http://www.culturediversity.

org/ The Basic Concepts of Transcultural Nursing

Transcultural Nursing - A humanistic and scientific area of formal study and practice in nursing which is focused upon differences and similarities among cultures with respect to human care, health, and illness based upon the people's cultural values, beliefs, and practices, and to use this knowledge to provide cultural specific or culturally congruent nursing care to people ... Leininger Leininger (1991) notes the main goal of transcultural nursing is to provide culturally specific care. But before transcultural nursing can be adequately understood, there must be a basic knowledge of key terminology such as culture, cultural values, culturally diverse nursing care, ethnocentrism, race, and ethnography.

Culture refers to norms and practices of a particular group that are learned and shared and guide thinking, decisions, and actions. Cultural values the individual's desirable or preferred way of acting or knowing something that is sustained over a period of time and which governs actions or decisions. Culturally diverse nursing care an optimal mode of health care delivery, refers to the variability of nursing approaches needed to provide culturally appropriate care that incorporates an individuals cultural values, beliefs, and practices including sensitivity to the environment from which the individual comes and to which the individual may ultimately return. (Leininger, 1985) Ethnocentrism the perception that one's own way is best when viewing the world (Geiger & Davidhizar, 1991). Our perspective is the standard by which all other perspectives are measured and held to scrutiny.

ase Studies The anecdotes and case reports we use here make many generalizations. They should not be mistaken for stereotypes. A stereotype and a generalization may appear similar, but they function very differently.

A Stereotype is an ending point, no attempt is made to learn whether the individual in question fits the statement. A Generalization is a beginning point, it indicates common trends, but further information is

needed to ascertain whether the statement is appropriate to a particular individual. Galanti G.A. (1991) A danger associated with transcultural nursing theories and models is the assumption that people can be categorized, rather than individualized, by virtue of race, culture, and ethnicity. People can not be put into little culturally specific boxes nor labeled by virtue of culture and race. Do not assume that the criteria for a certain cultural group are true for every patient who belong to that racial, ethnic, or cultural group. The information we present for each cultural group is no more than an overview, the amount of relevant knowledge could fill many books. The issues raised here are those that, we think, have special meaning to the practice of nursing, and health care delivery. Nurses must always be aware of what people may be thinking that may differ from our own thoughts, and that other sources outside the traditional medical community, exist to help patients. Cultural Competence

To be culturally competent the nurse needs to understand his/her own world views and those of the patient, while avoiding stereotyping and misapplication of scientific knowledge. Cultural competence is obtaining cultural information and then applying that knowledge. This cultural awareness allows you to see the entire picture and improves the quality of care and health outcomes. Adapting to different cultural beliefs and practices requires flexibility and a respect for others view points. Cultural competence means to really listen to the patient, to find out and learn about the patient's beliefs of health and illness. To provide culturally appropriate care we need to know and to understand culturally influenced health behaviors. In our society, nurses don't have to travel to faraway places to encounter all sorts of cultural differences, such as ethnic customs, traditions and taboos. The United States provides plenty of opportunities for challenges stemming from cultural diversity. To be culturally competent the nurse needs to learn how to mix a little cultural understanding with the nursing care they offer. In some parts of the United States culturally varied patient populations have long been the norm . But now, even in the homogeneous state of Maine where we reside, we are seeing a dramatic increase in immigrants from all over the world. These cultural differences are affecting even the most remote settings. Since the perception of illness and disease and their causes varies by culture, these individual preferences affect the approaches to health care. Culture also influences how people seek health care and how they behave toward health care providers. How we care for patients and how patients respond to this care is greatly influenced by culture. Health care providers must possess the ability and knowledge to communicate and to understand health behaviors influenced by culture. Having this ability and knowledge can eliminate barriers to the delivery of health care. These issues show the need

The second. It's an ongoing evaluation. nurses and health care providers.. While Western medicine is among the best in the world. being conscious of the dynamics inherent when cultures interact. These include: 1. including policy making. administration.. and practice. Bazron. and 5. This deals with everything from the need for interpreters to nuances of words in various languages. neither the nurse nor the patient understands the other's perspective. higher risk of hypertension in African Americans and of diabetes in certain Native American groups). As individuals. as we continually adapt and reevaluate the way things are done. 3. policies. we need to learn to ask questions sensitively and to show respect for different cultural beliefs. Very often.. challenge is communication. structures.(1996) describes four major challenges for providers and cultural competency in healthcare. Most important. Developing culturally competent programs is an ongoing process. sometimes for good reason. cultural diversity tests our ability to truly care for patients. that we CARE. and far more complicated. These five elements should be manifested at every level of an organization. 4. Meyer CR. (1989) list five essential elements that contribute to an institution’s or agency’s ability to become more culturally competent. The third challenge is ethics. For some patients. we must listen to our patients carefully. having institutionalized cultural knowledge. We need to plan for these types of obstacles. For nurses. The final challenge involves trust. Respect for the belief systems of others and the effects of those beliefs on well-being are critically important to competent care. Having seen or been victims of atrocities at the hands of authorities in their homelands. . many people are as wary of caregivers themselves as they are of the care. B.for health care organizations to develop policies. 2. The first is the straightforward challenge of recognizing clinical differences among people of different ethnic and racial groups (eg. and services of the organization. Further. authority figures are immediately mistrusted. valuing diversity. having developed adaptations of service delivery reflecting an understanding of cultural diversity. practices and procedures to deliver culturally competent care. Dennis. and Isaacs. K. we do not have all the answers. The main source of problems in caring for patients from diverse cultural backgrounds is the lack of understanding and tolerance. these elements should be reflected in the attitudes. T. are reluctant to talk about personal matters such as sexual activity or chemical use. How do we overcome this challenge among more restricted cultures (as compared to ours)? Some patients may not have or are reluctant to use telephones. Cross. M. to demonstrate that we are not only clinically proficient but also culturally competent.. having the capacity for cultural self-assessment. Many patients. There seems to be no one recipe for cultural competency. even in Western cultures.

illness or death in culturally meaningful ways. Leininger first taught a .. Cross. Medicine's melting pot. It is a specific cognitive specialty in nursing that focuses on global cultures and comparative cultural caring. Based in anthropology and nursing. the pioneer of transcultural nursing. Volume 1. B. It was established in 1955 as a formal area of inquiry and practice. the free encyclopedia Transcultural nursing is how professional nursing interacts with the concept of culture. the beliefs and practices of individuals or groups of similar or different cultures.C. M. and to provide culture specific and universal nursing care practices for the health and well-being of people or to aid them in facing adverse human conditions.: Georgetown University. As a discipline. and practice. and nursing phenomena. it centers on combining international and transcultural content into the training of nurses. D. K. it is supported by nursing theory. Toward a Culturally Competent System of Care.References : 1. Meyer CR.) 2.[1] [edit]Goals The goals of transcultural nursing is to give culturally congruent nursing care.[1] [edit]Description According to Madeleine Leininger. research. T. It includes learning cultural differences.79(5):5 top of page Transcultural nursing From Wikipedia. and international health organizations. Dennis. transcultural nursing is an area of expertise in nursing that responds to the need for developing global perspective within nursing practice in a world of interdependent nations and people. international health issues.. Madeleine Leininger was the first professional nurse who finished a doctorate degree in anthropology. transcultural nursing is a substantive area of study and practice that focuses on the comparative cultural values of caring. nursing in other countries. Washington.[1]According to MEDLINE. health. It is a body of knowledge that assists in providing culturally appropriate nursing care. Bazron. Minn Med 1996. and Isaacs..[1] [edit]Founder As the initiator of and the leader in the field of transcultural nursing. (1989.

Chartered in 1974. Medical Library Association.[1] Transcultural Nursing Society The Transcultural Nursing Society is the official organization of transcultural nurses. She authored books about the field of transcultural nursing. from 1989 to 1995. transcultural nursing started as a theory of diversity and universality of cultural care. It was further expanded from 1975 to 1983. are nurses who act as specialists.[1] ^ a b c d e f g h i j Murphy. Leininger was the editor of the Journal of Transcultural Nursing. April 2006. in general. the society is the publisher of the Journal of Transcultral Nursing. Transcultural nursing was established from 1955 to 1975. They are nurses who provide knowledgeable.transcultural nursing course at the University of Colorado in 1966. It's international establishment as a field in nursing continued from 1983 to the present. New York. transcultural nursing programs and track programs were offered as masters and doctoral preparations during the early parts of the 1970s. After being formalized as a nursing course in 1966 at the University of Colorado.[1] [edit]Transcultural nurses Nurses who practice the discipline of transcultural nursing are called transcultural nurses. other publications related to transcultural nursing include the Journal of Cultural Diversity (since 1994). a publication that had been in existence since 1989. the official publication of the Transcultural Nursing Society. currently published as the Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health: Official Journal of the Center for the Study of Multiculturalism and Health Care). Transcultural nurses. and safe care to people of diverse cultures to themselves and others. Health Sciences Library State University of New York. TRANSCULTURAL NURSING. competent. Sharon C. Mapping the literature of transcultural nursing. In 1998.[1] [edit]Certification Certification as a transcultural nurse is offered under a graduate study or track programs by the Transcultural Nursing Society since 1988. Leininger was honored as a Living Legend of the American Academy of Nursing.[1] Publications Apart from the Journal of Transcultural Nursing. and the Journal of Multicultural Nursing (since 1994. In 1975. Leininger refined the specialty through the use of the "sunrise model" concept. generalists.[1] [edit]History Through Leininger. and consultants in order to study the interrelationships of culturally constituted care from a nursing point of view. What is transcultural nursing care? .

Respect for the patient. Part of this process involves reflection on experiences..comHerbal Nutritional Supplement for those >40. age and religion. or culture different from your own. assumptions and skills the nurse brings to the therapeutic relationship. and to use this knowledge to provide cultural specific or culturally congruent nursing care to people . 2012 . Leininger There are many variables to consider in giving nursing care to a person of a race. and illness based upon the people's cultural values.In: Health [Edit categories] Luxury Retreat Australiawww. Transcultural Nursing is described A humanistic and scientific area of formal study and practice in nursing which is focused upon differences and similarities among cultures with respect to human care. One-on-One Treatment for Addictions Best Herbal PowderEvergold-Source.sanctuarybb. beliefs. is something all aspects of transcultural nursing have in common. Culture is the internal and external manifestation of a person. Holistic. however. sexuality. religion.comPrivate. The increasing ethnic diversity of our society suggests a need for reflection on cultural identity as apart of development of nursing skills.. Transcultural nursing Transcultural nursing is how professional nursing interacts with the concept of culture. health. The diverse cultural needs of health service users require that nurses develop approaches to care that recognize and respect the culture of service users . and practices. The term culture is most frequently used to refer to ethnic culture. beliefs and norms that are used to help individuals function in life and understand and interpret life occurrences. group or communities learned and shared values. Transcultural Nursing This page was last updated on January 26. it is also usefully applied to a range of differences such as gender. Nurses learn through therapeutic relationships to respond effectively to the emotional distress of service users. ED & prostate symptoms Ads Answer: Improve What is culture? Culture is a critical component of patient's lives that affects their health care attitudes and actions.

customs and rituals . ABOUT THE THEORIST One of the first nursing theorist and transcultural global nursing consultant. beliefs and traditions.org/wiki/Madeleine_Leininger DEFINITIONS Transcultural Nursing Transcultural nursing is a comparative study of cultures to understand similarities (culture universal) and difference (culturespecific) across human groups (Leininger. Evolution of her theory can be understood from her books: Culture Care Diversity and Universality (1991) Transcultural Nursing (1995) Transcultural Nursing (2002) Transcultural nursing theory is also known as Culture Care theory. She developed the concept of transcultural nursing and the ethnonursing research model. habits. Culture is also beliefs.wikipedia. 1991).University of Washington. MSN . that are held by a specific group of people and handed down from generation to generation.INTRODUCTION Madeleine Leininger is considered as the founder of the theory of transcultural nursing. dislikes. PhD in anthropology . Theoretical framework is depicted in her model called the Sunrise Model (1997). Culture Set of values. Her theory has now developed as a discipline in nursing.Catholic University in Washington DC. likes. For more details: http://en.

shared and transmitted values. Culture practice and beliefs are adapted over time but they mainly remain constant as long as they satisfy needs. Culture is the learned. Culture is learned by each generation through both formal and informal life experiences. Language is primary through means of transmitting culture. religious arti1acts) . norms of behavior. Ethnicity a consciousness of belonging to a group. and actions in patterned ways. decisions. and life patterns that are similar among different cultures. Material culture refers to objects (dress. beliefs. Cultural Identify the sense of being part of an ethnic group or culture Culture-universals commonalities of values. Culture-specifies values. The practices of particular culture often arise because of the group's social and physical environment. beliefs. Religion Is a set of belief in a divine or super human power (or powers) to be obeyed and worshipped as the creator and ruler of the universe. art.learn from one’s family. and patterns of behavior that tend to be unique to a designate culture. norms and life way practices of a particular group that guide thinking. Ethnic refers to a group of people who share a common and distinctive culture and who are members of a specific group.

or features. Diversity refers to the fact or state of being different. and incompatibility to the stranger's perceptions and expectations at is differentiated from others by symbolic markers (cultures. and sets of values. genetic markers. lifestyles. Ethnic identity refers to a subjective perspective of the person's heritage and to a sense of belonging to a group that is distinguishable from other groups. unfamiliarity. Cultural shock the state of being disoriented or unable to respond to a different cultural environment because of its sudden strangeness. Acculturation People of a minority group tend to assume the attitudes. Subculture composed of people who have a distinct identity but are related to a larger cultural group.. religion). find practices of the dominant society resulting in a blended cultural pattern. beliefs. territory. Not all people of the . languages. social institutions. Race the classification of people according to shared biologic characteristics. values. Bicultural a person who crosses two cultures. Ethnic groups share a common social and cultural heritage that is passed on to successive generations. biology. Diversity can occur between cultures and within a cultural group.Non-material culture refers to beliefs customs.

Cultural awareness It is an in-depth self-examination of one's own background. Cultural care repatterning or restructuring. illness. The health concepts held by many cultural groups may result in . Culturally competent care is the ability of the practitioner to bridge cultural gaps in caring. Religious and Cultural knowledge is an important ingredient in health care. rather than based on predetermined criteria. recognizing biases and prejudices and assumptions about other people. Culture influences all spheres of human life. Nursing Decisions Leininger (1991) identified three nursing decision and action modes to achieve culturally congruent care.same race have the same culture. as well as the social level of the patient. Cultural care accommodation or negotiation. Cultural preservation or maintenance. Cultural competence is an important component of nursing. MAJOR CONCEPTS [Leininger (1991)] Illness and wellness are shaped by a various factors including perception and coping skills. work with cultural differences and enable clients and families to achieve meaningful and supportive caring. and the search for relief from disease or distress. Culturally congruent care Care that fits the people's valued life patterns and set of meanings which is generated from the people themselves. It defines health.

and outcome.. The use of traditional or alternate models of health care delivery is widely varied and may come into conflict with Western models of health care practice. Use of Substances . spirituality and culture regarding illness. It is believed that certian food substances can be ingested to . its meaning. and cure including folk and Western medical interventions. Culture guides behavior into acceptable ways for the people in a specific group as such culture originates and develops within the social structure through inter personal interactions. treatment. Health care provider need to be flexible in the design of programs. Most cases of lay illness have multiple causalities and may require several different approaches to diagnosis. HEALTH PRACTICES IN DIFFERENT CULTURES Use of Protective Objects Protective objects can be worn or carried or hung in the homecharms worn on a string or chain around the neck.people choosing not to seek modern medical treatment procedures. respect and appreciation for the individuality and diversity of patients beliefs. cause. wrist. policies. To encourage in developing and maintaining a program of physical. or waist to protect the wearer from the evil eye or evil spirits. and services to meet the needs and concerns of the culturally diverse population. For a nurse to successfully provide care for a client of a different cultural or ethnic to background. values. emotional and spiritual self-care introduce therapies such as ayurveda and pancha karma. treatment. groups that are likely to be encountered. APPLICATION TO NURSING To develop understanding. effective intercultural communication must take place.

prevent illness. . Problems in this life are most likely related to transgressions committed in a past life. Gender Roles In many cultures.g. In some cultures. Religious Practices Burning of candles. eating raw garlic or onion to prevent illness or wear them on the body or hang them in the home. specific people are known to have the power to heal. Traditional Remedies The use of folk or traditional medicine is seen among people from all walks of life and cultural ethnic back ground. rituals of redemption etc. In some other cultures females are dominant. homelessness. E. Immigration Immigrant groups have their own cultural attitudes ranging beliefs and practices regarding these areas. underemployment. the male is dominant figure and often they take decisions related to health practices and treatment. lack of health insurance poverty prevent people from entering the health care system. women are discriminated in providing proper treatment for illness. Beliefs about mental health Mental illnesses are caused by a lack of harmony of emotions or by evil spirits. Economic Factors Factors such as unemployment.. Healers Within a given community.

The planning and implementation of nursing interventions should be adapted as much as possible to the client's cultural background.Time orientation It is varies for different cultures groups. Collect information that any home remedies the person is taking to treat the symptoms. Determine if any of his health beliefs relate to the cause of the illness or to the problem. but always individualize care. race &ethnicity on the development of social emotional relationship. The nursing diagnosis for clients should include potential problems in their interaction with the health care system and problems involving the effects of culture. child rearing practices & attitude toward health. Nurses should evaluate their attitudes toward ethnic nursing care. NURSING PROCESS AND ROLE OF NURSE Determine the client's cultural heritage and language skills. Self-evaluation helps the nurse to become more comfortable when providing care to clients from diverse backgrounds Understand the influence of culture. Understanding of the general characteristics of the major ethnic groups. Collect informationabout the socioeconomic status of the family and its influence on their health promotion and wellness Identifiy the religious practices of the family and their influence on health promotion belief in families. . Personal Space Respect the client's personal space when performing nursing procedures. The nurse should also welcome visiting members of the family and extended family.

1995. Theory. 13 No. and community. 2002 Jul. Leninger M. 2006 Apr. Edn 7th. and identify and use resources acceptable to the client (Andrews & Boyle. Norwalk. 3. 1991. 2002). Nursing theories: The base of professional nursing practice 5rd edition. and Practice. theories. July 2002 189-192. Culture Care Theory: A Major Contribution to Advance Transcultural Nursing Knowledge and PracticesJournal of Transcultural Nursing.94(2 Suppl):E143-51. Barman A. family. develop expertise to implement culturally acceptable strategies to provide nursing care. Research.J Med Libr Assoc. CN: Appleton and Lange.Transcultural nursing: Concepts.13(3):178-80. Transcultural Nursing: Concepts. Leninger M. New York: National League for Nursing Pres. concepts. J Transcult Nurs. . 2002.Transcultural concepts in nursing care. Erb G. George Julia B. and practice. Leininger M. Culture care diversity and universality: A theory of nursing. Boyle JS. 2001. Vol. McGraw-Hill Professional. Fundamentals of nursing. McFarland M. understand the social and cultural reality of the client. Columbus. Synder AJ. research. Self-evaluation by the nurse is crucial as he or she increases skills for interaction. OH: McGraw-Hill College Custom Series. New . Edn 3rd. process and practice. Andrews MM. The practice of nursing today demands that the nurse identify and meet the cultural needs of diverse groups. Leininger M. REFERENCES Murphy SC.Evaluation should include the nurse's self-evaluation of attitudes and emotions toward providing nursing care to clients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. Mapping the literature of transcultural nursing. CONCLUSION Nurses need to be aware of and sensitive to the cultural needs of clients. Kozier B.

Methods: Cited references from essential source journals were analyzed for a three-year period. This paper describes a citation analysis as part of the project undertaken by the Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section of the Medical Library Association to map the literature of nursing. PubMed/MEDLINE. Nearly all cited references were from the previous 18 years. Conclusions: No single database can claim comprehensive indexing coverage for this broad field. Eight major databases were compared for indexing coverage of the identified core list of journals. Associate Librarian Health Sciences Library State University of New York at Buffalo 3435 Main Street Buffalo. Mosby. Louis. AHIP. Results: This study identifies 138 core journals. Accepted December 2005. In comparing indexing coverage among 8 major databases. Basic Nursing. Mapping the literature of transcultural nursing* Sharon C. It is essential to search multiple databases. St. Other Sections▼ ABSTRACT Overview: No bibliometric studies of the literature of the field of transcultural nursing have been published. Murphy. Perry AG.edu Received March 2005. New York 14214 Sharon C.York. Potter PA.2007. 6th edition. Social Sciences Citation Index. Based on this study. Murphy: hslscm@buffalo. and CINAHL provide the best coverage. Transcultural nursing relies on journal literature from associated health sciences fields in addition to nursing. An overview of the project describes . MLS. Books provide an important format. 3 databases rose to the top. 2002. RN. Other Sections▼ INTRODUCTION This study is part of the ongoing project undertaken by the Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section of the Medical Library Association to map the literature of nursing. Collections supporting transcultural nursing require robust access to literature beyond nursing publications. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the core literature and determine which databases provided the most complete access to the transcultural nursing literature.

and provide documentation and recommendations to the producers of bibliographic databases seeking to cover the literature of transcultural nursing more comprehensively. and international health issues and organizations.the background and methodology in detail [1]. As an example. or fail to serve. health. Transcultural nursing's goal is to provide culture specific and universal nursing care practices for the health and well-being of people or to help them face unfavorable human conditions. Madeleine Leininger. nursing in other countries. It focuses on worldwide cultures and comparative cultural caring. Transcultural nurses are specialists. expressions. Whatever the . generalists. Its purpose is to identify the predominant format of literature used in the field. The focus of this nursing discipline is on integrating international and transcultural content into training. Other Sections▼ TRANSCULTURAL NURSING Transcultural nursing is both a specialty and a general practice area. defines transcultural nursing as: a substantive area of study and practice focused on comparative cultural care (caring) values. Research in transcultural nursing focuses on discovering largely unknown and vaguely known cultural care and health concerns from two perspectives: The emicperspective focuses on the local. Functioning in diverse clinical practice settings and in schools of nursing. and insider's culture. beliefs and practices of individuals or groups of similar or different cultures. Their study encompasses cultural care symbols. competent. [5] Transcultural nurses study the interrelationships of culturally constituted care from a nursing perspective. and assess the level of indexing coverage of the core journals by major bibliographic databases. The results can be applied to collection development and instruction activities. illness or death in culturally meaningful ways. they assist others to become sensitive to and knowledgeable about diverse cultures. assist in the identification of core literature and access tools for practitioners and librarians. Established as a formal area of inquiry and practice more than forty years ago. founder and leader of the field. determine the currency of the most frequently used literature. courses include study in the area of cultural differences. identify the core journals of the field. MEDLINE's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) define transcultural nursing in the scope note as a nursing specialty created to answer the need for developing a global perspective in the practice of nursing in a world of interdependent nations and people. and safe care to people of diverse cultures. “Transcultural nursing is a body of knowledge that helps us *to+ provide culturally relevant care” *4]. Possessing a combination of education and field experience. and meanings [6]. This study focuses on the literature of transcultural nursing. and consultants. They may identify cultures that are neglected or misunderstood [8] and help health care systems assess how they serve.† As summarized by one nursing leader in the field. and nursing phenomena. transcultural nursing's goal is to provide culturally congruent care. indigenous. the eticperspective focuses on the outsider's world and especially professional views [7]. they provide knowledgeable. diverse cultures in a community.

” the Institute of Medicine includes “an understanding of the cultural. These programs are generally a part of a graduate program or track preparation in transcultural nursing.§ Leininger postulates that the holistic base provided by transcultural nursing and related health knowledge can prevent legal suits for cultural negligence or cultural errors and improve quality care outcomes [8]. Other Sections▼ HISTORY OF TRANSCULTURAL NURSING Leininger was the founder and leader of this new. Her pioneering work began with her theory of “cultural care diversity and universality. It offers certification and recertification as a certified transcultural nurse (CTN). This need to incorporate transcultural health perspectives in clinical practice is frequently the focus of educational efforts in health care agencies [15+. an important process first implemented in 1988. complex.8]. transcultural nurses are committed to cultural openness. The first professional nurse with graduate preparation to complete a doctorate in anthropology.org> is the major organization in the discipline today. specific cognitive specialty in nursing.‡ The paper summarizes the status of cultural knowledge in American nursing and provides guidelines. nutritional and belief systems of patients and communities” *12].” refined by 1975 with the conceptual “sunrise model.setting. Transcultural nursing has become recognized in nursing and other fields as one of the most significant and growing trends in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries [6. In its definition of “optimal primary care.” She divides the evolution of transcultural nursing into three eras: establishment of the field (1955–1975) . Leininger predicts that both master's and doctorally prepared transcultural nurses will be in high demand in this century as transculturalism increases in health care services [5]. The position paper of the American Academy of Nursing's Panel on Promoting Cultural Competence in Nursing Education focuses on academic programs and issues related to preparing students for culturally competent practice [16]. The overall goals of transcultural nursing were reinforced by national mandates in the mid-1990s that required education in the health professions to take innovative approaches to ensure that health practitioners would be culturally sensitive in the twenty-first century [12–14]. Changing demographics will continue to fuel demands for health services that fit different cultures. 11]. 10]. The model for graduate education in this specialty consists of programs based on sequential courses with both classroom and clinical field experiences. Nursing leaders assert that cultural awareness and transcultural care are becoming increasingly important as the world becomes intensely close. a lifelong stance that promotes cultural self-awareness and continuing development of transcultural skills [9. The Transcultural Nursing Society <www. Leininger took the “culture” construct from anthropology and “care” from nursing and reformulated these two dominant constructs into “culture care” *18]. and multicultural [8.tcns. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations now recommends transcultural care in the United States to provide culturally competent care.

transcultural nursing theory continues to expand and refine itself [4. the model of heritage consistency [27]. from an indexing perspective. In the mid-1990s. research. Its members and publications significantly advanced transcultural nursing ideas and recruitment and retention efforts in the new field. Recent educational and theoretical approaches in the field include the transcultural assessment model [26].” (Interestingly. Formally chartered in 1974. and policy making in national and transnational arenas. the Journal of Transcultural Nursing is included as a source journal in this study. Other nursing leaders agree that the recruitment of graduateprepared transcultural nursing faculty in schools of nursing worldwide is a current urgent need in nursing [5. the model for cultural competence [24].program and research expansion (1975–1983) establishment of transcultural nursing worldwide (1983 to the present) [19] At the start in the mid-1950s. teaching.** In recognition of her leadership. while participating in the multidisciplinary planning and case management phases of the provision of care” *29]. the Transcultural Nursing Society was originally established as an information-sharing group in the 1970s. A vibrant and essential resource. 21–25]. Members are active in consultation. and practice dimensions of transcultural nursing phenomena. no cultural knowledgebase existed to guide nursing decisions and actions to understand cultural behaviors as a way of providing therapeutic care [19]. “transcultural nursing” and “culturally congruent care. which debuted in 1989. the term “Transcultural Nursing” was not added as a MeSH term until 1992. Programs and tracks in transcultural nursing for master's and doctoral preparation were launched shortly after. The society's official publication is the Journal of Transcultural Nursing. . it is a worldwide organization that remains integral to the field. research. 22]. Leininger served as editor from its inception through 1995. Leininger declared that the major question for nursing educators worldwide is how to best educate nearly five million nurses in the world so that they will be effective in providing culturally congruent care [29. 30].) Leininger developed and taught the first university course in transcultural nursing in 1966 at the University of Colorado. nursing leaders have increasingly recognized the need for schools of nursing to prepare faculty and educate students to provide culturally competent care to diverse populations. in the early 1970s. the health care services model [28]. One leader notes that graduate educational preparation as a transcultural advanced practice nurse is needed “to ensure culturally congruent care (which has been especially forsaken in most acute care settings). Other Sections▼ TRANSCULTURAL NURSING AND NURSING EDUCATION During the past three decades. and advocacy for the application of transcultural nursing in clinical and community contexts as well as a transcultural nursing assessment guide [21. The journal continues to focus on substantive theoretical. Today. direct care. Today. 25]. Leininger was honored as a Living Legend of the American Academy of Nursing in 1998. Leininger wrote the first books in this field and coined the terms.

In the author's library. [1]. 35]. “Transcultural Nursing” or “Multicultural Nursing. and the Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health in her article on searching for information relevant to the field [32]. The Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health: Official Journal of the Center for the . The seminal Journal of Transcultural Nursing was included for reasons previously outlined. as shown in an ongoing study of journal use. (c) preparation of faculty in the discipline of transcultural nursing. followed by theJournal of Cultural Diversity in 1994.” The National Library of Medicine does not identify by subject a group of journals in transcultural nursing in its list of indexed journals.Because this call to action is a most significant challenge for the nursing profession in the twenty-first century. Thus. a recent descriptive survey researched current practices in nursing curricula in the United States regarding transcultural nursing [25+. none of the three titles were included in the journal listings. “transcultural nurses need to envision themselves as global health care providers and global world citizens” *31]. these three journals were chosen as the source journals. In addition.” with the keyword. the three titles are heavily used. Leininger and McFarland contend that “all nurses need to be prepared in transcultural nursing to serve culturally vulnerable populations and to develop professional competencies in transcultural nursing by the year 2015” *5]. the Journal of Cultural Diversity. (d) application of the research-based transcultural nursing knowledge available today. and (e) advanced courses in transcultural nursing with mentorship in clinical transcultural nursing” *25]. the past president of the Transcultural Nursing Society specifically recommended searching all issues of the Journal of Transcultural Nursing. Nursing faculty also contributed informal recommendations for major journals in the field. Ryan et al.” or the keywords.” retrieved these same journals. (b) recognition and incorporation of transcultural nursing as an integral program element and expected competency by accrediting agencies. The Journal of Transcultural Nursing began publication in 1989. Other Sections▼ METHODOLOGY The methodology used for this study is described in detail in Allen et al. CINAHL lists all three titles in its journal coverage subsets for both “Nursing” and “Transcultural Care. The three source journals chosen are peer reviewed. As a result of the study. TheJournal of Transcultural Nursing and Journal of Cultural Diversity are included in its list of journals for nursing. Three key journals in the field of transcultural nursing served as source journals for the study. Strengthening these selections. Both the Journal of Transcultural Nursing and the Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health are listed in Allen's key nursing journals list [33] and Murphy's nursing research journals guides [34. “Transcultural Nursing” or “Cross-Cultural Comparison. “Most importantly. “Nursing. recommended “(a) increased course offerings in undergraduate and graduate programs in transcultural nursing. a search in the National Library of Medicine's LOCATORplus catalog for periodicals indexed with the MeSH term. Although the “Brandon/ Hill Selected List of Print Nursing Books and Journals” for both 1998 and 2000 were consulted. Leininger outlines ten challenges that must be met to successfully advance transcultural nursing in the third millennium [31+.” she notes.

these articles cited 4. In this study. 93% of all the journal articles cited were from this time period. and the Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health. although this format type comprised the smallest number (27) of cited items. Only 1 instance of media format. Of the 305 citations in the miscellaneous format type.468 book references. Table 1 summarizes the distribution of citations among the 5 format types. The journal literature accounted for nearly 60% of the total citations. These years accounted for the highest percentage (49.062 (43%) of these citations. In addition. the first comprehensive textbook on the subject now in its third edition. Internet sources were barely cited. The majority of government documents (59%) and over 50% of the journal articles (53%) were cited from 1992 to 1997. Altogether. Books were the least current format type for that same time period. nearly 90% of the total cited works were to the journal and book literature. and miscellania accounted for the remaining 11% of cited items.5%) of cited items for all of the time periods. Table 2 Cited format types by publication year periods . and Culture Care Diversity and Universality (38 times). a single videotape.Study of Multiculturalism and Health Care. It changed to the longer title the following year. the Journal of Transcultural Nursing. The most frequently cited government documents were Healthy People 2000 and Healthy People 2010. Ninety-one percent of the citations were to literature published in the previous 18 years (1982– 2000). The most current format type was Internet or Websites. Of 1. Other Sections▼ RESULTS A total of 154 articles were published between 1998 through 2000 in the 3 source journals. appeared in any of the reference lists. the Journal of Cultural Diversity. Government documents. Internet sources. Table 1 Cited format types by source journal and total frequency Table 2 provides an analysis of cited items by publication date. also began in 1994 under the title Journal of Multicultural Nursing.843 items. Therefore. Thirty percent of the cited items were books. Various editions of her 2 books in particular were highly cited: Transcultural Nursing (45 times). The Journal of Transcultural Nursing was the source for 2. 16% were to doctoral dissertations. 120 of the references were to Leininger's books. with more than 50% of the citations giving a 1998 to 2000 accessed or published date.

especially nursing research titles. these cited journals were divided into 3 equal zones based on citation distribution. This interdisciplinary aspect is even more pronounced when reviewing Zone 2 titles. As shown in Table 3. even though they made up just 3. it covered nearly 91% of the 138 core titles. accounted for 33% of the citations (939). followed by Social Sciences Citation Index and CINAHL. Table 3 Distribution by zone of cited journals and references The 138 journal titles that make up Zones 1 and 2 are listed in Table 4 in descending order by frequency of citation. tops the list. Zone 3 had 581 journals (80. CINAHL.2% of the total). Other Sections▼ DISCUSSION Transcultural nursing mirrors the nursing literature and the larger health sciences in general with its reliance on journal and book literature. the most frequently cited journals. Zone 1 titles. Zone 1 and 2 titles together accounted for 67% of the cited journal references and consisted of 138 journal titles (19. However. CINAHL alone provided full indexing coverage of the three source journals. and psychology. Table 4 Distribution and database coverage of cited journals in Zones 1 and 2 Table 4 also indicates the indexing sources and extent of indexing for the 138 titles. Of this last group. are predominantly nursing titles. Both titles are listed in its nursing subject set. and Social Sciences Citation Index provided the best coverage of titles in Zone 1. PubMed/MEDLINE indexes the Journal of Transcultural Nursing and the Journal of Cultural Diversity and did so from their respective beginnings (1989 and 1994). It remains a good interdisciplinary resource for accessing articles in journals that are not indexed in the other databases listed. The 25 journals listed in Zone 1. Zone 1 also reflects the primary publications of other significant health-related fields. these two formats together account for nearly 90% . including medicine. However. In this study. 358 journals were cited only once.5% of the total titles. public health. gerontology.8% of the titles) and accounted for the remaining 33% of the total number of citations.A total of 719 journal titles were cited in the references analyzed. one of the source journals. In transcultural nursing. The Journal of Transcultural Nursing. it provided keyword access to a broad range of titles. OCLC ArticleFirst was not reliable for article counts. the most productive set of sources. PubMed/MEDLINE provided the best overall coverage of Zone 1 and 2 titles combined. PubMed/ MEDLINE.

and others. the core journals indicate the complex nature of transcultural nursing and capture its multidimensional aspects and breadth. it is not surprising that 91% of the citations were to literature published in the previous 18 years (1982–2000). the aged. For now. many of the titles are based in the United States. Given the nuances of human communication and the adage that a picture is worth a thousand words—perhaps of great help in the multicultural world of transcultural nursing—this is noteworthy. The broad dimensions of the field and its interest in behavioral aspects and research is reflected in the multidisciplinary scope of the core journal titles. and education—is significantly reflected in the list of core journals. the book literature is still an important component in the field's research efforts. human behavior. the importance of the journal literature to the study and practice of transcultural nursing is confirmed. the Journal of Transcultural Nursing and books by the founder. it is clear that many high-quality research studies relevant to nursing are published in general health care journals as well as in nursing journals [36]. . This number is sure to increase and gain prominence in the future as the Internet furthers its influence. What was surprising was the small number of citations to Internet resources in this study. the 138 core titles reflect not only specific cultural groups but also groups within groups: child-bearing women. text format still rules the day. Neither zone alone would adequately do this. This reflects its growing and expanding base of core literature. Leininger. Altogether. With nearly 60% of the citations to journal articles. Zone 2 contains a significantly larger number of health sciences titles covering a wide range of health aspects and specialty areas. However. As one would expect. but international journals and those committed to publishing global research are also represented. theJournal of Transcultural Nursing remains a powerhouse in the field. The social sciences literature besides nursing—particularly psychology. Because it is a young field. children. In particular. All told. The two zones are complementary and seem to do a good job of balancing research information important to the field. This time span coincides with Leininger's definition of era three—the establishment of transcultural nursing worldwide—in her previously noted description of the field's evolution. it was surprising that PsycINFO ranks so low on the indexing scores for the zones both individually and overall.of the total cited works. So it is in transcultural nursing. Therefore. While Zone 1 lists primarily nursing titles. This study identifies the core journals for transcultural nursing. It is interesting to note that community health and maternal-child health nurses were among the first to enter the new transcultural nursing programs launched in the mid-1970s [19]. those afflicted with specific diseases. Journals geared to these specialties are well represented here. surfaced as essential resources in this subdiscipline. Also unexpected in the data analysis was the nearly total lack of citations to media formats. As expected. As the editors of the journal Evidence Based Nursing noted when analyzing their publication. Authors of any newly developed core lists to replace the “Brandon/Hill Selected List of Print Nursing Books and Journals” should consider including this title.

Depending on the specific nature of information being researched. CINAHL alone provides complete indexing coverage of the three source journals. and CINAHL. Now entering its sixteenth year of publication. although these databases do have abstracts available. Multiple indexing databases should be searched to mine the extensive literature of this field. PubMed/MEDLINE scores well but fails to index one of the source journals. the Internet and national library catalogs should be searched for non-journal resources. it is also useful to search OCLC ArticleFirst. Other Sections▼ CONCLUSION A visionary. For currency and completeness. and EBSCO Nursing and Allied Health Collection Comprehensive Edition. public health. EMBASE. This study confirms the importance of the recent journal literature to the practice of transcultural nursing. This list also identifies potential publishing outlets for transcultural nursing research studies. education.No one database offers complete indexing coverage of transcultural nursing. not subject searching. the profession relies heavily on the Journal of Transcultural Nursing as a source of information and cited references. and does not have a controlled vocabulary. Essential first-tier databases to search are PubMed/ MEDLINE. With increasing globalization. This should include Health Reference Center Academic. the Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health. the recent book literature is important to the field. the core journal literature amply reflects the literature of medicine. data support searching multiple databases. Because of the very nature of its subject matter. Transcultural nursing draws on a large field of information. the searching net should be cast wider to include other important and complementary biomedical databases. psychology. The major databases should consider joining CINAHL in providing indexing coverage of the three source journals. Several aspects of this literature received scrutiny in this study. Currently. This study identifies the databases providing the most thorough access to research literature in the field. Science Citation Index. the journal has proved itself as a critical resource for practitioners of the specialty. they are encouraged to pick up journal titles not currently covered and to provide more comprehensive indexing coverage of those titles in Zones 1 and 2 that show minimal indexing. all nine databases mentioned may be required. and population studies. Since its emergence. As this study demonstrates. This is also true of Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index. This field became a reality with the creative leadership of a relatively small group of tenacious and dedicated professionals. the young field has made available an impressive array of research literature. in addition to the current journal literature. PsycINFO. Leininger saw transcultural nursing as filling an essential nursing and health care need worldwide half a century ago. To cover the field comprehensively. however. In addition. Librarians who provide nurses with transcultural nursing reference assistance should note that. . libraries supporting nursing schools and professionals would do well to compare their collections with the identified core list of journal titles. Social Sciences Citation Index. Bear in mind that OCLC ArticleFirst provides keyword searching. stretching beyond nursing to use research from many health sciences disciplines. In addition.

Mapping the literature of nursing: 1996–2000. 10(1):9. Leininger's transcultural nursing model. AHIP. Apr. † “Culturally congruent care means to provide care that is meaningful and fits with cultural beliefs and lifeways” *2+. Boyle JS. Jan. ed. ethnicity. Other Sections▼ REFERENCES Allen MP. socioeconomic situation. What is transcultural nursing and culturally competent care? J Transcult Nurs. beliefs. “Culturally congruent nursing care occurs when cultural care values. and expressions are known” *3]. encouragement. NY: Springer. attitudes and skills that enhances cross-cultural communication and appropriate/effective interventions with others. 2006. 10(1):8. In: Fitzpatrick JJ. ‡ The panel defines cultural competence as “a complex integration of knowledge. J Med Libr Assoc.” § “Culturally competent care is care that is sensitive to the differences individuals may have in their experiences and responses due to their heritage. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author thanks Margaret (Peg) Allen. AHIP. AHIP. Retrieval of information relevant to transcultural nursing requires an awareness of the full range of available tools. and cultural background [17+. Transcultural nursing at Y2K: some thoughts and observations [comment]. selective indexing coverage. for her thoughtful advice and guidance and Kristine Alpi. [PubMed] Cameron CF. sexual orientation. Jacobs SK. 1998. Encyclopedia of nursing research.Based on the indexing. New York. and the broad scope of the field. multiple bibliographic database searching is essential. J Transcult Nurs. [PubMed] . The author also gratefully acknowledges and thanks her colleagues at the State University of New York at Buffalo Health Sciences Library and the University Libraries for their abundant support. Jan. FOOTNOTES * Support was provided by the New York State/United University Professions Individual Development Award. 1999. 1999. for their timely assistance.” ** Interested readers desiring an in-depth look at the history of transcultural nursing may wish to supplement Leininger's many publications and those of the Transcultural Nursing Society and others with Husting's oral history on the subject [20]. [PMC free article] [PubMed] Leininger MM. 94(2):206–20. and release time to work on this project. and Priscilla Stephenson. and Levy JR.

DC: The Academy. 1995. eds. Meleis AI. 1997. Cultural openness: intrinsic to human care [comment]. facing diversity with unity. Image J Nurs Sch. 1994. theories. Official guide to undergraduate and graduate nursing schools. 1998:162–8. research and practice. Report to the secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services on the basic registered nurse workforce. 1996. 3rd ed. Nov–Dec. Oct–Dec. 1999. 2002. J Healthc Q. MD: US Department of Health and Human Services. Founder's focus: transcultural nursing is discovery of self and the world of others. Division of Nursing. [PubMed] Leininger M. Wenger AFZ. 2002. Promoting cultural competence in and through nursing education: a critical review and comprehensive plan for action. 10(1):12. Finland: Kuopio University. Sudbury. 2000. J Transcult Nurs. Nebr Nurse. 34(2 Suppl):16–7. Crawford LH. DC: National Academies Press. A mini journey into transcultural nursing with its founder.[PubMed] Leininger M. J Transcult Nurs. MA: Jones and Bartlett. 1995. 2000. Summer. 1989. 1(1):33–45.. Critical challenges: revitalizing the health professions for the twenty-first century. San Francisco. Jan. [PubMed] Leininger M. Center for the Health Professions. 1999. In: National League for Nursing. Bureau of Health Professions. 10(1):10. Transcultural nursing research to transform nursing education and practice: 40 years. In: Merilainen P. Mcfarland MR. Referencing in transcultural nursing: an ethical analysis. 34(4):14–8. Oct. Jan. Pew Health Professions Commission. J Transcult Nurs. CA: The Commission. social justice. Future outlook for employment as a nurse.Leininger MM. Institute of Medicine. New York. Leininger M. and McEwen M. The 23rd annual nursing research conference 1997: transcultural nursing—global unifier of care. National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice (US). 1999. Cultural openness. [PubMed] American Academy of Nursing. Washington. Kuopio. Defining primary care: an interim report. 24(2 Suppl):18–21. global awareness: promoting transcultural nursing with unity in a diverse world. Transcultural nursing: concepts. Jun–Aug. 2001. Transcultural nursing: quo vadis: (where goeth the field?). [PubMed] Wenger AFZ. Vehvilainen-Julkunen K. NY: McGraw-Hill. [PubMed] Seisser MA. Interview with a quality leader: Madeleine Leininger on transcultural nursing and culturally competent care. Committee on the Future of Primary Care.29(4):341–7. Health Resources and Services Administration. Nurs Forum. Bechtel GA. Washington. [PubMed] . Culturally competent care [comment]. Davidhizar R. Rockville. 11(4):312–3. J Transcult Nurs.

2000. 1999.. 3rd ed. 1998. Philadelphia. 11(4):300–7. Cultural diversity in health & illness. Murphy SC. The quest for cultural competence in nursing care. Andrews MM. Boyle JS. Medical Library Association. Winter. 6(2 Suppl):10–26. chart. 2001 ed. 1995. 5th ed. Spector RE.library.1993. Tampa. 1999. Key and electronic nursing journals: characteristics and database coverage. Cincinnati. MO: Mosby. 2002. Nurs Forum. [10 Mar 2002. Jan. J Transcult Nurs. 1999. [PubMed] Allen M. 2000. PA: Lippincott.edu/resource/reports/keyjrnls_chart2001ed. Ser Rev. Louis. 2000. J Transcult Nurs.Husting PM. The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: a culturally competent model of care.E. Davis. [PubMed] Campinha-Bacote J. PA: F. Davidhizar RE. 10(3):181–2.A. 1999. J Transcult Nurs. [PubMed] Giger JN. St.19(2 Suppl):23– 38. Transcultural nursing: assessment and intervention. Oct– Dec. The Section. Transcultural concepts in nursing care. 3rd ed.kent. Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section. 13(3):178– 80. and Ali N. 3rd ed. [PubMed] Purnell LD. 1991. J Transcult Nurs. Transcultural concepts in nursing care. 1995. . Teaching transcultural nursing in undergraduate and graduate programs. [PubMed] Leininger M. <http://nahrs.R. A. How to search for information on transcultural nursing and health subjects: Internet and CD-ROM resources. Jul. Carlton KH. Boyle JS.pdf>. Transcultural health care: a culturally competent approach. cited 16 Mar 2005]. 30(4):19–25.. Andrews MM. An oral history of transcultural nursing [dissertation: thesis]. J Transcult Nurs. Philadelphia. NJ: Prentice Hall Health. 10(1):69–74. 1998. Paulanka BJ. Founder's focus—the third millennium and transcultural nursing. [Web document]. 11(1):69. Jul. [PubMed] Andrews MM. Nursing research journals: a discussion and annotated guide. Ryan M. Managing managed care: the next level for transcultural nurses. Transcultural nursing concepts and experiences in nursing curricula. [PubMed] Leininger M. Campinha-Bacote J. Oct. OH: Transcultural C. Pierce JU. Upper Saddle River. FL: University of South Florida. J Transcult Nurs. Jan.

Nursing students who take transcultural nursing courses are prepared to provide culturally appropriate care for each of their patients. and Ciliska D.. The course focuses on teaching nursing students about nursing in different countries. 5(1):4.ncbi. cultural differences. This nursing specialty focuses on health. and global cultures. The need to gain a global perspective of the nursing profession is the reason that transcultural nursing courses were created. Transcultural nursing combines transcultural and international content to train nurses. Evid Based Nurs. This area of practice and study seeks to provide care with an emphasis on cultural values that focus on groups or individuals of different or similar cultures. Jan. . EBN notebook. Dicenso A. part II. Nursing research journals: an annotated guide. Although the practice of nursing is based on practice. international health organizations.27(1):26–44. and international health issue. [PubMed] Articles from Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA are provided here courtesy of Medical Library Association http://www. nursing professionals must also have a strong foundation in the concept of culture to care for their patients properly. theory. 2001.nih. 2002. What is Transcultural Nursing? Transcultural nursing is a form of nursing that uses the concept of culture to interact with patient. it is important to incorporate healthcare that addresses the needs of those from across the world. Ser Rev. 2011 BY RN 0 EmailShare Nurses must be prepared to provide care for patients from all walks of life.nlm. Since the world is interdependent. evidence-based nursing: 4 years down the road. and research.Murphy SC. comparative cultural caring.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1463039/ Transcultural Nursing | What is Transcultural Nursing? DECEMBER 26. Cullum N.

competent. and special groups can all provide insight on various cultures and religions. The first thing that they need to know is the religion. Some cultures believe that the male is the dominant figure and should provide medical treatment to patients. It is the transcultural nursing knowledge that can prevent the patient’s condition from worsening. novels. The Internet. Study various cultures and religions. provide cultural specific nursing care for those with adverse human conditions. and knowledgeable nursing care for those in diverse cultures. Nurses use their transcultural nursing skills to identify these aspects of their cultures and religions to prevent violating their beliefs. nurses can provide nursing care to all human groups. language. and these individuals may not believe that factors other than medical treatment and therapies can alleviate their bodies of these mental conditions. they provide safe. Tips on How to Study for Transcultural Nursing in Nursing School The diverse cultural and religious groups create a need for nursing students to understand how these groups operate to provide nursing care. As transcultural nurses. They need to know that certain cultures believe that certain mental conditions take place because of a lack or religions harmony. By studying the similarities and differences of diverse cultures. Nurses need to know this information so that they can make the adjustments needed to care for these patients. This information can be helpful to determine if any of their cultural or religious beliefs are the root cause of their current medical conditions. Certain religious and cultural groups do not believe in ingesting certain medications that may contain ingredients that are prohibited in their particular religious and cultural groups. . and these remedies may have lead to their illness. Some people may exercise their right to use home remedies based on their cultural beliefs. It is easy to find information on other cultures and religions to prepare for the course exams. and cultural heritage of their patients. It is important to understand the diverse religions and cultures of each patient to provide care that does not violate any of their cultural and religious beliefs. Nurses also use transcultural nursing when caring for the mental health of their patients. Nurses use transcultural nursing in a number of ways on their jobs. and care for the gravely ill in a culturally appropriate manner.The goals of transcultural nursing is to teach nurses to provide culturally equal nursing care. promote universal nursing care for the well being of all people. How Nurses use Transcultural Nursing of the Job Nurses who provide transcultural nursing care for their patients are nursing professionals who study the relationships of cultural care from the point of view of professional nurses. Here are a few tips that can help students prepare to study for transcultural nursing examinations.

Nursing students are prepared to work in medical facilities across the world providing diverse nursing care. The course prepares nurses for the difficult task of providing care and treatment for those with varying religious and cultural health needs. . Transcultural nursing provides specialized care for a diverse group of people. Study groups that consist of those from diverse groups can provide some insight on transcultural nursing content.Volunteer to provide transcultural nursing care. Nursing student can learn from the patients and the experienced nursing staff. Nursing students can use each other as study tools. The best way to learn about transcultural nursing is to volunteer in medical facilities. Create diverse study groups.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful