THE JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF

BUDDHIST STUDIES

CO-EDITORS-IN-CHIEF Gregory Schopen Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana, USA RogerJackson Fairfield University Fairfield, Connecticut, USA

EDITORS Peter N. Gregory University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA Alexander W. Macdonald Universite de Paris X Nanterre, France Bardxvell Smith Carleton College Northfteld, Minnesota, USA Ernst Steinkellner University of Vienna Wien, Austria Jikido Takasaki University of Tokyo Tokyo, Japan Robert Thurman Amherst College Amherst, Massachusetts, USA

A S S I S T A N T EDITOR Bruce Cameron Hall College of William and Mary Williamsburg, Virginia, USA

Volume 9

1986

Number 2

October. by Gerard Fussman 37 3. Shaner (William Waldron) 2. On the Sources for Sa skya Panclita's Notes on the "bSam yas Debate. by A. Memory and History: A Tantric Buddhist Theory of Scriptural Transmission.CONTENTS I.J. An Approach to Dogen's Dialectical Thinking and Method of Instantiation. Symbolism of the Buddhist Stupa. W. and Cyrus Stearns 101 6. Jr. by Shohei Ichimura 65 5. Hanson-Barber 55 4. The Identification of dGa' rab rdo rje. A Study of the Earliest Garbha Vidhi of the Shingon Sect. by Dale Allen Todaro 109 7. Lopez. by D. by Donald S. A Catalogue of the s Tog Palace Kanjur. van der Kuijp 147 1." by Leonard W. A Report on Religious Activity in Central Tibet. byJanet Gyatso 7 2. ARTICLES Signs. by Tadeusz Skorupski (Bruce Cameron Hall) 1. BOOK REVIEWS The Bodymind Experience in Japanese Buddhism: A Phenomenological Study ofKukai and Dogen. 155 156 . II. 1985.

The Heart ofBuddhist Philosophy: Dinndga and Dharmakirti. Gregory (Johnjorgensen) 7.Early Buddhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study of the Founders' Authority. Gimello and Peter N. and the Discipline. Studies in Ch 'an and Hua-yen. by Chai-Shin Yu (Vijitha Rajapakse) 4. translated by Thomas Cleary (Steven Heine) 6. the Community. 162 166 173 177 181 189 191 . edi ted by Robert M. by Amar Singh (Richard Hayes) 5. by Jeffrey Hopkins (Bruce Burrill) Jeffrey Hopkins Replies Bruce Burrill Replies NOTES AND NEWS [2 items] LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 3. The Tantric Distinction. Shobogenzo: Zen Essays by Dogen.

" This last is further broken into three classes: the Mind Section (T. In order to resolve these problems. although there are important differences. the system originated in India and is completely based upon Indian Buddhist tantra. W. by comparing these names with lists of various lineages of transmission of the tantras. This can be achieved by progressing through the three divisions mentioned 55 . never to depart from this state.2 It has two different branches: ati-yoga in relation to the lower vehicles 3 and the "Great Secret Explanation. glong sde). However. up to now. we should be able to assign a probable date to him. by assigning dates to the siddhas that are well known. they have many points in common. the ati-yoga bears considerable similarity to the mahdmudrd. and. we must correctly reSanskritize the various names given dGa' rab rdo rje in his hagiography. T h e ati-yoga system constitutes the highest phase of tantric practice for the rNying ma school of Tibetan Buddhism. indeed. Finally. Hanson-Barber dGa' rab rdo rje. the Great Expanse Section (T. we should be able to locate him within these lists. 1 and thus can be called the human founder of the system. been incorrectly identified and given a date that is far too early. 5 T h e ideal is to arrive at a state of pure awareness (T. Therefore. by refinement. and then working backwards. rig pa). and the Instruction Section (T. who was the first human to teach the ati-yoga (T. Then. has. man ngaggyi sde). rDzogs pa chen po) system.4 The two branches are not mutually exclusive. Both from a meditational aspect and a philosophical point of view.The Identification of dGa' rab rdo rje by A. it is the intention of this paper to identify dGa' rab rdo rje correctly and assign a date to him. sems sde).

In essence. With the help of&kinls. 7 However. since this paper is historical and not philosophical.2 above. who had become a nun. he ascended to the sky and inspired great faith in them. he compiled an index of the entire ati-yoga system. and was victorious. When they arrived at his retreat. he was given the name Ro langs bde ba. One evening she had an auspicious dream. A Brief Hagiography dGa' rab rdo rje was born in Ucjchyana. 8 After his realization. He entered upon a dispute with five hundred panfytas. She was the second daughter of the king of Uclcliyana. he wandered to the places frequented by ghosts in the mountains around Ucjo'iyana. Because of this. he requested of his mother that he be allowed to enter the assembly and dispute with the partitas. it was here that he had a secret realization of Vajrasattva. the king. However. however. the Great Expanse Section relates to the experience of the openness of being or emptiness (sunyatd). Later. and the Instruction Section relates to the stabilizing of the experience.6 /. he de- . but even after three days the boy was still radiant and healthy. she. Finally. a heretic accused him of injuring the Hindu faith. she placed the child on a dust heap.9N0. At the age of seven. with the daughter of Rahula. each with its own mental outlook and with a host of meditations to be practiced. and the king and people of that area decided to kill him. he made the earth shake seven times. the experiences relating to these are as follows: the Mind Section relates to the experience of the mind in its nakedness. thinking him too young. These three divisions are further sub-divided into many different levels. he was given the name dGa' rag rdo rje by his grandfather. the above brief introduction should suffice. and shortly thereafter gave birth to a son. His mother was Sudharma. because she was full of fear and shame. He persisted and finally was granted permission. who was delighted with the child's performance.56 JIABSVOL. denied his request. Because of this incident. from whom he received the ati-yoga teachings. At this time. near the Dhanakosa lake.

and since one can already find his name mentioned in the earliest material translated into Tibetan. in which case. giving the Sanskrit su as a possibility. the word dga' ba is synonymous with dga' bo. Dudjom Rinpoche.3 This gives one eighty-five possible ways of re-Sanskritizing the Tibetan! It must be remembered that. in looking for the correct way to translate dGa rab rdo rje back into Sanskrit. Das's dictionary. the re-Sanskritization of dGa' rab rdo rje's name is quite problematic. according to Das. the Sanskrit name given for dGa' rab rdo rje is Surativajra. in fact. where he extensively taught the ati-yoga. can be translated into the Sanskrit prefix "adhi.18 However. according to the Mahdvyutpatti. 19 This also seems to be the Sanskrit preferred . these modern sources were working from material translated under the "new" system of translation started in Tibet at the time of Rin chen bzang po. 15 There.12 and five different Sanskrit words that are translated as rab." 17 Das also infers that it can act as a prefix.<J //. which equals the Sanskrit Nanda. here it seems that rab may be short for rab tu.lb Rab.. it seems much wiser to look at the Mahdvyutpatti. The Sanskritization of "dGa' rab rdo rje" According to this brief hagiography. lists seventeen different Sanskrit words that are translated into Tibetan as dga' ba. primarily abstracted from a recent work by H.H. Therefore. and the Sitavana cemetery. dGa' rab rdo rje had another name of importance to our study. 10 Professor Guenther gives as possibilities Surativajra and Pramuditavajra. it would make sense that his Sanskrit name was translated into Tibetan using the old system of translation produced by Vairocana and his contemporaries. Ro langs bde ba.'' Each reconstruction suffers from its author's reliance on relatively late sources. In the Peking edition of the Tibetan canon. it should equal the Sanskrit prefixpra. for instance.DGA'RAB RDO RJE 57 parted for Magadha. Since dGa' rab rdo rje is important in the rNying ma pa tradition. for the most part.14 a work composed during the same time period.

The first is re-Sanskritized by Das and the Mahdvyutpatti as vetdla. since each of these authors is associated with the others. the re-Sanskritized name of dGa' rab rdo rje should be Anandavajra. dGa' rab rdo rje's date would be 550 A. This.9NQ." However.22 Because of the reasons noted above. ///. can be found in the prefix a. 725.20 In this sense. of course.2 by the Mahdvyutpatti. it seems likely that they are simply following one another in this matter. therefore. unknown. pra does not seem to be a preferred prefix when used with nanda and. None offers a reason for this date in the works surveyed. Sri Simha. Therefore.D. a different prefix with the same general meaning is needed. and it is accepted in the Blue Annals." It may. thus. In The Life and Teachings of Vairocana24 I have tentatively reconstructed the Ati-Yoga lineage as follows: Vairocana and Vimalamitra II. therefore. 25 Further." for it is to be added to nanda to form the adjective "joyful. a well known Buddhist name. 26 the dates for the above can be assigned as follows: 760 A. All sources agree on this. if one uses the standard of thirty-five years between student and teacher. despite the difficulty of justifying so early a date for a "Tantric Master. 620 and 585.ema for bde ba. ManjuSrlmitra I. one must understand that pra has the meaning of "fully" or "greatly. following the various pertinent lineages. The name Ro langs bde ba consists of two parts: ro langs and bde ba. Thus. this latter would have been the preferred translation during the period of the early translations. the Sanskrit is Vetalaksema. and dGa rab rdo rje." or perhaps "joyous. Manju^rimitra II. for Ro langs bde ba.D. 23 However. thus giving the Sanskrit word dnanda.2* . In the Jndnasiddhi of Indrabhuti.. Vimalamitra I. be reasonable to arrive at a more acceptable date by working backwards from a known siddha's date. The Dating of dGa' rab rdo rje Three authors who have put forth a date for dGa' rab rdo rje all agree that it was approximately 55 A. 2 7 there is a lineage given for that line of teachings.21 The Mahdvyutpatti further lists ks. The Tibetan word rdo rje is re-Sanskritized as vajra.58 JIABSVOL. 690. 655.D.

the names Indrabodhi and Kukuraja are also important in the various lines of transmission of tantras for the rNying ma school. This is a time much .D. one can place dGa' rab rdo rje in the mid-sixth century. is another name for dGa' rab rdo rje. Be this as it may. 730. Anandavajra. and the above-given date is in accordance with this. for Siddhivajra. 660. the Jnanasiddhi and the anuyoga-tantra. 555. 555. well known to scholars of the tantras. This lineage is found in the Blue Annals and represents the early anuyoga-tantra line. 520 and 485. etc. Anandavajra. 30 It begins with Vasudhara. who helped transmit the ati-yoga teachings to Tibet. Sakya Sirnha. of course. There is another list that is of interest to us here. for Brahmanvajra. rdo rje). respectively.DGA'RAB RDO RJE 59 The latter is most clearly identified with teachings that would." be called mahdmudrd. the date would be 695 A. 3 3 Their dates would be: 800 A. because £>ombhi Heruka was at least in part a student of Srf Laksmi. 590. it is known. Vetalaksema. Thus. only a short while after its "publication. T h e first thing to note here is that each of these siddhas' names ends with the word vajra (T. Brahmanvajra. the Napalese king. 31 along with Dharmabodhi. Prahasti. 3 2 then Sukhaprasanna. 29 but also at the time of their birth. Vimalamitra II. Dhanaraksita. 660. they also have a historic connection. What is to be noted in this lineage list is. not only after the time of Kumara raja in Tibet. 625. for Sarvajagannatha (vajra). 590..D. Thus. Vajrahasa. of course. the student takes on part of the name of his ordination master. this is the Sanskrit name for Ro langs bde ba. Sthiramati. This may indicate a particular line of transmission where. and Indrabodhi. for Cittavajra. Kukuraja. The mahdmudrd and ati-yoga have a great deal in common.D. This is further corroborated by the fact that Vimalamitra II. As we have seen. the date of 730 A. This is. Siddhivajra. 765. 695. in imitation of the vinaya lineage. was invited from Indrabhuti's court to Tibet. Sarvajagannatha (vajra). and for Anandavajra. and will not be discussed here. This lineage is as follows: Cittavajra.. the name Vetalaksema. applying the same standard to lineage lists of the Ati-yoga. However. can be assigned to her. However. who was the sister of Indrabhuti. was active at the same time as Vairocana. 625. This is brought out in another lineage given in the above-mentioned work. as we have seen.

9N0. Examples of the first are: rDo rje sems dpa' nam mkha che rtsa ba'i rgyud skyed ba me pa40 and 'Jam dpal 'dus pa'i rgyud las bsdus pa rdzogs so. However. not only does Vairocana have visions of dGa' rab rdo rje. and has commentaries on it by Patrul Rinpoche and many others. as was seen just above. one can find in the Peking edition of the Tibetan canon the following works listed: 'Phags pa 'jam dpal gyi mtshan yang dag par brjod pa'i don gsal bar byed pa. a Tantric author. the basis for this date is that dGa' rab rdo rje is. a fact that is still to be determined. One also finds dGa' rab rdo rje's name playing a prominent role in the hagiographies of Manjusrimitra. There is not only secondary evidence.41 Examples of the latter are: Byang chub sems bchos thabs mdor bsdus42 gNod sbyin gyi rgyal po sgrul pa'i thabs45 and the Tshig gsum nod brdegs. and texts that originated with him. primarily hagiographies. 34 In the second category. in fact. Sri Simha. IV. In the latter. there is at least a brief hagiography of dGa' rab rdo rje found in some more recent sources. Works Associated with dGa' rab rdo rje There are several categories of works in which one finds dGa' rab rdo rje's name. it is presumed.59 In the final category.2 more appropriate for a "Tantric Master" than that given by other authors. a . but there is also one sddhana. are based on much older versions. but his name is also associated with particular tantric cycles. commentaries and meditational texts. From reviewing the above list of works.56 'Bras bu rin po che dang mnyam pa'i rgyud kyi dka' 'grel'51 spyod pa nyi zla dang mnyan pa'i rgyud kyi dka' 'grel'5 and rTa ba nam mkha'dang mnyam pa'i rgyud dka' 'grel.60 JIABSVOL. First. These. there are two divisions: texts that dGa' rab rdo rje received. such as the information gained from the hagiographies of various individuals.44 T h e last-mentioned is perhaps his most famous work dealing with the ati-yoga. and Vairocana. there can be little doubt that dGa' rab rdo rje/Anandavajra's name is well connected with the tantric tradition. bsgom pa rgya mtsho dang mnyam pa'i rgyud kyi dka' 'grel.

Ro lang bde ba. 1984. Further. anuyoga tantra. In arriving at a reasonable date for this Tantric author. and numerous commentaries on both well-known and obscure tantric practices. mahdyoga tantra. NOTES 1.. Second. Unpublished dissertation. yoga tantra.W. the name should be Anandavajra. V. pratyekabuddha. kriyd tantra. 2. we have presented evidence from three different lineage lists. dGa' rab rdo rje's other name. the date of Anandavajra from the Jnanasiddhi was determined to be 555 A. Thus. that dGa' rab rdo rje/Anandavajra was. University of Wisconsin-Madison. The rNying ma count nine vehicles: srdvaka.D. a tantric author is well attested by information gained from hagiographies. the method of reSan skritization in the preceding pages is based on the translation into Tibetan of Sanskrit words as found in the Mahdvyupatti This is a work that dates from the time of the early propagation of the Dharma in Tibet. and the date of Vetalaksema from the lineage of the early anuyoga tantra was determined to be 555 A. it is more reliable than reSanskritizations based on sources from the second spread of the Dharma.D.D. caryd tantra. By using the same standard of time between teacher and disciple. and ati-yoga.. The Life and Teachings of Vairocana. Because the ati-yoga does not form a separate school I have called it a system. commentaries on tantric practices and meditational texts authored by him. Conclusion We have shown that previous attempts to re-Sanskritize the name dGa' rab rdo rje are incorrect. Instead of Surativajra or Pramuditavajra. should be reSanskritized as Vetalaksema. from which it would seem the incorrect re-Sanskritizations of these names were derived. bodhtiattva. . Hanson-Barber. the date of Anandavajra from the ati-yoga lineage was determined to be 550 A. A. in fact.DGA' RAB RDO RJE 61 text on the rtsa lung thig le practice. Finally.

1167-8. For the philosophy of the ati-yoga. 23. Benoytosh Bhattacharyya (Baroda: Oriental Institute. pp. 1979). there are approximately thirty-three years' difference between the ages of §rl Simha and Vairocana at their meeting.. Das. he gives no reason for these re-Sanskritizations. 35 ff. 119 ff. vol. Since there is no mention of any Vimalamitra studying with a teacher other than Sri Simha. at. 28. (This author seems to follow the dating in the Chos 'byung by Karmapa dPa' bog tsung lag. Tibetan Tripi(aka. 41. Ibid. 26. vol. 182-3. George N. 22. see H. reports this happened in a vision while she was meditating.V. Ill. 86. 8c p. pp. 21. 1984) and Kindly Bent to Ease Us (Emeryville. 413. cit. Cf. . Although thirty-five years is somewhat arbitrary. and Hanson-Barber. Grub mtha 'mdzod by kLong Chen pa. 17. Specifically. Ibid. (Dargyay. it also gives the year for this as wood-female-ox. Sikkim National Press. 24. 18. p... Ibid. and 251. ed. 1536. Jndnasiddhi.g. 86.. p. p. pp. 7. 245. p. A Tibetan English Dictionary. and Hanson-Barber. 25. Crystal Mirror. 135 ff.. 493. 27. throughout. 1167-8. V. pp. Peking Edition: see for example #4554. See Rdo rje sems dpa' nam kha' che rise ba 'i rgyud skye ba med pa.. p. 1929). 13. e. The Rise of Esoteric Buddhism in Tibet. p. 1.62 JIABSVOL. Tokyo. The Blue Annals (Delhi.. Ibid. Ill. 10. the elder.. in Vairo rgyud 'bum.. e. p. vol. Op. 182.) Also. The reconstruction is based on the following argument: There is sufficient evidence to suggest that there were two ManjuSrimitras. 69. p. Guenther. pp. p. in Two Vajrayana Works.886. 167. Ibid. p.. Dodrupchen Rinpoche pub. V. Eva Dargyay. Roerich. 193. 14. 15. Dudjom Rinpoche. 1167. 4. Mahavyutpatti.9NQ. 245 & 20ff. 74. p. p. 12. ibid. 1975). Mahavyutpatti. 6. since Vimalamitra is said to have lived for 200 years. CA. 102 ff. kLong Chen pa. 552. 228. Bod snga rabs pa gsang chen raying ma V chos a 'byung (1977). 5. 325-336. 19. p. Guenther Crystal Mirror. there were probably two individuals with this name (not to be confused with Vimala. 191-2).414.. before the time of Ral pa can. 135 tt. Sarat Chandra Das. p. Crystal Mirror. However. Dudjom Rinpoche told me in a conversation that dGa' rab rdo rje had known the ati-yoga from birth. chapter 1. I have postulated an "unknown" for Vimala I's teacher. 81. 16..2 3. 11. 39. 8. 1915.g. 9. vol. Matrix of Mystery (Boulder. op. but this is not specifically stated) and Tarthang Tulku. Crystal Mirror vol. vol. 20. A comparative study of ati-yoga and Mahamudra is still wanting. p. mentioned in the Blue Annals p. Also see Hanson-Barber. pp.

34. He is not mentioned in Nepali sources. 38. 67. Peking Edition #4554.. I. cit. cit. #5039. p. 32. 65. Kumara raja was also the teacher of kLong Chen pa. vol. 40. vol. 41. 7. (New York: Samuel Weiser. vol. 42. V. . 87. Guenther. 89-91. 43. vol. Kindly Bent to Ease Us. vol. Hanson-Barber. Author's collection (no bibliographic information). 31. 87. #5038. 81.DGA'RABRDORJE 63 29. 57. Cf. 87. 33. vol. Op. The third Karmapa and Kumara raja worked at bringing together the mahdmudrd and ati-yoga teachings. #5036. See Wayman. #5037. 1977). 44. p. and Karma Thinley. 37. 96. 36. 245. 35. 87. p. Tibetan Thpi(aka. The Yoga of the Guhyasamdja. vol.. 30. 159 ff. This would be Indrabodhi I. rNying ma'i rgyud 'bum. 39. p. This king is known only from Tibetan sources. vol. vol. #2942. The History of the Sixteen Karmapas of Tibet. 1. pp. The Bairo rGyud 'Bum. Not to be confused with Bodhiharma. Op. vol.

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