their utmost courlting power to count togethcr for hundreds of thousandsof years, thcy would not be ablc to krrow it. (15) I shall not attain supremecnlightctrmentif any scrlticntbeing in my land would have a limited life span, except those who arc born duc to their
VOwS.

(16) I shail not attain supremeenlightcnmcnt if any sentientbcing in my land would havc a bad reputation. (17) I shall not attain supremeenlightcnmentif my land would not be praised and acclaimedby innumerablc Buddhas in countlcsstsuddha-lands. (18) When I rcalize suprenlc cnlightennrent, therc will be sentient bcings in other Buddha-lands who, after hearing my name, dcdicatc thcir good roots to birth in my land in thought aftcr thought. Even if they navc only tcn such thoughts, thcy wiil be born in nly land, except for thosc who have pcrformed karmas leading to the Uninterrupted Hell and those who speakill of the true l)harma or saints.If this would not bc thc case, I shall not attain cnlightcnmcnt. (19) When I bccome a Buddha, I shall appcar with an assemblyof monks at ofscnticnt beingsofother Buddha-landswho have brought the deathbeds forth bodhicitta, who think of my land with a purc mind, and who

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dedicatetheir good roots to birth in the Land of Utmost Bliss.r I shall not attain supreme enlightenment if I would fail to do so. (20) When I become a Buddha, all the sentient beings in countlessBuddhalands, who, having heard my name and dedicatedtheir good roots to birth in the Land of Utmost Bliss, will be born there. Otherwisc, I shall not attain suprcmc enlightenment. (21) I shall not attain supreme enlightenment if any Bodhisattva in my land would fail to achievethe thirty-two auspicioussigns. (22) I shall not attain supreme enlightcnmcnt if any Ilodhisattvasin my land on their way to great bodhi would fail to reach the stage of being only one lifetime away from Buddhahood. This excludesthose Bodhisattvas with great vows who wear the armor of vigor for thc sake of sentrent beings;who strive to do beneficialdeedsand cultivategreat nirvatra;who perform the deeds of a Bodhisattva throughout all Buddha-lands and make offerings to all Buddhas, the Tathigatas; and who establish as many serltientbeings as the sands of the Gangesin supremc eniightenment. [This also cxcludes] those who seek liberation by follou'ing the path of San-rantabhadra, dcvoting themselvesto [Bodhisattvas']practiccs even more than those [who have attained the stage of being only onc littimc away trorn Buddhahoodl. (23) I shall not attair.r supreme enlightcnnrcntif the Bodhisattvasin rny land wor.rlclnot, by thc awcsonre power of the tsuddha, bc ablc to make offerings to countlesshundreds of thousandsof Imillions of] billions of myriads of Buddhas in other lluddha-landsevery morning and return to their own larrd before mealtime. (24) I shall not attain supreme enlightennrentif the Bodhisattvasin my land would not possess every varicty ofoffering they need to plant good roots in various Buddha-lancls. (25) I shall not attain suprenlc cnlightcnmcnt if thc Bodhisattvasin my land would not bc skilled in expounding thc esst:nce the l)harma in harof mony with all-knowing wisdorn. I shail not attain suprcnlc enlightenrnenti[ the Bodhisattvasin mv land wculd not have thc cnormous strength of a Nlrtyana. When I becon.re Buddha, no one will be able to describc conrplctelv a thc articlcs of adornnrcnt irr my land; cvcn onc with thc dcva-eve vu'ill not bc ablc to know all their varieties of shapc, color, and brilliancc. If anyone could know and describcthcm all, I shall not attair.r supreme enlightenment. I shall not attain supreme cnlightenment if in nry land there u'ould be Ilodhisattvas with inferior roots of virtuc who could not knou' thc numerous kir-rdsof trees, one hundred thousand leagucshigh, which will abound in my land. I shall not attain suprcme enlightenment if those sentient beings in my

(2Q (27)

(28)

(29)

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ON Punr Larl land who read and recite shtras and explain thcm to others would not a c q u i r cs u p e r be l o q u c n c e . ( 3 t t ; I shall not attain supreme errlightenmentif any tsodhisattvain my land would bc unable to achievelimitless eloqucncc. ( 3 1 )Vy'hcnI beconrea Buddha, my land will bc uncqualcdin brightncssand purity; it will clearly illuminate countless,numberlesstsuddha-landsinconceivablein nunrbcr-just as a clear nrirror revealsone's features.If this would not bc so, I shall not attairrsupremeenlightennrcnt. (32) Whcn I become a Buddha, there will bc innumcrablc kinds of inccnseon land and ir.r the air within the borders of mv land, and therc will bc hundreds of thousandsof [millions of] billions of myriads of precious from which wrll risc thc fragranccof the inccnsc,permeating all censers, of space.Thc inccnsc will be supcrior to thc rnost cherishedincensc of humans and gods, and will be used as an olflring to Tathigatas and Bodhisattvas. If this would not bc thc casc, I shall not attain suprcmc

(33)

enlightenment. '!?he'n I bcconrc a Bucldha, scntierlt beings in countlessrealms-inconin ceivablc anci ur.rcqualccl nurnbcr throughout the tcn dircctions who are touchcd by thc awcsomc light of thc Buddha r.vill fi'cl morc secure and .1<,ryfu1 body ancl rnind than othcr hunrans or gods. Otherwisc, I in shall not attain supreme er-rlightenmer-rt.

(14) I shall not attain suprerrrc enlighte-nmcnt if Bodhisattvas in countlcss
and unequaledin number-would not realBucldha-lands-inconceivable izc [thc truth of] nonarising and acquirc dhiranis aftcr they hcar my nainc. (35) Whcn I bccomc a tsuddha, all thc womcn in numbcrlcssBuddha-landsinconccivableand unequaledin number who, afier hearing my nane, acquirc purc faith, bring forth boc'lhicitta, ancl arc tircd of thc fcmalc bocly, will rid thcnrsclvcs of thc fc'nralcbody in thcir futurc livcs. If this would not be thc case,I shall not attain suprcmc cnlighterrment. (.16) I shall not attain suprenre cnlightennrcnt if Bodhisattvas in countless Buddha-lands-inconccivablc and urrcqualcdin nunrbcr-who attain the doctrinc of nonarisinga aftcr hcarin!! my namc would fail to cultivate supcrb, purc conduct until thcy attain grcat bodhi. (37) I shrll not attain suprcmc cnlightcnmcnt if, whcn I bccomc a tsuddha, humans and gods would not pay homage to all the tsodhisattvasof numbcrlcss tsuddha-lands who, aftcr hcaring my nanc, prostrate themsclvcsIin obeisance me] and cultivatethe deedsof a llodhisattva with a to pure mind. / ltt\ Whcn I become a lluddha, serltierlt beings in my land will obtain the clothing they nccd as soorl as they think of it, just as a man will be spontaneouslyclad in a monastic robe whe-n thc Buddha says, "Wel-

Tnr Lauo or Uruosr Brrss

3,+5

come, monkl" If this would not bc thc casc, I shall not attain supreme enlightenmcnt. (3e) shall not attain suprcnc cnlightcnmcnt if any sentientbeing in my land I of would not at birth obtain the neccssities life and become secure,pure, and blissful in nrind, like a monk who has ended all dcfilemcnts. (40) When I bccomc a Buddha, if serrtient beings in nrv land u'ish to sec other superbly adorned, pure Buddha-lands, thcsc lands rvill imn'rediatelyapjust as onc's face appearsin a pear to thenr among the precious trL-cs. clcar mirror. If this u'ould not be the case, I shall not attain supreme enlightcnment. ( 4 1 ) I shall rrot attain supreme enlighter-rment any scnticnt being in any if other Buddha-land, atter hearing my name and before attaining bodhi, would be [bornl with incomplctc organs or organs restrictcdin function. ( 4 ) \ When I become a Buddha, any Boclhisattvain any othcr Buddha-land, after hearing my name, will be able to know distinctly the names of supcrb samadhis. Whilc in remaining in samadhi, thcy will bc ablc to make offcrings to countlcss,numbcrlcssBuddhas-inconccivablc and unequalcdin nunrbcr-in a monlcnt, and will bc ablc to rcalizc grcat samadhis5 instantly. If this would not be the case,I shall not attain supreme

(43)I

cnlightenment. shall not attair.r suprcnrc cn'lightenmentif, whc-n I bccomc a Buddha, any ,Bodhisattvain any other Buddha-land who has heard my namc would not bc born in a noble: family aftcr dcath.

(41) I shall not attain suprenreenlightennrentif, when I become a Buddha,
any Boclhisattva in any othcr Buddha-land would rrot immcdiatcly cultivatc the Bodhisattva practices, become purificd and joyful, abidc in all cquality, and possess good roots after he hears my nanle. (1s)When I becorne a tsuddha, Bodhisattvas in other Buddha-lands will of achieve the'Sar-nadhi Equality.rttcr heering lrly nf,nrc and will, without rcgrcssion,abidc in this samadhi and makc constant offcrings to an innumerable, unequaled number of Buddhas until those Bodhisattvas attain bodhi. If this would not bc thc casc, I shall not attain supreme cnlightcnmcnt. (46) I sirall not attain suprcrnc cnlightcnmcnt if tsodhisatn'as irr nr)' land would not hcar at will thc Dharrna thcy wishcd to hcar. (17) I shall not attair-r supreme enlightenment if, when I beconie a tsucldha, any Bodhisattva in arry othcr tsuddha-landwor.rldrcgrcsstrom thc path to supremc enlightenmcnt alter hc hcars my namc. (48) I shall not attaill supremeenlightenmentit, when I beconrea Buddha, any Bodhisattva in any othcr Buddha-land would r-rotacquirc thc first, the as sccond, or thc third rcalizationb soon as hc hcard rly nanle, or would not instantly attain nonregression with regard to lluddha-l)harmas."'

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ON PunE LaNo

vows in the prcscnceof Then the Buddha told Ananda. "Having made these' by thc awesome power of thc f athagataFreestin the World, Monk Dharmikara, Buddha, spoke in verse:

"'I now make great oaths of In the presence the Tath-gata: If I have not fulfilled these lofty vou,s The day whcn I would realizesupremc bodhi, I shall not become an unequrled Honorcd One Possessing tcn powers. the always givc abundantly If I car-rnot To relievc the poor and sulfcring, And to bcncfit worldlings with peaceand joy, I shall not become A world-delivcrir.rg Dtrarma King. Ii whcn I would realizeenlightenment j On the bodhi-site, My narne is not known throughout thc ten directions boundlcssBuddha-lands, ln courrtlcss, I shall not beconre a World-Honorcd C)ne' with the ten powcrs. If I lack wisdorn, mindfulness, aud pure conduct When moving toward suprcmc bodhi And renouncing thc houschold life To be frec from desire, I shall not become the Tamer, The Teacher of Gods and Humans. I vow to acquire thc immeasurablelight O f a T a t h i g a t a .i l l u m i n a t i n g All Buddha-lands in the ten directions; I vow to eradicate All desire, hatrcd, and igr-rorance, And to eliminate the miscrable realms of the world. I vo'uv to open the clear wisdom-eye, [Gaining] the light to dispel darkness In all realms of existcncc. I vow to climinate All adversities completely, And to become the Great, Awesome One Among gods and humans.

Tgr LRNo on Uruosr Buss When I havc cultivated tl-reoriginal practicesT To the stageof purity, I shall acquire the limitless, superb, au'esomelight !?hich can outshine the brilliance Of suns, moons, gods, pearls, Or any othcr sourceof light. After the Supreme Man has cultivated those practiccs, Hc will be a hidden treasureto thc poor. Unequaled, perfect in wholesomc Dharmas, He will makc thc lion's roar Arnong the crowd. In thc past, for many kalpas, I rnade offerir-rgsto those with spontaneous wisdom, i A n d p c r s c v c r e dr r p r r c t i c i n g. t u s t e r i t i e s To scck the supreme store of wisdom, Fulfil my original vows, And become an Honored One among gods and humans. A Tathagata is unhindcrcd in knowlcdgc and views; He carrunderstandcvcrything in the world.n May I becomc an (Jnequalcd One, A Suprcmc Knowcr, a Truc Tcachcr! If I can trr.rly fulfill thesc grcat vows, And rcalizc grcat cnlightcnnrcnt, May the billion-world universe quake Arrd thc gods shower flowers from the sky!'

317

"Thereupon, thc grcat carth began to quake, celestial flowers and the sounds of drums and music filled thc sky, and a drizzle of fine powdered sandalwood 'You will become a Buddha in the futurel'. . ."" began to fall. A voice proclaimcd, "World-Honored One, when docs BodhiThen Ananda asked the Buddha, Has l-re done so in the past, will he do so sattva Dharmakara attain enlightenment? in the frrture, or does he do so r-row ir-ranother world?" The tsuddha said to Ananda, "ln thc west, ten trillion Buddha-lands away from here, there is a world callcd Utmost Bliss. Monk Dharrnakarahas become a Buddha there named Amit-yus.1{)Right now, surroundedrespectfulh'bv courrtless Bodhisattvasand Srivakas, he is preachingthe Dharma. "Ananda, the light of that Buddha is illuminating all Buddha-lands,incalin culableand inconceivable number. Now I will speakabout this brictly. His light illuminates Buddha-lands in the east as numerous as the sands of the Ganges, and cqually numerous Buddha-lands irr the south, the west, the north, irr each of the four intermediate directions, the zenith, and the nadir, except for places illumi-

ON Punr LaNo natcd by other tsuddhaswith their own lights, through the power o[ thcir original vows. The lights of Amitiyus Buddha may reachas far as scveralfeet, one lcaguc, and so on, up to hundrcds of thousands of [millions ofl billions of myriads of lcagucs; somc may cvcn shine over all Buddha-lands. Ananda, for this rcason, Amitayus Buddha has other nancs, such as Infinite Light, Boundless Light, Detached Light, Unhindered Light, King of lllumination, Magnificent Light, Loving Light, Joyful Light, PleasantLight, InconccivableLight, Unequaled Light, ImmeasurableLight, Light Outshining the Sun, Light Outshining the Moon, and Light Outshining Suns and Moons. His light, purc and immcnse, makes all senticnt bcings [in his land] feel joyful in body and mind. It also gives joy to gods, dragons, yaksas,asuras,and other beings in all othcr Buddha-lands. Ananda, if fiom this monlent I began to dcscribcthe light of that Buddha, I would not be able to finish describingit even in an entire kalpa. "Furtherrnore, Ananda, thc nurnbcr of Tathigata Amitayus's assembly of Srlvakas cannot be known by countir-rg. Supposethere were hundrcds of thousandsof Imillions of] billions of myriads of monks, ail of whorn cnjoycd rhe same mastcry of nriraculous powcrs rs Mahimaudgalyayana, and who could in the morning travcrsc a billion-world universc and return to their own abodes in an instant. Furthermore, supposc all thcsc rnonks gathcred togethcr and spent hundrcds of thousands of [millions ofj billions of myriads of years, excrcisir.rg their miraculous llowers to the utmost until thcy cntcrcd nirvana, in calculating the number of Sravakasin thc first asscmblyhcld by Amitayus Buddha. They would still be unable to know one hundredth, one thousandth,one hundred thousandth, and so on, down to one infinitesinralpart of its number. . . . Thc same is true of the number of Bodhisattva-Mahisattvasin his land, which cannot be known by countlng. "Ananda, thc lifc span of that Buddha is immeasurableand limitless; it is impossible for anyonc to know how rnany kalpashc will live. The samc is true of the Sravakas,Bodhisattvas,gods, and humans [in his landJ." Ananda askcd the Buddha, "World-Honored One, how long has it been since that Buddha, who can cnjoy such an immcasurable life, appeared in the world?" Thc tsuddha told Ananda, "lt has bcen ten kalpas since that Buddha was born. "Furthermore, Ar-randa, the Land of Utmost Bliss abounds in countless nterits and adornmcnts. It is a rich land. Gods and humans thrive there; they are congenial, peaceful, and always feel secure. There are no planes of hell-dwellers or aninrals, nor thc domain of Yama. The land is pcrvaded by the fragranceof all kinds of incense and spread with various wonderful flowers. Banncrs bcdcckcd s'rth thc scvcn trcasurcsstand in rows everywhere. Ovcr thc jewelled bannersare set canopies, from which precious bells of hundrcds of thousands of wondcrful colors are suspended. "Ananda, there are many prccious trccs in that Tathagata'sland: gold trees,

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silver trees, lapis lazuli trees, crystal trees, red pearl trees, agate trees, and jade trees. Some of them are made purely of one treasure, not mixed with other treasures. Some are adorneCwith two, threc, and so on, up to scvcn treasures. "Also, all over that Buddha-land, there are numberless trees adorned with pcarls or other treasures.The brilliance of these precious trees is incomparablein the world. Thcy are covered with nets made of the seven treasurcs,as soft as cotton. "Morcovcr, Ananda, in Amitiyus tsuddha'sland, therc is a bodhi-trce sixteen hundred million leagueshigh, with branches and leaves spreading out over an area eight hundrcd million lcagucs[in radiusl. Its roots abovc the-ground are five thousand lcagucs high. . . . The bodhi-trcc is adorncd all around u.ith gold chains from which hang jeweled tassels made of various gems,rrred. white, and green pearls, and so forth. The.leweled columns [of the bodhi-tree] are decoratedwith 'lion-cloud-gathcring' gcms. Thc chains arc covcred with a net, to chains madc of which are attachedbells made of pure gold, pearls,and various other gems. Orr the half-moon jewels, and so forth reflcct onc anothcr. Whcn a nct, crystal swastikas,l2 breezestirs, many kinds of soundsare given forth, which causethe sentientbeings in that billion-world universe to attain [various dcgrccs of] the Realization of Nor-rarising with regard to the profour-rd Dharn-ra, according to their respecrive inclinations. Ananda, aftcr hcaring the sounds, some sentient beings in that billionworld universe will not further regress from thc path to supreme enlightenment, and innumcrablc othcrs will achicvc thc Realization of the Nonarising of l)harmas. "Furthermore, Ananda, if a sentient being sccs thc bodhi-tree, hears its sounds, smclls its fragrance, tastes thc flavor of its fruit, touches its brilliance and shade, or thinks of its merits, he will have no ailments of his five sense-organs, will not be distracted in mind, and will not regress fron-r his progress toward suprcmc cnlightcnmcnt until hc cntcrs nirvar.ra. Moreover, because hc sccs the bodhi-tree, he will acquire three kinds of realization. What are the three? First, the realization derived from sound; second, the realization ofpliancy;13 third, the Realization of the Nonarising of Dharmas. All this is possible becauseAmit-yus Buddha has vested lin the bodhi-tree] the divine power of his original vows. ."

II
The tsuddha told Ananda, "ln the Land of (Jtmost Bliss, there are no seas,but there are rivers. The narrowest river is ten leagues wide and the shallorvest water twclvc lcagucs dccp. Somc rivcrs arc twcnty, thirty, and so on, cvcrl a hundrcd leaguesin depth or width. The deepestand the widest ones measure up to one thousand lcagues. The water is clear and cool and has the eight meritorious qualities. Thc decp currcnts flow rapidly, giving forth a wonderful sound, which is like the sound of hundreds of thousands of musical instruments played by gods; it is

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ON Punr LeNo

heard all ovcr the Land of Utmost Bliss. tseautiful flowers float downstream on the water. A gentle breezewafts fragranceof all kinds. On the two banks of the rivers, there arc many sandalwood trees with long branches and dense foliage interlaced into canopies over the rivers. They produce bcautiful, fragrant flowcrs and bear lovely, shiny fruit. People come there to roam about and enjoy themselvesas they likc. Some wade through thc water, washing their feet in thc streams and making merry. The celestialwater in thc streams is agreeablcto all and alters its depth and temperatureat any timc to suit thc peoplc in it. "Ananda, the bottom of the great rivers is covcred with gold sand. The rivers give forth a celestial fragrance sprcad by thc wind, with which nothing worldly can comparc. Thc sweet-smellingwater flows along, strewed with celestial flowers of the coral tree, bluc lotus flowers, red lotus flowers, white lotus flowers, and giant white lotus flowers. Furthermore. Ananda. whcn peoplein that Buddha-la'd go togcther on an excursiorlro thc riversidc, those who do not wish to hcar the sound ofthe rapids will not hear it at all, eve' ifthey have acquircd the deva-ear.Those who wish to hear it will immcdiately hear hundreds of thousands of pleasant sou'cls, such as thc soundsof the Buddha, thc Dharma and the Sarhgha; the sounds ofcessation; thc soundsofno essence, soundsofthe paramitas;the the sounds of the ten powers and thc four fearlcssnesses; sounds of miraculous the powers; the sounclsof nonaction; thc sounds of nonarising and nonccssation; the sounclsof quicsccnce,universall4quicscence, and utter quicscence; the sounds of grcat kindnessand grcat compassion; thc soundsof the Realization the Nonarisof ing of Dharmas; and the sounds of anointment and enthronement. Aftcr hearing thcsc various sounds,the listeners will bc ovcrwhelmcd by feehngsof greatjoy and dclight, and become responsivcto Ithe tcachingsonl corrtemplation,renunciation, dcstruction [ofdefilements], quiesccncc, universalquiescence, utter quiesccnce, the taste of the doctrirre, thc Buddha, thc Dharma, thc Sarirgha,the tcn powers, the four fearlessncsscs, miraculouspowers, cessation, the cnlightenment,Sravakahood, and nirvlna. "Furthermore, Ananda, in the Land of Utmost tsliss, thc names of the miserableplanesof cxistenceare not heard. There are no such ternls as hindrancc, or enshroudingdefilements; nor such terms as hell, Yama, or animal. There arc no such tcrms as the eight adversities, nor ternls for painful or neutral feelings. Thcrc is not even the concept of sufferi'g, let alonc real suffering. This is why that tsuddha-landis callcd (Jtmost Bliss. A'arrdr, .ow I can speakonly briefly of this blissful land. If I spoke of it in detail, I would not be able to finish even if I spent an entire kalpa. "Moreovcr, Ananda, all the sentient beings of the Land of Utmost llliss, rvhether they have been, arc being, or will be born there, have exquisite bodily forms a'd handsome features. They have frcc cornmand of miraculous powers and a full complement of merits. They enjoy all kinds of palaccs, gardens, groves, garments, food and drink, incense, flowers, and necklaces. Whatevcr they want appearsto thcm spontaneously, as it is with the gods of the paranirmita-Va5avartin Heaven.

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"Furthermore, Ananda, in that Buddha-land there is a kind of subtlc food which sentient beings eat without using their mouths; they feel they are eating rhe food as soon as they think about it, as it is with the gods in the Sixth Heaven. The food nourishes the body but produces no excrement. "Moreover, there are unlimited quantities of the most agreeableincense, perfumed ointmcnt, and powdered incensc, the fragrance of which permeates all that Buddha-land. Also found everywhere are bannersand scatteredflowers. Those who wish to smell the fragrance will smell it at will, while those who do not wish to will smell nothir)g. "lf senticnt beings want palaces,storied buildings, or pavilions-whether high or low, long or short, wide or narrow, squarcor round-or if they war-rt bcds or coucheswith wonderful covcrings, decoratcdwith various gen1s,thcsc things rvill appcarbcfore them spontaneously accordingto thcir respectivcwishes, so that everyorle will think hc is living in a palaceof his own. "Furthermore, Arran.la, thc scnticnt beings in the Land of Ljtmosr Bliss are rrot different from one anothcr in appearance; however, to conform to thc conventiorrs of other lands, they assullc the names of gods or huma's. . A.anda, vou should kr-row that the scntient beings in that land are all like the king of the Paranirmita-VaSavartin Heaven. "Ananda, every morning, a gcntle brcczc blows all over the blissful land, which causesl1o reverseor disturbing winds and carries the fragrancc of various flowers to every corner of that Buddha-tand.All sentientbei'gs, when touched by thr.:breeze,feel as pcacc-ful and comfortable as a monk who has achievedthe Dhy-na of complete cessatiorrof Fecling and conccption.l5 whe'the trccs madc of the scvcn treasures arc blown by the breezc,their blossomsfi;ll and form pilcs as tall as seven persons, and thc eutir!: Buddha-land is illumirratcd bv thcir multicolored lights. The flowers are evcnly nrixcd and sprcad out according to their diffcrent colors, as if someonc had spreadthem over the ground and levclcd them with his har-rds. Thcy are exquisitc flowers, large, ar-rdas soft as cotton. whcn the seprielr bei'gs trcad on the piles, their feet sink as nruch as four fingers deep, but whc' they lift their feet, the ground returns to its original condition. When the rnornrng is over, the flowcrs sponta'eouslv sink into the ground. As the old flowers disappear, the great earth bcconcs refreshingly clean, and thcn a rain of neu. flou.ers cntirely covcrs the grour-rd again. Thc same thing happens[six tinrcs a dar']: in rhe early, nriddlc, and last part of the day, and in thc early, middle, ar.rd last p.rrt oirhe rright.l6 "Ana'da, all thc rarest trcasuresare fou'cl in the Land of Utmosr Bliss. Ananda, in that Buddha-la'd, there arc lotus flowers made of the se 'cn rreasures, and each of thc lotus flowers has countlesshundreds of thousandsoiInrillions of] billions of pctals i' nurncrous hundreds of thousandsof rare colors. Each lotus is adorned with hu'dreds of thousands of wonderful wish-fulfilling pearls a'd covercd with preciousnets, all of tirem mutually reflccting. Ananda, a lotus flower there has a diameter of half a leaguc,or onc, two, three, four, even one hundred or one thousarrd leagues, and each emits three billion six hundred million myriads of

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lights.17hr cach light appcarthree billion six hundred million myriads of Buddhas. These Buddhas are golder.r complexion and supcrbly adorned with thc thirtyin two auspicioussigns and thc cighty nrinor ones. Thcy emit hundrcds of thousands of lights to illuninate every corner of the world. They go to the eastto preach the I)harma to thc pcople and cstablish countless scnticnt beings in the BuddhaDharma. For thc same purposc, they also go to thc south, thc wcst, thc north, the four intcrmcdiate directions, the zcnith, and thc nadir. "Furthermorc, Ananda, in the Land of Utmost Bliss. therc is no darkncssor gloom, rlor the light of fire. Thcrc is no namc for spring, pond, or lakc. There is no name for rcsidcnce,honrc, grove, or garden. Thcre is no kind of syrnbol of cxpressior-r denote children. Thcrc is no sun or moon, day or night. Thcrc rs no to clcsignation ornamc anywhere exccpt those rvhich are blcsscdby the Tathigata. "Ananda, all thc scr-rtient beings irr that lluddha-hnd rrc among those who will ever-rtually attain suprcmc cnlightcnnrcnt and rcach nirvana. why? Bccausc those who support hctcrodox vicws and those who are unde-cided cannot know how to establishthc causefor being born thcrc.18 "Anar-rda, thc cast, thc-rcarc as many tsuddha-landsas thc sands of thc in (ianges; the lluddhas in those la'cls all praise thc countlcss rncrits of Amit-yus 'r'he Btrdclha. samc is thc casewith the lluddhas in tl-rcsouth, the wcst, the north, the four internrediate dircctions, thc zcnith, and thc nadir. why? Except thosc who cornnrit thc fivc gravc offi'nccsand those who slandcrthc true l)harma and defame saints, any sentiellt being irr any orhcr uuddha-land can do the following:le after hcaring thc nanc of Tathagata Amitiyus, if thcy havc cvcn one thought of pure faith, joy, and aspirationand dedicateall their good roors to birth in that Buddhaland, thcy will be bom there as they wish, and will achievenonregression from the path to sllprernecnlightcnment.r0 "Ananda, if a sentient being in anothcr tsuddha-landengendcrsbodhicitta, single-mindedly thinks of Amitiyus Buddha, constantlyplants roots of virtue and dedicatcsthem to birth in that Buddha-larrd,the', whc'he is about to die, Amitayus Buddha, surrounded by a host of monks, will appearbcfore him. The dying pcrson will immediatcly follow the Tathigata ro bc born in that land, attain nonregression, and be destinedto realizcsupremcenlightcnment.Thereforc, Ananda, if good men and good wonrcn wish to be bor' i' the Land of Utmost Briss and see Anrit-yus Buddha, they should engcndcr suprcrlc bodhicitta, concentratc thcir thoughts on the La'd of (Jtmost Bliss, accumulategood roots, and dedicate thern as taught. Thereby, they will sce rhat Buddha, be born in his land, and attain nonregression frorn thc path to suprcme enlightenntent. "Ananda, supposc a sentient being in another Buddha-land errgenders boJhrcitta and dedicates his merits ro birth in Amitayus Buddha's land. but does not ..)ncentratc his mind orr Amit-yus Buddha or constantly plant numcrous good :rr.ri. when he is about to dic, Amitiyus Buddha will scnd a rnagically produced llrlJh.r to him, surroundcd by a host of monks. The magically produced tsuddha, * ho rs exactlv the same as the real Buddha in brilliance and auspicioussigns, will

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appcar before the dying pcrson to rcccive and guidc him, and that person will immcdiately follow thc Buddha to bc born in that land and attain nonregresslon f r o m t h c p a t h t o s u p r c m cc n l i g h t c n n r c n t . "Ananda, if a senticnt bcing who abidcsin the Mahayina feelspure-mindcd thoughts, wishing to be devotion for TathagataAmitlyus for only ten consecutive born in his land; or if he believes and understandsthis profound teaching as soon as hc hears it expounded, with no doubt in his mind, and thcreby thinks of Anritayus Buddha for even one pure thought, then, when hc is about to dic, \ he will sce Amitiyus Buddha as if in a dream. Thc dying pcrson will without fail be born in that Buddha-land to achicvc nonregression from the path to suprcmc cniightcnmcnt. "Ananda, it is becauscof thcsc bcncfits that all thc Buddhas, Tathigatas, in countlcss worlcls-incollceivablc, unequaled, and limitless in number-extol the rncrits of Arnitayus tsuddha. . . . "Morcovcr, Ananda, all the Srivakas in that Buddha-landhavc halocssc'vcral rcach as far as hundreds ofthousands offeet feet in radius; thc Bodhisattvas'halocs in radius. There are two Bodhisattvaswhose lights constantlyilluminatc thc wholc billion-world univcrsc." Ananda askcd thc Buddha, "World-Honored Onc, who arc thc two tsodhisattva ?" s -I'hc Ruddha tolcl Ananda, "Now, listcn carcfully. C)ne of the two BodhiA s a t t v a si r c r l l c d A v : r l o k i t c ( v a r at;h c o t h c r . M a h a s t h a r n a p r i p t a . n a n d a , t h e s et w o -Bodhisattvaswere born in that Buddha-land after their lifctinics camc to an cnd in the SahaWorlcl. "Ananda, all thc Bodhisattvasborn in thc Land of Utmost Bliss have the and enthirty-two auspicioussigns. They are supple physically, keen in senses, dowcd with wisdom and ir.rgenuity. They know all diversified phenomcna, and havc a lrcc command of dhy-na and miraculous powers. None of them has little virtue or an inadequatecapacity. An incalculablenumbcr of those Bodhisattvas some have attained thc Rcalization have achieved the first or the second rcalization;21 of thc Nonarising of Dharmas. "Ananda, the Bodhisattvasin that Buddha-land will not fall to the miserable planes of eristence on thcir way to attainment of supreme cnlightcnmcnt. They' will rcrncmber all their prcvious lives wherever they are born, except wherr ther' appcar in the worlcl of fivc dcpravities. "Ananda, every morning, thc Bodhisattvas in that Buddha-lar-rdn-rakeofferDue to ings to countlcsshundreds of thousandsof Buddhas in other tsuddha-lands. the divinc power of Arnit-yus Buddha, garlands,perfumed ointnent, pou'dered incense, banners, canopies,and rnusical instruments of all kinds appcar in their hands as they wish, to bc offcrcd to thc tsuddhas. Such offerir-rgsare immense, countless,and inconceivablc. Whcn thc Bodhisattvas wish it, various rare blossoms resplendentwith incalculablchundrcds of thousandsof lights and colors will appear in their hands to bc scattcrcd on thc Buddhas as an offering. Ananda, the

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flowers they scatter will immediately change into flower canopies in the sky, the smallest of which measures ten leagues [in diametcr]. The flowers first scattered will not fall from the air unless new flowers are scattered. Ananda, some of these canopies measure twenty leagues, thirty, forty, and so on, up to one thousand leagues [in diameter]. Some are largc enough to cover the four continents; some are large enough to cover a thousand-world, a million-world, or even a billionworld universe. Thus, the Bodhisattvas engender minds full of wonder and hearts full ofgreatjoy. "Every morning, these Bodhisattvas attend on, make offbrings to, show respect for, and praise incalculable hundreds of thousands Iof millionsl of billions of myriads of Buddhas. Aftcr they have thus planted good roots, they return to their land in the sarne morning. All this is madc possiblc becauseAmitayus tsuddha vcsts in thcm thc powcr of his original vows, which he thoroughly cultivated, maintained, and fulfilled, and becauseof his good roots in making uninterrupted perfect offerings to Tathigatas in the past. ar-rd "Furthcrmorc, Ananda, whatcver thc Bodhisattvasin the Land of (Jtmost Bliss say is in consonance with all-knowing wisdom. They do not take possession of anything thcy cnjoy. Thcy travel to all Buddha-lands without attachment or aversion, expectation or nonexpectation; they have no thought of a self, defilenent, the'I,'clisputation, discord, hatrcd, or angcr. Why? Bccauscthcsc Bodhisattvas have the great mind of kindncss, compassion, and beneficencetoward all sentielrtbeings. They have the mind which is supple, unobstructed, frce of filth and resentment,impartial, rcgulated,quiet, patient, subduedby patience,equable, clear, without distraction, free of coverings, pure, extremely pure, illuminating, virtuous, vast, incomparable,profound, fond of the Dharunsoiled,awe-inspirir-rg, ma, exultant over the Dharma, well-intentioned, free from all attachments, and [able to] rid sentient beings of all defilements and to eliminate the miserable planes of existence. "They have cultivated the practices of wisdom, and achieved inrmeasurable mcrits. They are ablc not only to discourse on meditation and the other factors of enlightenment, but also to have a free command of them. They diligently cultivate supreme enlightenment and explain it to others. They can discern things well with their physical eyes, see various Buddha-lands with their deva-eyes,free themselves from attachn-rentwith their clear l)harma-eyes, reach the other shore with their penetrating wisdom-eyes, and realizethc Dharma-naturc with thcir tsuddha-eyes.22 They engender unimpeded wisdom with which they can teach the l)harma extensively to others. ." The World-Honored One then told Ananda, "Such is Amitayus Buddha's Land of [Jtmost Bliss. You should rise frorn your scat,join your palms respecttllly, and prostratc yoursclf full-lcngth on thc ground to pay homage to that Buddha. That Buddha's namc is known throughout thc ten dircctions; in each dirr'ctior-r,therc are Buddhas as numerous as the sands of the Ganges who praise him incessantly and without reservation."

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Thereupon, Ananda rosc from his scat, barcd his right shouldcr,joined his palms toward thc west, prostratedhimself full-length on the ground, and said to thc Buddha, "World-Honorcd Onc, now I wish to scc Amitiyus tsuddha in the Land of (Jtmost Bliss and to makc offcrings to and scrvc countlesshundreds of thousands of [miilions ofl billions of myriads of tsuddhas and Bodhisattvas, in ordcr to plant good roots." Right then, Amitayus Buddha emitted from his palm a great light which illuminated hundreds of thousands of millions of myriads of Buddha-lands. In those lands, all the mountains, small and large, such as Black Mountain, Treasurc Mountain, Mount Sumeru, Mount Meru, Mount Mahameru, Mount Mucilinda, Mount Mahamucilinda, Mount lron Circlc, and Mount Great lron Circle; . . . and all thc gods, humans, and so forth were revcaledby thc light of that Buddha. Just as a person with the pure deva-eyecan see evcrything clearly within a distarrce of scveral feet, arrd just as a person can see everythirlg clearly when the sun comes olrt, so thc monks, nuns, laynrcrr, and laywonrcn in othcr Buddha-iandsall saw TathagataAnritryus. Hc, likc Mount Surneru, thc king of mountains, illuminated his tsudtlha-landand revealedit as clearly as if it l.radbccn only a fcw fcct away. Bicausc thc wonderful ligl-rtof TathagataAnritiylrs was cxtrcnrcly purc and clear, they saw his high thronc, and his assen.rblies Sravakas.Bodhisattvas,and so of fbrth. lt is just likc wircn a floocl subrnerges trees, mountains, and rivcrs, thcrc all is nothing to be sccn on thc grcat earth except the great flood. Likewise, in that Buddha-land, where there wcre no heterodox belicvcrsor beings othcr than grcat Srivakas, with haloes scveral feet in radius; and Bodhisattva-Mahisattvas,with haloes hundreclsof thousandsof leaguesin radius, the light of TathagataAmitiyus, the Worthy Onc, the Perfectly Enlightened Onc, outshone thc lights of all and enablcdall thc scnticnt bcings to scc hrm. thc Srivakas and -Bodhisattvas At thc same time, the Bodhisattvas,Sravakas, humans, and gods in thc Land of Utmost tsliss all saw' Tathigata Sikyemunr of thc Saha World prcaching the Dharma, surrounded by an assemblyof monks. Then thc Buddha askedBodhisattvaMaitreya, "Did you seethe magnificent Buddha-land, which is pcrfcctly purc and full of awesome mcrits? . . . Did -vou scc myriads of flowers scatteredas adornments in the sky over the earth and in the heavensup to the Akanistha Heaven?I)id you see the birds in the skv, q.hich are not real creaturesbut magical creations,uttering various sounds which. likc the voice of the Buddha, are heard all over that world?" Maitreya answeredthe Buddha, "Yes, I did." The Buddha further asked Bodhisattva Maitreya, "Did vou scc the-scntient beings who, after entering palaces hundred to a thousandleagues a across,traveled in space,unattachedand unhindered,to all Buddha-landsto make offerings to the Buddhas? Did you see those sentient beings who think of the tsuddha continuously day and night?" Maitreya answered, "Yes, I did." The Buddha asked further, "Did you see any difference between the things

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used by pcople in the Land of Utmost Bliss and rhose uscd by gods in the Paranirmita-Va6avartin Heaven?" Maitreya answered,"l did not seeany diffcrencebetwccn them." Thc Buddha askedMaitreya, "Did you seeany bcing in the Land of Utmost B l i s s c o n c e i v c di n a w o n r b ? " ) l Maitrcya answered, "!ilorld-Honored One, gods in the Heaven of the ThirtyThrcc and the Yama Heaven and so forth play and make mcrry in palaces onc hundrcd to five hundred lcagues wide. I saw rhar when people in the Land of (Jtmost Bliss are conceived in a womb, thcy feel just likc those gods living in palaces. I also saw senticnt beings who wcre seated cross-legged in lotus flowers and thcn born ethereallyall ofa sudden." Thc tsodhisattva Maitrcya askcdthe Buddha, "World-Honored Onc, why are some beings in that tsuddha-landborn lrom the womb and others born ethereally?"2+ Thc Buddha told Maitreya, "lf a sentient beirrg is full of doubt and rcgret when he accumulatesgood roots and seeksBuddha-wisdom, univcrsal wisdom, inconceivabie wisdorn, uncqualed wisdom, great wisdom, and the wisdom of awesonle merits, thcn, bccausehe has no faith in his own good roots, he has to stay in the palacc[-like womb] for five hundred years wirhour seeinga Buddha, a Bodl-risattva, a Srlvaka, or hearing thc I)harma expounded.If a sentientbcing is or complctely free of doubt and regret when hc accur-nulates good roots and seeks Buddha-wisdonr, then, becausehc bclicvcs in his own good roots, he will be seatedcross-leggedir-ra lotus flower and bc born cthereally all of a sudden, emerging from it in ar-rirrstant. Just as pcoplc have come herc from other countries, so sucl-r Bodhisattva, due'to his vow, has bccn born in the Land of ljtmost Bliss to a see, serve, and n.rakeofferings to Amitayus Buddha and the assembly of tsodhisattvasand Srivakas. "Ajita, you see, those superior, intelligcnt beings, duc to thcir immense wisdom, are bom ethereally from the louts flowers in which they sit cross-legged. As for thc inferior ones, they [arc born from the womb, and,] for five hundred years, seeno Buddhas, Sravakas, Bodhisattvas,hear no Dharma, and know no or rules for a Bodhisattva's conduct. Because they cannot cultivate mcrits [in the womLl, they find no chanceto serveAmitiyus Buddha. All this is a resuk of their doubt and rcgrct in the past. "As an illustration, consider a ksatriya king's son who breaks thc law and consequentlyis imprisorrcd in an inner palace. Hc livcs among gardens, storied buildings, and halls that are exquisitcly furnished with rare treasures, precious curtains, and gold couches with thick, soft mattrcsses. The floor is covered with rarc flowcrs, the most precious inccnsc is burned, and all necessary articles are abundantly provided. Howcver, his feet are fettered with a chain of Jambu-river e o l d ." Thc Buddha askedMaitreya, "What do you think? Does thar prince enjoy all this?"

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Maitreya answered, "No, !7orld-Honored One. Whcn he is imprisoned, he will try to be set free, asking relatives, friends, respcctablcpeople, ministers, elders, and courtiers for help. However, although the prince is anxious to be released,his wish will not be fulfilled until the king willingiy agreesto it." Thc Buddha said to Maitreya, "So it is, so it is. Similarly, if one is full of doubt and regret when he plants good roots and seeksthe Buddha-wisdom, the grcat wisdom, then, though hc will be born in that land due to his cngendering of faith in thc tsuddha at hcaring his name, he will remain in thc [womb of a] lotus flower after birth and be unable to come out, all becausehe has no faith in his own good roots. "Such a sentientbeing, living in thc flowcr womb, will think of it as a palace with gardens. Why? Becausethe lotus womb is clcan and frec of filth, and nothing in it is unplcasant.Nevcrthcless,the sentientbeing will for five hundred years see rro Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, or Srivakas, and hear no Dharma; he cannot ntake offerings to or serve the Buddhas; he cannot inquire about thc Bodhisattva canon; he is far apart from all superb roots of virtue. He does not enjoy living ir.r the flowcr womb, for he cannot come out of it to practice wholesome dharmas until all his faults committcd in thc past arc exhausted. When he comes out, he will iose all scnsc of dircction, not knowing thc zcnith, the nadir, or the four cardinal directions. Not until all his doubts disappearduring thosc fivc hundrcd years will hc bc ablc to rnakc of-fcrings to countlcss hundreds of thousands of millions of myriads of Buddhas arrd plant incalculable,limitless roots of virtue. Ajita, you should know that doubt does great harm to Bodhisattvas." Then Bodhisattva Maitreya asked the tsuddha, "World-Honored One, how many nonregressing -Bodhisattvasin this Buddha-land will be born in the Land of (Jtmost tsliss?" The Buddha told Maitreya, "ln this Buddha-land, sevenbillion two hundred million Bodhisattvas, who have plantcd good roots in incalculable hundreds of thousands of [millions of] billions of myriads of Buddha-lands and have bccomc nonregressing, will be born in that tsuddha-land. The Bodhisattvas who will be born in that Buddha-land becauseof fewer roots of virtue are countless. "Ajita, if I enumerate the names of the Bodhisattvas in other lands who have been, are b"ing, and will be born in the Land of Ultimate Bliss to make offerings to, pay homage to, and worship Amitiyus Buddha, I will not be able to finish an doir-rgso even if I sper-rd entire kalpa. "Ajita, you see how highly those Bodhisattva-Mahesattvas bcnefit. If one can generate a single thought ofjoy after hearirrg that tsuddha's name, he will obtain the merits mentioned above, he will feel neithcr inferior nor superior, and all the good roots he has achieved will bc enhanccd. Thcrcforc, Ajita, I tell you and gods, humans, and asuras:I now entrust you with this Dharma-door. You should take pleasurein practicing it. You should accept, retain, read, and recite it, even day and night. You should aspirc for this sutra, explain it to others, and have people write it and preserve it. You should regard this sutra as a teacher.

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"Ajita, if Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas wish to causcnumerous sentlent beings to be rapidly and securely establishedin nonrcgrcssion from Ipursuit of] supreme enlightcnment, and wish to see the magnificcnt adonrments of that superb Buddha-land and to embrace its perfect merits, then they should strive vigorously to learn this Dharma-door. Thcy should not back away or become pretentious in seeking the Dharma, even if they have to go through r raging fire that fills a whole billion-world univcrse. They should read, recite, accept, retain, and copy this sutra, and make usc of every moment to explain it to others and persuadethem to listen to it without worry or annoyance. Even if they are thrown into a firc for doing so, they should cntcrtain no doubt or rellret. Why? Countless billions of teaching. Thereforc, all of Bodhisattvasseek, estcem, learn, and obey this sr,rbtlc you should seek this teaching, too. Ajita, thosc scnticnt bcings will obtain grcat, high bcncfits. In thc future, even at the tine of the true l)harma's decline, some sentientbeings will plant good roots. These are thc scnticntbcings who havc made by offerings to innumerable Buddhasand who, being blesscd those Tathigatas, are able to acquire this great l)harn.ra-door,which is praised and approved by all Tathagatas.If onc acccptsand upholds this l)harma-door, he will acquirethe vast all-kriowing wisdom and plant good roots as he pleases.Good merr and good women who have a superior understanding of this tcaching will bc ablc to obtain great joy fror.r.r hearing it; they will accept, uphold, read, and recite it, explain it to othcrs, and always delight in practicing it. "Ajita, irrnurncrablc billions of Bodhisattvashavc sought this teachinguntirirrgly. You good men and good wonlen will benefit greatly if you are able to seek this teaching in your present or future lives. Ajita, the Tathigata has already done what he should do. You should be firnr and free of doubt in planting good roots; you should constantly study and practicc anything that can rcnovc your doubt, womb] made of various treasures. lest you be imprisoned Iin a palace-like "Ajita, there are one hundred million Bodhisattvas of great, awesomc virtue who can propound numcrous other doctrines of the Buddha-Dharma, but have regressedin [the pursuit ofl suprcmc enlightenment becausethey have not heard this tcaching. "Ajita, it is difficult to 6nd a Buddha appearing in the world. It is also diffic'ilt to have a body free from the eight adversities. Evcn an eloqueht Dharmateacher finds it difficult to cxplain thc Buddhas' uncxccllcd Dharmas, such as the unimpededness, very profound Dharmas of the ten powers, the four Garlessnesses, and detachmcnt, and the Bodhisattva doctrines such as the piramitis, and so on. Ajita, it is not easy to meet a person who is adept ir-rpreaching the Dharma. It is also rare to encounter one of firm and deep faith. Now I have .aught this discoursc rn accordancc with thc truth, and you should all practice it as I have taught. "Ajita, I entrust to you this teaching and the l)harma of all Buddhas. You [all] shoulcl practicc it and not lct it perish. This great, subtle Dharma-door is praisedby all tsuddhas.Do not abandonit in dcfianccof thc Buddha's instructions; orhcrrvise, you will encounter hindrances-you will be engulfed in the long night

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to go through all dangersand sufferirrgs. Thcrcforc, I now solemnly bid you to do everything to causethis doctrine to last long. You should practicc this teaching diligently as I have taught.". . When the tsuddha had spoken this shtra, Bodhisattva Maitreya, Vcnerable Ananda, and everyone in the assembly were jubilant over what the tsuddha had taueht.

NOTES
" 1 . A n r o r e l i t e r a l t r a r r s l a t i o n f t h c s ef o r t y - c i g h t v o w s f o l l o w s t h i s f o r r . n u l a : l X i / h e n ]I o b e c o m c a l l u < l d h . r , f , i n r n y l a n d , t h r - r ca r c s t i l l t h e p l a n e so f h c l l - d w c l l c . r sh u n g r r , e h o s t s , o r i , a n i r n a l s ,I u ' i l l r r o t u l t i n t a t e l y t a k e u p s u p r c n r cc n l i g l r t c n m c n t . " 2 . " T h e p o w c r t o a p p e a ra n y r v h c r ca t w i l l " r r r a ya l s o b e c a l l c d " t h c p o r v e r o f p c r f o r m ing trriraclcs."It can iliclude sr.rch iraculous powers as remairrir.rg nder rvater *ithout m u d r o w ' t r i n g , t o u c l l l n g f l r e w i t h o u t b c i n g b u r n e d , o r t r a n s f b r m i n g o n c ' s e l fi n t o a n y k i n d o f crcaturc or object. Howevcr, in somc contexts, "the porver to appear anyu,hcre at x'ill" s e e m st o b e a n r o r e a p p r o p r i a t et r a i l s l a t i o r r a s i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h . , 3 . M o n k l ) h a r r n : k l r e ' s l a n d w h c n h e b e c o m c sA n r i t a y u s B u d d h a . 4 . C ) r , " t h c t l o c t r i n e c o n c c r n i t r gl r c c d o m f r o n i s a r i r s a r a . " n ' l a i s h o 3 ( r 0 , p . 2 6 8 , t h i s l r . v h oh e a r m y n a t n e w o u l d f a i l t o c u l t i v a t c p u r e c o n d u c t a f t c r d c a t h : r n d b e f o r c reads,". a c h i c v i n g B u d d h a h o o c l . " A t h i r c ' lv c r s i o n , T r i s h o 3 6 3 , p . 3 2 0 , d o e s n o t n l e n t i o n " t h c d o c t r i n e c o r t c e r n i n gf i e e d o n r l r o n t s a r i t s a r r "a n d " r f t c r d c a t h . " l t m a v m a k e m o r e s e n s ea n d b e l c s s nrisleading to ignorc these two phrasesaltogethcr. . - " ' 5 .T h e C l i i n c s ct c x t r c a d s" s i x s a m a d h i s . " e r h a p s ' s i x ' ( ^ * ) i s a n r i s p r i n tf t r r ' g r c a t ' P

(*)
6 . I h c r c a l i z a t i o nd c r i v e d f r o m s o u n d , t h e r e a l i z a t i o no f p h a n c y , a n d t h e R c a l i z a t i o n of the Nonarising of Dharrnas. 7 . O r i g i n a l p r a c t i c c s :t h e p r a c t i c e s h a t a B u d d h a c u l t i v a t c d r v h e n h c w a s s t i l l t o l l o u t i n g t h c B o d h i s a t t v a - p a t h .T h e f u n d a m c n t a lp r a c t i c e sf o r a c h i c v i n g t s u d d h a h o o d . t i . L i t c r a l l y , " H e c a n u n d e r s t a n da l l c o n d i t i o n e d ( s a i n s k n a )h a r m a s " d . 9 . T h i s p a r a g r a p hf b r r n s t h e l a s t p a r t o l - t h e a b o v e v e r s e i n t h e C h i n c s c t c x t . 1 0 . A m i t a y u s m e a n s ' l n f l n i t e L i f e " . A s r e l a t e db e ' l o r v ,h r s l i l e s p a n i s i n r r l c r s u r . r b l c - . His othcr name, more [requendy used,is Amitibha, or'lnfinrtc Light'. 1 1 . T h e C h i n e s et e x t r e a d s f r * i l f r unknown to us. 12. An ancicntAryan ausprcious vrnbol, uscd by Hindus and tsuddhrsts. s ,l3. W i t h t h i s r c a l i z a t i o n , t h e r e i s c n g c n d e r e da p l i a n r , t ' l c x i b l e n r r n d o f u ' i s d o n r o c o m p l y w i t h t h e D h a r m ; r a n d t o a c c o m m o d a t es e n t i e n tb e i n g s . 1 4 . T h c C h i n c s e r e a d s* , m e a n i n g ' b o r d e r ' o r ' s i d e ' . P e r h a p si t i s a n r r s p r i n t o f f f i , meaning'universal'. 1 5 . D h y a r r a t h a t l c a d so n c r o n i r v a n a . 16. Actually there are no such distinctionsas day ancl night in that land; it is to and *#fr . T h c i d e n t i t i c so i t l t c s c t \ \ ' o g c n r s a r e

360

ON Punr LaNr

confort.n to thc convcntion of other lands that thc day there is dividecl into six parts. Scc two p a r a g r a p h sb e l o r v . 17. Literally, "thrcc billion six hundrcd rnillion niyriads ofhundrcds ofthousands of l i g h t s ." T h e l l ex t s e r ) t e n c cc a d s s i m i l a r l , v . r 1 8 . T h c s c t h r c e k i n d s o f p e o p l e a r c r h c r l r r e eg r o u p s . S c c N u n i e r i c a l C i l o s s a r y . 1 9 . T h i s p a r a * r a p h c l c s c r i b c sh e g e n c r a lk a r m i c r c r v l r d l o r l a i t h i n A n r i t a v u s B r . r d d h a . t T h c n e x t p a r a g r a p h c l c s c r i b c s h e h i g h e s t r c w a r d , f o l l o w e d b y p a r a g r a p h sd e s c r i b i n s t h c t nriddlc and lowcst rcwards, rcspectivelv. 2 0 . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C h i n e s eP u r c L a n d S c h o o l , t h e R u d d h a ' s t e a c h i n g sf a l l i n t o t w o c a t e g o r i e s :t h o s c w h i c h t c a c h p e o p l e t o r c a c h s a l v a t i o n a n d l i b c r a r i o n b v f a i t h . i . c . , b y t h c tsuddha's power (the Pure Land school bclongs to this catcsory); and thosc which tcach s a l v a t i o r . r n d l i b e r a t i o n b y o n c ' s o w r ) s t r r a r g t h . T h i s p a s s a g ci s a n c x a m p l c o f t h e f l r s t a c e t c g o r v .( W . H . ) 2 | . S r ' er r o t e( r a b o r . . 2 2 . T h c o r i g i n a l i s v e r v o b s c u r c h c r c . F r e e l , v r a n s l a t c d ,i t c o u l d b c a s f o l l o u s : " H a v t i n g a c l r i c v e dB r , r c l c l h a - c y c s ,c y c a n e n l i g h t c r .Iro t h e r sb , v l r e v c a l i n gl t o t l i c r n t h c t r u t h ] . " T h e th t r a n s l r t i o n g i v c n i n t h c t c x t i s b a s c do n a l t o t h e rv c r s i o n ( T a i s l . r o 6 ( ) ,p . 2 7 . 1 ) .M o r c u v e r , i r i s 3 a c l o u b t f u l p o i n t w h c t h c r o r n o t a B o d h i s a t t v ac a n b e e n d o $ ' e d u ' i t h t h c l l u d d h a - e v e , w h i c h i s g c n c r : r l l yu n d c r s t o o d a s a u n i q u e q u a l i t y o f t h e B u d d h a s . 2 3 . A l o t r r sf l o r v e r w o r l b . S c c b c l o r v . 24. In tsuddhist traditior, thcre are fbur nrodesof birth: (1) birth {ionr r rvomb, as with mamt'nalia; (2) birth fionr an egg, as rvith birds; (3) birth fiom nroisturc or \\rarer, as w t t l t w o r n r s a r r c l l s h c s ;a n d ( 4 ) b i r t h b y t r a n s l o r n r r t i o n ( r l t e r n a t ct r : r n s l a t i o n e t h e r e a lb i r t h ) , : a s w i t h h c l l - d r v e l l e r s ,d c v e s , t h c l l r s t b c i n g s i n n e r v l y c v o l v c d w o r l d s , a n d s u p c r i o r b e i n g s who rrc born in a purc Buddha-landsuch as the Land of Utnrost Bliss.

VII
On GeneralMahayanaDoctrine

19 waxle
Srimala The True Lion'sRoarof Queen

Thus havc I hcard. Once thc Buclclhawas dwclling in the garden of Arrathapinin clacla, thg:Jc'ta Grove, near Srivastr. At that time, King Prascnajitand Queen Mallika of Kosala hacljust had an ilritial realizationof thc Dharnra. They said to cach other, "Our daughter, Srim;rll, is kind, intclligcnt, lcarncd, alrd wisc-.If shc the profound l)harnra coulcl scc thc Tatl-rigata, she would be quick to ur-rderstand travc no doubt about it whatsoever.We should trow send aii-e-loqucr-rt anci woulcl to nressenger hcr to rrousc hcr sincercfrith."l thc king and queetrwrote Queen Srimala a clecision, lmmcdiatcly upon tl-ris n-rerits the Tathagata,and scnt a mcsscngcr,Chandra, to of lettcr cxtolling the true delivcr it to her at Ayodhyl. Queen Srimala receivcdthc lctter with reverenccatrd joy. Aftcr she opened ar-rd was and spoke read it, shc felt how unusualits rnessage in to thc rncssetrger verse: "lt is said that the Tathagata'svoicc Is difficult to encolrntcr in this world. If this saying is truc,2 I shall reward you with apparel. If the Buddha, the World-Honored ()ne, Has man'ifestedhin-rselfto bencflt this world, His compassionwill certainly extend to mc, That I may seehis true appearance." As soon as she had so spokcrr, the Buddha appearedin the air in an inconceivable form, emitting a brilliant light. Queen Srimali and her retinue gathered

S u t r a 4 8 , T a i s h o 3 ' 1 0 ,p p . 6 7 2 * 6 7 8 ; t r a n s l a t e di n t o C h i n e s c b y B o d h i r u c i .

361

ON Grrurnal ManAvANa DocrnrNr

togethcr. With palms joined, they bowcd respectfully to him, and thc queen, looking up in adoration, praisedthc great tcacher: "The wondrous form of thc Tathagata Is unequaledin this world; It is incomparableand inconccivablc; Therefore I pay homage to him. The form of thc Tathagataknows no bounds, And boundlcss,too, is his wisdom. All aspects[of his nature] abide eternally;3 Thcrcforc I take refuge in him. He has skillfully subducd all ncntal faults, As wcll as thc tour viccs of the body;a He has reachcdthc inconccivablestage; Thcrcforc I pay homage to him. Hc knows cverything that can be known, For l-riswisdonr-body mccts no obstaclcs; Hc tbrgcts nothing; Therefore I pay hor-nageto hirn. I bow dowr-rto the One who is infinite; I bow down to thc Onc who is peerless; I bow down to the One Wl-ro l-ras frec comrnand of all dharmas; I bow dowrr to the One Who is beyond thought. May his cornpassion shclter me And causethe seedsof the Dharma To grow [within me], So that I may always be with the Tathagata Until my last existcnce[in sarhsaral. I have practicedall mcritorious dccds In this life and in all othcr livcs. May thc Budclhaalways takc mc, With all my roots of virtuc, Into his following." Whcn Queen Srimili had spokcn thcsc vcrses, she and her entire retinuc thernselvcsat the Buddha's fcct. Thcn thc World-Honored One spoke Frrostrated
to 5rlnrala
i.-

, I

, I

ln verse:

THE Tnur LroN's Roan or QurtN SninaAlA "ln your former lives I taught you Arrd revealed to you the path of enlightenmcnt. Now once again you meet me here; We shall also meet in future lives."

365

Aftcr speakingthis verse,the Buddha prophcsicdto thc asscmbiythat Queen Srimila would attain suprcmc cnlightcnmcnt, saying, "You norv praisethe superb of rnerits of the Tathigata. Because this good root, you will be a sovereignamong kalpas.Al1 your needsi,vill bc fulfilled. Wherever gods and humans for incalculable you arc born, you will bc ablc to nleet nle and praise me facc to face, just as you do now. You will also make offerings to innumerable, countlessother lJuddhas, World-Honorcd Ones. After, twentyr thousand incalculablekalpas, you, too, will bccomc a Buddha, named Univc-rsalLight Tath-gata, the Worthy One, thc Pcrtcctly Enlightened One. "In your .BucldhaJancl,there will be no miserabic plancs of cxiste-nce', no suffering of aging or sickness,and no evil deeds, not even their names. The scrltient beirrgs there will appear ir-rmagr-rificentforms, arrd will solely experience thc five exquisite Isensuous]pleasures,enjoyirrg them even more than do the gods Heaven anclother heavens.Al1 thesescnticnt beings in thc Paranirmita-Va6avartin will follow the Mahayana teachings. Others who have corrcctly learned the Mal.rayana [elsewherelnray be born ir.rthat land." Aftcr Queen Srimala hacl receivedthe prophecy, innumerable gods and humans were jubilant, and they all wishcd to bc born in that tsuddha-land. The World-Honorcd One then prophesied that they would all be born in that land. Aftcr having hcard thc Bucldha'sprophccy, Quccn Snnrila stood bcforc thc Tathigata with her palms joined, and made ten great vows, saying: ( l ) "World-Honored One, from now until my attainment of enlightenment, I will never think of breaking the precepts I have rcceivcd. ()\ "World-Honored One, from now until my attainment of enlightenment, I will never be arrogant toward teachers my superiors. or (3) "World-Honorcd Onc, from now until my attainment of enlightenment, I .vill never feel ill will toward any senticnt being. (4) "World-Honorcd Onc, from now until my attainmelrtof enlightenment, arc I will ncvcr bc jealous of my superiors or those whosc possessions superior to mine.

(s)"World-Honorcd

Onc, from now until my attainment of enlightenment, I will never be relrrctantto give, even if I have only a little food. (6) "World-Honored Onc, from now until my attainment of enlightenment, I will not acccpt moncy or accumulatc property for my own sake, but only for thc sakc of rclicving thc poverty and sufferings of sentient beings.

366

ON GENEnarMasAvAN,r DoclnrNr (7) "World-Honorcd Onc, from now until my attairlment of enlightenment, I will practicc the four inducements without expecting rewards. I will embrace scnticnt beings with a mind that never covets prolit, rs never weary, and is free of hindrances. (8) "World-Honored One, from now until my attainment of enlightenment, if I sec any sentientbeing bereft of parentsor children, imprisoned, sick, distressed,or suffering from any kind of danger or misfortune, I will not forsake him. Instcad, I will give him peaceand sccurity, hclp him properly, and rclicve him o[all sufferings. (9) "World-Honored One, from now ur-rtilmy attainmcnt of cnlightenment, if I see anyone pursuing evil ways or violating the pure preceptsof the Tathagata, I will not forsakc himl. In thc citics, towns, and villagcs undcr my influencc, I will subdue whocver should bc subducd and embrace whoever should be embraccd. Why? ()nly by subduing and embracing [sentient beings] wili the true Dharmaq cndure. Whcu the true Dharrna endures, gods and humans will thrive, the miserableplanes of existence will diminish, and the Tathagata's Dharma-wheel will turn pcrpctually. (10) "World-Honored C)ne,from now until my attainmentof enlightenmer-rt, I will ncvcr forgct the true L)harmaI havc cmbraced.Why? To forgct the true Dharma is to forget the Mahayana; to forget the Mahiyina is to forget the ptramites; to forget the paramitasis to abandonthe Mahayana. If a Bodhisattva wavers in regard to the Mal-ray-na, then he will not be firm ir-rembracirrg the truc Dharma, and consequcntly will not bc able to 'S/orldtranscendthe state of an ordinary person, causing a great loss. Honored One, the Bodhisattvaswho embrace the true I)harma now or in the future will receive urrlimited, great benefits.

"World-Honored Onc, Noblc Mastcr, although you have witnessedthe pronouncement of these great vows, sentient beings with meager roots of virtue may very well doubt the ten great vows, for they are most difficult to accomplish. These sentient beings may habitually perform unwholesome actions in the long night and be alflicted by all kinds ofsuffering. It is to bcncfit thcse scnticnt bcings that I now make this sincere declaration belbre the Buddha: World-Honored One, if the terr great vows are true and not false, may celestial flowers rain down over this assembly and may a celestialvoice be heard." As soon as Quccn Srrmalahad said this to thc Buddha. the sky began to rain flowers, and a celestial voice exclaimcd, "Excellent, Queen Srimala! down celestial indeed." Whrt you have said is true After the asse-mblysaw thc auspicr-,thcy wcre freed from every doubt and rvere ovcrjoycd. They proclaimed in unison their desire to bc born whercver Queen Srimala would be born, to make the samc vows shc had made, and to

A TsE Tnue LtoN's llonn or QureN Sni,'r,rAt

367

perform thc same dccds she would perform. Thereupon, the Buddha, the WorldHonored One, prophesied that all thcir wishes would be fulfilled. Then Queen Snmala made three more great vows before the Iluddha, saying. "I will benefit an infinite numbcr of seuticnt beir-rgs through thc power of these first, I will, by my good roots, attaitrthc wisdom of thc true Dharma in all vows: my lifetimes; second, after I have attained the true vu'isdom, wherever I may bc born I will cxplain it untiringly to all senticnt beings; third, in rvhatcver form I may be born, I will not sparelife or limb in embracing, protectiug, and upholding the truc Dharma." Whcn the World-Honored One heard these vou's, he told Srrnltlrl, "Just as forrns are contained in the rcalm of sp:rcc,so all the lJodhisattva'svows, as all numerous as the sands of the Clanges,are containcd in these yorvs. Thcsc three vows are truly vast." Tl-renQueen Srimila said to the tsuddha, "World-Honored One, through thc cloquencc vcsted in r-neby the tsuddha's triraculous Po\\'cr, I u'ould like to explain thc grcat vow. Plcascgrant me permissitlnto spcak." The Buddha said, "Srirnali, speakas yotr wish." Srimlla said, "Thc Bodhisattva's vows, as nunrerous as the sands of thc Ganges, arc all contained in onc great vow. This one great vow is callcd thc Truc Dharma. This embracing of the true I)harma is cmbracing of the Tathagata's t r u l y g r c a tr t t t l v : t s l . " The Buddha said, "Well saicl,Srirnili! You havc practicedthe L)harma for a ingenuity are subtle and profound. Anyonc who can long timc; your wisclonr ar-rd undcrstandyour words nlust have planted many good roots in thc long night. You spcak of thc cnrbracingof thc true Dharma; it is the tcachingof thc Buddhas of the I, past, present,and future. Now that I have attaincdsuprcme cnlighte-nn'rcnt, too, The mcrits dcrived often teach thc cmbracing of the true l)harma in various rzu'ays. fronr praising the embracing of thc truc Dharma arc lintitless,just as the rvisdom it of the Tathagatais limitlcss. Why? IJecausc is most meritorious and bencficialto the true Dharma." errrbrace "World-Honorcd One' bv the Q.uecn Snmal4. then said to the Buddha, Buddha's,divine powc\ I wish to explain the broad mcaning of ttrc cnrbr;crnq otthc true l)harma." T h c B u d d h a s a i d , " S p e a ka s y o u w i s h . " Srirnlli said, "To embrace the true l)harma, broadly spcaking. nrcans to inciuding the eighty thousand prrctrces. attain all thc infinitc Bucldha-l)harr-nas, 'Just as thc rnulticolorcd clouds at thc bcginning of a kalpa raitt dorvn myriad gems, s() the cloud of thc good root of cnrbracing the true l)harnla ratns c d o w r r i n r m e a s u r a b lb l e s s i n g s . further, the great t-loodat thc bcginning "World-Ilonorcd One, to ilh.rstratc thc forty the cause of- the billion-world univcrse, includir-rg of a kalpa contair-rs billion differerlt continents.{' In thc samc way, thc crnbracing of the true Dharma

ON GrNEnar MasAyANa

I)ocrnrNt

contains the cause of thc imrneasurablcrcalm of the Mahayina, and also the miraculouspowers of thc Bodhisattvas,thc various l)harma-doors, and thc perfecrion ofthe nrundanc and supranrundarrcjoyncvcr before expcrienccdby any god or hurrran. "To illustratc further, thc grcat earth bearslbur br,rrdens. What are the four? The occans, the mountain rangcs, the grasses and trccs, and thc scntient beings. Thc good men and womcn who embracc thc truc l)harrna can bear four burdens heavier than those bornc by the earth. What are the four? (1) To teach [cultivation of] the good roors of gods and humans to thc sentierrt bcit-rgsrvho are apart froln virtuous friends, lack lcarning, and are sinful, thus bringing those beings to r-uaturirl', (2) to teach thc Sravaka-vehicle thosc rvho scck to be Srdvakas; to (3) to te-ach thc Pratyckabr-rcldha-vchiclc thosc rvho seek to bc Pratyckato buddhas: ancl (.1) to teach thc Mah:ry-na to rhosc who scck the Mahtyina. Thesc arc the four burclcns,hcavicr than those bornc b,v the cartl-r,bornc by the good mer-r and worrren who crnbr:rccthc true I)harma. "World-H'norcd L)'c, thc good mcn and wonlen who cr'brace the truc Dharma arc able to establish[thcrrrselves likc] thc grcat carth to bcar thcsc fbr-rr heavy burdens. Thcy bcconrethc lricnds of all scnticntbeir-rgs universally,without 'ccrl .f ar irrvitation. They arc thc l)harma-mothers of the rvorld, who bcnefit scntiellt beir-rgs out of pity and grcat cornpassion. "'Io illustratc further, thc qreat carth is thc sourcc ofthc lour categories of gcnrs. What arc thc tirur? Thc invaluablc gcms, tl-roseof high valuc, those of rricdrurrr valuc, and thosc of low value- Sirr-rilarly, good nrcn anciwomcn who thecnrbraccthe true l)harma and cstablishIthenrsclvcs likcl thc great earth can cause thc sctrticntbcings who mect thcnr to obtain the four great trcasures, which arc the bcst of all precious thir-rgs.What are thc four? Whcn sentient bcir-rgs meet such virtuous fricnds, thcy will obtain thc good roots lcading ro birth as huntans or qods, to Sravakahood,to Pratyekabuddhahood, to rcalizatiotr or ofthc Unexcelled Vehiclc. Scntient bcings rvill obtain these lbur grcat trcasuresaftcr mccting the qood tt.tcnatrclwonrcn u'ho cmbrace thc truc l)harma and establishIthcnrselves likcl the grcat carth. "World-Honored C)ne,that which viclds thc Ifour] grcat treasures thc rcal is r-nrbracirrg thc truc l)harnia. of "World-Honorcd Orre, regarding thc cnrbracing of the true l)harnra, I do ltof ntcatl that thc truc Dharna and the embracing of the true l)harnra are differrnr. Thc truc l)harma r.s errnbrace truc L)harma. to thc "Worlcl-Honored ()ne, thc enrbracingof thc truc l)harrna is no othcr than -'rfrlrrnrit:rs. and rhe piranrit-s arc no othcr than thc embracing of the true l ) i r . r r n r . rW h v ? .

Tnr Tnur LroN's Roan or QureN SniuArA "For thosc sentient beings who can bcst bc matured through giving, the good men and womcn who embracethe true l)harma practicecharity, giving even their own livcs and limbs. In this way, they bring thosc scntientbeingsto nraturity with their inclinations,to cstablishthcm firmly in the true Dharma. in accordancc This is callcd the pararniti of giving. "For those sentient bcings who can bcst bc rnatured by disciplinc, fthose who cmbrace the true Dharmal guard their ovn'n six senscs;purify thetr own ri'rth dignity. In this vcrbal, bodily, and mcntal actions; and conduct thenrselves u'ith thcir inclinaway, thcy bring thosc sentientbeings to maturity in accordancc tions, to establishthcm firmly in the true l)harrna. This is callcd thc paramita of disciplinc. "For those sentientbcings who can bcst bc maturcd by paticncc,Ithosc r'vho embracc the true Dharmal are lrce of ill will; intend only to bcncfit; and bcar outralle, slander,libel, annoyance, and harassmcntr','ith rebukes,scoldings,ir-rsults, the utmost patience,even without thcir fices changing color in thc slightcst.In this with their ir-rclinaway, thcy bring those sentientbeirrgsto maturity in accordance tions, to cstablishthcrn firmly in thc true l)harrna. This is called the paramrtaof Patrcrlcc. "For thosc scnticnt beings who can best be matured by vigor, [those who do or cnrbrace the true Dharr-r-ral not have an indoler-rt negative nrentality, but show grcat aspiration ancl suprernevigor, whether walking, stancling,sitting, or lyir-rg down. In this way, thcy bring thosc scnticnt bcings to maturity in acwith thcir inclinations, to establishthenr firmly in the true l)harma. corclanceThis is callcd the plramiti of vigor. "For those sentient bcings u'ho can bcst bc matured by meditation, [those who embracc thc truc Dharmal arc not distractcd,and achicvc right nrindfulncrss and rcmembrance. In this way, they bring those sentient beings to maturity in accordancewith their inclinations, to cstablishthcm firnrly in thc truc Dharnra. This is called the paramiti of meditation. "For those selltientbeings who can bcst bc nraturcdby wisdom and u'ho ask qucstions about the l)harma in ordcr to bcncfit frorn it, [those who embrace the and all techniques.until truc Dharma] untiringly cxplain all doctrines,all scicnccs, those sentier:tbeings fully comprehend what is ultimate. In this '"vay,thcv brrnq with their inclinatior-rs. cstablish to thosc sentientbeings to maturity in accordance thcm firmly in thc truc Dharrna. This is callcd thc p-ranrit- of wisdonr. "Thcrcforc, World-Honored One, the cmbracing of tl-rctrr.rcl)hlrrn.r is not fionr thc pirar-r-ritls; en-rbracing the true I)harma l-i thc piramitis." the of cJillerent thc Thc Quccn Srinrali continucd, "World-Honorcd One , thror.rqh c-loque-ncc vestcd in me by tl-relluddha's divine power, I wish to elaborate on the great rncaning [of the'cnrbracing of thc truc l)harmal." 'Ihc Buddha said, "What is the great meaning?" "World-Honored Or-re, referrir-rg those who embracethe true I)harma, irr to

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I do not mean that they constitute an entity that differs from the embracing of the true Dharrna.T The good mcn and women who embrace thc true l)harma are thc embracing of thc true Dharma. Why? "The good men and womcn who embracc the true Dharma givc their bodies, lives, and possessions for the sake of thc true Dharma. By giving their bodies, these people will realize that which transccnds the limits of sari-rsira,will be free from old age and sickness,and r.vill attain the Tathagata'sDharma-body, which is indestructible,cternal, changclcss, ultimately tranquil, and inconceivable. By giving their lives, they will rcalize that rvhich transcendsthe linits of sarirsara, will be forever released from death, will attain eternity, will acquirethe inconceivable merits, and will securely abide in all thc Buddha-l)harmas and miraculous powers. By giving their possessions, they will rcalizc that which transccndsthe limits of sarirs-ra,and will go far bcyond rhe realm of sentientbeings. They will attain itrexhaustiblc,undiminishing, pcrfect accon-rplishn-rcnts; acquirc rnconwill ccivablemcrits and magnificcnt attributcs; and will be honorcd and servcd by other senticnt bcings.8 "World-Honorcd one, the good mcn and women who give thcir bodies, lives, and posscssions order to cmbracc the truc l)harr-nawill rcccivc tht- Tathain gata's prophecy Iof their attainnrcntof Buddhahood]. "Worlcl-Honorcd Onc, when the true Dharma is on thc vcrge of cxtinctron, the monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen will gathcr in groups, fornr factions,and dispute with onc another. At that time, the good nen and wonrcr-r who, without crookedness deceit,chcrish and crnbraccthe truc l)harma will associate or with the good faction;' those who associarc with thc good faction will definitcly receivethc lluddha's prophccy [of their attainment of enlighterrment]. "World-Honored C)ne, I see that to enrbraccthe truc l)harma has this tremendous power. Thc Tath-gata rcgardsthis Idoctrinel as the cyc Iof the l)harma], thc basis of the Dharma, the guidc of thc Dharma, and the understandingof the Dharma." Then thc World-Honored Onc, having hcard Queen Srtmala explain thc great power of cmbracing thc true Dharma, exclaimed,"So it is, so it is! Exccllcnt, Srfmala!Just as you say, to embracc the true Dharma has trcmendous, awesotne power. A pcrson will feel great pain or even bccome sevcrcly ill when onc of his vulncrable spotsr')is touched even slightly by a strong man. In the same way, Srimili, the demo'Pipiyin fcelsexcruciaringpain, worry, and distress, and howls and moans with woc whcn someone embraces even a srnall portion of the true Dharma. Srimala, I have never seen any way to cause that demon worry and distressas effcctivc as embracing the true Dharma, evcn a small portion of it. "SrTmalt, just as thc king of cattlc is more beautiful in form and color and l.rrqerin size than othcr cattle, so. Srimtli. orre who pracrices thc Mahiyina. evcn rihe cmbracesonly a small portion of thc truc Dharma, is superior to the Srivakas and Pratvekabuddhas with all their wholesome dharmas. "Srimala, Mount Sumeru, the king of mountains, surpasses other mounall

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tains in hcight, breadth, and beauty. Itr the sanc rvay, SrinrJll, a novice in the Mahayana who, in order to benefit othcrs, cmbraccs the true l)harma without who has long been abiding in the regard for his life or lirnb is supr-riorto a pL-rsorl Mahiyana, but who is always couceruedu'ith his body and life, in spite of all his good roots. "Therefore, Srimila, you should reveal, dcmonstratc,and tcach the embracing of the true Dharma to all sentientbeings. "Thus, Srimila, to cmbracethe true Dharrna yields grcat blcssings,benefits, and karmic fruits. Srimali, although for innumcrablc, incalculabickalpas I havc praised tire merits of embracing the true l)harma, I har.'cnot cxhaustcd them. 'fherefbre, to cmbrace the truc l)harma brings about irrfinitc nrcrits." The tsuddhatold Srimalt, "You should nolr, explain lurthcr thc crnbracingof rhc true L)harma, which I have taught, and which is chcrishcd by all tsuddhas alike." Srinralt said, "Vcry well, World-Honored One. Thc crnbracing of thc truc Dharma is called the Mahay5na. Why? Becausethe Mahayana gives birth to all and all mundanc and supramundanervholesome Srivakas and Pratyckabuddhas, rr is dharmas. Just as Lakc"Anavatapta thc sourccof thc cight rivers, so the Mahayana ald all nrundane ancl supramundane produccs all Sravakasanci Pratyckabucldhas, wholesonrc dharnras. "World-llonorcd Onc, just as all sccds,. grasscs,trecs, and forests depend Pratyekabuddhas, and upon thc grcat earth in order to grow, so all Sravakasar-rd all mundanc and supramundanewholesome dharmas, depend upon thc Mahayana in ordcr to grow. Therefore, World-Honored Onc, to abidc in and cmbrace the Mahlytna is to abidc in and cmbrace [the vehiclesof] the Srivakas and the Pratyckabuddhas,and all mundanc atrd supratnundanc wholesome dharmas. "Thc Buddha, the World-Honored One, has discoursc'd on six subjects, namely, thc abiding of the true l)harma, the extinction of the true Dharma, the Pratimoksa, thc Vinaya, truc rcnunciation of thc houschold life, and full monastic ordination. It is for the sake of the Mahayana that these six subjectsare taught. Why? Thc abidirrg of the true Dharma is taught for the sake of the Mahi,vina becauscthe abiding of the Mahayana is the abiding of the true Dharn.ra. The extinction cf the true l)harma is taught for the sake of the Mahayina becauscthe extinction of thc Mahayana is the extinction of the true I)harma. As for the Pritimoksa and the Vinaya, thcsc two Dharmas diffcr in name, but mean the srme. Vinaya is instruction for the Mahayana. Why? It is tbr thc sakc of Buddhahood, lthat one leavesthe householdlite and reccivcs [which is the aim of the Mahayana, full monastic ordination. Therefore, the Vinaya, true renunciatior-roi the household lite, and full monastic ordination are all Mahayana disciplincs. "World-Honorcd One, the Arhats do not [truly] lcavc thc household life or receivefull monastic ordination. Why? Bccauscit is not for the sakeof Tath-gatahood that they leave the household life or receive full monastic ordir-ration. "The Arhats take refuge in the Tathagata out of fear. Why? Thc Arhats are

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constantly afraid of all phenomena, as if someone sought to harm them with a sword in hand. Thereforc, thcy do not actually accomplishtl-redeedsof renunciation, nor do they attain thc ultimate bliss. World-Honored One, [he who does not r-reed]a refuge docs not scck a rcfugc. Just as scrlticnt bcings without refuge are afraid of this and that and seek refuge for the sake of security and peacc, so, 'V/orld-Honorcd Onc, the Arhats takc rcfugc in thc Tathigata out of fear. "Thus, the Arhats and thc Pratyckabuddhas havc not endcd their rebirths, havc not sulficiently cultivated purc conduct, havc not accomplishedwhat should bc accomplishcd,and havc not complctclv cradicatcdwhat should be eradicated; they are still far from nirvana. Why? Only the Tathagata, thc Worthy Onc, thc has attained nirvlna; has achievedall the infinite, inPerfbctly Enlightened C)r.re, conceivablemerits; has eradicatedall that should bc cradicatcd;is ultimatcly purc; is adored by all sentientbeings; and has transcended the statesof tl-rcrwo vchicles ancl of thc Bodhisattvas.Thc Arhats and so forth havc not done so. It is only as skillful means that the Br-rddhaspcaks of thcrn as having attained nirvana. Thereforc. they arestill tlr front rrirvirra. "World-Honored One, when the Tathigata says that the Arhats ar-rd Pratyekabuddhashave an insight into liberation, thoroughly posscssthc four knowledges,l2and have attaincd ultimate relief and rest, hc is speakirrg the expedient of truth in ordcr to accornrnodatc othcrs' inclinations. Why? Therc are two kinds of andl death. Wl.ratare the two? They are the recurring Ibirth and] dcath and [birtl-r the transfirrmational [birth and] death. The recurring [birth andl death are the Thc trans[birth ancldcath of] senticnt beings who continuc [to cxist in sarirsara]. formational [birth and] deat]rare [the birth and dcath of] thc mind-createdbodiesr3 of Arhats, Pratyekabuddhas, and liberatcd Bodhisattvas,r+ which they retain until they attain bodhi. Now, of the two kinds of [birth and] dcath, it is with regard to the recurring [birth and] death that the Arhats and Pratyckabuddhas arc said to know they have exhaustedtheir rebirths. Becausethey have rcalizcd thc rncomplctc fruit, thcy arc said to know thcy havc fully cultivated pure conduct. Bt:cause they have thoroughly eradicatedthe continuous defilementsls-which cannot be accomplished any ordinary peopleor by the sevcngradcsof lr-arnc'15rr--1hsy by x1s said to know they have accomplishedwhat should be accomplished. "World-l"lonored C)ne, to say that the Arhats and Pratyekabuddhas know they are no more subject to future existencedoes not meall that they have eradicated all defiler.nentsor that they know all their rebirth\. Why? Thc Arhats and Pratyekabuddhas still have somc rcsidual dcfilcmcnts not yct eradicated; therefore, they cannot know all the'irrebirths. "There arc two kinds of defilements: underlying defilemcntsand activedcfilcnrcnts.'' The underlying defilementsare four in numbcr. What arc thcy? Attachnrcnt to a particular vicwpoint, attachmcnt to desirc, attachment to form, and cravinq fbr existence.World-Honored One, thesefour underlying defilementscan produce all activc dcfilcmcnts. Thc activc dcfilementsarise from moment to moment in concomitancewith the mind. World-Honored One, the underlying de-

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filement of ignorancenever arisesin concomitancewith the mind from bcginningl e s st i m e . l E "World-Honorcd One, the four undcrlying defilementsare powerful; thcy can breed all thc active defilements.Yct, in comparisonwith them, the underlying defilement of ignorance is so much more powerful that the difference is incxpressibleeithcr by figures or analogics.Thus, World-Honored One, the undcrlying defilement of ignorance is more powertul tharr the craving for cxistcncc. Just as the form, power, authority, and rctinuc of the denron king overshadow Heaven, so thc underlying dc6lcthose of thc gods of the Paranirmita-VaSavartin ment of ignorancc overshadowsthe other four underlying defilenrents.All other defilements,which are morc numerous than the sandsof thc Ganges, depend on the urrderlying delilement of ignorance. It also causesthe othcr four undcrlying t tlefilcnrcntsto crrdtrrc.It carrbe eradicatedorrly by the wisdonr of thc Tathlgata. This beirrg the case, not by thc wisdonr of the Srivakes or the Pratyekabuddhas. World-Horrored One, tl-reunderlying defilement of ignorance is the most por','erful of all. "lVorld-Honored Onc, with grasping as thc condition and dcfilcd karmas as the cause,the thrcc rcalms arc produccd. Likcwisc, with thc underlying dcfilcment karrnasas thc causc,thc nrind-created of ignorance as the condition anclr.rnclcfilcd ar-rd powerful Bodhisattvas produced.These are bodiesof Arhats, Pratyekabuddhas, three kinds of mind-crcatcd boclics ancl thc unclcfilcd karnras all dcpcnd on the underlying delllement of ignorance, being conditioned as well as conditioning. Thereforc, World-Honorcd One , the thrcc kinds of mind-created bodies and undefiled karmas all have the underlying detilement of ignoranceas their condition, just as the craving for cxistcncc [also dcpcnds on thc undcrlying dcfilcmcnt of ignorance as its condition]. "World-Honored One, the underlying craving for exister-rce functions differcntly from the underlying defilcment of ignorance. Thc undcrlying dcfilcmcnt of ignorancc is different from the other four underlying defilemcnts, and for this reaonly by the Buddha. Why? Because, though thc Arhats and son it can bc eradicated Pratyekabuddhas have eradicated thc four undcrlying defilements, they have not fully masteredthe power of utter exhaustionof defilenents. Thcy have not realized that state. Why? World-Honored One, to say that their defilements have been exhausted is an exaggeration. Being clouded by the underlyirrg defilement of and Bodhisattvasin their last Isarirslric] ignorance, the Arhats, Pratyekabuddhas, existenccs not know and perceiveall dharmas. Becausethe,vdo not kno$' and do perccive all dharmas, they have left urreradicated what should be eradicated,and left unfinished what should bc finishcd. Bccausc thcy have not eradicatedand finishcd ali that should be eradicated and finished, they havc attained irrcomplete liberation, not completc libcration; incomplctc purity, not complete purity; incomplcte merits, not complctc mcrits. World-Honore'd Onc, becausethey have only attainedincomplete liberation, not thorough liberatiorr,and only incomplete merits, not all merits, their knowledge of suffering is incomplete, their eradication of

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thc cause of suffering is incomplcte, thcir realization of thc cessatiorlof suffcring is incomplctc, and thcir following of the path is incomplctc." Queen Srimalt continued, "World-Honorcd Onc, if onc knows suffcring thc cessation of only in part, eradicates thc causcof suffcring only in part, realizes suffering only in part, and follows the path only in part, hc is said to havc realizcd partiai nirvena. One who has rcalizcdpartial nirvtna is only advancingtoward the realm of nirvana. "However, if one knows suffcring complctely, eradicatesall causcsof suffering completely, rcalizcs thc complctc ccssation of all suffering, and follows the path in its cntirety, then he will realize thc permancnt, quiet, cool nirvina within an impermanent, decaying, corrupt world. World-Honored One, such a person can be a protector and refuge in a world where there is no protector or refugc. V/hy? One lyho sccs high and low in things cannot rcalizc nirvina. Only onc who wisdonr, equality in liberation, ancl equality i1 purity can perceives.6qrrality''in rcalizc nir\ana; therefore, nirvina is called tl-rcuniforn-r, onc tastc. What is the one taste?It is the tastc oflibcratron. "'World-Honored One, one canllot attain nirvina, the one tastc, the unifornr and exhaustthc underlying dcfilcment of tastc, ifhc docs not conrpletelyeradicate if ignorance. Why? tsecause he does not do so, hc cannot completely wipe out all thc far,rlts that should bc wipcci out, which arc morc nunrerolls than thc sands of the Ganges.If he does not wipc or,rtall faults, which arc morc numerous than thc sandsof thc Gangcs,he cannot realizeall merits. which are equally numerous. "This being the case,the underlying defilement of ignoranceis the brceding ground of all defilementsthat should bc cradicatcd.From it ariscall thc dcfilcmcnts causinghindranccsto thc mind: hindranccsto tranquillity, contcmplation, mcditation, samipatti, intensivecffort, wisdorn, fruition, rcalization,powcr, and fcarlcssncss. [From it arisel all the defilcnlcnts, more numerous thar-rthe sarrdsof the Ganges, that can bc cradicatcd only by the Tathigata's enlightenment and the Buddha's diamondlikc wisdonr. All active defilenrentsdepend on the underlying dcfilcment of ignorance, for ignorancc is thcir causeand condition. "World-Honored Or-re,these activc dcfilcmcnts arisc fronr nomcnt to llloment in concomitancewith the mind. Howcvcr, World-Honorcd Onc, thc underlying defiiemcnt of ignorancc llcvcr ariscsur concomitancewith the mind from time. beginnirrgless "World-Honored Or-rc,all thc dcfilements,more nunlerous than the sandsof which should bc cradicatcd thc Tathlgata's cnlightcnmcnt and thc by the (Janges,le by lluddha's diamondlike wisdom, depend on and are establishcd the underlying dcfilcment ofigrroiance. As an illustration, considcr sccds, plants, and forcsts, all of which gcrmillate and gror.v from the great earth. If the earth wcre destroyed, more numerous than thev would also bc dcstroycd. Similarly, all the defilenrents, by thc sandsof the Ganges,which should be eradicated the Tathigata's enlightenment and the tsuddha'sdiamondlikc wisdom, depcnd on the underlying defilement

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of ignorance for their cxistenceand growth. oncc the undcrlying delllcment of ignorance is cut off, all these defilements2llwill sin'rultaneouslvbe cut off. "when all things-the Iunderlying] dcfilemc'ts and active defilemenrs,more numerous than thc sands of the Gangcs-which should be cut off have becn cut off, one will be able to realizethe inconceivablc Buddha-Dharrnas,which arc Ialso] more numerous than thc sands of the Ganges. Hc rvill pcnetratc all dharmas without obstruction,2l bccomc all-krrowing arrd all-seeing,be frcc from all faults, achievcall merits, and bccome a great Dharma king u'ho has gaincd mastery of all dharmasand who has realizedthc stateof free command of all dharmas.Hc will bc able to make the true lion's roar: 'l have cnded my rebirths; I havc iully cultivated purc conduct; I have done what shor.rlcl done; and I am r.romore subjcct t<; bc existence.'Tl-ris why thc world-Hor-rored onc constantly nrakeshis is [sarirslric] firm proclamatiorrin a lion's roar bascd on the ultimatc truth. "World-Honored Onc, the knowledge of being rro nrore subjcctto {sarirslric] cxistcnceis of two kinds. what arc thc t',vo?"I'hefirst Iknorvledgc] belongs to the 'rathigatas Tath-gatas. The havc vanquishcd, with thcir harncssingand subduipg power, the tbur dernons; havc transcendedall worlcls and are csteemed by all senticnt beings; havc'rcalizccl the inconceivable, pure l)harrrra-body;have attair-red nrastcryin all ficlds of knowledge, are unexccllcdand supremcly magnificcnt: havc nothing more to do and sec no lirrther stage to realize; arc cnckrr',,cd r.vith the te1 to ancl Powcrs; have ascenclcd thc suprcme stage of fearlcssness, obscrve all dharrrraswithout hindrancc. Thercfbre, they can nrakc the truc lion's roar, proclain-rins that they arc no ntore sullject to Isafirsaricl existence. "Thc sccorrd [knowledge of being r)o morc subject to sarirsiric existcncc] belongs to the Arhats and Pratyekabuddhas. Thcy havc bccn released frorn thc lcar of countlessbirths and deaths and are cnjoying the bliss of libcration; thcrcfore, 'l thcy think, have left the frightful sarirsara behind and will suffcr no more pain.' "world-Honorcd o'e, by 'raki'g this .bservation, the Arhats and prarvekabuddhasalso claim that thev are no morc subjcct to lsarirsaricl cxistcncc.Ho\\,ever, they have not rcalizcd the highest state of rclief and rest-nirvina. on the other hand, if thcy are nor deludcd by thc l)harnra thcy havc rcalizcd, thcv rvill be able to understandIthat therc arel states thcy have not realizcd,Isaying ro thr-nrselves,] 'Ncw I have only realizcd an inconrplcte statc'; and they will dctlprtclr. attain suprcrncenlightcnment.why? Ilccausclthc vehiclesof lthc Srivak:rsald th.. Pratyckabuddhasare both includcd in the Mahryana, and thc Mlh:rr.:rr-ra thcis Buddl-ra-vchicle. This bcing the case,thc three vchiclesarc rhc c)'c Vchiclc. "One who rcalizcsthc Onc Vehicle attainssupremc cnlightenrn"'rr.Suprr-nrc crrlightenrncntis nirvlna. Nirvina is thc pure L)harma-bodv ot'thc Tathaeata.To rcalizethe l)harnra-body is thc One Vehicle. The-Tathigata is not dif-tcrentlrom thc Dharrna-body; thc 1'athigara i,i thc I)harnra-body. The rcalizationof the ultimate L)harma-body is thc ulrimatc C)nc Vehicle. "The ultimate c)ne Vchicle is that which is apart 1iom Iordi.aryi continuity.

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Why? World-Honored Onc, if one says that thc abiding tinrc of thc Tathagatais immcasurablc,cqual to the boundlessluturc, and that thc lathlgata can benefit thc world with lirnitlcsscourpassion and limitlcss vovn's, is said to spcakr,vell.If orre hc sa)'sthat thc Tath-gata is pcrnr.lncnt,is an r.rncnding I)harrna, and is the ultinate rcfuge of all sentientbeings,he is also said to spcakr','ell. Thcretbre, thc Tathagata, the Wbrthy Onc, thc Suprcncly Enlightcncd One, is an incxhaustiblcrcfuge, an evcr-abiding refuse, and an trltinratcrcluge, for an inflnitc length of time strctching into tl-refuture, in a rn-orldwithout Ianv othcrl protcction or rcfuge. "The Dharma is thc path of thc One Vehiclc. Thc Sarirghais the assembly of the thrcc vehicles. Howevcr, the I)harma and the Sarirgha are partial rcfuges, not ultimate refugcs.Why? Although thc path of the One Vehiclc is taught, it is no longer mentioned aftcr onc has attainedthc ultimate Dharma-body. Bccausethey have fear, those ir-rthe asser-nbly thc thrcc vehicles takc rcfuge in the Tathlgata of and learn and practicc thc I)harma; thcy are still in the activc processof working toward sLlprcnte enlightcnmcnt thcmselves. Therefore, thc two rcfugcs are only limitcd rcfuges, not ultimate ones. "When sentient bcings arc subducd by the 'l'athtgata and takc refuge in the Tathigata, thcir thirst is rclicvcd by the nectar of Dharma, and thcy generatefaith and joy; [consequently] thcy takc refuge also in the Dl.rarma and the Sarirgha. These two refuges are lconceivcd asl refuges bccausc of senticnt beings' faith gencratr.:cl througJhthe qucnching of their thirst by the nectar of Dharma. The Tathagata is not such a refuge; tl-reTath-gata is a truc rcfirge. Neverthelcss,in ternrs of thc r-rltirnatetrr.rth, to takc refuge in the Dharma and thc Sarhgha ls to take ultirnatc rcfugc in the Tathagata. why? Thc Tathagata is r.rot diffcrent from thesetwo refuges;the'Tathagatals the thrcc retuges. "Why is tl.repath of thc One Vchiclc taught? Thc Tathagata, rhe Supreme Olc, is cndowed with thc lour fearlessnesses is able to make the truc lion's and roar. If thc Tath-gatas, in accordance with scntient beings' necds, teach the two vehicles as skillful means, [thcn tl-retwo vchicles they teach] are no other than the Great Vehicle, becausein thc highest truth there are no two vchicles. The two vchicles both mergc into the Onc Vehicle, and the One Vchicle is thc vehicle of supremc truth. "World-Honored Onc, whcn Srlvekas and Pratyekabuddhas rcach the initial realization of thc lour noble truths, it is not with the onc [supremc] knowledge that thcy eradicate undcrlying dclllenrents, thc rcalizethc rncrits of completeknowledge of the four rroble truths, or urrdcrstand the csscncc the four truths. Worldof Honorcd One, they lack thc supramundaneknowledge, so the four knowlcdgcs the next. Worldlof the four truthsl come to thcm gradually, cach conditionir.rg Honored Onc, thc supramundane knowledge, like a diamond Iwhich cuts things at one stroke],'is not gradua'!in nature. "V/orld-Honored Onc, thc Srlvakas and Pratyekabuddhas eradicatcthc underlvirrs defilementsby knowing the noble trurhs in many ways, but they do not possess the suprcme, supramundaneknowledgc. Only the Tathigata, the Worthy

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One, the All-Knowing One, can break up thc shclls of all defilements by his knowledgc of cmptiness;it is beyond the domain of thc Sravakas ir-rconceivable and Pratyckabuddhas. "World-Honored Onc, thc ultimate knou'ledge which shattersthe shclls of dcfilements is called the supreme, supramundaneknowlcdgc. Thc initial knowlit edgc of the noble truths is not the ultimate kr.rou'ledge; is knowledge only leading to supreme cnlightenment. "l7orld-Honored One, the truc mcaning of thc word'rroble'does not apply to [those who follow] the two vehiclcs.Why? The Srivakas alLdPratyekabuddhas arc said to bc noblc mcrcly bccauscthey can attain a Small part of the merits [of a Tath-gata]. World-Honored One, the Ireall noble truths are not truths belonging and are not merits bclonging to thcnr. Thc Ireal] to Srivakas or Pratyekabuddhas, a noble truths arc realizedonly by a T'athagata, Worthy Onc, a Pcrfcctly Enlightened ()r-re,and afterwardsrevealed,demonstrated,and explaincdto scnticnt bcings 'noblc in the world who are confined in shells of isnorance. Hence the namc truths.' "World-Honorccl Onc, thc [rcal] noblc truths arc vcry profound, subtle, ditficult to perccive, hard to understand, and not to bc discriminatcd; thcy artof and they transcendthe credenceof beyond the realn-r thought and speculatiorr, all thc worlcl. They arc krrown only to l'athagatas,Worthy Oncs, Pcrfcctly En- I lighterred()rrcs. Why? Thesetrr.rths explain thc vcry profbund Tathagata-cmbryo.rrI The Tath-gata-cmbryo belongs in the realm of the tsuddha and is beyond the Sincethe noble truths are explained domain of thc Srivakas and Pratyekabuddhas. on thc basisof thc Tathagata-embryo,and sincethe Tath-gata-embryo is profound subtle, difficult to perceive,hard and subtle, the noble truths are also profound ar-rd they are beyond the realm of thought understand,arrd not to be discrin-rirrated; to and speculation,and transcendthe credenceof all the world. Thcy can bc known only by a Tathigata, a Worthy One, a Perfectly Enlightened One. "If one has no doubt about the Tathagata-embryo,which [in ordinary beings] is wrapped in an incalculablenumber of defilements,he will also have no doubt about the Dharrna-body of the Tathagata,which is beyond all dcfilcmcnt. "World-Honored One, if one can have true faith in thc Tathagata-embr1'o and the Buddha's Dharma-body-thc inconccivablc, csoteric rcalm of the tsudclha-he will then be able to believe in and understandwell the two meaninss of the noble truths. "What are thc two mcanings of the noble truths? They are the active and the nonactivc. The active noble truths arc thc four noblc truths in an inconrplctcsense. Why? When one has to rcly on othcrs for protection, hc cannot completelv know ofsuffcrofsuffering, realizethc complete ccssation suffcring, cradicateall causes of Therepath leading to thc cessation suf-fering. ing, or follow in its cntircty the unconditionedthings, or nirvina. forc, he cannot know conditioned things, "World-Honorcd Onc, the nonactive noblc truths refer to thc four r-roble truths in the completc scnse. Why? Because,when one can rely on himself for

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protection, he can completely know suffering, eradicate all causes of suffering, realize thc complctc ccssatlor-r suffering, and follow in its entircty thc path of leading to the cessationof suffering. "Thus, therc are in all eight noble truths mentioned; however, the tsuddha teachesthem only [in tcrms of ] four noble truths. Thc mcaning of the nonactivc four noble truths is pcrfectly realized only by Tathigatas, Worthy Ones, Perfectly Enlightened Ones, and is bcyond the capacity of Arhats and Pratyekabuddhas. Why? Becausenirvina is not to be realizedby any dharma, whether supcrior or inferior, whether low, middlc, or high. "What does it mean that the Tathigatas perfcctly rcalizethe nonactivetruths? Thc Tathagatas,thc Worthy C)nes,the Supremely Enlightened Oncs, completely know suffering; have eradicated all causcsof suffcring, which are thc dcfilements; havc rcalized the complete cessationof all suffering, Ieverr that] derived from the alllTregatesof a mir-rd-createdbody; and have followccl in its entirety the path leading to the cessation sulfbring. of "World-Honorcd Onc, thc term 'cessation suffcring' does not imply the of destruction of anything. Why? Becausethe cessationof sufli'ring has no beginning, no action, no originatiorr, and r-roend; it is ever-abiding,irnmovable, intrinsically purc, and fiec liom thc shcil of defilemer-rts.2l "World-Honored One, the Tath-gata has achievedinconccivablcDharmas more rlunlcrous than thc sandsof the Gangcs,Dharmas which embody thc wisdom of libcration ancl which are relerrcd to as the Dharma-body. World-Honored Or-rc, when this l)harnra-body is not apart from dcfilcrncnts,it is called the Tathagataembryo.2a "World-Honored One, the Tathigata-en.rbryo the Tath-gata'sknowlcdgc2s is of emptincss. Thc Tathagata-embryo has never been seen or realized by any SrSvakaor Pratyekabuddha. is perceivedand wirncsscdonly by the Buddhas. It "World-Honored One, the knowledge of emptiness thc Tathagata-embryo of is of two kinds. What arc thc two? The first is the knowledge that the Tathagataembryo is empty: that it is apart from all dcfilements and apart from knowledge which does not lead to liberation. The second is thc knowlcdge that the Tathagataembryois not empty: that it contains inconceivablc Dharmas mort: numcrous than the s:nds of the Ganges,which embody the Buddhas' wisdom of libcration. "World-Hor-roredOue, the advancedSravakas can, through faith, garn access to thcsc twg knowledges of_emptincss.World-Honored One, the knowledge of emptinesspossessed the Srlvakas and Praryekabuddhas conncctedwith and by is rcvolves around the four wrong views. Therefore, no Sravakaor Pratyekabuddha has ever perceived or realized thc complete cessationof suffering. Only the Buddha has realized it dircctly; hc has eradicated all defilemcnts and followed in its entirety the path leading to the cessationof suffering. "World-Honored One, of the four noblc truths, three truths are impernlanerlt, and one truth is permanent. Why? The three noble truths [of suffering, the causeof suffering, and the path leading to the cessationof sufferingl belong to

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the realm of conditioned dharmas. what is conditioned is impermancnt, and what is impermanent is destructible.what is destructiblcis not truc, not pcrmancnt, and not a refuge. Thcrcfore, in the ultimate serlse, the three noblc truths are not true, not pcrmanent, and not a refuge. "World-Honored One, the noble truth of the ccssationof suffering is bcyond thc realnt of conditioncd dharmas. lVhat is be1'ondthe rcalnr of conditioned dharmas is evcr-abiding by naturc. what is ever-abiding by rature is i'destructiblc. what is indcstructiblcis true, pernlancnt,and a refugc. For this reason,worldFlonored One, thc noble truth of the cessation suffcring is in the ultimate sense of true, pcrmanent, and a rcfugc. "World-Flonored C)nc, this noblc truth of the cessation oisulfcring is ir-rcorrceivable.It is beyond thc rcalm of all sentier-rt beings'mind and consciousness; is it also beyor.rd donrai' of all Arhats'and Pratyckabuddhas'knou'lcdge.Just the thc as myriad colors cannot bc sccn by a marr born blind, or as the sun cannot be scenby a seven-day-oldinfant, so the noblc truth ofthe cessatiorl ofsuflcring cannot be arl object.f ordinary peoplc's mind and c.nsciousness, nor is it in the domain of any Srivakas' or Pratyckabuddhas' knowledge. "Thc consciousncss ordinary people refersto the two extrenle vicr,','s. of Thc knowlcdge of'Srtvakas and Pratyekabuddhas means their pure knowlcdge. "Extrcnre views r.can [the views which arisc whcn] 'nc clings to thc five aggrcgatesas thc sclf and makes various discrirninations.There are two exrrcme views. What are the two? The ctcrnalisticvicw and the nihilistic view. "world-Horrored onc, if one seessarhsara impermancnt and nirvi'a as as permanent, his vicw is neithcr nihilistic nor eternalistic,but is theiright view.26 why? when deludcd peoplc scc that bodies, sense-orgarls, and that which thinks and fccls all perish irr this lifc, but do not understand the continuation of existence, therr, being blind and without the eye of wisdom, rhcy conceivea nihilistic vicw. whcn they see the continuity of the r'ind but fail to see the aspect of its momentary perishing, then bcing ignorant of the [true] statc of consciousness, thcy conceive an eternalisticview.27 "world-Honored one, thc before-mentioned truth is beyond all discrimination and beyond inferior understanding. Becausefools havc delusive thoughts and cling to misconceived idcas, they believc either nihilism or etcrnalism. "world-Ho'ored onc, concer'irrg the fivc aggregates, deluded senriert beirrgs considcr the impcrmanent to be perrnanent,suffering to be joy, no'sclf to bc self, and the impure to be purc. The Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas, *.ith all their pure wisdom, ncvcr glimpse the Buddha's Dharma-body or the starc- thc Taof l thigata. "If a sentient bei'g, out of faith in the Tathagara,regardsthe Tathegataas pefmanent, joyous, pure, and possessi'g a self, he does not sec [the Tathigata] wrongly; he seeshim correctly. why? Because the Dharma-body of the Tathagata is the pcrfection28of permanence, thc perfection ofjoy, thc perfection of self, and the perfcction of purity. Those sentient beings who assumesuch a view are said to

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ON GrNrnal ManAvANa DocrnrNr

have the right view. Those who assunleth{right view are called the rrue sons of the Buddha, born from the Buddha's mouth, born from thr- truc Dharma, born from thc Dharma miraculously,2e and hcirs to the Buddha-Dharma. "World-Honored One, thc so-callcd pure knowledgc is the perfection of knowledge of all Arhats and Pratyckabuddhas. Even this pure knowledge, pure as it is said to be, cannot embrace thc realm of the noble truth of the cessationof suffering, let alonc thc knowledge of [those who practicc] the four reliances.Why, thcn, docs thc World-Honored One teach thc four reliances?In order that the r-rovices thc thrcc vchiclcs may not be ignorant of the Dharma and may evenof tually realizeits meaning. "World-Honored One, these lour rclianccsare mundane dharmas. WorldHonorcd ()ne, there is one reliancewhich is the highest of all rclianccs,which is thc supramundane,supreme, and ultirnatc rcliancc-namely, [nirvana,] the noble t'' truth of thc ccssrtionctf sufferrng. "World-Honorcd Onc, thc cycle of birth and death [sarirsira] is based on tht: Tathigata-cmbryo. Because of the Tathlgata-en.rbryo, the beginning [of 'World-Honored sarirs-ral cannot be known. One, if onc says that becausethere is tl-reTatl-r-gata-embryo thcrc is sarirs-ra, he speakswcll. "!ilorld-Honored One, thc cycle of birth and dcath mcans the cessation of thc scnsc facultics and the immcdiatc arising of new serlse faculties. WorldHonored Or-re,the two dharmas, birtl-r and death, are thc Tath-gata-embryo itself; thcy arr.:callccl birth and death from thc convcntional viewpoint. World-Honored One, death means the cessatior-l sensefaculties, and birth mcans the arising of of 'l'hc scnsc facultics. fathlgata-embryo, however, neither arisesnor ccascsto be, ncithcr cnrergesnor vanishes; is beyond the realm ofconditioned Idharmas]. it "World-Honored Onc, thc'1'athagata-embryo permanent and indestructiis ble. Thereforc, World-Honored One, the Tathagata-embryois the base, the support, and the four-rdatiorrof the wisdom of libcration. It is also the basc, the support, and the foundation of all conditior-reddharmas. "World-Honored One, if thcre were no Tathigata-cmbryo, there would be no abhorrenceof suffering and no longing for nirvina.3l Why? The sevendharmasthe six consciousncsses and their objccts-arc momentary and nonabiding, and therefcre cannot rctain thc cxperienceofsuffbring. Hcnce, they are unable to abhor suffering or aspire to nirvina. The Tathagata-embryo has no beginning, neithcr ariscs nor ccases, and can retain the cxpcricncc of suffering. It is thc cause of [scnticnt bcings'l renunciationofsuffering and aspirationfor nirvana. "World-Honored One, tht: Tath-gata-embryo is not a self, a personal identitr'. a being. or a lifc. Thc Tathagata-enrbryois rrot in the domain of senrient beines who believe in a real self, whose thinking is confused, or whordiig i.o ' r h ( \ ' r ( ' \ \o f c m p t i n c s s . "World-Honorcd Onc, the Tath-gata-embryo is the store of the dharmalh.rtu. thc storc of thc Dharna-body, the store of thc supramundane, and the store o i i n r r i n s i cp u r i t y . "This intrinsically pure Tathigata-embryo, as I understand it, is always the

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inconccivable state of the Tathlgata cvcn if contaminated by defilements, the adventitious dust. Why? World-Honored One, the mind, whether virtuous or nonvirtuous, changes from moment to momcnt, and it cannot be contaminated by defilcments, the adventitious dust. Why? Defilements are not in contact with the mind; the mind is not in contact with defilements. Hor.v can anything that is not in contact with the mind contaminatc thc mind? Yet, World-Honored One, because thcre are defilemcnts there is a defiled mind. It is cxtrcmcly difficult to know and understandcontamination by defilements.Only thc tsuddha, the World-Honored One, who is the eye, the wisdom, the root of thc Dharna. the guide, and the foundation of the true Dharma, can know and seeit as it is." Thcn thc Buddha praised Queen Snnrlli, saying, "splendid, splendid!Just as you say, it is difficult to knou' and undcrstand how the intrinsicall-v pure mind can be contaminated by dcfilemcnts. "Srimila, there are two things difficult to understand. What are the two? First, the intrinsically purc mind; sccond, thc contarnination of this mind by defilemcnts. C)nly you and those Bodhisattvas who havc alrcady accomplishcd the can great Dharma can acccptthcsc two things upon hcaring of them. The Sravakas understand them only through faith. "Srinrala, if rny disciplesstrengthentheir faith and comply with the Dharmawisdom, then they will reach the utrnost [undcrstanding]of this Dharma. Compliance with the Dharma-wisdom means: cor-rten-rplatior-r the sense-organs,the of and consciousncsscs, their objects;contenplation ofkarmas and thcir rcsults;contemplation of the dormant dcfilcmcnts of thc Arhats; contcmplation of the joy of a liberated mind and thc bliss of mcditation; and corltcmplation of thc noblc, miracBy accomplishingthese five ulous powers of the Sravakasand Pratyekabuddhas. skillful corrtemplations, nly preserlt and future Srivaka followers will, becauseof their strengthened faith and thcir compliancc with thc Dharma-wisdom, be able to understand thc intrinsically pure mind and how it becomes contaminated by defilements. They will reach the utmost [understandingof this Dharma]. Srimilt, the utmost [understanding]is the causcof thc Mahayana. you should know that he who has faith in the Tathegata does not slanderthe profound Dharma." Theu Quccn Srimili said to the Buddha, "World-Honored One, there are still othcr doctrinesthat will be of great benefit. By the awesomc, divinc power of the Buddha I will explairrthem." Thc Buddha said, "Excellent! Now speakall you wish." 'who Queen Snmala said, "Thcrc arc thrcc kinds of good men and u'onren generate can, with rcgard to the profound Dharma, avoid harming thcn'rselves, nunlerous mcrits, and enter the path of the Mahiyina. What are the three?They are: the good men and women who have by thcmsclvcsattainedthe u'isdom of the profound Dharma; those who succeed in complying rvith thc Dharma-wisdom; and thosc who cannot understand the profound Dharma but fully rely on the 'This is only known to the Buddha; it is not in my domain.' Tathagata,saying, "Aside from these three kinds of good men and women, other sentrent "Now

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beings may take from the profound Dharma only what they likc, cling to misraken interpretations, dcfy the truc Dharma, or learn hctcrodox doctrines. Whcrever these rotten secds [i e., wrong belicfs,] are, we should go there and climinate them. All gods and humans should combine their efforts to destroy these rottcn " seeds. After Queen Srimilt had thus spokcn, she and hcr rerinuc bowed down ar the feet of thc Buddha. The Buddha then praiscd Queen SrimalJ, saying, "lt is wonderful, Srimala, that you can skillfully protect the profour.rd Dharma and propcrly vanquish its enemics. Bccausc you have already associated intimately with hundreds of thousandsof millions of Buddhas, Tathlgatas. you are able to explain this doctrinc." Then thc World-Honored Or.reemanated a nragnificent light illuminating the entire assembly,and elcvatcdhimsclf into midair to thc height of sevenpalm trees. Using his n-riraculouspowcrs, he walkcd ir-r the air and rcturned to thc city of Sravasti,Mcanwhilc, without taking their eyesoff the World-Honored Onc for an itrstant, Quccn Srimala and hcr retinue gazed at him with adoration until he passcd out of sight. Then they all danccd with joy and cxchanged praises of the virtucs of the Tathigata. Recollccting thc Iluddha singlc-mindedly, they returncd to Ayodhya. she had returncd ro rhc ciry, Srrmrla] pcrsuadedKing Mitrakirti32 ro IWher.r establish thc Mahayana [as thc state religior.r].She taught the Mahayana to all fc'malcs the city over seven years of agc, and King Mitrakirti taught the Mahaof yana to nralcs ovcr scven; as a result, all the citizens of the country, without exception, learncd thc Mahayana. 'Wher-r the World-Honorcd One entercd theJeta (lrove, he called thc Vcncrable Ananda. He also summoned the king of devas by thinking about him. In responseto the Buddha's summoning thought, Sakra, the king of devas, and his rctinuc instantly appearedbefore the Buddha. Then the World-Honorcd One told Sakra the dcva king. "Kau6ika, you should accept ar.rduphold this sutra, explain it, and revcal it lor the sake of thc peaceand happiness those who dwcll in the Heavcn of the Thirty-Three . " of He thcn told Ananda, "You, too, should acccpt and uphold this sutra and exphin it in dctail to the four kinds of devotees." Sakra, king of devas, said to the tluddha, "World-Honorcd One, what should we call this sutra?How should wc uphold it?" Thc Buddha told the king of devas, "This sOrrahas limitlcss merits. It is beyond the power of all Srivakas and Pratyckabuddhas, alorreothcr sentrent let beings. Kauiika, you should understandthat this sutra is very profound and subtlc and is a grcat amassmentof merits. I shall now tell you briefly its names. Listen caretullyl Listen carcfully and rhink wcll about it." Thereupon, Sakra, king of devas, and the Vcncrablc Ananda said to the Buddha. "Yes, World-Honored One. We shall acceptyour reaching." The Buddha said, "This sitra is called'Acclamation of rhe Tathisata's True Virtues,' and should be upheld accordingly.

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"It is also called'A Discourseon thc Tcn InconceivableVows,'and should bc uphcld accordingly. "It is also callcd 'A l)iscourse on the One Grcat Vow That Compriscs All Vows,' and should be uphcld accordingly. "It is also called 'A Discoursc on the Inconceivable Embracins of the True Dharma,' and should be upheld accordingly. "It is also callcd'A Discourseon the Entry into thc Onc Vehicle,'and should be upheid accordingly. "It is also callcd'A Discourseon the BoundlessTruth,'and should be upheld accordingly. " l t ' i s a l s o c a l l e d ' A l ) i s c o u r s eo n t h c T a t h a s a t a - c m b r v o . ' a n ds h o u l d b c upheld accordingly. "lt is also callcd'A I)iscourseon the tsuddha'sl)harma-bodv,'ar.rdshould be upheld accordingly. "lt is also callcd 'A Discourse on the Hidden Rcality in the l)octrine of Emptincss,' and should bc uphcld accordingly. " l t i s a l s o c a l l e d ' A D i s c o u r s eo n t h e C ) n e T r u t h , ' a n d s h o u l d b c u p h c l d accordingly. "lt is also callcd 'A l)iscoursc on the Onc, Evcr-abiding, Immovable, and Quict Rcfugc,' anclshould bc uphcld accordingly. " I t i s a l s oc a l l e d ' A D i s c o u r s e n I n v e r s i o n n d R c a l i t y , ' a n ds h o u l db c u p h c l d o a accordingly. "lt is also called 'A Discourse on the Inrrinsically Pure Mind Wrappcd rn l)cfilcments,' and should bc uphcld accordingly. " I t i s a l s oc a l l e d ' A l ) i s c o u r s c n t h e T r u e S o n so f t h c T a t h i e a t a . ' a n ds h o u l d o bc uphcld accordingly. "It is alsocalled'A I)iscourse n rhc Truc Lion's Roar of Quccn Srinrala,' o and should be upheld accordingly. "Moreover, KauSika,this sutra'steachingresolvcsall doubts; it is thc dcfinitive, ultimate teachir-rg, way to the One Vehiclc. KauSika,I now cntrusr vou the with this'Sutra of the Lion's Roar of Quccn Srimila.'Reveal and cxplain it to the beings in the ten dircctions as long as the Dharma cndures." Sakra, the king of devas, saicl,"Ycs, World-Honored Onc. Wc u.ill ibllou' your instructions." 'I'hcn, hcaring what the tsLrddhahad said, Sakra, the king o[ dcr-.rs.thc VenerableAnanda, and all the gods, hunrans,asuras, gandharvas. and othcrs rn the assemblywere jubilant. They accepted thc sutra with faith and bcsan ro pr11.'1i6" 1, witir vcncration.

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DocrRrNn

NOTES
1 . T I . r e o t h e r e x t a r r t C h i n e s e v c r s i o n o f t h i s s u t r a , t r a n s l a t c dl r o r l t h e S a n s k r i t b y c l u n a b h a d r a( T a i s h o 3 5 3 , p . 2 1 7 ) , r e ' a d s" v e s h o u l d p r o m p r l y s e n d h e r a l c t t c r r o a r o u s ch c r : t h o u g h t o f b o d h i . " S i n c c i t i s t h e l e t t c r w h i c h i s c l o q u e n t , n o t t h e n l c s s c n g e r ,t h i s r e a d i n g may bc prcferable. 2 . T h i s l i n c c a n a l s o b c t r a n s l a t e da s : " l f r v h a t i s s a i d [ i n t h c l c t t e r ] i s t r u e . ." 3 . L i t e r a l l y , " A l l d h a r m a s e t e r n a l l v a b i d c . " A c c o r c l i n g t o l ' l r c R e c o r d - l ' aD i s t o u r s c n o o . t h c S r t m a l a . S r t r c( f f i f f { 7 \ f f i # ; d ) , b v V c n . Y i n S h u n ( T a i p c i , 1 9 7 { ) ) ,p . 3 ( r , t h i s r e f e r s r o a l l t h e p h v s i c a l a l t d r t t c n t a la t t r i b u t e so f - t h c T a t h l q a t a , r v h i c l r a r c l n a c c u n r u l a t i o n l - l n c r i t s . o ' 1 . K i l l i n g , s t c a l i n g , s c x u a l n r i s c o n c l u c t ,a n d l v i n s . H c r c t h c v i c c s o f t h e b o d y a r c i r ) t c r p r c t c c li n a b r o a c l s c n s e ,a u d i n c l u d c t h c v i c c o f s p c c c h , i . e . l 1 , i n g . [ u a n r o r e d e t a i ] e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o t rt,h c v i c r - o f s p e c c hi s s c p a r a t e d i o r n t h e v i c e . s f t h c b o d y r n c l c x p a n d c d i n t o l o l o t t r i t c r n s : l y i n g , s h n d c r , h a r s h s p e e c h ,a n d f i i v o l o L r sc h a t t c r . T h c s c f b u r , c o n r t r i n e dr v i t h t h c u n w h o l c s o m c a c t i o n so f m i n d a n d b o d v , l b r n r t h c t e n c v i l d c c d s .S e cN u m e r i c a l C i l o s s a r y . 5 . S e eG l o s s a r y , " t r u c D h a r n r a . " 6 . A n c i e n t t s u d c l h i s t o s m o l o g v h o l d s t h a t i n a b i l l i o n - r v o r l d u r r i v c r s ct h e r e a r c t e n b i l c lion Mor.tnt Sumerus, eachsurrounded by lour continer)ts.Hcncc "the fbrty billion contincnts." 7 . H c r c t h c t c x t i s o b s c u r e .T h i s i s a f r c c , c x t r e r n c l v i n t c r p r c t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n [ J .A r r e ] t r : r n a t i v c r r n s i a t i o nb a s c do n G u r r a b l . r a d r av s r s i o n ( T a i s h o3 5 3 , p . 2 1 9 ) . r e a d s : r 'c By, lcontinually] giving thcir bodics until rhe end of sadtsira, thesepeople w i l l b c f r c c f r o m o l d a g e a n d s i c k n c s s ,a n d w i l l a t t e i n t h c T a t h a g a t r ' s l ) h a r m a botly, rvhich is inclcstrtrctiblc, pcrmanent, changclcss,ultirr.ratelytranquil, and inc o n c c i v a b l c .I l v I c o n t i n u a l l y ] g i v i n g t h c i r l i v e s u n t i l t h c e n d o f s a d r s a r a t h e y w i l l , be fbrcver releasedfionr clcath; will attain infinitc, ctcrnal, inconceivable merits; and rvill sccurcly abide in all thc Bucldha-l)harnras nd miraculous powcrs. By Icona t i n u a l l 1 , lg i v i n g t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n u n t i l t h e e n d o f s a r i r s a r a ,t h c y u ' i l l a t t a i n e n d l e s s , s ur-rdinrinishing, perfect kart.nic results; will :rcquirc inconceiv:rblc merits and splendors surpassing those of others; and n'rll bc l.ronored and scrvccl by other sentiel)t bcings. 9 . G u n a b h a d r a ' sv c r s i o n r e a d s " t h e l a c t i o n o i t h e l ) h a r n . r a , " i n s t e a d o f " t h c q o o d laction. " 1 0 . S k t . n d r i l n n . A m a r m a n i s a s p o t o n t h e b o d y , a s l i g h t t o r . r c h n u ' l i i t J r r r r a vc a u s r o g r c a t p a i n o r r c s u l t i n d c a t h . A c c o r d i n g t o d i l f e r e n t s o u r c o s ,t h e r e a r c c r t h c r ( r 4 o r 1 2 0 s u c h s p o t s ; M . M o n i e r - W i l l i a n - r s ,S a r r s l c r l t - I J r g l iDht t i t t n a r y . ( O x f o r d , 1 8 9 9 ) p . 7 9 1 , g i v c s t h c i r st nun-rber s 107. a 'I 1 . L a k c A n a v a t a p t ai s a l a k e i n B u d d h i s t a n d H i n d u c o s n t o l o g y , n o r r h o f t h e S n o w Mountain and south of the FragrantMountain. The cight rivcrs are: Gangcs,Indus, Oxus, S i t 5 . 1 . , t r , t . t " , a r a v a s t i ( ? )H i r a n y a v a t i o r A j i r a v a t i , a n d M a h i ( ? ) . S o m c t i r n c s o n l y t h e f i r s t S , iour lrc lrrclltionccl. 12. I.e., knowledge of the four noblc truths. 13. The mind-created bodv refers to thosc rvho have been relcascdlrom ordinary birth r n . l d c a t h . a n d c a n a p p e a ri n l n v f o r r n a t w i l l w i t h o u t b e i n g s u b j e c tt o t h e l i m i r a r i o n so f t i m e :nd sp:cr-.

Tnr Tnur LroN's l{oan or QutEN SnivAt-A

385

1 4 . B o d h i s a t t v a so f t h c s c v e n t h o r e i g h t h s t a g e ,w h o h a v c a t t a i n e dt h e l l e a l i z a t i o no f S the Nonarising of Dharmas. There are othcr interpretations. ccVen. Yin Shun. op. rlf., pp. 1,52-3 15. Thc four underlying dcfilements mentioncd belou'. 1 6 . T h e s e v c n g r a d e so f l e a r n c r s a r e : t h o s e r v h o a r c a p p r o a c h i n gt h e f r u i t o f a s t r e r n r e n t c r c r , a n d t h o s c w h o h a v c o b t a i n e d i t ; t h o s e w h o a r c a p p r o a c h t l r gt h c l r u i t o f a o n c e r e t u r n c r , a n d t h o s c w h o h a v e o b t a i n e d i t ; t h o s e u ' h o a r c a p p r o a c h i n gt h c f r u i t o f a n o n r e t u r n c r , a n d t h o s e w h o h a v e o b t a i n c d i t ; a n d t h o s e r v h o a r c a p p r o a c h i n gt h c f r u i t o f o l r e beyond learning, i.e., an Arhat. 1 7 . T h e a c t i v c d c f i l c r n c n t sa r e t h e u n w h o l e s o r r c m e n t a l i u n c t i o n s s u c h a s l u s t , a n g c r , e ' t c . ,w h i c h a r i s e w h e n t h e m i n d s t i r s . 1 8 . W e a r e c o r r s c i o u so f t h c a c t i v c d c f i l c m c n t s a r i s i n g f r o r n I I I o I n r ' n t t o l r l o n l e n t , w h c r c a s t r n c l c r l v i n gi g n o r a r r c c ,r v h i c h s c r v c s a s a " s t o r e " o r b a s i s l b r o t h c r c l c t l l e n r c n t s i.s T v e r 1 ,s u b t l e a n d d c c p l y i n h e r c n t , s o t h c o r c l i n a r v n r i n d i s n o t r w e r e o f i t s e ' x i s t r ' l t c e . h i s i s t p r e s u n r a b l vt h e n r e a n i n gh e r e . T h e t e x t r e a d s " t h e u n c l c r l y i n gd t - f i l e n r e n o i t i r n o r a n c c n c - v c r a r i s c s i n c o n c o n t i t a n c ew i t h t h e m i n d f r o m b e g i n n i n g l c s st i r n e . " T h i s i r n p l i c s t h a t s i n c e a i b c g m n i n g l c s st i n r c , u ' h e n t h e m i n d a r i s e s , g n o r a n c ei s l a t e n t , n o t a c t i v c ; t h c r c - f o r r - . s c n t l c l r t b c i n g i s n o t c o n s c i o u so f r t . 1 9 . I n t h c t c x t , " m o r L - n u m e r o u s t h a n t h c s a n d s o f t l i e ( i a n g e s " s e e t n st o n r o d i f r ' e n l i g h t e n m e n t ' ,n o t ' d c f i l c r n c n t s ' . 2 0 . T h e t e x t r c a d s i n f u l l : " a l l t h e d e f i l e m e n t s ,m o r e n u m c r o u s t h a n t h e s ; r n d so f t h c (ianges, which should bc cut olf by thc Tathigata's enlightcnmcnt and thc Buddha's dia." 2 1 . L i t e r a l l y , " H e w i l l r e a l i z ct h c u n o b s t r l r c t c dm i r a c u l o u s p o u ' e r s w i t h r c g a r d t o a l l " dharmas. " 2 2 . S c cG l o s s a r y , I a t h l g a t a - c t t t b r y o . " o 2 3 . A l t c r n a t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n :" t l c c : r u s ct h c c c s s r t i o no f s u l f e r i n g n r e a n st h e c r n e r g e n c e f T t h e p u r e o r i g i r r a l n a t u r e l r o m t h c s h c l l o f d c f i L - r n e n t s . h i s n a t u r c h a s n o b e g i r r r r i n g .n o a c t i o r l , n o o r i g i r . r a t i o nn o e n d , a n d i s e v e r - a b i d i n ga n d i m m o v a b l c . " , 'wornb of the Tathigata', or 2 4 . T a t h t g a t a - e r n b r y o i s s o r n c t i n r e st r a n s l a t e da s t h e 'trcasure o f t h e T a t h i g a t a ' ; t h a t i s t o s a , v ,t h c r c i s a c o m p l e t e , p e r l e c t B u d d h a - n a t u r cw i t h i n When one every sentient being. lt cannot nlanifest itself duc to thc covering of defilerr.rcnts. attains supreme enlightcnment, the Tathigata-cmbryo is no more. lt n.ranifcstsin full Tathagatahood. ' K n o w l e d g e ' , h e r e , a n d i n o t h c r p a s s a g e sc a n a l s o b c r c n d e r e d ' u ' i s d o t n ' . l I r I . n a n r ' , 25. 'wisdom'is u a b c t t c r t r a n s l a t i o n .H o r v c v c r , i n o r d c r t o r n a k e t h e t r a n s l a t i o r r n i t b r n r . cases. 'knowlcdgc' hcrc. rvc use l 2 b . G u n a b h a c l r l ' sv e r s i o n ( T a i s h o 3 5 3 , p . 2 2 2 ) s c c r n st o b e b c t t c r a n d d c r ' p r - r . t r e a d s i " l f o n e s e e sa l l p h e n o m e n aa s i m p e r r . n a n e n th i s i s a n i h i l i s t i c v i e r v , n o t t h c r i g h t v i c t . l i o l r e , v s e e sn i r v a n a a s p c r n a n c n t , h i s i s a n e t e r n a l i s t i c i c r v , t r o t t h e r i g h t v i c s ' . " 2 7 . T h i s s c n t c n c ci s a f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n lt h e t e x t i s o b s c u r c . 'Perfection' p 2tl. here translates aramiti. 'ethereally born' u,hcn it rctirs to rn actual birtl.t 29. We usually translate {b4 as i n a h e a v e n , a P u r e L a n d , c t c . H o r v e v e r , h e r c i t i s u s c d a l l e g o r i c a l l r ' .s o * c miraculously'. v w 3 0 . F o r t h e s c n v o p a r a g r a p h s e f o l l o w c n t i r c l y t h e r e a t l i n go f C l u n a b h a d r a ' s e r s i o n (Taisho353, p.222); thc original text is extremcly obscure. usc'born rnondlikc wisdortt.

386

ON GENrnar MaHAyaNa

DocrnrNr

3 1 . H e r e i s a n i m p o r t a n t s t a t e m e n ti n d i c a t i n g t h a t w i t h i n c v c r y h u m a n b e i n g t h c r e i s Buddha-nature, which gives rise to religious aspiration, i.e., the qucsr for perlection and ultimate meaning in life. This Buddha-nature is called hcre the 'Tathigata-cmbryo' 32. Presumably ueenSrinrill'shusband. Q

20 BEEsffi€
The Sutraof Assembled Treasures

Thus havc I heard. Once the tsuddha was dwcllir-rgon Mount Grdhrakuta ne.rr by Rajagrha,acconr;'ranicd cight thousancl great monks. Also in thc asscmblywcrc sixtccn thousancl Boclhisattva-Mahlsattvas from various Ruddha-lands. of u'hon-r all had attained the stage of nonregression and wcre destincdfor suprr-mec-nlightenrncnt in thcir ncxt livcs. "Four things causea 1'hat day, the World-Honorcd C)r.re told Mahakadyapa, Boclhisattva's wisdon to decrcase bc lost. What arc thc four? or (1) To disrespect thc Dharr-rra l)harrna-nlasters; or (2) to withhold thc profound Dharrna he has acquiredinsteadof disclosingit fullY; (3) to hinder those who rejoicc in the l)harma by giving thenr rcasons to dcspair;and (4) to be arrogant and conccitcd,and to disdain others.l Furthermore, KaSyapa,four things causea Bodhisattva to gain great \\'rsdom. What are thc four? (1) Always to respectthe Dharma and rcvcrc Dharma-nrastcrs; (2) to preach widely whatever Dharma he has lcarned, with a pure mind not in pursuit of fame or profit; (3) to know that wisdom ariscslrom much lcarning, and to pursuc lcarning with such constant, urgcnt cffort as ifto save his hcad from fire; and \ (4) to recite the sutras he has learned, and practicc chccrfull,vas instructcd, without becoming entangledin words.

translated Chinese an anonymous into Sutra43, Taisho310,pp. 631-638; by translator.

388

ON GEuEnarMaHAvANa Docrnrur

"Furthermorc, Ki6yapa, four things causca Bodhisattva to lose his bodhicitta. What are the four? (1) To deceivehis teacherand pay no respectto thc sfitrashc has been taught; (2) to cause unwarranted doubt or regret in others; (3) to revile and slander those who seek the Mahiyina, thus defaming them far and wide: and (4) to be fawning and crooked in dealing with people. "Furthermore, Ka5yapa, four things enable a tsodhisattva to retain his bodhicitta from one lifetime to another, so that it will always bc naturally present rn him until his attainment of Buddhahood. What are the four? jest; (1) Not to lie even wher-r life is at stake, much lessir-r his (2) always to deal with pcople sinccrely and honcstly, without flattcry or crookedness; (3) to think of fJodhisattvas '0Vorld-Honored as Ones, and to extol their names in all the four directions; and (4) not to enjoy the Hinay-na doctrines,but [instead]to causeall who bclicvc in thc Dharma to pursuc supremc bodhi. "Furthcrmorc, K-dyapa, fbur things cxuse the wholesome practicescultivated by a Bodhisattva to stop increasingor to ccasc.What arc the four? (1) 1'o rc'ad,rccitc, and study the secularscripturcsout ofarrogance; (2) to approach a donor with a mind lusting for material gains; t:l to rcscnt and slarrdcrotircr Bodhisattvas;and (4), to discredit and contradict sutras which he has not heard before.

I i

"Furthermore, Ki6yapa, four thirrgs cause the wholesome practicescultivlted bf a Bodhisattva to grow insteadof ceasing.What are thc four? i (t) The Bodhisattva rejectsheterodox doctrincsand seeksthe orthodox scriptures-such as those on thc six paramitas, which constitutc the Bodhisattva's canon-and when doing so, casts away arrogance and remalrls humble toward all sentientbeings. (2) Hc rcccivcs offerings in accordance with thc Dharma, is content with what he obtains, does not earn a livelihood in improper ways, and abides in thc f-ournoblc practiccs. (3) Hc does not expose others' wrongdoings, whether they are true or not, and does not look for people'sshortcomings. (-1)When he finds some [Buddhistl doctrines incomprehcnsible,he thinks, 'Thc tsuddha-Dharmahas infinite varictics,for it is preachedaccording ro the inclinationsof sentientbeings. It is known to the Buddha only, not to me. I should dcfcr to the Buddha as thc ccrtifying authority and not harbor disobedience opposition.' or

Tsr S0rna or Assr^asno Tnrasunrs

389

"Furthermorc, KaSyapa,a Bodhisattva must shun four wrong mentalities.2 What are the four? (1) To harbor doubts about the tsuddha-Dharmaor to regrer [having accepted itl; (2) to be resentfuland arrogant toward sentientbeings; (3) to be jealous of others for their gains and good living; and (4) to [wish to] revile othcr Bodhisattvasand defamc them far and wide. "Furthermore, Ki6yapa, four signs indicate a Bodhisattva'sright mentality.3 What are thc four? (1) Thc Bodhisattva does not hidc his transgressions, but cxposes rhen ro others so that his mirrd is free from covcrs and bonds. (2) Hc ncvcr speaksfalse words even if he loseshis own body, life, country, or kingdom. (3) When he encounters nrisfortunes,being scolded,beaten,slandered, bound, or otherwisc injurcd, hc blamcs himself only; resigning himsclf to karmic r e t r i b u t i o n ,h e d o e sn o t h a t eo t h e r s . a (4) Hc maintains his faith firmly; when he hears thc Buddha-Dharma which is profound and difficult to believe, his pure mind can accept and uphold it entirely. "Furthermore, Ka6yapa,four signs indicatca Bodhisattva'scorruption. What are the four? (1) After reading a scripturc, a corrupted tsodhisattva indulgesin play-words, instcad of practicing in accordance with the Dharma. (2) He does not obcy, rcspect,or gladden his masters. (3) Hc wastes devotees' offerings by accepting them even whcn he has broken his former vows. (4) Hc is contentptuous and disrespectful toward virtuous Bodhisattvas. "Furthermore, Ka6yapa, four signs indicate a Bodhisattva's willing compliancc. What are the four? (1) The Bodhisattva faithfully acccprsa surra the first timc he hears it, and practicesit as taught, rclying on the doctrine rather than on the s'ords. (2) He follows his master'sinstructions,knows his intention, and speaksrvith him openly; everything he does is in harmony with virtue and his master's
lntentlon.

(3) He never regresses discipline or dhyana, and acceptsoffcnngs with a in mind wcll subdued. (4) When he secsa virtuous Bodhisattva, he respcctshim, admires him, and emulateshis virtuous deeds. "Furthermore, Ki6yapa, there are four mistakes that a Bodhisattva may make. What are the four?

390

ON GENrnar ManAvANa I)ocrntNr (1) To comply with an untrustworthy person; (2) to prcach a profound doctrinc to a scnticrlt bcine who is incapable of acceptingit; (3) to praise thc Hinayina among thosc v,'ho rejoice in the Mahayina; and (4) to give only to virtuous precept-keepers, to wicked peoplc. not

"Furthermorc, Ki(yapa, therc are four right paths lor a Bodhisattva. What are the four? (1) To treat all sentientbeings impartialll,; (2) to teach all sentient beings impartially Ion the basis of thel Buddha's wisdom; (3) to preach the l)harma to all sentier-rt beings'"vithoutdiscrimination;and (4) to causcall scnticnt bcings to abidc in rigl.rtaction equally. "Furthermorc, Kaiyapa, there are four kinds of people u'ho are not good friends or companions lbr a tsodhisattva.What arc thc fbur? (1) Sravakas,who dcsirc only to bcncfit themselves; (2) Pratyckabuddhas, who enjoy having few things to attend to; (3) the worldly scholars,who study heterodox scripturesand indulge in flowery literature; and (4) associates who can onl