Title: Save us, O Turner of tables!

Text: Psalm 69


Title: Modeling preaching the Psalms
Text: Psalm 69
Speaker: Pastor Chad Richard Bresson Introduction When the dawn broke there was no stirring in the bedchamber. The master of the house did not show up for the usual breakfast that morning. This wasn’t completely unexpected. He and old friends had been up to the wee hours of the morning watching movies, laughing, and draining their favorite brew. And on this morning, no one dared wake him. They were under strict orders not to bother the man of the house under any circumstances. And so they waited and waited, not disturbing him throughout the day for fear of upsetting “The Boss”. The late morning became afternoon became evening. Finally, late in the evening one trusted employee decided to take the daily mail to the owner’s room. What he found changed the course of history for an entire nation. There on the floor, dying from a stroke, most likely brought on from rat poison, lay his boss, a man who not coincidentally had poisoned hundreds of others. It was revealed later that the one most suspected of the death of the owner of the vacation home was himself the subject of a murderous plot by the owner himself. Poisoned was one Joseph Stalin, killed in much the same manner as he himself had killed millions of others. The tables had been turned. A taste of his own medicine. A reversal of fortune. The turning of the tables is a familiar plot device for anyone who is a fan of James Bond or Indiana Jones. The evil villain is done in by an ironic twist of fate, many times at his own hand. The turning of the tables turned Wile E. Coyote into a Saturday morning favorite. There’s even an instance of this in the Scriptures… the Persian official who dastardly plotted to exterminate the Jews in the book of Esther is hung on the very same gallows he himself built for his genocidal plans. This last instance is quite close to the kind of turning of the tables that we will be looking at tonight. The turning of the tables in Psalm 69 is not simply a plot device. Nor does it ride on the evil plans of an evil man an even “eviler” man. This is justice served on the enemies of God and his people. Turn with me to Psalm 69. We are looking at a Psalm that not only helps us orient our thoughts when life is bad and we get desperate, but also help us identify with One who was crushed on our behalf in the events that became known in church history as The Passion. As we consider the movement of our Lord Jesus Christ toward a death that has given us life abundant, we are considering Psalm 69, a Psalm that helps shape our thoughts regarding The Passion. Some questions that arise in our own lives as we consider the Passion: What are your thoughts when life is its darkest? When your life is narrowed in focus down to a single yet cataclysmic crisis, what is it that governs your thoughts about the circumstances in which you find yourself? What are your thoughts about Jesus? What do you believe to be true about the One who died for you? And before we walk too far down the individual road, there are those congregations who are going through some dark hours because of things that have occurred in the past week. They simply want this day to be over. Monday morning these church bodies will collectively wake up with no other thought than survival. When we as a body are faced with disappointment or even attack, what governs our

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69


thoughts? What do we believe to be true about the One who died for us, regenerated us, and gathered us together? Our passage is a journey into the thoughts and emotions of a king and a people who are at the end of themselves. Life is dark. Life is hopeless. The Psalmist’s world is in total upheaval. The outlook is bleak. The destiny of a people rides on a king whose life seems on the verge of being snuffed out. And as this king is being crushed by those who hate him and his God, there is a cry of desperation.

Psalms as a hymnbook: the Psalm of Lament
Tonight, our text is found in the Psalms. The Psalter was the hymnbook of God’s people. The Psalms were meant to be sung in the assembly. Commonly in Jerusalem, the context for the original piece was the tabernacle or temple. Even in the instances in which the songs of lament were written in the first person, the assembly well understood, as they were singing, that the writer of the Psalm was one of them. The assembly identifies itself with the writer in corporate solidarity with the Psalmist. The plight of the writer represented the plight of the people. Our text is Psalm 69. Psalm 69 is a Psalm of Lament, songs sung as complaints to God coupled with expressions of trust in the midst of complaint. In Psalms of lament, Israel collectively voices complaint to God. While songs of Praise and Hope take their cue from the covenantal blessings given to God’s people, songs of lament arise from situations in which there is either no covenant or the covenant has been broken. Songs of lament are sung by those feeling the effects of the curse of the fall and covenant-breaking. In the Psalm of blessing, all is right with the world. God is in control and we enjoy his blessing. The Lament Psalms are songs sung in distress, distress that is both physical and fundamentally spiritual. In the Psalm of lament, the Psalmist’s world is in chaos. All is not right with the world; in fact, very little is right with the world. The enemies of the Psalmist and his people seem to have the upper hand. The righteous are unjustly suffering the fate of a covenant breaker. Most Psalms of Lament move from the cry for help and a sense of hopelessness to a declaration of hope and praise in a God who does not forsake his people. We need to see that in this Psalm. As we read this Psalm together, we need to notice that this theme of salvation is the glue that holds this Psalm together. Verse 1: Save me O God is the desperate cry of a drowning king. Verse 14 is another plea for God’s salvation, this time in the context of a loving God being faithful to his covenant with his people. The Psalmist is moving from absolute desperation to an appeal to God’s covenantal love and faithfulness. Verse 29 is the bookend. In the final appeal, the Psalmist has moved into a full confidence of God’s salvation… so much so that salvation becomes the vehicle for the King’s exaltation. This Psalm’s story of salvation is moving from desperation to exaltation through the covenantal love and faithfulness of God for his people. And the addendum is in verse 33: God will save Zion. The Psalmist’s desperate cry for salvation ends with an affirmation that God will indeed save His people.

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69


Verse 1, verse 14, and verse 29 form the basic structure holding the Psalm in place, highlighting the work of God’s salvation. Verse 14 is the thesis statement of the Psalm… more on that later. But notice how this theme provides the context for what we are reading. Psalms of lament are not completely hopeless, though a couple of them seem to end that way. From within the upside world comes a resolute expression of trust in the steadfast love and faithfulness of a God who does not break covenant with his people. There is an acknowledgment that no matter how bleak it looks, God is still in control, still saving his people, and some day, he will make all things right. Psalm 69 is *that* kind of Psalm. As we read the Psalm together, let’s notice the desperation, notice the faith in the midst of despair, notice how the expressions of trust are woven into the complaints. One other thing we need to keep in mind as we read this Psalm. There’s a reason why Psalm 69 is not familiar to us. Even though this Psalm is quoted as much or more than any other Psalm in the New Testament, it’s true Psalm 22 gets all the press when it comes to Messianic Psalms. But Psalm 69 has something else that makes it a Psalm many commentators and preachers these days won’t touch. It is not only a Psalm of Lament, it is a Psalm of imprecation. That fancy term is simply a term that means a Psalm that calls down God’s damnation on the Psalmist’s enemies. These kinds of Psalms in which the Psalmist prays for all sorts of bad things to happen to his enemies defies our politically correct sensibilities. In Psalm 69, it’s not enough for the Psalmist to cry out for help in facing what seems to be certain death. His faith and trust in God moves him to expresses confidence that God will save him, but also moves him to beg for God to judge his enemies.

Psalm 69
Psalm 69 is a Psalm of David. This song is written in eight discernable movements, successively alternating between cries for help (vs. 1, 6, 13b-18, 22-29) and statements of plight (vs. 2-5, 7-13a, 19-21), with the final statement being a statement of praise (30-36). The statements of plight function as the reasons for the cries for salvation and deliverance, and as one moves through the Psalm, the lament increases in its intensity resolving the complaint and expression of trust in a chorus of praise. It is a bit of a long Psalm, but meant to be sung in its entirety. The tune, identified here as “lilies” has been lost to posterity. But let’s stand as God’s people and read it aloud together as an assembly. This is what God’s Word proclaims to us: 1 Save me, O God! For the waters have come up to my neck. 2 I sink in deep mire, where there is no foothold; I have come into deep waters, and the flood sweeps over me. 3 I am weary with my crying out; my throat is parched. My eyes grow dim with waiting for my God. 4 More in number than the hairs of my head are those who hate me without cause; mighty are those who would destroy me, those who attack me with lies.

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69


What I did not steal must I now restore? 5 O God, you know my folly; the wrongs I have done are not hidden from you. 6 Let not those who hope in you be put to shame through me, O Lord God of hosts; let not those who seek you be brought to dishonor through me, O God of Israel. 7 For it is for your sake that I have borne reproach, that dishonor has covered my face. 8 I have become a stranger to my brothers, an alien to my mother’s sons. 9 For zeal for your house has consumed me, and the reproaches of those who reproach you have fallen on me. 10 When I wept and humbled my soul with fasting, it became my reproach. 11 When I made sackcloth my clothing, I became a byword to them. 12 I am the talk of those who sit in the gate, and the drunkards make songs about me. 13 But as for me, my prayer is to you, O Lord. At an acceptable time, O God, in the abundance of your steadfast love answer me in your saving faithfulness. 14 Deliver me from sinking in the mire; let me be delivered from my enemies and from the deep waters. 15 Let not the flood sweep over me, or the deep swallow me up, or the pit close its mouth over me. 16 Answer me, O Lord, for your steadfast love is good; according to your abundant mercy, turn to me. 17 Hide not your face from your servant; for I am in distress; make haste to answer me. 18 Draw near to my soul, redeem me; ransom me because of my enemies! 19 You know my reproach, and my shame and my dishonor; my foes are all known to you. 20 Reproaches have broken my heart, so that I am in despair. I looked for pity, but there was none, and for comforters, but I found none. 21 They gave me poison for food, and for my thirst they gave me sour wine to drink. 22 Let their own table before them become a snare; and when they are at peace, let it become a trap. 23 Let their eyes be darkened, so that they cannot see, and make their loins tremble continually. 24 Pour out your indignation upon them,

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69


and let your burning anger overtake them. 25 May their camp be a desolation; let no one dwell in their tents. 26 For they persecute him whom you have struck down, and they recount the pain of those you have wounded. 27 Add to them punishment upon punishment; may they have no acquittal from you. 28 Let them be blotted out of the book of the living; let them not be enrolled among the righteous. 29 But I am afflicted and in pain; let your salvation, O God, set me on high! 30 I will praise the name of God with a song; I will magnify him with thanksgiving. 31 This will please the Lord more than an ox or a bull with horns and hoofs. 32 When the humble see it they will be glad; you who seek God, let your hearts revive. 33 For the Lord hears the needy and does not despise his own people who are prisoners. 34 Let heaven and earth praise him, the seas and everything that moves in them. 35 For God will save Zion and build up the cities of Judah, and people shall dwell there and possess it; 36 the offspring of his servants shall inherit it, and those who love his name shall dwell in it.

A Psalm of David
The first thing we notice about Psalm 69 is what we said earlier in that this is a Psalm of David. We know almost nothing of the origins of this Psalm. Other than a couple of hints in this passage, we do not know the circumstances that gave rise to this Psalm. We do know from the book of Samuel that there are a couple of events in David’s life that would seem similar to what we find here. The first possible event is Saul’s chasing of David through the wilderness. There were days that David thought that he might not make it out of the desert alive, save for the fact that he was the Lord’s anointed and heir to the throne. There are some Psalms written in those dark days. Then, there’s also the time in David’s life after he was king when he was pushed off his throne, out of his house, out of Jerusalem and was on the run for his life again. This time, his own son Absalom was the hunter with David’s life in danger as the hunted. Both Saul and Absalom fit the perpetrator’s profile in this Psalm. And there’s a reference to homelessness away from brothers who were opposed to him… that might fit the description regarding David’s flight from Saul, since there are intimations in Samuel that David’s brothers, like Joseph, were not all that fond of their young sibling. Regardless, we simply don’t know the circumstances, other than it’s a Psalm of David.

A Psalm of Contrast

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69


The second thing we notice as we come to Psalm 69 is the stark contrast in the Psalter between Psalm 69 and the ending of Psalm 68. The contrast is so stark… this cannot be accidental: O kingdoms of the earth, sing to God; sing praises to the Lord, to him who rides in the heavens, the ancient heavens; behold he sends out his voice his might voice. Ascribe power to God, whose majesty is over Israel, and whose power is in the skies. Awesome is God from his sanctuary; the God of Israel – he is the one who gives power and strength to his people. Blessed be God. What lofty vision and declaration of God. Awesome is God from his sanctuary. Blessed be God! Here is God in all of his heavenly glory, the occasion of which is to break forth in song. The Grand and Exalted Ancient of Days in his heavenly dwelling is given praise for who He is for his people… giving them power and strength. Psalm 68 ends with the only possible ending of this exalted vision of the God who keeps covenant with Israel: Blessed be God! Blessed be God! Save me O God! For the waters have come up to my neck. I sink in deep mire, where there is no foothold; I have come into deep waters, and the flood sweeps over me. I am weary with my crying out; my throat is parched. My eyes grow dim with waiting for my God. Where is the praise? Where is the vision of God in all of his glory? Where is the recognition of what God has done for his people? Where is the comfort of knowing God is ruling and reigning from his heavenly dwelling place? Where is the pronouncement of covenantal blessing on the ever faithful God… where is “Blessed be God!”? Save me O God! Where has God gone for David? Is Psalm 68 still true? No longer is there the casting of a grand vision of God in his sanctuary. Instead, David, the Anointed One of Israel, the recipient of the divine covenant, the king who sees God in all of his glory and has heaped upon God praise for who he has been for his people in power and strength now find himself in hell on earth where God not only is seemingly absent, his hand seems to be against him. This contrast between the ending and opening of these two Psalms is David’s recognition that even those who are God’s covenantal people still find themselves very much affected by the curse.

David’s First Plea: Save me O God!
Save me O God! Becomes the overarching theme of this Psalm. All that follows in this Psalm could be subsumed under that desperate cry. It is a cry of anguish. It is a cry of terror. It is a blood-curdling cry meant to make the assembly’s hair stand on end: Save me O God! The Psalmist wastes no time in making an immediate appeal to the saving God of Israel, the only one in whom there is any hope of salvation. Whatever it is that compels David to cry out, it is apparent that David has no choice but to turn to the only One who can save him.

David’s first statement of plight: I’m drowning
Why is it that “Save me O God” contains such anguish and desperation? This first cry for help is followed by a description of his situation. “I sink in deep mire where I’m losing my feet. I have come into deep waters and the floods sweep over me.”

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69


David is drowning. David is going under. David is so overwhelmed by his situation, he is about to succumb with his very life. David is approaching “extinction”1. The “exterminators”2 are coming for David. David is such a mess, his voice is nearly spent from his pleas of desperation, and the flicker of life in his eyes nearly out. He has been waiting on God’s salvation that long. This, for David, is the dark night of the soul, in which all light seems to be gone from the eyes. Life is out of control. There is a seeming inevitability of doom. David’s life is in upheaval to the point of catastrophic. There seems to be no way out and God seems so distant. His cry for salvation rises to God, because he senses God’s hand in the events of his life. But what used to be a calm and resolute waiting on God and the vindication of his servant has now become a waiting for help that may seem like it will never come. Throughout the Old Testament, these “waters” and “deep mire” are symbolic of distress that is brought on by judgment. This kind of catastrophic upheaval that is overwhelming David is accentuated by alienation and darkness. The imagery here evokes the concept of Sheol, the pit, the realm of the dead, and indeed the pit is mentioned later in this song. Echoes of Jonah and Joseph and Jeremiah can be heard here. Even God’s people are not immune to the effects of the curse in a fallen world. The pain is real, the suffering is real. This suffering is exacerbated by the fact that it is an unjust suffering. “Mighty are those who would destroy me, those who attack me with lies. What I did not steal, must I now restore?” There’s no more severe mental anguish portrayed in the pages of scripture than that of unjust suffering at the hands of those who hate God and hate God’s people because they hate God. These who hate God are many. The language in verse 4 mirrors verse 2. “More in number” and “mighty” describe enemies who threaten to overrun David’s life. The sheer number of those out to destroy David are flooding David’s world to the point he feels as if he is drowning. This near hopelessness of the Psalmist’s situation isn’t simply because God seems to have God missing, but along with God, truth and justice have also gone missing. There is a longing for vindication, but vindication of the anointed one is elusive because justice is AWOL. What gives rise to David’s sense of being overwhelmed by life in the darkest hour of his soul are lies being spread like wildfire about the Anointed One of Israel. David is being crushed and he feeling it. And there is nothing he can do about it. The distress of the situation explains the impulse and desperation behind “Save me O God!” And the magnitude of his helplessness forces David to confess his own sin. There’s sense in which David recognizes his plight with fallen humanity. “O God, you know my folly. The wrongs I have done are not hidden from you.” Here we are clued in that this great distress of David’s life wasn’t simply physical. That becomes more apparent as we move through the Psalm. In the clarifying moments of being pulled under the rushing tide, David acknowledges and confesses his falling short of the glory of a God who holiness is so bright and intimate knowledge so vast nothing escapes his attention.

Mediation for his people
David follows this confession with his second petition or plea. This petition is on behalf of his people, and further clarifies the kind of flood that has put his life in danger. David recognizes that the destiny of his people rests with his destiny. Whatever affects him,
1 2

(Tate, Psalms 51–100 Word Biblical Commentary, 1998) (Tate, Psalms 51–100 Word Biblical Commentary, 1998)

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69


affects them. His shame is their shame. If David’s destiny comes to an end, so too the destiny of his people. If all hope is lost with David, all hope is lost for his people. David, the mediator, offers himself as a substitute for his people: “let not those who hope in you be put to shame through me; let not those who see you be brought to dishonor through me.” Shame me, but don’t shame them. Allow me to be dishonored, but don’t allow that dishonor to fall on them.

Suffering for God’s Sake
And this substitutionary mediator follows this plea with more clarification about his plight. The second plea is followed by a second explanation or declaration of the nature of the Psalmist’s adversity. “For it is for your sake that I have borne reproach.” These flood waters of life that are about to overwhelm David and extinguish the flicker of life in his eye are the result of David’s identification with the Covenanting God of Israel. This oppression is spiritual warfare. This oppression is persecution. David, as God’s choice to lead Israel, suffers humiliation because he *is* God’s choice. David suffers reproach because he is the anointed one with whom God has made covenant. His opposition isn’t simply against David. It is against the one true God of Israel that has redeemed himself a people out of Egypt and has made David a leader for the people. The persecution of David for the sake of a covenanting God on behalf of his people has resulted in his homelessness – verse 8. Things are so bad even his own family is against him.3 Piled on top of this sense of anguish is a familial alienation. False accusation and innuendo have taken their toll on family relationships. The unjust attacks on David have cut him off from his family in dishonor and shame. The scoffing of older brothers at a young teenager heading off to fight goliath have given way to an outright disowning of David. No longer welcome in the family house, he runs to take refuge in God’s house. What a contrast between verse 8 and verse 9. He trades the broken relationship of family in an earthly house for divine communion in the heavenly house, the place where God comes to meet his people. But even that doesn’t stem the floodwaters engulfing David. Verse 9 - Not only is David suffering because of his identification with the one true God of Israel, but also because of his identification with God’s glorious dwelling presence among his people. “Zeal for your house has consumed me.” There’s probably a double meaning here. This is typically understood to be a description of David’s passion for worship and the dwelling presence of God in the tabernacle. Such a passion is well chronicled. But given the circumstances of David’s plight and his lament here, we must also see here that it is precisely David’s passion for God’s house that is his undoing. David’s self-identification with God’s dwelling presence with his people is such that David is being consumed to the point of losing his life and being cut off from the people of God. The reproaches of those who reproach the covenanting God of Israel have fallen on David. David’s zeal for God’s communion with his people in shekinah glory is consuming his life. Falsehoods are being spread. He bears the reproach of unjust suffering because of God’s name and God’s presence among his people, the ironic result of which is an alienation from God’s people. Even more ironic… the shame and humiliation and alienation that


(Tate, Psalms 51-100: Word Biblical Commentary, 1990)

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69


would so richly be deserved by those who hate God have fallen on the one who loves God and his dwelling place. To be passionate for God’s tabernacle as his visible and earthly presence among his people was to be subjected to rejection4, so much so that the ridicule and scorn was set to music. And this bring us to another ironic contrast, which ends this section: Such is David’s humiliation and infamy that “Saul has slain his thousands, David his ten thousands” is no longer playing in Jerusalem’s Top 40. That hit song has been replaced the song of infamy. The humiliation of David doesn’t settle for the gossip chain. It goes viral in song. Reinforcing the overwhelming sense of doom is the blasphemous melody borne by alcohol. Long after the lights have gone down, and the streets have gone silent, stuck in David’s consciousness is the blasphemous melody whose notes propagate the lies into the inner recesses of the soul. David’s response is a classic response of the righteous to the wicked: But as for me, my prayer is to you, O Lord. If the rancor of a bartune is going to carry the tale of David’s demise hither and yon, then his only response can be his own prayer song in appeal to the only one who can save him. How ironic indeed. David’s appeal as the waters of life rise to his neck and the tide threatens to drown him in humiliation and shame, is to the One whose reproach he bears. Let that sink in. The destiny of Isarel rides with one whose last, desperate appeal is to the very one who is the subject of his humiliation. These enemies hate David… these enemies hate Israel… these enemies hunt down David because they hate God. Thus, David’s appeal for salvation isn’t simply for his own personal vengeance. David’s appeal is for God’s vindication not only of those who love him, but for his own sake. Instead of running from God when life seems over, David runs right to God: Save me O God. I’m drowning. I’m being shamed. Don’t allow this shame to spread to your people. I’m bearing your reproach. Zeal for *your* house has consumed me. Vindicate me, vindicate your people, vindicate You! If God cannot vindicate, there will be no vindication. If God cannot or will not save, there will be no salvation.

Salvation as an attribute of God
When we get to verse 13b, the desperate plea “Save me O God” is beginning a wonderful transformation in the heart of the Psalmist. In fact, the centerpiece of this Psalm is verse 13b. If we were going to write a thesis statement for this Psalm, this would be it! “At an acceptable time, O God, in the abundance of your steadfast love, answer me in your saving faithfulness.” The salvation of the King and people is grounded in God’s personal and intimate covenant with Israel. Sometime go through the Psalms and count all of the times that the Psalmist highlights or praises God for his steadfast love and faithfulness. Steadfast love and faithfulness are understood by the Psalmist to be at the heart of God’s promises to Israel as God’s people. If there are two characteristics that set God as the unique God above all others, the two characteristics that declare God’s unique relationship to Israel and identify them as His people, it is a love for His people that never wavers and never quits and a zealous loyalty that never, ever falters. And here the Psalmist notes that these two characteristics that speak to God’s never ending covenant with his people are grounds for

(Tate, Psalms 51-100: Word Biblical Commentary, 1990)

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69

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hope. Why? These aren’t simply nice, moral attributes. No. This steadfast love and faithfulness are actually, and really *saving* His people. The Psalmist cries out “Save me O God” because in the very being of God, the very *morality* of God isn’t static, but is active on behalf of His people. There is the hope when the King is drowning. When it looks as though the destiny of the King and His people will disappear into the dustbin of history, there is still a flicker of hope based not on what David can do for himself, but what he knows God has done and is doing for His people. God is characterized by a love and *saving* faithfulness for his people… so much so that He is not God if He fails to do so.

Answer me
Not only has the initial appeal “Save me O God” laid hold of God’s covenantal love and faithfulness, it has become resolute in its appeal. It does not give up. Notice here that the appeal is no longer “save me”, but “answer me.” In fact, “answer me” is repeated 3 times in this section. Even as God’s covenant with Israel becomes the basis for the appeal, the desperation in the plea has increased threefold. Hope begins to appear on the lips of the Psalmist, but the initial cry for salvation has been met with silence. Answer me. Answer me. Answer me. All the Psalmist can hear is the mocking song of the drunkard. The initial descriptions of David’s plight of “drowning in water up to the neck” and “sinking in the mire” are now attached to the increasing intensity of David’s plea. Answer me. Deliver me from sinking in the mire. Let me be delivered from my enemies and from the deep waters. Let not the flood sweep over me. The king’s enemies threaten to overrun him and extinguish him and with him his people. And at stake is God’s covenant with King and people. And if God didn’t hear the first time, or the second time, this plea is repeated, and again, David in his desperation is appeal to the very covenant that was the basis of Israel becoming a nation: Answer me for your steadfast love is good, according to your abundant mercy, turn to me. Answer me. Deliver me. Let me be delivered. Let not the flood sweep. Answer me. Turn to me. Hide not your face. Make haste to answer me. Draw near. Redeem me. Ransom me. O God, where are You? If anything, things are so desperate for the Psalmist in the midst of great suffering and great pain, suffering that is unjust, suffering that is because of who God is for His people, that he is now reminding himself and reminding himself and reminding himself of God’s love and his mercy and his saving faithfulness. When life is at its bleakest, David is preaching the gospel to himself and to His people. Again and again. Over and over. Answer me because you are a saving God. Answer me because you love us. Answer me because you are great in mercy. Answer me. Do not abandon us… and oh, is that thought here. Mingled with hope that begins to appear on the Psalmist’s lips is an appeal to not abandon. And if there is any thought that is darker than dark in a moment like this, “Save Me O God, I’m drowning. Answer me. Answer me. Don’t turn from me, Hide not your face”, it’s the thought of a faithful and loving covenanting God who saves his people turning from His king and people and hiding his face. If there is anything worse than bearing reproach for the sake of God’s name and His presence among His people it’s the withdrawing of that presence from His people. If there’s anything worse than the thought over being overrun by God’s enemies, it’s being abandoned by God himself. These thoughts here are the barest of a soul hanging on by a thread in the face of death. “Turn to me” suggests that the Psalmist has already begun to believe that the prospect is

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69

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there that God indeed has abandoned his anointed one, the chosen one of Israel. And if God has abandoned his anointed one he has abandoned his people. The fate of the people rides on the fate of the king. “Turn to me, hide not your face” is the inner motivation behind “Save me O God”. In fact, it’s simply amazing that “Save me O God” has been uttered at all. Even though there is the prospect of abandonment, even though David a righteous sufferer, enduring the agony of reproach for God’s name and God’s people, David’s faith and trust in God’s love and faithfulness is so resolute he makes the appeal anyway. Answer me out of your love and your mercy and your faithfulness to your people. Deliver me from being overrun by your enemies. Turn to me, hide not your face. Do not abandon me. I need your redemption.

You know my reproach
This third set of appeals is follow by a third set of explanation of David’s plight. And again, notice how there is an increase in the intensity of David’s plight. Reproach, shame, dishonor, and reproaches reinforce David’s plight, but this time, David intimately ties this plight to God himself. “You know” my reproach. My shame and dishonor are “known to you.” This shame and humiliation isn’t faceless. These are known enemies. Reproach and shame have names and addresses. David’s plight is increasing personal. The metaphors of “drowning” and “sinking” are being replaced with David looking for pity and finding no pity and no comfort. David is looking for relief from his plight and not finding any. The spiritual suffering and torment are taking a very real physical toll. David’s life is in danger. The shame and reproach are reinforced with physical discomfort and suffering. It’s one thing to suffer shame and humiliation in a posh palace or the comfort of home. But David is homeless. David’s internal agony finds no relief in physical comfort. There’s nothing to alleviate the internal disintegration. There is nothing and no one to comfort David (which is why many have compared the plight of David in this Psalm to Job’s suffering in isolation). No one is coming to his rescue. In fact, not only did David find no pity and no comfort, he found the opposite. Instead of pit, they gave him poison for food. Instead of comfort in the quenching of thirst, his enemies gave him sour wine to drink. David isn’t simply cut off from comfort, but cut off from life’s sustenance in a way that simply adds to the mockery. In our language we talk about “pouring it on”, “kicking him while he’s down”, “piling on”, “pouring salt in the wounds.” David’s fingers are on the ledge, he hangs by the fingernails, and his enemies are stepping on them. Food and water run to the very essence of what it means to be human. Life itself is carried on bread and water. David is not only being deprived of that which would give him life, but he’s being given that which would drive life from him in a way that makes a mockery of David’s plight. One can hear the mocking laughter of David’s enemies as the king’s table is no longer a place that gives sustenance but is a table that would actually kill you. It is here that shame and the humiliation is complete. It is here that the drunkard’s song is the loudest. It is here that David’s alienation has run its course into complete isolation. The bread and the wine upon which David depends for his life are actually killing him. Save me O God. Answer me. Answer me. Turn to me. Hide not your face from me. Man cannot live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from God’s mouth. And David has neither. There is no bread, only poison. There is no water, only undrinkable wine. There is no answer. Only silence.

Turn the tables

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69

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What happens next is uncharted territory for the Psalmist. With an outlook so bleak, even the basic necessities of life are no longer providing the sustenance necessary to live, there is a startling shift… a jolt… in David’s appeal. David’s last appeal is simply stunning. Having made his desperate plea, having appealed to God’s abundant love and faithfulness and mercy, his appeal moves from the salvation that he desires from a loving a faithful God to justice that he desires from a God who rights all wrongs. The focus shifts from the Psalmist to his enemies, those who are the cause of the suffering of the righteous. The petition moves from what the Psalmist wants God to do for himself and His people to what the Psalmist wants God to do *to* his enemies. Verse 22 begins a series of the imprecatory appeals, appeals invoking God’s justice and judgment on the enemies of king and people, covenant breakers who mock the very presence of God in the shekinah glory of the tabernacle. This Psalmist doesn’t simply call down God’s judgment on his enemies. Note the dramatic shift between verses 21 and 22. They poisoned my food. They gave me sour wine to drink. Let their own table before them become snares. Even within an inch of his life, about to be overwhelmed, the Psalmist’s view of God’s holiness and justice are so acute his prayer is that God’s justice will be meted in a manner loaded with the irony that to this point has been all his. He appeals to a divine retribution whose chief characteristic is that we reap what we sow. And it is an appeal for justice to right the ironic wrong. This is the righteous suffer who suffers having done no wrong. This is the one who suffers the reproach of those who reproach. This is David so passionate for God’s presence and people that he is about to lose his life because of that passion. David’s enemies mock him. His prayer is for God to have the last laugh. There is, in David’s view of divine retribution, a sense that one’s actions become their own consequences. This prayer for the table to become a snare is the first of five curses invoked on behalf of the Psalmist and God’s people…and all five are the inverse of details that speak to David’s plight: They poison my food and give me sour wine to drink. Let their own idolatrous table before them become a snare. My eyes grow dim waiting on God to save me. Let their eyes be darkened. I’m drowning and I cannot keep my feet. Let their loins be so shaky in the wake of God’s judgment they can’t stand up. Zeal for your house where your presence glows has consumed me. Rain down your righteous anger and let your glowing and burning anger consume them. I am alienated from my family and homeless. May their camp be a desolation and let no one dwell in their tents. The reproaches of those who reproach you have fallen on me. Add to them punishment upon punishment. They defame me and recount my stories in the city gates and in song. Blot their names out of the book of the living and do not allow them to be recounted among the righteous. Save me O God and be my reverser of fortune. Save me O God and turn the tables on your enemies. Answer me out of your steadfast love and saving faithfulness. We want your love and mercy. Strike down your enemies with justice and holiness. And as we make our way to the final section, it becomes quite evident that such is the Psalmist’s view of God’s majesty and glory, such is his confidence in God’s salvation of his people that one must notice that the turning of the tables involves a trade of the

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69

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temporary for the eternal, a physical for the spiritual, an earthly for the heavenly. I desire some comfort. I have looked for pity. Show your enemies your divine wrath in which there will never be comfort. I’m suffering humiliation and shame. In the halls of divine justice, declare them guilty and eternally damned. My life is about to be extinguished. Banish them from the Book of life. As bleak as it looks, the Psalmist has not taken his eye off of the big picture. He is about to be overwhelmed by those who hate Him and his God. Yet David knows that any suffering in this life is temporary. The worst that can happen to him is that he dies. But his desire is to see God’s justice satisfied and God’s name vindicated. He is afflicted and in pain, verse 29, but he fully expects, even as hopeless as it seems for God’s salvation to exalt him in his suffering. Let your salvation set me on high. David doesn’t simply want saved from his temporary predicament. David has higher purposes and aims. David is the Anointed One. God’s saving activity in history won’t be content to simply pull David out of the flood. Divine salvation doesn’t simply restore. Salvation acting on behalf of people and king is incomplete if all it does is save David from his enemies. David’s final appeal here shows the full measure of his faith and trust in the God who acts on behalf of his people. This divine salvation involves the rightful exaltation of the Anointed One. This isn’t simply restoration, but a new creation. It is here that the transformation of David’s appeal is at its highest and fullest end. It begins with Save Me O God, I’m being overwhelmed. It ends with Let your Salvation set me on high. From the hellish pit to the glorious throne. This is David’s appeal that has been transformed by seeing God in his love and mercy and justice and holiness. David fully expects the Covenanting God of Israel to act in love and mercy toward His Anointed One and justice and retribution toward his enemies… and as a result that very same salvation will result in the exaltation of the righteous one.

I will praise
The final section of this Psalm moves from the lament to an expression of praise and trust and assurance in the God who vindicates his people and his name. And notice the reversal of fortunes continues. The drunkards are defaming my name with their blasphemous song. I will praise the name of God with a song. Let not those who seek God be brought to dishonor. You who seek God let your hearts revive. Zeal for your house has consumed me. God will save Zion. I am homeless. God’s people will dwell in Zion and possess it and those who love his name shall dwell in it. The anticipation of David’s exaltation gives way to the crescendo of a Psalm that began in the blackest of nights. “Save me O God” has moved through an appeal for Israel’s covenanting God to work on the Anointed One’s behalf and to the salvation of the Anointed One in his exaltation. The appeal for exultation of the Anointed One places both the vision and desire for the Psalmist squarely in the heavens. There has been a reorientation of perspective. That reminder of God’s love and faithfulness, working toward David’s exaltation, orchestrates praise and thanksgiving in the Psalmist, a praise and thanksgiving that God values more than sacrifice. The danger is still present. God hasn’t yet answered. David, mind you, is still drowning. What has changed is his inner orientation and disposition. God hasn’t answered, but he has already answered in what he has done for His people and what he will do. David has been reminded of the gospel in the promises of the covenant. He cries “Save Me O God” because salvation promised will be salvation accomplished both in God’s love and mercy and his justice. While the danger is still

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69

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present, God will indeed reward the wicked for their treatment of the righteous sufferer. When all is said and done, the tables will be turned and those who reproach God and his people will “get theirs”. And when those who, like David, find themselves drowning in a sea of God’s enemies see the pleasure of the Lord in the glory presence of the shekinah cloud of the tabernacle, they – like David – will be glad. Those who are half-dead, seeing God’s pleasure at the praise and thanksgiving of his people, will find themselves resurrected. God’s salvation brings to life those who have been raised from the mire and the pit. The cry “Save Me O God” has as its end the salvation of God in His dwelling with His people forever. Salvation cannot and will not come from David. It must come from outside of himself and is found in the all-loving, all-merciful, all-faithful saving God of Israel’s covenant promises. Any feeling of God’s distance and abandonment, in light of God’s final salvation of his people, is short-lived and in the final analysis is simply the true mirage. God will exalt his Anointed One and God will save His people and dwell with them forever… such a thought sustains David when he is drowning in a sea of God’s enemies and being consumed because of God’s house and God’s people.

The Voice of the Messiah
But is this passage simply about David’s misery and his personal mediation on behalf of Israel? Not hardly. The New Testament writers see Messiah written all over this passage. New Testament writers do not allow us to read this Psalm without making the connection between David and Messiah, the Messiah named Jesus. Some of these lines are oh so familiar to us and we are reminded of them around this time of year. In fact, few Psalms are quoted more in the New Testament. In the backdrop of David’s voice is the voice of another who would come who is greater than David. And these Psalms of lament placed on the lips of the Messiah became expressions of the inner thoughts and emotions of One who endured unimaginable suffering on behalf of His people. Ever wonder what Christ was thinking or feeling in those hours that led up to the cross? Ever wonder what Christ was thinking as he hung on that cross for hours? We need not wonder. We’re looking at once such journey into his thoughts and emotions in those final hours. In the Upper Room on that final night when he gathered with his disciples and observed a final Passover, he quotes from verse 4 here: they hate me without cause. There on this final night, the Passover lamb looks at those for whom he will be reproach and says, “More in number than the hairs of my head are those who hate me without cause, mighty are those who would destroy me.” When Christ drives out the money changers on another Passover occasion, John ties Christ’s actions to verse nine, “Zeal for your house will consume me.” While the passion for God’s presence among his people is noted by John, in the end, it was zeal for the temple that literally consumed Christ. Mark notes that a false accusation stemming from that event of driving out the moneychangers was presented at Christ’s trial: we heard him say, “I will destroy this temple made with hands and within three days will build another made without hands.” Psalm 69:9: Zeal for your house consumed me… and the reproaches of those who reproach you have fallen on me.”

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69

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Bearing reproach instead of those who deserved it, Christ went to the cross to endure alienation from everyone including His own father. There he hung in shame and humiliation, bearing reproach for those who deserved reproach. There he hung and one must wonder, where is the Blessed be God, heard only one week before as the throngs waved Palm Branches? Where is the praise? Where is God? Where is truth? Where is justice? There he hangs and his world, in fact the world he created is in catastrophic upheaval… so much so, the sun refuses to shine. The ultimate in unjust suffering has fallen to one who, unlike the Psalmist, knew no rebellion. Christ’s destiny and the destiny of his people will seemingly come to an inglorious end in infamy. The drunkards have already begun their song. If you are really the Christ, save yourself and come down. As he hangs on the cross, vindication seems like a mirage. This is Christ’s dark night of the soul. He is drowning under the weight of all that went wrong in Adam’s fall in the garden: Here in this Psalm we hear The Anointed One cry: Save Me O God. The waters have come up to my neck. I sink in deep mire. I have come into deep waters, and the floods sweep over me. I am weary with my crying out, my throat is parched. The numbers of my enemies are overwhelming. They hate me without cause. The mighty are out to destroy me. They attack me with lies. It is for your sake I have borne reproach. I have become a stranger to my brothers, an alien to my mother’s sons. Do you hear them? The drunkards are singing their blasphemous songs about me. “If you be the Son of God come down from the cross.” Where is my comfort, where is the rescue from the scorn? Save me O God! Yet Christ endured it all and entrusted his very soul to his father. He did not succumb to the temptation to come down from the cross, but instead, bore the reproach on behalf of a nation whose destiny was tied to his. Even as the blasphemers warmed up their bartunes, Christ sang his own song of resolute trust in His father: Let not those who hope in you be put to shame through me; let not those who seek you be brought to dishonor through me. His shame became our hope. His dishonor became our honor. This is the prayer, this is the petition and plea of a King dying on behalf of His people. And it’s not just David’s plight shared by the Messiah. Virtually every one of the curses in verses 22ff, and there are between 7 and 11 of them, are found somewhere in the New Testament. One line is so familiar, not only does it function as a swing point in this Psalm, but it pulls the entire Passion story into this text. Again, as we noted above, this Psalm is a window into what Jesus is thinking as he redeems for himself a people in the suffering of the garden and the cross. Let me be delivered from my enemies. Let this cup pass from me. Let not the flood sweep over me. Let this cup pass from me. There on the cross, zeal for God’s house is consuming him. He came bearing witness to the Father and now those who hate the Father have crucified the Son. Christ bears the reproach of those who have reproached God. But there is a fundamental difference between David, God’s anointed to lead Israel, and Christ God’s Anointed to not only rule Israel, but save His people from their enemies. And this fundamental difference we *must* see if we are to understand this Psalm rightly and its fulfillment in Jesus. David suffers as one who is righteous, even though he has done wrong. Christ suffers as one who is righteous, even though he has done no wrong. David’s cry of desperation, Save Me O God is grounded in God’s love and faithfulness. David anticipates exaltation in God’s salvation. In the temporal scheme of things, it would seem that David experiences rescue.

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69

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But not Jesus. Horror of horrors, Christ’s cry “Save Me O God” really does go unanswered. Christ cries, answer me, for your steadfast love is good… and there is no answer. Christ’s desperation on the cross is evident as the Father abandons the Son. “Hide not your face from me” has no response in the heavens. “Turn to me” is met with stone cold silence.. The worst of all possible scenarios… that God would curse the innocent and abandon his people falls like a reproach on the One who had a zeal for God’s presence and His people like no other. How could this be? Christ will not be saved. The tables will not be turned. The curses will not be reversed. The wicked will not get theirs… in fact, they kick Christ when he is down. Christ is the reproach instead of those who reproach God. Christ dies the death of the scorned, in utter humiliation. The swing point of this Psalm becomes the climax of the suffering on the cross. John 19:28 After this, Jesus, knowing that all was now finished, said to fulfill the Scripture, "I thirst." 29A jar full of sour wine stood there, so they put a sponge full of the sour wine on a hyssop branch and held it to his mouth. 30When Jesus had received the sour wine, he said, "It is finished," and he bowed his head and gave up his spirit. We often read this part of the crucifixion story as if the soldiers are finally feeling sorry for Jesus when they give him something to drink. But that’s not the context of Psalm 69:21 which is the allusion here. The context of this quote, “I thirst”, in Psalm 69 is mockery. Kicking the anointed one who is down. Stepping on the fingers of Christ who is hanging on to the ledge by his fingers to save his life. These soldiers and Christ’s accusers are singing the drunkard’s song. Christ dies the death of one mocked. Instead of being exalted, the Anointed One dies the death of the shamed, the humiliated, the dishonored. The one who was abandoned by his fathers, fills up the meaning of Psalm 69 to its fullest and drowns in the sea of his enemies. The suffering of the righteous sufferer is complete. In the end… the Righteous Sufferer of Psalm 69 will die. The Righteous Sufferer will not be saved. Because it is God’s intent to save his people. Christ cries out “it is finished”. Not only is the king dead, so is the destiny of the people whose fate is tied to his. “Save me O God has gone unanswered.” All foreshadowed in the suffering the anointed one in Psalm 69 is complete. The tables will not be turned. Or will they? If those at the foot of the cross, or even the disciples on the road to Emmaus had bothered to finish reading Psalm 69 they would have known that all was not lost. You see… even as Christ’s “Save Me O God” is going unanswered, Christ is saving Zion. Even as Christ is abandoned, he is securing intimate communion with His people forever. And yes, even as Christ is dying with life quenching wine on his lips he is turning the tables on his enemies. Oh what foolishness that kind of vindication seems to most of us. This is not the vindication that the world esteems. This is not a power play. What a weak fool to think that dying makes everything right. But that’s just it. Adam sinned. Israel sinned. The whole world revolted in rebellion. The seed of the serpent seeks to destroy the seed of the woman. This cosmic rebellion, encapsulated in Israel’s disobedience, is at the heart of the turning of the tables. The covenant had been broken and Christ is dying as a covenant breaker. Even as Christ is suffering the curses raining down from a jealous God whose covenant has been broken,

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69

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Christ is becoming a New Covenant and providing the ratification of the New Covenant with his blood. As Christ dies, Christ reverses the fortunes of His people and gives those who are covenant breakers the New Covenantal blessings instead. But then there is also this dire reality. Luke, in writing Acts, cites Psalm 69 in providing details of the death of Judas, the one who was an enemy of Christ, one who persecuted the Anointed One. As the one most directly responsible for securing the death of the Messiah, Judas becomes representative of those who hate Jesus. Indeed the tables were turned on Judas. In dying as if he hated God, Christ turns tables on those who hate Him and His people. The covenant curses have fallen on Christ. Christ subjected himself to the curses as a covenant-breaker, became God’s enemy and experienced the judgment of God’s enemies. But in taking the curses and dying the death of the damned, Christ secured the the damnation of those who are the enemies of his people. Even as Christ’s heel is being bruised, the head of the serpent is being crushed in the ultimate turning of the tables. But this Psalm does not end in death. This Psalm, in its gut-wrenching emotion and utter abandonment, ends with hope in a beauty and glory that is not of this world. The glorious reality is that the Righteous Sufferer wins the salvation of his people. In one great sweeping irony of this Psalm, Zion cannot be saved until the Righteous Sufferer has been killed. But that’s where this Psalm is headed. Verse 33: the Lord hears the needy and does not despise his own people who are prisoners. 34 Let heaven and earth praise him, the seas and everything that moves in them. 35 For God will save Zion and build up the cities of Judah, and people shall dwell there and possess it; 36 the offspring of his servants shall inherit it, and those who love his name shall dwell in it. Yes, the Righteous Sufferer dies. But as this Psalm concludes, glory of glories, the Righteous Sufferer is no longer dead. All that has been transpiring in this Psalm, to the death of the Psalmist no less, is aimed at the salvation of Zion. Before there is life, there must be a death. There must be a divine abandonment. But in the death of the Righteous Sufferer, Zion gains life. And Zion’s life flows out of the life of the once dead, now alive New Psalmist, the New David. In these final verses we are given a glimpse of the New Covenant. Zion has been saved. Jesus, the Righteous Sufferer, has saved Zion. Having been brought to life in his death and resurrection through the Spirit, we are now dwelling in Zion. We have been given an inheritance. Hebrews 12 should be ringing in our ears, “You have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable angels in festal gathering, 23 and to the assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to God, the judge of all, and to the spirits of the righteous made perfect, 24 and to Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood that speaks a better word than the blood of Abel.”. This mediator of a New Covenant now dwells with the very community he has saved in Zion. And someday what is by faith will be by sight… we will see with our eyes and taste with our lips and touch with our hands this new Zion where Jesus dwells with his people.

Title: Save us, O Turner of tables! Text: Psalm 69

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And what joy awaits the Righteous Sufferer and his people. Do you see the trajectory of this Psalm? “Save Me O God” was the cry in verse 1. “Save me O God” has given way to “Christ has saved Zion” in verse 35. He Himself is the people’s “house”, the new temple of God. He himself becomes the people’s possession. He himself becomes His people’s inheritance. The salvation of the Righteous sufferer was lost so that in the end salvation would be found for those who love Jesus’ name. Psalm 69 is our story, our history. The Righteous Sufferer who cries out, Save Me, I’m drowning, is no longer in dire straights. And he does so on behalf of his people. The Righteous Sufferer lives, dwelling among his people. Hearts revive in the last part of the Psalm because the King, the Son who reigns, has been revived. Having turned the table on his enemies, having been consumed by his passion for God’s dwelling presence with His people, having died in shame and humiliation, having died the death due both his people and his enemies, the Anointed One Himself has been revived and exalted to Save His people and become their dwelling place. Yes, there was a death, but in the end, there is a resurrection. In the resurrection, the turning of the tables is complete. Having eaten of the poisoned food and drunk of the bitter wine, Christ is raised from the dead in vindication of God’s name and the purchase of a people. The Righteous Sufferer of Psalm 69 dies in order to be “set on high”.

What are your thoughts when life is its darkest? When your life is narrowed in focus down to a single yet cataclysmic crisis, what is it that governs your thoughts about the circumstances in which you find yourself? What are your thoughts about Jesus? What do you believe to be true about the One who died for you? When we as a body are faced with disappointment or even attack, what governs our thoughts? What do we believe to be true about the One who died for us, regenerated us, and gathered us together? We will be tempted to blame God. We will be tempted to question God. We will be tempted to wonder, “where is the justice”? When we have false accusations thrown our way, when we suffer because we are Christians, we will be tempted to wonder, “where is our vindication”? When the world is in catastrophic upheaval, we will be tempted to wonder, “where is the hope”? O Jesus, Save Us! Our hope must be in the One who already has saved for himself a people by becoming a reproach for those people. This morning Mark made this comment: “it often takes a moment of crisis to bring us to our lowest point before we will seek out Christ”. When we have those moments of crisis, our hope, our faith, and our belief is in the one who had the ultimate moment of crisis and redeemed for himself a people. Are we looking for vindication in all of the wrong places? Are we looking to turn the tables on those we don’t like… never mind if they aren’t necessarily God’s enemies? Are we always looking to gain the upper hand, hoping to turn the tables ourselves? Are we drowning in a sea of doubt? Does all seem lost? Do we feel abandoned? Ashamed? Humiliated? Are our lives in crisis? Even if we were to never say it… do we as a people get a smug satisfaction when someone we don’t like “gets theirs”? Worse, do we wring our hands in anxiousness wondering why those who hate God and oppose us and make life miserable because we are Christians are *not* “getting theirs”?

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We need to come to the pages of Psalm 69. Even as life like a flood threatens to carry us away, let us come gaze at the One who died as a Righteous Sufferer on our behalf. Even as we long for vindication, let us come gaze at the one who will some day fully and completely turn the tables on his enemies and exalt and vindicate his people. Even as we feel shame and humiliation, let us come gaze at a Savior who suffered the shame and humiliation we so richly deserved, dying the death as if he had been blotted out of the Book of Life, in order to secure for us a place that very volume. Even as we feel as though we are drowning in sorrows, let us come to Psalm 69 and gaze at the Man of Sorrows who fed on poisoned food and drank the bitter wine so that we could taste of the Bread of Life and drink of the Living Water. In the midst of our mess, Save Us, O Turner of tables! Allen, L. (1986). The Value of Rhetorical Criticism in Psalm 69. Journal of Biblical Literature , 577-598. Beale, G., & Carson, D. (2007). Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic. Bonar, A. (1978). Christ and His Church in the Book of Psalms: 150 Inspirational Studies. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel. Brueggemann, W. (1985). The Message of the Psalms: A Theological Commentary. Minneapolis: Augsburg. Daly-Denton, M. (2004). The Psalms in John's Gospel. In S. Moyise, & M. Menken, The Psalms in the New Testament (pp. 119-137). London - New York: T&T Clark. Goldingay, J. (2007). Psalms. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic. Groenewald, A. (2003). Psalm 69: Its structure, redaction, and composition. Munster: Lit Verlag. Lindars, B. (1961). New Testament Apologetic. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. Ryken, L., & Ryken, P. G. (2007). The Literary Study Bible: ESV. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway. Tate, M. (1998). Psalms 51–100 Word Biblical Commentary (Vol. 20). Dallas: Word, Incorporated. Tate, M. (1990). Psalms 51-100: Word Biblical Commentary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Vos, G. (1994). Eschatology of the Psalter. In G. Vos, The Pauline Eschatology (pp. 323365). Phillipsburg, New Jersey: P&R Publishing.

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