Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Jacques Dupont-Roc, Gilbert Grynberg PHOTONS AND ATOMS INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS Contents

Preface Introduction I CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS: THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS AND THE DYNAMICAL VARIABLES Introduction A. The Fundamental Equations in Real Space 1. The Maxwell-Lorentz Equations 2. Some Important Constants of the Motion 3. Potentials—Gauge Invariance B. Electrodynamics in Reciprocal Space 1. The Fourier Spatial Transformation—Notation 2. The Field Equations in Reciprocal Space 3. Longitudinal and Transverse Vector Fields 4. Longitudinal Electric and Magnetic Fields 5. Contribution of the Longitudinal Electric Field to the Total Energy, to the Total Momentum, and to the Total Angular Momentum—a. The Total Energy, b. The Total Momentum, c. The Total Angular Momentum 6. Equations of Motion for the Transverse Fields C. Normal Variables 1. Introduction 2. Definition of the Normal Variables 3. Evolution of the Normal Variables 4. The Expressions for the Physical Observables of the Transverse Field as a Function of the Normal Variables—a. The Energy Htrans of the Transverse Field, b. The Momentum Ptrans and the Angular Momentum Jtrans of the Transverse Field, c. Transverse Electric and Magnetic Fields in Real Space, d. The Transverse Vector Potential A⊥ ( r , t ) 5. Similarities and Differences between the Normal Variables and the Wave Function of a Spin-1 Particle in Reciprocal Space 6. Periodic Boundary Conditions. Simplified Notation D. Conclusion: Discussion of Various Possible Quantization Schemes 1. Elementary Approach 2. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Approach Complement AI — The "Transverse" Delta Function 1. Definition in Reciprocal Space—a. Cartesian Coordinates. Transverse and Longitudinal Components, b. Projection on the Subspace of Transverse Fields 2. The Expression for the Transverse Delta Function in Real Space— a. ⊥ Regularization of δij (ρ) . b. Calculation of g (ρ) . c. Evaluation of the ρ ρ 1

5 7 7 8 8 11 11 12 13 15 17

21 23 23 23 24 26

30 31 33 33 34 36

38

⊥ Derivatives of g (ρ) . d. Discussion of the Expression for δij (ρ) ρ ρ 3. Application to the Evaluation of the Magnetic Field Created by a Magnetization Distribution. Contact Interaction Complement BI —Angular Momentum of the Electromagnetic Field. Multipole Waves Introduction 1. Contribution of the Longitudinal Electric Field to the Total Angular Momentum 2. Angular Momentum of the Transverse Field—a. Jtrans in Reciprocal Space. b. Jtrans in Terms of Normal Variables, c. Analogy with the Mean Value of the Total Angular Momentum of a Spin-1 Particle 3. Set of Vector Functions of k "Adapted" to the Angular Momentum— a. General Idea. b. Method for Constructing Vector Eigenfunctions for J2 and Jz,. c. Longitudinal Eigenfunctions. d. Transverse Eigenfunctions 4. Application: Multipole Waves in Real Space—a. Evaluation of Some Fourier Transforms, b. Electric Multipole Waves, c. Magnetic Multipole Waves Complement CI —Exercises 1. H and P as Constants of the Motion 2. Transformation from the Coulomb Gauge to the Lorentz Gauge 3. Cancellation of the Longitudinal Electric Field by the Instantaneous Transverse Field 4. Normal Variables and Retarded Potentials 5. Field Created by a Charged Particle at Its Own Position. Radiation Reaction 6. Field Produced by an Oscillating Electric Dipole 7. Cross-section for Scattering of Radiation by a Classical Elastically Bound Electron II LAGRANGIAN AND HAMILTONIAN APPROACH TO ELECTRODYNAMICS. THE STANDARD LAGRANGIAN AND THE COULOMB GAUGE Introduction A. Review of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formalism 1. Systems Having a Finite Number of Degrees of Freedom— a. Dynamical Variables, the Lagrangian, and the Action, b. Lagrange's Equations, c. Equivalent Lagrangians. d. Conjugate Momenta and the Hamiltonian. e. Change of Dynamical Variables, f. Use of Complex Generalized Coordinates, g. Coordinates, Momenta, and Hamiltonian in Quantum Mechanics. 2. A System with a Continuous Ensemble of Degrees of Freedom— a. Dynamical Variables, b. The Lagrangian. c. Lagrange's Equations d. Conjugate Momenta and the Hamiltonian. e. Quantization. f. Lagrangian Formalism with Complex Fields, g. Hamiltonian Formalism and

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45 45 47

51

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61 63 64 66 68 71 74

79 81 81

90

Quantization with Complex Fields B. The Standard Lagrangian of Classical Electrodynamics 1. The Expression for the Standard Lagrangian—a. The Standard Lagrangian in Real Space, b. The Standard Lagrangian in Reciprocal Space 2. The Derivation of the Classical Electrodynamic Equations from the Standard Lagangian—a. Lagrange's Equation for Particles, b. The Lagrange Equation Relative to the Scalar Potential, c. The Lagrange Equation Relative to the Vector Potential 3. General Properties of the Standard Lagrangian—a. Global Symmetries. b. Gauge Invariance. c. Redundancy of the Dynamical Variables C. Electrodynamics in the Coulomb Gauge 1. Elimination of the Redundant Dynamical Variables from the Standard Lagrangian—a. Elimination of the Scalar Potential, b. The Choice of the Longitudinal Component of the Vector Potential 2. The Lagrangian in the Coulomb Gauge 3. Hamiltonian Formalism—a. Conjugate Particle Momenta, b. Conjugate Momenta for the Field Variables, c. The Hamiltonian in the Coulomb Gauge, d. The Physical Variables 4. Canonical Quantization in the Coulomb Gauge—a. Fundamental Commutation Relations, b. The Importance of Transuersability in the Case of the Electromagnetic Field, c. Creation and Annihilation Operators 5. Conclusion: Some Important Characteristics of Electrodynamics in the Coulomb Gauge—a. The Dynamical Variables Are Independent. b. The Electric Field Is Split into a Coulomb Field and a Transverse Field, c. The Formalism Is Not Manifestly Covariant. d. The Interaction of the Particles with Relativistic Modes Is Not Correctly Described Complement AII — Functional Derivative. Introduction and a Few Applications 1. From a Discrete to a Continuous System. The Limit of Partial Derivatives 2. Functional Derivative 3. Functional Derivative of the Action and the Lagrange Equations 4. Functional Derivative of the Lagrangian for a Continuous System 5. Functional Derivative of the Hamiltonian for a Continuous System Complement BII —Symmetries of the Lagrangian in the Coulomb Gauge and the Constants of the Motion 1. The Variation of the Action between Two Infinitesimally Close Real Motions 2. Constants of the Motion in a Simple Case 3. Conservation of Energy for the System Charges + Field 4. Conservation of the Total Momentum 5. Conservation of the Total Angular Momentum Complement CII —Electrodynamics in the Presence of an External Field 1. Separation of the External Field 2. The Lagrangian in the Presence of an External Field—a. Introduction of a Lagrangian. b. The Lagrangian in the Coulomb Gauge

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126 128 128 130 132

134 136 137 138 139 141 142

3. The Hamiltonian in the Presence of an External Field—a. Conjugate Momenta, b. The Hamiltonian. c. Quantization Complement DII —Exercises 1. An Example of a Hamiltonian Different from the Energy 2. From a Discrete to a Continuous System: Introduction of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Densities 3. Lagrange's Equations for the Components of the Electromagnetic Field in Real Space 4. Lagrange's Equations for the Standard Lagrangian in the Coulomb Gauge 5. Momentum and Angular Momentum of an Arbitrary Field 6. A Lagrangian Using Complex Variables and Linear in Velocity 7. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Descriptions of the Schrodinger Matter Field 8. Quantization of the Schrodinger Field 9. Schrodinger Equation of a Particle in an Electromagnetic Field: Arbitrariness of Phase and Gauge Invariance III QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS IN THE COULOMB GAUGE Introduction A. The General Framework 1. Fundamental Dynamical Variables. Commutation Relations 2. The Operators Associated with the Various Physical Variables of the System 3. State Space B. Time Evolution 1. The Schrodinger Picture 2. The Heisenberg Picture. The Quantized Maxwell-Lorentz Equations—a. The Heisenberg Equations for Particles, b. The Heisenberg Equations for Fields, c. The Advantages of the Heisenberg Point of View C. Observables and States of the Quantized Free Field 1. Review of Various Observables of the Free Field—a. Total Energy and Total Momentum of the Field, b. The Fields at a Given Point r of Space, c. Observables Corresponding to Photoelectric Measurements 2. Elementary Excitations of the Quantized Free Field. Photons— a. Eigenstates of the Total Energy and the Total Momentum, b. The Interpretation in Terms of Photons, c. Single-Photon States. Propagation 3. Some Properties of the Vacuum—a. Qualitative Discussion, b. Mean Values and Variances of the Vacuum Field, c. Vacuum Fluctuations 4. Quasi-classical States— a. Introducing the Quasi-classical States. b. Characterization of the Quasi-classical States, c. Some Properties of the Quasi-classical States, d. The Translation Operator for a and a+ D. The Hamiltonian for the Interaction between Particles and Fields 1. Particle Hamiltonian, Radiation Field Hamiltonian, Interaction Hamiltonian 2. Orders of Magnitude of the Various Interactions Terms for Systems of Bound Particles

143 146 147 150 151 152 154 157 161 167

169 171 171 171 175 176 176 176

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3. Selection Rules 4. Introduction of a Cutoff Complement AIII —The Analysis of Interference Phenomena in the Quantum Theory of Radiation Introduction 1. A Simple Model 2. Interference Phenomena Observable with Single Photodetection Signals— a. The General Case. b. Quasi-classical States, c. Factored States. d. Single-Photon States 3. Interference Phenomena Observable with Double Photodetection Signals—a. Quasi-classical States, b. Single-Photon States, c. Two-Photon States 4. Physical Interpretation in Terms of Interference between Transition Amplitudes 5. Conclusion: The Wave-Particle Duality in the Quantum Theory of Radiation Complement BIII —Quantum Field Radiated by Classical Sources 1. Assumptions about the Sources 2. Evolution of the Fields in the Heisenberg Picture 3. The Schrodinger Point of View. The Quantum State of the Field at Time t Complement CIII —Commutation Relations for Free Fields at Different Times. Susceptibilities and Correlation Functions of the Fields in the Vacuum Introduction 1. Preliminary Calculations 2. Field Commutators—a. Reduction of the Expressions in Terms of D. b. Explicit Expressions for the Commutators, c. Properties of the Commutators 3. Symmetric Correlation Functions of the Fields in the Vacuum Complement DIII—Exercises 1. Commutators of A, E⊥ , and B in the Coulomb Gauge 2. Hamiltonian of a System of Two Particles with Opposite Charges Coupled to the Electromagnetic Field 3. Commutation Relations for the Total Momentum P with HP, HR and HI 4. Bose-Einstein Distribution 5. Quasi-Probabihty Densities and Characteristic Functions 6. Quadrature Components of a Single-Mode Field. Graphical Representation of the State of the Field 7. Squeezed States of the Radiation Field 8. Generation of Squeezed States by Two-Photon Interactions 9. Quasi-Probability Density of a Squeezed State IV OTHER EQUIVALENT FORMULATIONS OF ELECTRODYNAMICS Introduction A. How to Get Other Equivalent Formulations of Electrodynamics

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227 230 232 233 234 236 241 246 248 250 253 255

1. Change of Gauge and of Lagrangian 2. Changes of Lagrangian and the Associated Unitary Transformation—a. Changing the Lagrangian. b. The Two Quantum Descriptions. c. The Correspondence between the Two Quantum Descriptions. d. Application to the Electromagnetic Field 3. The General Unitary Transformation. The Equivalence between the Different Formulations of Quantum Electrodynamics B. Simple Examples Dealing with Charges Coupled to an External Field 1. The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of the System 2. Simple Gauge Change; Gauge Invariance—a. The New Description. b. The Unitary Transformation Relating the Two Descriptions—Gauge Invariance 3. The Goppert-Mayer Transformation—a. The Long-Wavelength Approximation. b. Gauge Change Giving Rise to the Electric Dipole Interaction, c. The Advantages of the New Point of View. d. The Equivalence between the Interaction Hamiltonians A • p and E • r. e. Generalizations 4. A Transformation Which Does Not Reduce to a Change of Lagrangian: The Henneberger Transformation—a. Motivation, b. Determination of the Unitary Transformation. Transforms of the Various Operators, c. Physical Interpretation, d. Generalization to a Quantized Field: The Pauli-FierzKramers Transformation C. The Power-Zienau-Woolley Transformation: The Multipole Form of the Interaction between Charges and Field 1. Description of the Sources in Terms of a Polarization and a Magnetization Density—a. The Polarization Density Associated with a System of Charges, b. The Displacement, c. Polarization Current and Magnetization Current 2. Changing the Lagrangian—a. The Power-Zienau-Woolley Transformation. b. The New Lagrangian. c. Multipole Expansion of the Interaction between the Charged Particles and the Field 3. The New Conjugate Momenta and the New Hamiltonian—a. The Expressions for These Quantities, b. The Physical Significance of the New Conjugate Momenta, c. The Structure of the New Hamiltonian 4. Quantum Electrodynamics from the New Point of View—a. Quantization. b. The Expressions for the Various Physical Variables 5. The Equivalence of the Two Points of View. A Few Traps to Avoid D. Simplified Form of Equivalence for the Scattering S-Matrix 1. Introduction of the S-Matrix 2. The S-Matrix from Another Point of View. An Examination of the Equivalence 3. Comments on the Use of the Equivalence between the 5-Matrices Complement AIV —Elementary Introduction to the Electric Dipole Hamiltonian Introduction 1. The Electric Dipole Hamiltonian for a Localized System of Charges Coupled to an External Field—a. The Unitary Transformation Suggested by

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the Long- Wavelength Approximation, b. The Transformed Hamiltonian. c. The Velocity Operator in the New Representation 2. The Electric Dipole Hamiltonian for a Localized System of Charges Coupled to Quantized Radiation—a. The Unitary Transformation, b. Transformation of the Physical Variables, c. Polarization Density and Displacement. d. The Hamiltonian in the New Representation 3. Extensions—a. The Case of Two Separated Systems of Charges, b. The Case of a Quantized Field Coupled to Classical Sources Complement Biv —One-Photon and Two-Photon Processes: The Equivalence Between the Interaction Hamiltonians A • p And E • r Introduction 1. Notations. Principles of Calculations 2. Calculation of the Transition Amplitudes in the Two Representations— a. The Interaction Hamiltonian A • p. b. The Interaction Hamiltonian E • r. c. Direct Verification of the Identity of the Two Amplitudes 3. Generalizations—a. Extension to Other Processes, b. Nonresonant Processes Complement Civ —Interaction of Two Localized Systemsof Charges from the Power-Zienau-Woolley Point of View Introduction 1. Notation 2. The Hamiltonian Complement DIV — The Power-Zienau-Woolley Transformation and the Poincare Gauge Introduction 1. The Power-Zienau-Woolley Transformation Considered as a Gauge Change 2. Properties of the Vector Potential in the New Gauge 3. The Potentials in the Poincare Gauge Complement EIV—Exercises 1. An Example of the Effect Produced by Sudden Variations of the Vector Potential 2. Two-Photon Excitation of the Hydrogen Atom. Approximate Results Obtained with the Hamiltonians A • p and E • r 3. The Electric Dipole Hamiltonian for an Ion Coupled to an External Field 4. Scattering of a Particle by a Potential in the Presence of Laser Radiation 5. The Equivalence between the Interaction Hamiltonians A • p and Z ⋅ ∇V for the Calculation of Transition Amplitudes 6. Linear Response and Susceptibility. Application to the Calculation of the Radiation from a Dipole 7. Nonresonant Scattering. Direct Verification of the Equality of the Transition Amplitudes Calculated from the Hamiltonians A • p and E • r V INTRODUCTION TO THE COVARIANT FORMULATION OF QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS

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338 342 344 349 352 356

Introduction A. Classical Electrodynamics in the Lorentz Gauge 1. Lagrangian Formalism—a. Covariant Notation. Ordinary Notation. b. Selection of a New Lagrangian for the Field, c. Lagrange Equations for the Field, d. The Subsidiary Condition, e. The Lagrangian Density in Reciprocal Space 1. Hamiltonian Formalism—a. Conjugate Momenta of the Potentials. b. The Hamiltonian of the Field, c. Hamilton-Jacobi Equations for the Free Field 3. Normal Variables of the Classical Field—a. Definition, b. Expansion of the Potential in Normal Variables, c. Form of the Subsidiary Condition for the Free Classical Field. Gauge Arbitrariness, d. Expression of the Field Hamiltonian B. Difficulties Raised by the Quantization of the Free Field 1. Canonical Quantization —a. Canonical Commutation Relations. b. Annihilation and Creation Operators, c. Covariant Commutation Relations between the Free Potentials in the Heisenberg Picture 2. Problems of Physical Interpretation Raised by Covariant Quantization —a. The Form of the Subsidiary Condition in Quantum Theory. h. Problems Raised bv the Construction of State Space C. Covariant Quantization with an Indefinite Metric 1. Indefinite Metric in Hilbert Space 2. Choice of the New Metric for Covariant Quantization 3. Construction of the Physical Kets 4. Mean Values of the Physical Variables in a Physical Ket—a. Mean Values of the Potentials and the Fields, b. Gauge Arbitrariness and Arbitrariness of the Kets Associated with a Physical State, c. Mean Value of the Hamiltonian D. A Simple Example of Interaction: A Quantized Field Coupled to Two Fixed External Charges 1. Hamiltonian for the Problem 2. Energy Shift of the Ground State of the Field. Reinterpretation of Coulomb's Law—a. Perturbative Calculation of the Energy Shift. b. Physical Discussion. Exchange of Scalar Photons between the Two Charges, c. Exact Calculation 3. Some Properties of the New Ground State of the Field—a. The Subsidiary Condition in the Presence of the Interaction. The Physical Character of the New Ground State, b. The Mean Value of the Scalar Potential in the New Ground State of the Field 4. Conclusion and Generalization Complement AV —An Elementary Introduction to the Theory of the ElectronPositron Field Coupled to the Photon Field in the Lorentz Gauge Introduction 1. A Brief Review of the Dirac Equation—a. Dirac Matrices, b. The Dirac Hamiltonian. Charge and Current Density, c. Connection with the

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Covariant Notation, d. Energy Spectrum of the Free Particle, e. NegativeEnergy States. Hole Theory 2. Quantization of the Dirac Field—a. Second Quantization, b. The Hamiltonian of the Quantized Field. Energy Levels, c. Temporal and Spatial Translations 3. The Interacting Dirac and Maxwell Fields—a. The Hamiltonian of the Total System. The Interaction Hamiltonian. b. Heisenberg Equations for the Fields, c. The Form of the Subsidiary Condition in the Presence of Interaction Complement BV —Justification of the Nonrelativistic Theory in the Coulomb Gauge Starting from Relativistic Quantum Electrodynamics Introduction 1. Transition from the Lorentz Gauge to the Coulomb Gauge in Relativistic Quantum Electrodynamics—a. Transformation on the Scalar Photons Yielding the Coulomb Interaction, b. Effect of the Transformation on the Other Terms of the Hamiltonian in the Lorentz Gauge, c. Subsidiary Condition. Absence of Physical Effects of the Scalar and Longitudinal Photons. d. Conclusion: The Relatiuistic Quantum Electrodynamics Hamiltonian in the Coulomb Gauge 2. The Nonrelativistic Limit in Coulomb Gauge: Justification of the Pauli Hamiltonian for the Particles—a. The Dominant Term Hy of the Hamiltonian in the Nonrelativistic Limit: Rest Mass Energy of the Particles, b. The Effective Hamiltonian inside a Manifold, c. Discussion Complement CV —Exercises 1. Other Covariant Lagrangians of the Electromagnetic Field 2. Annihilation and Creation Operators for Scalar Photons: Can One Interchange Their Meanings? 3. Some Properties of the Indefinite Metric 4. Translation Operator for the Creation and Annihilation Operators of a Scalar Photon 5. Lagrangian of the Dirac Field. The Connection between the Phase of the Dirac Field and the Gauge of the Electromagnetic Field 6. The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of the Coupled Dirac and Maxwell Fields 7. Dirac Field Operators and Charge Density. A Study of Some Commutation Relations References Index Index References to Exercises are distinguished by an "e" after the page number. A Absorption (of photons), 316, 325, 338e, 344e, 348e, 349e Action:

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424 425

432

441 443 445 446 449 451 454 457 459

for a discrete system, 81 for a field, 92 functional derivative, 128 principle of least action, 79, 81 for a real motion, 134, 152e Adiabatic (switching on), 299 Adjoint (relativistic), 411 Angular momentum, see also Multipole, expansion conservation, 8, 139, 200 contribution of the longitudinal electric field, 20, 45 eigenfunctions for a spin-1 particle, 53 for the field + particle systems, 8, 20, 118, 174, 200 for a general field, 152e for a spinless particle, 137 for a spin-1 particle, 49 of the transverse field, 20, 27, 47 Annihilation and creation operators, see also Expansion in a and a+; Translation operator ad and a g operators, 394, 429 aµ and aµ operators, 391 anticommutation relations, 163e, 414 commutation relations, 121, 171, 391 for electrons and positrons, 414, 433 evolution equation, 179, 217, 249e, 420 for photons, 33, 121, 294 for scalar photons, 381, 391, 443e, 446e Antibunching, 211 Anticommutation relations: for a complex field, 98 for the Dirac field, 414, 415, 453e, 454e and positivity of energy, 99, 416, 440, 453e for the Schrodinger field, 99, 162e Antihermiticity, see Scalar potential Antiparticle, 187, 413, 433 Approximation: long wavelength, 202, 269, 275, 304, 342e nonrelativistic, 103, 122, 200 Autocorrelation, 229 B Basis: in reciprocal space, 25, 36 of vector functions, 51, 55 Bessel:

145. 391. 99.173. 421 total. 108. 198 . 89. 7. 395 for the particles. 230e for electromagnetic fields in reciprocal space. 158e. 7 in reciprocal space. 223. 119. 147e. see Dynamical variables: Fields (in general) Compton: scattering. 89. 411. 98. 86. 56. 94. 382. 148e. 118. 161e. 94. 345e spherical Bessel functions. 258 for a field. 34. 286 in real space. 417 for free fields in the Heinsenberg picture. 12. 391 for electromagnetic fields in real space. 260. 11 standard Lagrangian. 416 Charge conjugation. 258 covariant commutation relations. 380 of the fields with the energy and the momentum. 34. 438 Classical electrodynamics: in the Coulomb gauge. 260 of quantum representation. 84. 364 in the Power-Zienau-Woolley picture. 155e. 187 Boundary conditions. see Quasi-classical states of the field Commutation relations: canonical commutation relations for an arbitrary field. 342e Change. see also Density conservation. 238e Bosons. see also Gauge: Lagrangian (general). 148e canonical commutation relations for a discrete system. see also Commutation relations: Quantization (general) for a discrete system. 382 for the operators a and a+. 233e. 368. 394. 300 Bose-Einstein distribution. 88 of dynamical variables. 121 in the Lorentz gauge. 111. 381. 171. 120. 262 Characteristic functions. 416. 391. 383. 90. see Periodic boundary conditions C Canonical (commutation relations).Bessel functions. 234e. 100 Coherent state. 147e. 171 Complex. 241e. Transformation of coordinates. 71e Born expansion. 145. 355e. 155e. 232e. 380 Center of mass. 443e for the operators a and a . 236e Charge. 98.

426. 121. 401. 7. 232e Constant of the motion. 148e in quantum mechanics.D. 258. 67e. 83. 8. 10. 113 electrodynamics in the Coulomb gauge. 126. 294 Conjugate momenta of the particle coordinates: in the Coulomb gauge. 431 Counting signals. 10. 370 Contact interaction.154e of a discrete generalized coordinate. 108. Energy: Scalar photons field. 157e in the Power-Zienau-Woolley representation. 147e Convolution product. 8. 116. 270 in the Henneberger representation. 18. 368. 403 potential.wavelength. 181. 289. 11 Correlation function. 256 of a field. 8. 138. 42 Continuous limit (for a discrete system). 61e. 267 Conjugate momentum (general): of a complex generalized coordinate. 8. 202 Conjugate momenta of the electromagnetic potentials: in the Coulomb gauge. 139. 115. See also Intensity correlations Correlation time. 152e. 122. 143 in the Goppert-Mayer representation.169. 416. 407 self-energy. 421 of energy. see Photodetection signals Covariant: commutation relations. see also Coulomb gauge. 200 of charge. 172. in the Coulomb gauge. 424. 200. 191 Coulomb. 61e. 96. 291. 96. 143 in the Lorentz gauge. 391 . 200 of momentum. 85 transformation in a change of Lagrangian. 191. 276 for the matter field. 293 transformation in a gauge change. 71e. 266 transformation in a change of generalized coordinates.290. see also Hamiltonian (total): Lagrangians for electrodynamics: Transformation definition. 12. 369 in the Power-Zienau-Woolley representation. 172.E. 18. 88. 330. 201 Coulomb gauge. 113. 227. 122. 289. 200. 16. 137. 93. 147e. 257 Conservation: of angular momentum. 134. 20. 16. 411. 435 interaction by exchange of photons.439 relativistic Q. 295 interaction. 115. 61e.

410. 10. 410. 449e Covariant Lagrangians: for classical particles. 106. 124. 434. 313 magnetic. 329 Diamagnetic energy. 257. 308. 7. 451e for the Dirac field. 449e for the electromagnetic field (standard Lagrangian). 411. 115. 71e. 31 Dispacement. 287 D d'Alambertian. 10. 86. 419 four-vector.formulation. 281. see Scattering Current: density. 441e of magnetization. 292. 94 equation. 367 Damping (radiative). 452e Hamiltonian. 365. 106. 408. 454e of current. 101. Spinors delta function. 410 matrices. 34. 290. 292 of polarization. 106. 91. see Electric dipole: Magnetic dipole moment Dirac. 14. 158e. 64e. 409 Discretization. 42. 93. 285. 147e. 157e. 293 Dipole-dipole interaction: electric. 190. 411 of magnetization. 365. 440 Delta function (transverse). 364. 292. 7. 361 notation and equations. 410. see also Quasi-probability density of charge. 17. 365 in the Lorentz gauge. 101. 441e Creation operator. 113. 370 Lagrangian. 310 Dynamical variables: canonically conjugate. 115. 419. 147e. 365 Fermi Lagrangian. 284 of polarization. 10. 106 for coupled electromagnetic and Dirac fields. 449e. 101. 308. 7. 284. see also Matter field. 106. 231c Density. 43 Dipole moment. 120. 101. 200. 365. 369 . 38. 173. 76e Darwin term. 309. 291. see Annihilation and creation operators Cross-section. 36. 419 Hamiltonian. 284 Cutoff. 93. 258. 369. 366 interaction Lagrangian. 369. 42. 167e. 282.

71e Electric field. 295 total. 172. 353e in the Power-Zienau-Woolley picture. 312. potential): Gauge covariant commutation reactions. 24. 283 of an oscillating dipole moment. 154e. 68e free. 288. 270. 364. see also Electromagnetic field: Expansion in the Coulomb gauge. 310 Electromagnetic field. 365. 288. 362 E Effective (Hamiltonian). 343 self-energy. see also Matter field classical radius. 81 for a field. 27.109. 230e. see also Expansion in normal variables: External field: Quantization of the electromagnetic field associated with a particle. 7 in reciprocal space. 413. 172. 64e. 438 Einstein. 32. 295. 90 for a discrete system. 75c elastically bound. see also Free (fields. 291. 113. 74e g-factor. 241e mean value in the indefinite metric. 12 tensor F µν . 260 change of dynamical variables in the Lagrangian. 9. 396. 157e. 71e. 58. 117. 15. 66e. 84 complex dynamical variables. 117. 66e Electron. 181. 306. 295. 306. 204 Electric dipole: approximation. 10. 287. 378 Electromagnetic potentials. 90 redundancy. 86. 21. 122. 435. 10. 117. 270 interaction. 313. 87. 439 Electron-positron pairs. 417 Elimination: . 382 definition and gauge transformation. 342 moment. 28. 376 mean value in the indefinite metric. 330. 172 longitudinal. 17. 9 evolution equations. 367 four-vector potential. 117. 106. 123. 396 in real space. 312 wave. 221. 304. 270. 406 retarded. 171. 310.change of dynamical variables in the Hamiltonian. 355e transverse. 64e. 366.

19. 378 negative energy states. 296. see also Angular momentum: Energy. 207 Fermi: golden rule. 424 between the various formulations of electrodynamics. 356e between the A • p and Z • ∇V pictures.D. 253. 154e. Hamiltonian (general considerations). Schrodinger Equivalence: between the A • p and E • r pictures. 171 Expansion in normal variables: of the electric and magnetic fields. 31 Equations. 378.E. 28. 316. 114. 61e. 27. 29. 27. 302 Expansion in a and a+ (or in a and a ): of the electric and magnetic fields. Self-energy conservation of. 418 F Factored states. 323 Lagrangian. 157e of the scalar potential. 370. 349e Energy. Poisson. 200 Coulomb energy. 391 of the Hamiltonian and momentum in the Lorentz gauge.414 Fields (in general). see Dirac. Heisenberg: Lagrange's equations: Maxwell equations. 24. 401. 31 of the transverse field momentum. 426 of the free field. 283. 8. 376 of the Hamiltonian and momentum in the Lorentz gauge. 403. 372. 400. 272. 180. 198. 31 of the transverse vector potential. 27. 321. 344e.of a dynamical variable. 137. 141. 391 of the Hamiltonian and momentum of the transverse field. 31 External field. 372. Newton-Lorentz equations. 99. Hamilton's equations. 300. 111 Emission (of photons). 85. 171. 314. 172 of the transverse vector potential. Momentum. 348e. 366 Fermion. See also Hamiltonian for particles in an external field: Lagrangians for electrodynamics External sources (for radiation). 382. 172. 173. 26. 32 of the four-vector potential. 349e between relativistic Q. Lagrangian (general). in the Lorentz and the Coulomb gauges. 27. 161e. Quantization (general) complex. 48 of the transverse field Hamiltonian. 219. 183. 18. 413 of the system field + particles. 95 . 116 of the transverse field. 178. 8. 337e. 379 of the transverse field angular momentum. 413. see also Hamiltonian. 241e of the four-vector potential.

417 of the radiation field. 10. 144. 87. 313. 365.414 Fresnel mirror. 90 transverse and longitudinal. 157e for a discrete system. 379 potential. 15. 263 Hamiltonian of the particles: Dirac Hamiltonian. 376. 183. 364. 84 Goppert-Mayer transformation. 58. 385. 147e for a field. 108. 10. 373. 259 transformation of. 89. 232e for two separated systems of charges. 86. 12. 328 Hamiltonian for particles in an external field: for a Dirac particle. 432 physical meaning in various representations. 205. 9. 154e. 269 transformation. 175 Fourier transform. potentials). 382. see also Effective. 394 H Hamiltonian (general considerations). 83. 107. 397 Generalized coordinates: change of. 97 Four-vector: current. 375. 270. 411 field energy-momentum. 410 expression of. 267. 148e Hamiltonian and energy. 13. 93. 88 real. 97. 304 Ground state: of the quantized Dirac field. 258. see Pauli-Fierz-Kramers transformation Final. 146e in quantum theory. 83.real. 97. 368. 252e. Lorentz gauge. 449e invariance. 189. 271. 376 Free (fields. 37 Fierz. 13. 275. 260 complex. 11. 56. (Hamiltonian) with complex dynamical variables. 255. see Initial and final states of a process Fock space. 261. 92. see also Coulomb gauge. 28. 415 for two particles with opposite charges. 8. 331. 386. 410 . 297 of the quantized Dirac Field. 31. 81. 88. 136. 167e. 269. 208 Functional derivative. 126 G Gauge. 186. Poincare gauge gauge transformation and phase of the matter field. 197 Pauli Hamiltonian. 17.

315 . 217. 197. 249e. 324. 295. 342e for the quantized Dirac field. 109. 138. 413 Hydrogen atom: Lamb transition. 122. 392 Independent variables. 271. 296. 94. 353e in the Lorentz gauge. 174. 370. 317 Hamiltonian for radiation coupled to external sources: in the Couilomb gauge.electric dipole representation (E • r). 18. 185. 144. 232e in the electric dipole representation. 185 Interaction Hamiltonian between particles and radiation: in the Coulomb gauge. 198. 218. 451e in the Power-Zienau-Wooley picture. 264. 307. 291. 320 Henneberger picture. 64e. 67e. 89 equations for a and a+ 179. 95. 419 standard representation (A • p). 173. 271. 20. 420 equations for the matter fields. 329 Hamilton's equations: for a discrete system. 33. 439 in the Coulomb gauge with external fields. 314. 349e Hilbert space. 390. 121. 400. 21. 122. 89. 271. see also Nonlocality Coulomb field and transverse field. 326. 391. 382 relations. 275. 116. 241e. 176. 177 picture. 300. 266. 144. 292. 344e. 83 for a field. 387 Hole theory. 302. 277 for an ion. 371 Heaviside function. 16. 419. 186 Intensity of light. 99. 362. 289. 292 interactions. 338e I Indefinite metric. 304. 445e and probabilistic interpretation.198 of coupled Dirac and Maxwell fields. 89. 221. 317. 327 1s-2s two-photon transition. see also Scalar potential definition and properties. 418 Hamiltonian (total): in the Coulomb gauge. 313. 337e Instantaneous. 312. See also Redundancy of dynamical variables Initial and final states of a process. 431. 248e Hennebcrger transformation. 226 Heisenberg: equation. 387. 132. 161e. 330 Intensity correlations. 420 equations for the particle. 218 in the electric dipole representation.

185 Linear response. 154e. 329 in relativistic Q. 204 with two laser beams. 134. 209. 9. 211 Interferences for transition amplitude. see also Density. 103. 87. 94. Lagrangian: Functional derivative: Matter field with complex dynamical variables. 342e K Kramers. 79. see Pauli-Fierz-Kramers transformation Kronecker (delta symbol). 96. Electric dipole. 147e for the electromagnetic potentials. 208. 92. 154e.E. 81 Light intensity. 108. Coulomb: Dipole-dipole interaction. l57e of a discrete system. 213 Invariance. 142. 82. 287 Lamb: shift. see also Covariant Lagrangians. 449e in the Power-Zienau-Woolley picture. 147e formalism. l57e. 191 transition. see also Covariant gauge invariance. 143. 292. 92. 81. 129. 212 with two photons. 142. 370 Ion (interaction Hamiltonian with the radiation field). 167e. 290. 84. 87. 167e. 266. 147e. 221. 208. l57e Lagrangians for electrodynamics. 150e. 449e for the particles. 296. 131. 91. 81 linear in velocities. 107. 271. 137 with external fields. 114 translational and rotational. 82. 153e. 10.in the Power-Zienau-Woolley representation.D. 267 relativistic invariance. 154e for a discrete system. 419 Interactions. 96. 95. 147e elimination of a redundant dynamical variable. Standard Lagrangian in the Coulomb gauge. 148e L Lagrange's equations: with complex dynamical variables. 151e Lagrangian (general). 352e . 367. 210 quantum theory of light interference. 327 Least-action principle. see Contact interaction. 154e. 95. 256 of a field. 104. 151e. 113. Instantaneous: Magnetic dipole moment: Quadrupole electric (momentum and interaction): Retarded: Hamiltonian Interference phenomena: with one photon. 142. 15. l57e equivalent Lagrangians.. 150e for a matter field. 106. 200. 366 for a field. 79.

179 in real space. 14. 64e. 439 Magnetic field. 424. 21. 32. 292 Mass: correction. 432 Matter field: Dirac matter field. 9 relativistic Q. 103. 167e Maxwell equations. 433. in the Lorentz gauge. 17. 118. 177. 366 quantum Maxwell equations. see also Subsidiary condition classical electrodynamics in the Lorentz gauge. 171. 15. 178. 281. 291. 113 in the Lorentz gauge. 389. 284 density. 419. 13 vector potential. 21 Mean value in the indefinite metric. 24. 384. 53 contribution of the longitudinal electric field to the energy. 98. 161e. 414. 271. 42. 414 Schrodinger matter field. 454e quantization.D. 283 normal variables. 10.E. 364 definition. l57e. 20 electric field. 7 in reciprocal space. 408. 9. 406 Mechanical momentum. 366. 453e M Magnetic dipole moment: interaction. 366 for the potentials. 430 vector fields. 197. 161e. 20. 16. 112. 21. 396. 69e rest mass energy. 288 orbital. 104. 12. See also Expansion Magnetization: current. 288 spin.Linear susceptibility. See also Instantaneous. 17. Nonlocality Localized systems of charges. 374 photons. 290 . 307 Longitudinal: basis of longitudinal vector functions. 22 in the Poincare gauge. 221. 361. 255 Longitudinal vector potential: in the Coulomb gauge. 304. 15. see also Heinsenberg: Normal variables of the radiation covariant form. 12. 284. 42. 44. See also Lorentz gauge: Subsidiary condition Lorentz gauge. 172. 332 Lorentz equation. 43. 19. 27. 361. 451e. 107. 398. 352e Locality. momentum and angular momentum.

See also Instantaneous. 30 definition and expression. 185. 177 of the particle + field system. 439 Nonresonant processes. 424. 374. 356e Nonlocality. 20. 14. 370. 27. 45. 15. 374 quantization. 24. 344e. 32. 287 waves. 325. 174. 184. 445e. 60 N Negative energy states. 349e Multipole: expansion. 8. 200 contribution of the longitudinal field. 372. 152e momentum and velocity. 379 of a general field. 25. 20. 58. 451e of the electromagnetic field in the Lorentz gauge. 55. 388. 372 Lorentz subsidiary condition. 271. 27. 8. 151e. 19. 20 of the Dirac field. 338e. 219. 290 for a particle. Locality Norm: in the indefinite metric. 118. 171 scalar and longitudinal normal variables. see also Expansion in normal variables ad and a g normal variables. 413 Negative frequency components. 432. 316. 61e. 20. 33. 25. 193. 29. 348c. See also Normal mode. 122. 27. 24. 177. 200 limit. 103. 7. 31 evolution equation. 376. 31. 26. 139. 385 Normal mode. 371 discretization. 29. 195. 158e of the transverse field. 66e. 21. Normal variables of the radiation: Expansion Momentum. 375. See also Normal variables of the radiation: Expanion Normal order. 378 analogy with a wavefunction. 188 Multiphoton amplitudes (calculations in various representations). 371. 374. 374. 172. 138. 199 of the Schrodinger field. 447e negative. 379 transverse normal variables. 24.Mode. 325.422 Newton-Lorentz equations. see also Commutation: Expansion in normal variables: Expansion in a and a+ (or in a and a ) conservation. 29. 23. 19. 237e Normal variables of the radiation. 178 Nonrelativistic: approximation. 193. 104. 374 .

195. 392. 437 Pauli-Fierz-Kramers transformation. 445e hermitian. 388 eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. 430. 410. 214 single counting signals. 432 matrices. 30. 425. 185. 403. 30. 187 longitudinal and scalar photons. 277 in the Power-Zienau-Woolley approach. 30 Physical meaning of operators: general. 446e nonexistence of a position operator. 213 Photon. 50. 186. 187 single-photon states. 277.O Observables. 11 Particles see Conjugate momenta of the particle coordinates. 177 in the Goppert-Mayer approach. 278. 306 in the Henneberger approach. 345e . 185. see Physical variables Operators in the indefinite metric: adjoint. see also Annihilation and creation operators: Bose-Einstein distribution: Interference phenomena. 167e. 210. 295 Pauli: exclusion principle. 259. 31 Phase: of an electromagnetic field mode. 269 in the Goppert-Mayer approach. 117. see also Interference phenomena double counting signals. 271. 413. 208. 237e normal. 205. 429 Periodic boundary conditions. Wave-particle duality as an elementary excitation of the quantized radiation field. 188 photon number operator. 388. S-matrix: States of the radiation field. 445e Order: antinormal. 188. 209. 206. Matter field: Hamiltonian for particles in an external field Particle velocities: in the Coulomb gauge. 163e. 271. 306. 243e of a matter field and gauge invariance. 384. 385 transverse photons. 187. 389. 212. 290. 449e Photodetection signals. 385 wavefunction in reciprocal space. 208. 238e P Parseval-Plancherel identity. 184. 416 Hamiltonian. 310 in the Henneberger approach. 443e.

259. Scalar potential: Transverse vector potential Power-Zienau-Woolley transformation. Subsidiary condition Physical variables. 211. 329 Polarization of the radiation: polarization vector. 453e canonical quantization. 306. 25. 116. 94. 29. 333 Poisson: brackets. 148e second quantization. 288 Quantization (general). 328. 284 density. 281. 345e Polarization: current. 257 corresponding operators in various representations. 290. Resonant. 184. 89. see Longitudinal vector potential. 161e for a real field. 331. 384. 414. 195. 258 Positive: positive energy slates. Translation operator in the Henneberger approach. 86 equation. See also Physical meaning of operators: Physical variables. 276. 258. 376 sum over transverse polarizations. 408. 206. 280. 345e for the particles. Emission (of photons): Multiphoton (amplitudes (calculations in various representations): Nonresonant processes. 277. 294. 292. 33. 263 Planck. processes: Scattering: S-matrix Q Quadrupole electric (momentum and interaction). 413 Potential. 443e. 310 mean value in the indefinite metric. 98. 117. 292 Physical states. 331 P-representation. 430. 405. Magnetic field: Momentum. see also Angular momentum: Electric field: Energy.in the Power-Zienau-Woolley approach.422 Positron. 98. 308. see also Matter field with anticommutators. 251e Processes. 439 . 412 positive frequency components. 162e. see also Photon. 423. 34. 99.286. 236e. 394. 271. see Absorption (of photons). Particle velocities: Photodetection signals: Physical meaning of operators. 260. 1 Poincare gauge. 396. 296 transformation of the corresponding operators. 380 for a complex field. 193. Position operator in classical theory. 396 in quantum theory. 10. 118. 36 Position operator.

See also independent variables Relativistic.D. 424. 387.D. 18. 378. 241e. Covariant Lagrangian: Quantum electrodynamics (Q. 424. 362.) . 113. in the Lorentz gauge. 119. Quasi-probability density definition. 296. 31. 447e Quasi-probability density: suited to antinormal order. 157e. 192 graphical representation. 68e. 290. 361. 326 Rayleigh scattering. 383. 217. 197. 109. 34 Quantum electrodynamics (Q. 382 as a function of a and a . 144. 75e.D. 76e Raman scattering.E. 296. 370. 294 covariant quantization in the Lorentz gauge. 211.D. 391 as a function of the conjugate variables. 144 canonical quantization in the Power-Zienau-Woolley representation. 293 rclativistic Q. see also Covariant. 250e suited to normal order. 27.E. 382. 312 as a function of the normal variables. 169 in the Power-Zienau-Woolley picture. 11. 404 properties. 391 elementary approach. 352e Radiation Hamiltonian: eigenstates of. 194.E. 33. 116. 198. 236e. 250e R Radiation emitted by an oscillating dipole. 71e. 453e Quasi-classical states of the field. 186 as a function of a and a+ 172. 370 as a function of the fields.): in the Coulomb gauge. 154e.431 relativistic Q.Quantization of the electromagnetic field: canonical quantization in the Coulomb gauge. 209 production by external sources. 195. 326 Reciprocal: half-space. 207. 71e. 242e interferences with. 312 Radiation reaction. 33 methods. 206.E. 380. 236e.419. 74e Radiative damping. 102 space. 292. 391. see also Photodetection signals. in the Coulomb gauge. 378 in the Lorentz gauge. 36 Redundancy of dynamical variables. 398 physical meaning.

414 Selection rules. 22. 414. 161e Schwarzchild. 330 potential. 75e Schrodinger: equation. 346e nonresonant scattering.403. 167e quantization. 66e S Scalar photons. 369 in the Coulomb gauge. see also Compton: Raman scattering. 326. 316. Rayleigh scattering: Thomson scattering: Transition amplitudes cross section. Expansion in normal variables absence of a conjugate momentum with the standard Lagrangian. 446e Scalar potential. 349e scattering. 356e in presence of radiation. 89. 21.description of classical particles. 75e Retarded. 408. 384.392. 123 Resonant: processes. 79 Second quantization. 290. 261. 333 Scalar product: in a Hilbert space. 362 antihermiticity in the Lorentz gauge. 326 resonant scattering. 366. 392 conjugate momentum in the Lorentz gauge.443e. see also Instantaneous field. 157e. 67e elimination from the standard Lagrangian. 167e. 387 with the indefinite metric. 445e Scattering. 344e process. 233e Self-energy Coulomb. 71e. 109. 201 dipole. 89. 387. 219 Schrodinger field: Lagrangian and Hamiltonian. 433. 176. 176. 111 in the Poincare gauge. 329 S-matrix: . 74e. 454e modes. 157e. 263 representation.425.430. 16. 107 Dirac field. 312 of the transverse polarization. 451e. 199. 310. 395. see also Expansion in a and a+ (or in a and a ). 18.

109 expression. 349e Sources (classical or external). 264. 302. Unitary transformation. 440 Spinors: Dirac spinors. 245e. 134 of the standard Lagrangian. 246e. see also Subsidiary condition in the Coulomb gauge. 368. 442e. 207 graphical representation. 243e. 314. see also Physical states: Quasi-classical states of the field: Vacuum factored states. 304 . 434 Squeezed states. 409. 433 two-component Pauli spinors. 421. 100 symmetries. 49 Spin-orbit interaction. 298. 394 Sudden switching-on of the potential. 24. 105 State space.and two-photon processes. entries under Gauge. 384. 187. 385 for scalar photons. 392. 250e two-photon states. 191 Spin: magnetic moment. 412. 269. 22. 370. 99 Spin-1 particle. 400. 250 Standard Lagrangian: difficulties for the quantization.443e in presence of interaction. 299. 430 for the quantum free field. 205. 210. 85 from the Coulomb gauge to the Lorentz gauge (or vice versa). 175 in the covariant formulation. 386. 198 Transformation. 9. 205. 336e Symmetries and conservation laws. 211 Subsidiary condition: in classical electrodynamics. 370. 241e single-photon states. Hamiltonian. 372. 406. 374. 44. 317.definition. 246e. 63e. 75e. 349e. 197. 248. 443e States of the radiation field. 208. 356e for one. 317 equivalence in different representations. 10. 248e. see also Physical variables. 425 Goppert-Mayer transformation. 418 Spectral density. 217. 321. 105 T Thomson scattering. Lagrangian of coordinates and velocities. 439 spin-statistics theorem. 385 squeezed states.

291. 295. 295. see also Translation operator associated with a change of Lagrangian. 118. see also Expansion. 32. 191. 64e. 27. 195. 20. 37 summation over transverse polarizations. 356e Transition rate. 21 electric field. 223. 261. 173. momentum and angular momentum of the transverse field. 31. 271 on the Hamiltonian. 316. 260. 331 of the state vector. 287. 417 for the momentum of a particle. 42. 283. 394 Vacuum fluctuations. 21. 163e. 262. 278. 328. 300. 37. 231e displacement. 312 equations of motion of the transverse field. Instantaneous: Nonlocality: Photon basis of transverse vector functions. 280. 279 . 32. 308 for the a and a operators. 38. 230e delta function. 337e. 119. 176. 396 Transverse vector potential. 346e identity in different pictures. 17 U Unitary transformation. 310 energy. 171. 223.429 Power-Zienau-Woolley transformation. 19. 27. 446e infinitesimal generators. 273. 321. 323 Translation operator: for the a and a+ operators. 349e. 252e. 262. 269. 343e V Vacuum. 25. 36 vector field. 356e interference between. 186. 189. 271. 305 for the position of a particle. 199. 24. 276. 310 magnetic field. 349e Pauli-Fierz-Kramers transformation. 386. 29. 17. 425. 223. 42. 296 associated with a gauge transformation. 289 gauge invariance. 119. 404. 171 projector onto the subspace of transverse fields. 53 commutation relation for the transverse field. 27. 287. 117. 276 Transverse. 275. 383. 21. 316. 385. 263. 264. 199. 48. 64e. 24. 36. 50 vector potential. 120. 304. 13. 268. 230e conjugate momentum. 174. 344e. 377. 18. 213 Transition matrix. 338e. 171. 294.Henneberger transformation. 297. 47. 14. see also Expansion: Instantaneous: Nonlocality commutation relations. 119. 268 Transition amplitudes definition and calculation. 115.

see Longitudinal vector potential: Transverse vector potential Velocity. See also Photon Wavelength scale. 204.see Power-Zienau-Woolley transformation . 30. 50. see Particle velocities W Wavcfunction of the photon. 28 Woolley. see Power-Zienau-Woolley transformation Z Zienau. 202.Vector potential. 55 traveling plane waves. 45. See also Approximation: Compton Wave-particle duality. . 215 Waves: multipole waves.

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