ECE deptt, Lovely Professional University Jalandhar, Punjab, India.
ABSTRACT The convolution can be defined for functions on groups other than Euclidean space. In particular, the circular convolution can be defined for periodic functions (that is, functions on the circle), and the discrete convolution can be defined for functions on the set of integers. These generalizations of the convolution have applications in the field of numerical analysis and numerical linear algebra, and in the design and implementation of finite impulse response filters in signal processing. 1. INTRODUCTION Convolution is a very powerful technique that can be used to calculate the zero state response (i.e., the response to an input when the system has zero initial conditions) of a system to an arbitrary input by using the impulse response of a system. It uses the power of linearity and superposition. To understand the power that this technique gives, consider the system described by the differential equation: You know how to find the output y(t) if the input f(t) is a well defined input such as a step, impulse or sinusoid. Convolution allows you to determine the response to more complex inputs like the one shown below. In fact, you can use convolution to find the output for any input, if you know the impulse response. This gives incredible power.
where y(t) is the output, and f(t) is the input. The impulse response of this system, h(t), can be shown to be equal to
(from Laplac e Transform Table) The impulse response is shown graphically below.
The approximation can be taken a step further by replacing each rectangular block by an impulse as shown below. The area of each impulse is the same as the area of the There are several ways to understand how convolution works. First convolution will be developed in an approximate form as the sum of impulse responses. This presentation is useful for an intuitive understanding of the convolution process. After the approximate form is developed, the exact analytic form of convolution is given. You can also link to an example of theconvolution integral in action, and to a less physical (more mathematical) derivation. THE CONVOLUTION AS A SUM OF IMPULSE RESPONSES. To understand how convolution works, we represent the continuous function shown above by a discrete function, as shown below, where we take a sample of the input every 0.8 seconds. . The superposition theorem states that the response of the system to the string of impulses is just the sum of the response to the individual impulses. The response of the system to the individual impulses is shown below. corresponding rectangular block
i·ΔT is the time delay of each impulse (f(i·ΔT)·ΔT) is the area of the ith impulse if you take the limit as ΔT→0, the summation yields the convolution integral (with i·ΔT=λ, ΔT=dλ)
This is the Convolution Theorem. The integral is often presented with limits of positive and negative infinity:
Lets look carefully at this graph and note the following: • The response of the system to a unit impulse, δ(t), is h(t). • The response of the system to a unit impulse delayed by time i·ΔT, δ(t-i·ΔT), is h(t-i·ΔT). • The response of the system to an impulse of area A delayed by time i·ΔT, is A·h(t-i·ΔT). This form is also equivalent because h(t-λ)=0 for t-λ<0 (or h(t• The height of the function at a time t=i·ΔT is f(i·ΔT)·ΔT. • • The area of the impulse at t=i·ΔT is f(i·ΔT)·ΔT. The delayed and shifted impulse response is given by f(i·ΔT)·ΔT·h(t-i·ΔT). λ)=0 for λ>t). This makes the limits of integration effectively 0 and t. The arguments in the integral can also be switched to give two equivalent forms of the convolution integral For our purposes the two integrals are equivalent because f(λ)=0 for λ<0 The form of the integral we will most often use is
Therefore the response of the system to a series of delayed impulses, as shown above is The convolution is often denoted by an asterisk (*)
In this equation • y(t) is the output
This equation merely states that the output is equal to the sum of the responses from the individual impulses. Another (more
mathematical) derivation of the convolution integral is given here. The summed response is shown in the graph below, along with the individual responses.
The graph below shows our approximate response, for ΔT=0.8 and ΔT=0.3, along with the exact response (the "exact" response is actually a numerical approximation, as calculated by Matlab).
The graph below shows the "exact" response along with the response calculated using Matlab "conv" (convolve) function. Type "help conv" at the Matlab prompt to see how it works. Obviously if you decrease the accuracy of the approximation should improve. shown above). The graph below shows the impulse responses if we let ΔT=0.3 seconds (instead of 0.8 seconds as Examine the script, convolution.m, which generated all these graphs for an example of how to use the function.
Hopefully this background gives you some physical insight into how convolution can be used to find the response of the system to an arbitrary input.
KEY CONCEPT: CONVOLUTION DETERMINES THE OUTPUT OF A SYSTEM FOR ANY INPUT
as shown below
Convolution can be used to calculate the zero state response (i.e., the response to an input when the system has zero initial conditions) of a system to an arbitrary input by using the impulse response of a system. Given a system impulse response, h(t), and the input, f(t), the output, y(t) is the convolution of h(t) and f(t): To find the response of the system, y(t), to an input, f(t), at t=1 sec we need to evaluate the integral
Often h(t)=0 for t<0 and f(t)=0 for t<0. In that case: with t=1. To visualize this process consider the product f(λ)h(t-λ). A plot of f(λ) yields the input. A plot of h(t-λ) yields a time-reversed version of the impulse response with a Visualizing the Convolution Integral To visualize the convolution we start from the definition: time delay of t (1 second in this case). These are shown below along with the product of the two functions (solid black line). The function h(t-λ) is plotted in magenta and doesn't look much like the function above -- but note the different vertical scales.
if h(t)=0, t<0 and f(t)=0, t<0. Consider the system discussed previously with the impulse response described by:
The next graph shows the result of the integration for all time, with a black dot at t=1. which has an impulse response given by
As t is increased further the function h(t-λ) shifts to the right. The multiplication and integration can be evaluated for each value of t to yield the system response y(t). The graphs below are similar to the ones above, except that t=4. We will use convolution to find the zero input response of this system to the input given by
To see an animation of this shifting, multiplying and integrating process, Using the convolution integral it is possible to calculate the output, y(t), of any linear system given only the input, f(t), and the impulse response, h(t). However, this integration is often difficult, so we won't often do it explicitly. Later you will learn a technique that vastly simplifies the convolution process. CONVOLUTION AS SUM OF IMPULSE RESPONSES The next section reiterates the development of the page deriving the convolution integral. If you feel you know that material, you can skip ahead to the mechanics of using the convolution integral.
Consider the system described by the differential equation:
plot the response of the system to each of these impulses...
deriving the convolution integral we can approximate the input by a series of impulses...
and plot the response as the sum of the individual responses
Part 1: t<0 For t<0 the argument of the impulse function (t-t) is always negative. Since h(t-t)=0 for (t-t)<0, the result of the integral is zero for t<0. This situation is depicted graphically below (t=-0.2):
(also shown is the exact solution).
CONVOLUTION INTEGRAL Likewise the convolution can be considered from the point of view of the convolution integral.
So the result for the first part of our solution is THE MECHANICS OF USING THE CONVOLUTION INTEGRAL Part 2: 0<t<1 To find the output of the system with impulse response For 0<t<1 we need to evaluate the integral only from t=0 to t=t, since f(t)=0 when t<0, and h(t-t)=0 when (t-t)<0 (or, equivalently t<t). So the integral becomes, in effect: to the input
This situation is depicted graphically below (t=-0.2): we will use the convolution integral
Because the input function has three distinct regions t<0, 0<t<1 and 1<t, we will need to split up the integral into three parts.
Thus, the result for the second part of the solution is We can now evaluate the integral:
Part 3: 1<t For 1<t we need to evaluate the integral only from t=0 to t=1, since f(t)=0 when t<0 and when t>1. So the integral becomes, in effect:
This result is shown below
We can now evaluate the integral:
The convolution integral is a completely general method for finding the output of a linear system for any input. The integral is often difficult to evaluate, but this page gives one example of how this can be accomplished for a relatively simple system.
Thus, the result for the third part of the solution is:
http://www.dspguide.com/ch6.htm http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Convolution.html http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/rbf/HIPR2/convolve.ht m THE COMPLETE ANSWER. We can get the results for all time by combining the solutions from the three parts.