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THE TECH SET
Ellyssa Kroski, Series Editor
Next-Gen Library Redesign
www.neal-schuman.com LIBRARY AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATION
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
THE TECH SET
Ellyssa Kroski, Series Editor
Next-Gen Library Redesign
AL A TechSource
An imprint of the American Library Association Chicago 2012
© 2012 by the American Library Association. Any claim of copyright is subject to applicable limitations and exceptions, such as rights of fair use and library copying pursuant to Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Act. No copyright is claimed for content in the public domain, such as works of the U.S. government. Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Lascarides, Michael, 1970– Next-gen library redesign / Michael Lascarides. p. cm. — (The tech set ; #16) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-55570-787-3 (alk. paper) 1. Libraries—Information technology—Planning. 2. Libraries and the Internet. 3. Library Web sites. 4. Libraries and community. 5. Communication in library administration. I. Title. Z678.9.L275 2012 020.285'4678-—dc23 2012009040
This paper meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper).
Foreword by Ellyssa Kroski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Types of Solutions Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Social Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii xi 1 9 17 23 29 91 97
8. Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 9. Developing Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Recommended Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Don’t miss this book’s companion website! Turn the page for details.
THE TECH SET® Volumes 11–20 is more than just the book you’re holding! These 10 titles, along with the 10 titles that preceded them, in THE TECH SET® series feature three components: 1. This book 2. Companion web content that provides more details on the topic and keeps you current 3. Author podcasts that will extend your knowledge and give you insight into the author’s experience The companion webpages and podcasts can be found at: www.alatechsource.org/techset/ On the website, you’ll go far beyond the printed pages you’re holding and: Access author updates that are packed with new advice and recommended resources Use the website comments section to interact, ask questions, and share advice with the authors and your LIS peers Hear these pros in screencasts, podcasts, and other videos providing great instruction on getting the most out of the latest library technologies For more information on THE TECH SET® series and the individual titles, visit www.neal-schuman.com/techset-11-to-20.
None of the innovations of recent decades have changed the core mission of the library world, which is to both provide access to information for the widest variety of patrons and provide patrons with the tools and guidance to make informed choices with that information. The result of the digital revolution for libraries has been to shift our primary emphasis from the former to the latter; as barriers to access fall, the work of ensuring quality, providing context, and simply making sense of the torrents of information in our patrons' lives becomes paramount. For this reason, rather than focusing on a single software approach, Next-Gen Library Redesign explores numerous web-based technologies, with particular focus on free or low-cost open source software solutions that can be implemented quickly and with little investment. More importantly, it puts those technologies in the context of the larger technological, legal, and social trends emerging from the web and in doing so provides a useful set of tools, heuristics, and guidelines for determining which of those technologies is most worth the investment of your institution’s resources. It defines buzzwords and acronyms issuing forth from vendors' press releases to identify the most fundamental new trends in the information landscape and set forth some rules to determine which are the most important for you. Even as a digitally savvy veteran of the first dot-com boom, I often find myself overwhelmed by the sheer quantity of Wonderful New Things with the potential to utterly upend the way libraries do business. From mobile devices to e-books to location-aware services to social networks, it can be difficult just to keep up with the new inventions, let alone distinguish the fads from the game-changers and the new standards. But this new information landscape also presents today's libraries with certain advantages. We can avail ourselves of physical roots in our communities, passionate and loyal patrons, an open community of professional practice that encourages sharing, and our deserved reputation as defenders of a culture of access to information for all.
Next-Gen Library Redesign
ORGANIZATION AND AUDIENCE
The introductory chapters of this book give an overview of the “big picture” technology landscape and highlight some of the external forces that are changing the way that the library world works, ways to identify which of those forces are the fundamental ones, and examples of ways that the most agile libraries are adapting to that change. Chapter 1 highlights the speed at which digital and web technologies are changing the whole of society, not just the library world, and changing the expectations of our patrons about what makes a good digital experience. Chapter 2 gives a broad overview of the variety of (mostly open source and free or low-cost) software available that can be used to quickly and effectively solve some common problems. Chapter 3 lays out tools and techniques to not only follow a project through to completion but also to decide what the highest-priority projects are in the first place for your institution. Chapter 4 discusses how to involve the many stakeholders from across your organization in the process of prioritization and development and how to ensure you get their feedback. Chapter 5 offers six sample projects to break down the barriers between your online patrons and your collections, beginning with an inventory and “spring cleaning” of all of your web properties, moving through simple ways to encourage sharing and discovery, and moving on to more sophisticated ways of actually collaborating with your patrons to create new content. Chapter 6 highlights how to let both your patrons and your staff know about the new projects you’ve launched and how to sustain them, and it offers strategies for “learning by doing” in using the new projects themselves as marketing tools. Chapter 7 describes ways of using digital technologies to build communities, lower your workload, and maximize the number of ways that your patrons can connect to your institution and your collections. Chapter 8 lays out a comprehensive plan for undertaking the all-important task of determining just how much your efforts are making an impact, incorporating qualitative and quantitative techniques from both traditional and nextgeneration sources. Chapter 9 looks at just a few of the new technologies on the horizon both within and without the library world with the potential to reshape our world once again. If you are a librarian with basic to intermediate web technology skills, Next-Gen Library Redesign can help you make sense of what’s behind the urgency of the new web-based technologies being implemented by today's forward-thinking libraries. And if you’re a more advanced technologist, this book will teach tips and techniques that you can apply to your practice to make sure that the services that you’re already providing are coherent, sensible, and useful.
I hope that you’ll be able to use the projects contained in Next-Gen Library Redesign at your own institution to create the best possible experiences for your patrons. But beyond the software projects, I hope that the practical insights this book offers can help you calmly and critically evaluate and navigate the immense changes that digital, networked, and mobile technologies are imposing on our libraries and turn them from a source of stress into a source of innovation, creativity, and success.
Disruptive Innovation It’s All about the Experience
Way back in that earlier age of technology known as mid-2007, if you wanted to purchase a small, easy-to-use electronic device dedicated to reading books in electronic format, your choices were decidedly limited. A number of earlier devices (such as the Rocket eBook) had come and gone, burdened by dark, low-contrast LCD screens, bulky batteries, small memory capacity, and awkward usability. The Wikipedia page surveying e-book readers listed only six products. Had you been listening to conversations within libraries about e-books at that time, you would have heard a lot of optimism for the e-book format, tempered by a healthy dose of skepticism. Libraries had long been intrigued about delivering texts to their patrons electronically because the advantages were many: digital copies are cheap, can be delivered on demand, and can be created on the fly, mitigating the need for extensive planning from the collections development staff. But arguments were also being made that e-books might never live up to the hype. After all, we knew certain things. E-books are difficult to use. E-book readers strain the eyes far more than paper books. Our patrons don’t read long-form works on the screen. Nobody owns these dedicated devices, and it’s expensive for us to buy enough of them. And our patrons tell us they just like paper better. In November 2007, online retailer Amazon announced that it would start selling its own e-book reader, called the Kindle. The Kindle represented a great leap forward in getting usable e-book technology into the hands (quite literally) of a mass audience for the first time. It was a lightweight, simple device that fit easily into a bag or coat pocket. It had a simple, intuitive interface, with dedicated buttons to flip pages and scroll up and down through a document. Memory was solid-state and abundant, meaning the device could hold immense amounts of text and images without fragile hard drives.
Next-Gen Library Redesign
Amazon made it easy to load new e-books onto the device, even allowing customers to purchase new titles from the device itself. And the Kindle used a high-resolution “E-ink” display that, unlike typical back-lit computer screens, mimicked the appearance of paper. The device, while far from perfect, wiped out a large chunk of the criticism against earlier e-book readers the day it launched. It was easy to use, it fit nicely in the hand, and it was no more or less hard to read than a trade paperback. And this time, it was backed by the biggest book retailer in the industry. It is estimated that by mid-2010, with the Kindle already in its third generation, more than four million of them had been sold (Wilhelm, 2010). Backed by deals with major publishers and deeply integrated into Amazon’s own groundbreaking e-commerce system, it single-handedly created the first mass market for e-books. For libraries, the question about e-books quickly shifted from “When?” to “What about us?” The Kindle platform was relatively closed, making interoperability with existing e-book distribution systems difficult. There were questions about its copy-protection software and distribution rights. But no one was asking when will e-books hit the mainstream anymore. Another big leap in e-book reader technology was Apple’s introduction of the iPad, a touch screen tablet computer, in early 2010. A video was posted on YouTube (YouTube, 2010) a day or two after the first iPads were delivered to customers, and it has been viewed more than one million times. In it, a father (just off camera) hands his new iPad to his two-and-a-half-year-old daughter, bright eyed and adorable in her butterfly-print pajamas. Despite having never seen the iPad before, the little girl starts swiping through the choices, pressing buttons, and launching and closing applications within ten seconds. When a barely verbal child can deduce the basic operations of a computer (and despite the form factor and reduced interface, it most certainly is a computer) almost instantly, we are clearly dealing with a new kind of interactive experience. The lesson for libraries about the Kindle and iPad is that it takes only one or two seminal products to turn “might happen someday” into “we have to do this now.” A banner ad on Amazon’s homepage, or the words “. . . and it will be in stores tomorrow!” from a grinning, be-turtlenecked Steve Jobs, and suddenly that future is here.
E-book readers (and, more significantly, their attendant online bookstores) are just one innovation with the potential to impact the core business of libraries. There are dozens of them, starting with the World Wide Web itself
and including search engines, social networks, e-books, e-commerce, smartphones, Wikipedia, Google Books, recommendation and rating sites, location-aware networks, QR codes, digital television, online video, podcasting, blogging—the list can seem endless. But the library world is by no means alone, as dozens of industries are struggling with the creative disruption wrought by a super-empowered, networked audience. The music and film industries find themselves in pitched battles against illegal downloads of their copyrighted materials and the increased competition afforded by lower production costs. Universities see potential threats in low-cost, online instruction. Newspapers seem to be fighting battles on every front, from social networks’ ability to instantaneously spread stories, depriving them of scoops, to the global competition now one click away, to the high cost of printing thousands of paper copies daily, to the loss of revenue from classified ads supplanted by the likes of Craigslist. Magazines, television, academic journals, advertising—a vast segment of the global economy is coping with what economist Clayton Christensen (2003) has termed “disruptive innovation.” Christensen spent years studying why some businesses thrive and others die in the face of changing circumstances. His work describes how even well-managed companies that are responsive to their customers’ needs can find themselves outperformed by others offering inferior products. Specifically, he examines how the markets for particular products behave when new competitors arise, making a distinction between “low-end disruption,” where innovators target an audience that doesn’t need the full value of the best product in the market, and “new-market disruption,” where the new players find new markets that were unserved (or underserved) by existing products. For libraries, the implication of the theory of disruptive innovation is that neither providing high-quality content nor offering free access will, by themselves, save us. Let’s assume for a moment that libraries are an industry, offering a product (access to all kinds of information) to customers (our patrons) and arrayed against a host of innovative competitors. In Christensen’s (2003) model, we are the incumbent supplier. There are many forms of information for which libraries had previously been the exclusive supplier, but now we compete against others on the web who offer a qualitatively inferior but easily procured product. Google and Wikipedia now compete with the reference librarian. Tax forms and government data are supplied by the agencies themselves on their own websites. Enough academic journals and peer-reviewed materials are freely available to offer a good start on most research projects. The list goes on. Librarians take justifiable pride in the quality and value of the information products they produce and are passionate defenders of long-form text in print,
Next-Gen Library Redesign
deep collections, and original sources. Google, we assure our patrons, doesn’t contain even remotely close to everything. Yet the history of commerce is littered with the wreckage of innovative companies that made products that were far superior to those of their competitors. The important question isn’t “Do libraries have better content?” but “Can our patrons get a ‘good enough’ version of what we offer somewhere else?” Where the answer to this last question is “yes,” we need to act. And fast. Another defense of libraries is that we give away that better product for free. However, much content on the web is free, as well. Our patrons are practically swimming in no-cost content, both within and without the library. Libraries may offer cheaper and higher-quality resources than our other sources, but we’re not necessarily easier to use. If we cost our patrons time, aggravation, and effort, they will certainly look around for less-stressful options. And there’s more bad news: it’s not just free against free. Precedents show that often people would rather pay for a good experience than endure a bad one for free. As an example, look to Apple’s launch of the iTunes Music Store in 2003. At the time of its launch, the illegal file-sharing service Napster had already come and gone and peer-to-peer file sharing was on the rise. Apple proceeded anyway with its new online music store, getting buy-in from a number of large recording labels and building software that placed a premium on usability (something that earlier, now-forgotten competitors had been criticized as lacking). Apple saw that free, ubiquitous, and illegal downloads didn’t actually offer a great alternative. They could be hit-or-miss to find, were often mislabeled, and were wildly varying in quality. The software to access them was usually difficult to configure and use. And, of course, they were still illegal. The Music Store was an instant success. By 2010, Apple had sold ten billion songs, most at 99 cents each (Apple Corporation, 2010). That’s roughly ten billion dollars made selling something that any smart teenager (with a willingness to bend the rules) could grab from the Internet without paying. Drawn by a simple, consistent interface, good selection, and excellent quality control, people became iTunes customers because buying music from iTunes was a better experience than the free alternative. Sometimes, you get what you pay for.
IT’S ALL ABOUT THE EXPERIENCE
For this reason, libraries must pay attention to what other media and information innovators are offering to our patrons when they’re not at the library. Google, Facebook, Netflix, Twitter, Amazon, Apple, The New York Times, and others set the standard for what good, useful interactive experiences feel like,
not just what they offer. Every new innovation in user experience they roll out raises the library patron’s expectations of what is possible—and expected. Make no mistake: free access and compelling content are immeasurably valuable resources. But without partnering those two with engaging, easy-to-use experiences, libraries run the risk of dissatisfaction, dwindling audiences, and disuse. Fortunately, the barriers to entry for creating great software have lowered immensely in recent years and are even within the grasp of libraries with limited technical staff. And libraries possess a number of advantages over other online sources of media and information. Our buildings and our history of face-to-face interactions give us deep, physical roots in our communities; when so much socializing happens through a glowing screen, places to meet and converse in the real world take on added value. Libraries have an open community of professional practice that encourages sharing, even between “rival” institutions. And libraries have a deserved reputation as impartial defenders of a culture of access to information for all and as an important counterbalance against excessive corporate influence or government regulation. In the short term, it is the loyalty of our patrons that is perhaps the most important of advantages. A recent survey in the United Kingdom found that 74 percent of library users and 59 percent of nonusers considered that nation’s libraries to perform an “important” or “essential” role in their communities (Sharma, 2010). That’s an audience that will gladly pitch in and help us evolve with the changing media landscape. Beneath the numbers, the connection with the library goes beyond mere satisfaction and into something that looks a lot like love. Love of books, love of reading, love of learning, love of discovery—these emotional connections power the library of today. However, today’s loyalty is borne of the decades of previously invested good experiences delivered to an audience that had far fewer media and reading choices. For the library of the future to have as passionate an audience in decades to come, we need to ensure that we’re offering interactive and discovery experiences that are as good as the offerings they are becoming used to outside the library. The 2008 U.S. election included the first voters who have never taken a breath in a world without the web. Right behind them, the so-called “Millennial Generation” and “Digital Natives” (like that two-and-a-half-year-old with her father’s iPad) are much more comfortable in a media-saturated world and will demand a higher quality of tools. Those kids are that “next generation” for whom we need to create the perfect library. So, what exactly is a next-generation library? I offer that being a nextgeneration library is about taking a certain attitude toward the future, one that sees in the increasing rate of technological and social change not a
Next-Gen Library Redesign
threat to what we’ve done before but an opportunity for what we can do now. A next-generation library: embraces the technology that’s the best tool for the job and has the nerve to stick with traditional methods where they are best; moves from a service model of “face-to-face” to one of “shoulder-toshoulder” and acts as a guide, not as a gatekeeper (Underhill, 2000); doesn’t see the digital and the physical as distinct, circumscribed modes but instead embraces them as deeply complementary and overlapping; listens to patrons and uses every possible communication tool to engage them in two-way conversations; uses technology of all kinds to improve discoverability of and access to collections as radically and broadly as possible; and doesn’t get upset when patrons go somewhere else for information but adjusts to and learns from the new information landscape (in other words, don’t fight Google or Wikipedia—participate in them!). A “next-generation library,” then, is not an official appellation. It’s not dependent on having a huge staff. There’s no qualifying test or club membership awarded, no gold plaque from a governing body you can affix to your front entrance. “Next-generation-ness” is, at core, no more or less than an attitude toward change. The accelerating rate of technological and societal change can be seen as threatening or frustrating, but it instills librarians with a sense of purpose, on two fronts. First, by learning to embrace change, we can constantly reevaluate and improve our services and offerings; and second, we can offer our patrons an unbiased, guided journey through their relationship with this new change. Privacy, copyright, search engines, new technologies, sharing, piracy, new formats, new devices—when even the most tech-savvy among us finds it exhausting to keep up, imagine the plight of the average, not-so-tech-savvy patron trying to make sense of all of it. It’s become a bit of a cliché to say that the only thing you can be sure of is change, but the past four decades or so have made it clear that our communications and information technologies have exceeded all but the wildest science fiction. If it seems possible that some new digital technology Thing might be available on the Internet in a couple of years, then the smart money is on someone building a prototype, someone else making it usable, and a third someone making it ubiquitous. Faced with such barbaric interlopers, the traditional library of popular culture (you know all the staid and old-fashioned caricatures, I’m sure) bars the door, barricades the stacks, and launches into a passionate defense of the beauty of paper. But the next-generation library, with grace, agility, and faith
in the ability of print to easily endure alongside the digital, accepts innovation as inevitable, finds the newcomers a place to sit, and puts them to work making patrons happy. In this book, we will look at ways that modern libraries are embracing change and offer practical, hands-on tutorials to implement those changes yourself. But readers should think about their own institutions and look for ways to move beyond the installation of software and into a critique of all of the barriers preventing you from giving your patrons better experiences. It takes innovation and evolution on the legal, management, and partnership fronts as much as the financial or technical to equip your library to be comfortable with change. Let’s get started.
Page numbers followed by the letter “f” indicate figures.
ABBYY FineReader, 87–88 AddThis.com, 50–51 Administrator, web, 31 Aggregators, 48–49 Agile methods, 99–100 AgileManifesto.org, 99 AJAX, 35 Amazon.com, 4, 38, 111 Kindle, 1–2, 110–111 Mechanical Turk, 86–88 Analytics questions, 107–108 return on investment (ROI), 20–21 software, 106–107 web and, 103–106 See also Metrics; Surveys Android, 14–15 Apple.com, 2, 4, 34, 111 Application programming interface (API), 12, 14, 85, 100–101 Apps, 14–15, 49, 101 Archive facilities, 49, 52–53, 70–74, 85 summit and, 111 visible, 76–77 webpages, 33 Arroyo, Lora, 82 Association of College and Research Libraries, 21
Audience, 92–93, 95–96 Audio, 13, 33, 52, 59 books and, 30 LibGuides, 14, 60, 67 Augmented reality, 110
Basecamp, 93 Benchmarks, 95, 101, 104 Berners-Lee, Tim, 111–112 Best practices mobile web, 14–15 navigation, 32, 37, 41–43, 57, 110 policies, 11, 33, 55–57, 63, 98–99 legal, 89–90 privacy issues and, 26, 69–70 search engine optimization (SEO), 36–38 social media, 54–55, 54f strategic planning, 98–101 standards, 100–101, 111–112 See also Marketing BiblioCommons, 15, 51f BibliOdyssey, 74, 75f BibliOdyssey: Amazing Archival Images from the Internet (Kerrigan), 74, 75f Bing, 36 Blackberry, 14 Blog best practices and, 49, 54–56, 97–98 Boxes and Arrows, 19
Next-Gen Library Redesign
IT department, 25–26, 31, 46 LibGuides, 14, 60, 66–67 mobile solutions, 14–15 models, 9–10 open source software, 10–11 social media platforms, 13–14 software, 12–13, 15–16, 47–49, 67 wikis, 11–12, 30 See also Content management system (CMS) Content management system (CMS), 12–13, 33, 60, 67, 77 Costs, 3, 10–11, 14, 18, 25–26, 60, 67 Faceted Feature Analysis (FFA), 19–20, 20f Crowdsourcing community building, 85, 88 concerns, 89 designing, 85–88 images and, 80–81, 80f–81f issues, 88–89 linking, 84–85 projects, 78–83, 79f rules, 83–85 social media and, 98 taxonomies of, 82–83 Customizing mass, 36 open source, 9–11, 13, 38, 44, 76, 93 search engines and, 36, 38 social network, 54–55, 54f software, 15–16, 76
Blog (cont’d.) companion website, 13 content management systems and, 12–13 crowdsourcing and, 85 library and, 3, 38–40, 47, 53 measuring and, 103, 105 Powazek, Derek, 37 promotion and, 64–68, 69f, 92–93 software, 70–71 Boopsie, 14, 18 Boxes and Arrows, 19 Branding, 26, 32, 41–44, 47, 54–55 Brown University Library, 65f Browsers, 34–35, 38, 62, 105, 107 Building Mobile Library Applications (Clark), 15, 29–30
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) language, 33–35, 35f, 100 Catalog (OPAC) analytics and, 103–106 collection and, 31–32, 38–41, 52, 61, 70–72 linking and, 68, 84 mobile access, 14–15, 29 next-gen and, 30, 109–110 searching, 21 social media and, 51f, 52–53, 68 user and, 25 See also OPAC Christensen, Clayton, 3 Clark, Jason, 15, 29–30 CMS. See Content management system (CMS) Collections highlighting, 70–71, 71f, 72–76, 73f, 75f–76f tools, setup, 76–78, 86–88 Community, 5, 33 building, 85, 88, 91–92, 97–98 cultivating, 62, 97–100, 111 of practice, 68–69 user, 10–11, 13, 61–63, 85–87, 95 Content management blogs, 13 images, 13–14, 48–49, 53–54, 54f, 70, 74, 75f
Deep collections, 38–39, 70–76 Delicious, 49–50 Designing, 85–89 Designing with Web Standards (Zeldman and Marcotte), 33 Digg, 48, 55 Digital cul-de-sacs, 62 Digital humanities, 111 Digital Public Library of America, 110 Digital technologies, 1–4 Disruption innovation, 2–4 Documentation, 10, 26, 43–44, 93–94 “Dogfooding,” 94 Domain name, 31
Dreamweaver, 34 Drupal, 12–13, 33, 38, 60, 67, 77 Drupal in Libraries (Varnum), 13 Dublin Core, 100 Duke, Darcy, 66
E-books, 1, 30–31, 41, 110–111 E-mail, 57, 92–93 Evaluations. See Surveys
Facebook, 4, 39, 45, 47–50, 52, 75 customizing, 54–55, 51f–52f “fan pages,” 47 friending, 66 next-generation and, 93 privacy and, 56–57 Faceted Feature Analysis (FFA), 19–20, 20f Fay, Robin, 38, 112 Firebug, 35, 35f Firefox, 34–35 Flagship accounts, 46–47 Flickr, 13, 48, 53–55 Flickr Commons, 48 Florida State University, 57, 58f Focus groups, 107–108 Foursquare, 47, 49 Friendster, 49
Harvest, 18 HathiTrust, 110 HistoryPin, 49 Homepage, 16, 58, 79, 93 HootSuite, 55 HTML, 60, 62, 112 Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) language, 33–36, 35f crowdsourcing and, 78 documentation, 44 markup tags and, 37–38 social network and, 53 software platforms and, 67 standards, 100 HTML5, 37, 100 Hyperlink, 61–62, 111 See also Linking
Icon, 45, 54, 73, 73f IdeaScale, 86 IdeaTorrent, 86 Images analytics and, 105, 107 crowdsourcing and, 80–81, 85 mobile devices and, 1–2 next-gen and, 30 sharing and, 13, 48, 53, 77 social media and, 13–14, 48–49, 53–54, 54f website and, 32–33, 40, 59, 70, 74, 75f Implementation. See Project management Innovation, 1–4, 14 Internet Explorer, 34 Inventory, 17–18, 20, 30–32, 105–106 iOS, 14 iPhone, 101 IT department, 25–26, 31, 46 iTunes Music Store, 4
Google, 3–4, 6, 11, 36, 60, 84 Analytics, 105–106 Blogger, 13, 77 Books, 87, 111 Buzz, 55 Docs, 30, 94 Gmail, 38 Maps, 35, 101 News, 54–55 next-generation and, 70, 94, 111 Reader, 77 search engines and, 38–40 technical standards, 101 Tesseract, 87 Google+, 48 Guardian (Manchester), 36, 79, 80f, 98
Next-Gen Library Redesign
Location-Aware Services and QR Codes for Libraries (Murphy), 110 Logos, 32, 41–42, 54, 73, 73f
Kerrigan, Paul, 74 Kindle, 1–2, 110–111 Kleber, Beth, 74
Legal issues, 3–4, 26, 69–70, 89 Letters of Note, 74 LibGuides, 14, 60, 67 Librarian’s webpage, 63–64, 65f, 65–67, 94 Library experience, 4–7 IT systems department, 25–26 management support, 26–27 mission statement, 17 next-generation, 5–7, 94 open community, 5–6 policy and, 11, 33, 63, 98–99 strategic planning, 55–56, 58, 98–99 Twitter policy and, 55–57 See also Content management Library of Congress, 47, 49, 52f Library website. See Website, library Linked and Open Data for Libraries, Archives, and Museums Summit, 111–112 LinkedIn, 57 Linking aggregators, 48–49 broken, 32 collection, 38–42, 53, 61, 72 crowdsourcing and, 84–85 digital cul-de-sacs, 62 hyperlink and, 61–62, 111 promotion and, 57–58, 66, 68–69, 69f, 92–93 search engines and, 36–37 sharing networks, 48 social media and, 45, 47–48, 53, 75 best practices, 54–55 widgets and, 50, 51f–52f, 52 software, 12, 14, 67, 107 standards and, 111–112 subject guides, 59–63 third-party sites and, 32–33 trends, 50, 111–112 Locational networks, 49 Location-aware applications, 110
MARC, 100 Marcotte, Ethan, 33 Marketing application programming interface (API), 12, 14, 85, 100–101 audience, 91–93, 95–96 benchmarking, 95 blogging, 13 change, responsive, 99–100 collections, 70–71, 71f, 72–73, 73f, 74–76, 75f, 76f communicating internally, 93–94 community, cultivating, 97–100, 111 expectations, 91–92 librarians and, 63–64, 65f, 65–67, 94 linking and, 57–58, 66, 68–69, 69f, 92–93 next-generation tools, 93–94 practices, 74, 77 policies, setting, 98–99 public profiles, 63–67, 65f social media, 55, 57–58, 58f, 75–76 standards, 100–101 Twitter, 57–58, 58f, 75, 91 virtual branch, 73–74, 77 Markup, 33–36, 35f, 100 Mass customization, 36 Mechanical Turk, 86–88 MediaWiki, 12, 61, 87 Meta tags, 75 MetaFilter, 55 Metrics analytics, 103–104 benchmarks, 95, 101, 104 focus groups, 107–108 goals, 104–105 Google Analytics, 106 management and, 27, 104 measuring options, 103–106 return on investment (ROI), 20–21 satisfaction surveys, 107–108 software, 31, 106–107 SurveyMonkey, 107
surveys, 106–108 user experience, 104–108 Microsoft, 38, 94 Milton Glaser Archives, 73–74, 73f Mission statement, 17 MIT, 66, 69f M-Libraries conference, 15 Mobile technology access, 14–15 catalog (OPAC) and, 14–15 companion website, 11, 29–30 creating, 14–15 LibGuides and, 14, 60, 67 M-Libraries conference, 15 platforms, 49 solutions, 14–15 technology, 29–30 trends, 109–112 vendors, 14–15 Murphy, Joe, 110
documentation and, 10, 26, 43–44, 93–94 standards, 10–11, 34, 44, 74, 78, 111–112 OpenLibrary.org, 110 Optical character recognition (OCR) software, 81–82, 87–88 OptimalSort, 11
Parliament (British), 79–80 Passwords, 31, 40–41 Patrons accounts, 39–41, 46 communicating, 23–24, 95 community, 10, 13, 61–63, 85–87, 95 experience, 5, 111 IDs, 40–41 marketing to, 91–93, 95–96 surveying, 104–108 website use, 104–108 PDF, 62, 107 optical character recognition (OCR) software, 81–82, 87–88 TEI (Text Encoding Initiative), 87 Perl (TWiki), 12 Pew Internet & American Life Project, 44 PHP, 15, 33, 61 Planning change and, 24, 27, 31–32, 38, 43 Faceted Feature Analysis (FFA), 19–20, 20f interactive, 26–27, 58–63 inventory, 17–18, 20, 30–32 investment return, 20–21 LibGuides, 14, 60, 67 problem solving, 17–18 return on investment (ROI), 20–21 scheduling, 18–19 time, tracking of, 18–19 See also Project management Platforms choosing, 47–50, 60, 67–68, 87 IT and, 25–26, 31, 46 mobile, 2, 14–15 next-gen and, 30–33, 93 social media and, 12–14, 52, 54–55, 57 Twitter, 47–49 Polansky, Adam, 19
Napster, 4 Navigation, 32, 41–43, 57, 110 markups, 33–36, 35f, 37 Netflix, 4 New York Public Library, 13, 46–47, 49, 81, 84 blog and, 71f marketing and, 57 What’s on the Menu?, 81, 82f, 84, 86 New York Times, 4, 36, 51f
Old Weather project, 78–79, 79f, 83 Omniture, 105–106, 115 Oomen, Johan, 82 OPAC customizing, 15–16 linking, 38–42, 53, 72 mobile access, 14–15 See also Catalog (OPAC) Open source software, 10–11 choosing, 60, 77, 88 content management system (CMS) and, 12–13, 67 customizing, 9–11, 13, 15–16, 38, 44, 54, 76, 93
Next-Gen Library Redesign
time, tracking of, 18–19 unified library presence, 29–33 visible archive, 76–78 waterfall and, 100 See also Content management; Planning Promotion. See Marketing Public profiles, librarians, 63–67, 65f Python, 15
Powazek, Derek, 37 Priceline.com, 45 Privacy, issues, 26, 56–57, 69–70 Profile, public, 63–69, 65f, 69f Project management administrator, web, 31 agile methods, 99–100 benchmarks, 95, 101, 104 branding, 26, 32, 41–44, 47, 54–55 crowdsourcing and, 78–82, 79f, 80f–82f, 83–85 designing, 85–89 documentation, 44 Faceted Feature Analysis (FFA), 19–20, 20f implementation, 21, 40, 75 inventory list, 17–18, 20, 30–32, 105–106 IT department, 25–26, 31, 46 legal issues, 3–4, 26, 69–70, 89 library management, 26–27 links, 38–39, 61–63 marketing, 70–71, 71f, 72–73, 73f, 74–76, 75f, 76f markup and, 33–36, 35f, 100 mission and vision statement, 17 next-generation, 31–33, 93–94 patron accounts, 39–41 patron feedback, 23–24 platforms, 47–49, 67 policies, 55–57, 63, 98–99 privacy issues, 26, 56–57, 69–70 return on investment (ROI), 20–21 scheduling, 18–19 search engine optimization, 36–38 sharing and, 50, 51f, 52f, 52–55 site maps, 38–39 social media and, 30–31, 44–47 software, 9–11, 26 content management system (CMS), 12–13, 33, 60, 67, 77 custom development of, 15–16 vendor, choosing, 27–28 staff feedback, 24–25 staff training, 27 stakeholder, 19, 23, 25–26 style guide, 15, 42–44, 54 subject guides, 14, 59–63, 67 third-party sites and, 32–33
QR code, 110–111, 110f
Rainie, L., 44 RDF, 100, 111 Reddit, 48, 50, 55 Return on investment (ROI), 20–21 Retweet, 53, 98 Rocket eBook, 1 RSS feed, 55, 77 Ruby, 15
Sachs, Zachary, 74 Sauers, Michael P., 38, 112 Scheduling, 18–19 Schema.org, 38, 111 School of Visual Arts in New York City, 73, 73f Scripto project, 87–88 Search engine optimization (SEO), 36–39 Search engines, 3 deep collections and, 70 markup and, 33 optimization, 36–38 social network and, 54 subject guides and, 60–63 Semantic web, 36–38, 112 Semantic Web Technologies and Social Searching for Librarians (Fay and Sauers), 38, 112 Sepiatown, 49 Server, 31 Server log analyzers, 106 Sharing, 50, 51f, 52f, 52–55, 75 Shirky, Clay, 45–46 SirsiDynix, 14 Site maps, 38–39
Smithsonian Institution, 47 Social media accounts, 46 best practices, 54–55, 54f blog, 13 communications with patrons, 95 communications with staff, 93 crowdsourcing and, 98 dashboards, 55 flagship, 46–47 implementing, 21, 75 incorporating, 30–31, 44–46, 56–57 LibGuides, 14, 60, 67 links, 45, 47–48, 53, 75, 93 aggregators, 48–49 widgets and, 50, 51f–52f, 52 marketing and, 95 networks, 48–49 platforms, 13–14, 47–49 privacy and, 56–57 promoting, 57–58, 58f reports, 85 RSS feeds and, 55 sharing and, 50, 51f, 52f, 52–55, 75 “social bookmarking,” 49 trends, 49–50, 111–112 See also Twitter SocialFlow, 55 Software analytics, 106–107 blogs, 13 costs, 3, 10–11, 14, 25–26, 30 custom development of, 15–16 models, 9–10 open source, 10–11 platforms, 13–14, 47–49, 67 RSS feed, 55, 77 standards, 10–11, 34, 44, 74, 78, 111–112 tools, setup, 76–78, 86–88 trends, 99–101 vendor, choosing, 27–28 wikis, 11–12 Source code, 33–36, 35f Sparked, 87 Spidering, 38–39 Springshare, LibGuides, 14 Staff feedback, 24–25 LibGuides, 14, 60, 67 marketing to, 91–94 training, 27 Stakeholders, 19, 23, 25–26 Standards, 10–11, 34, 44, 74, 78 application programming interface (API) and, 12, 14, 85, 100–101 linked data and, 111–112 Statistics. See Analytics; Metrics; Surveys Steiner, Sarah K., 56, 58, 99 Strategic planning, 98–101 Strategic Planning for Social Media in Libraries (Steiner), 56, 58, 99 StumbleUpon, 48, 50 Style guide, 15, 42–44, 54 Subject guides, 58–59 choosing, 59–61 content management systems, 12, 61 creating, 58–61 interactive, 58–63 LibGuides, 14, 60, 67 linking, 61–63 policies, 63 search engines and, 60 Sun Microsystems, 25, 33 SurveyMonkey, 107 Surveys analytics, 103–104 Google Analytics, 106 measuring options, 104–106 satisfaction, 107–108 software, 106–107 strategy planning, 104 SurveyMonkey, 107 user experience, 104–108
Tags, 33–38, 35f, 49, 100 TED Talk (Twitter), 45–46 TEI (Text Encoding Initiative), 87 Third-party sites, 32–33 Time, tracking of, 18–19 Trends, next-generation augmented reality, 110 collections and, 70–71 crowdsourcing and, 88–89 digital humanities, 111 e-books, 110–111
Next-Gen Library Redesign
sharing and, 49, 52 social media and, 2–3, 13–14 YouTube and, 2, 32–33, 45, 48 Vimeo, 45, 49 Visible archive, 76–77
Trends, next-generation (cont’d.) Google and, 70, 94, 111 internal communications, 93–94 library, 5–7, 29–31, 94 linked data, 111–112 location-aware applications, 110 mobile, 109–112 open data principles, 111–112 platforms, 30–33, 93 promotion, 63–54 QR code, 110–111, 110f social media, 49–50 software and, 10, 38, 99–101 technology, 97, 100–101 Tumblr, 13, 47, 49, 66, 77 TWiki, 12 Twitter accounts, 4, 39, 46 best practices, 54–55, 54f, 98 explained, 46–47 flagship accounts, 46–47 internal communication, 94 library policy and, 55–56 locational networks, 49 platforms, 47–49 privacy and, 56–57 promotion, 57–58, 58f, 75, 91 retweets, 53, 98 satellites, 46–47 sharing, 50, 51f–52f, 52–53, 66 standards and, 100 TED Talk (Twitter), 45–46 trends, 49–50 tweets, 47–48, 50, 53, 75, 91 website and, 53
W3C standards, 34 Wales, Jimmy, 64 Walker, Jay, 45 Waterfall method, 100 Web administrator, 31 Web Developer Toolbar, 35, 35f Web projects planning. See Planning; Project management Website, library archiving webpages, 33 best practices, 54–55, 54f branding, 26, 32, 41–44, 47, 54–55 Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) language, 33–35, 35f, 100 catalog interface, 15–16 collections, 70–71, 71f, 72–76, 73f, 75f–76f costs, 3, 10–11, 14, 18, 25–26, 60 crowdsourcing, 78–82, 79f, 80f–82f, 82–85, 88–89 designing, 33–34, 85–89 documentation and, 10, 26, 43–44, 93–94 hyperlink and, 61–62, 111 inventory list, 17–18, 20, 30–32, 105–106 IT department, 25–26, 31, 46 LibGuides, 14, 60, 67 librarian’s webpage, 63–64, 65f, 65–67, 94 linking, 38–42, 53, 61–63, 72 mobile access, 14–15 navigation, 32, 37, 41–43, 57, 110 next-generation audit and cleanup, 30–31, 31, 46 patron accounts, 39–41 platforms, 13–14, 47–49, 67 policies, 11, 33, 63, 98–99 privacy, 26, 55–57, 69–70 profile, public, 63–69, 65f, 69f promote, 57–58, 58f, 63–67, 65f redesign, 33–34
Unified library presence, 29–33 URL, 37–38, 45, 57, 93 Usher, Shaun, 74
Varnum, Kenneth J., 13 Vendors, 14–15, 27–28, 32–33, 41 Victoria & Albert Museum’s website, 80–81, 81f, 85 Video, 58–59 LibGuides, 14, 60, 67
search engines, optimizing, 36–39 sharing, 50, 51f–52f, 52–53 site maps, 38–39 social media, 44–47, 53–54 standards and practices, 44 style guide, 15, 42–44, 54 subject guides, 29–33, 58–61 tools, setup, 76–78, 86–88 updating, 33–36, 35f See also Content management; Project management Web 2.0, 23, 48–49 What’s on the Menu?, 81, 82f, 84, 86 Wikipedia, 1, 3, 6, 11–13, 64, 70, 89 deep web, 39 described, 58–59, 84–85 MediaWiki, 12, 61, 87 subject guides and, 58–59, 63–64 Wikis, 11–12, 30, 68 crowdsourcing and, 83, 86 documentation and, 44, 93–94 MediaWiki, 12, 61, 87 mobile and, 14–15 problems and, 12 software and, 67 subject guides and, 60–61 Wikispaces.com, 11 Wikispot.org, 11 World Wide Web, 2, 44, 78, 103, 111 WorldCat.org, 110 WordPress, 13, 33, 60, 67, 74, 76–77
XML, 100, 111
Yahoo!, 38 Yammer, 93–94 YouTube, 2, 13, 33, 45, 48, 57
Zeldman, Jeffrey, 33
This is the series to acquire and share in any institution over the next year. I think of it as a cost-effective way to attend the equivalent of ten excellent technology management courses led by a dream faculty! TECH SET® #11–20 will help librarians stay relevant, thrive, and survive. It is a must-read for all library leaders and planners. — Stephen Abram, MLS, Vice President, Strategic Relations and Markets, Cengage Learning
Next-Gen Library Redesign is part of THE TECH SET® VOLUMES 11–20, a series of concise guides edited by Ellyssa Kroski and offering practical instruction from the field’s hottest tech gurus. Each title in the series is a one-stop passport to an emerging technology. If you’re ready to start creating, collaborating, connecting, and communicating through cuttingedge tools and techniques, you’ll want to get primed by all the books in THE TECH SET®. New tech skills for you spell new services for your patrons: • Learn the latest, cutting-edge technologies. • Plan new library services for these popular applications. • Navigate the social mechanics involved with gaining buy-in for these forward-thinking initiatives. • Utilize the social marketing techniques used by info pros. • Assess the benefits of these new technologies to maintain your success. • Follow best practices already established by innovators and libraries using these technologies. Find out more about each topic in THE TECH SET® VOLUMES 11–20 and preview the Tables of Contents online at www.alatechsource.org/techset/. 11. Cloud Computing for Libraries, by Marshall Breeding 12. Building Mobile Library Applications, by Jason A. Clark 13. Location-Aware Services and QR Codes for Libraries, by Joe Murphy 14. Drupal in Libraries, by Kenneth J. Varnum 15. Strategic Planning for Social Media in Libraries, by Sarah K. Steiner 16. Next-Gen Library Redesign, by Michael Lascarides 17. Screencasting for Libraries, by Greg R. Notess 18. User Experience (UX) Design for Libraries, by Aaron Schmidt and Amanda Etches 19. IM and SMS Reference Services for Libraries, by Amanda Bielskas and Kathleen M. Dreyer 20. Semantic Web Technologies and Social Searching for Librarians, by Robin M. Fay and Michael P. Sauers
Each multimedia title features a book, a companion website, and a podcast to fully cover the topic and then keep you up-to-date.
American Library Association 50 E. Huron Street Chicago, IL 60611 1 (866) SHOPALA (866) 746-7252 www.neal-schuman.com
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