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Chapter 2 1.

African American southerners mostly did not own their own land and if they did partake in any kind of land ownership it was, most of the time, in sharecropping which was most detrimental to them. While economically their lot in life was very slowly improving, their standing in society was as low as ever. 2. By 1915, 30,000 businesses had black owners. The segregation and racism put towards blacks meant that black for black businesses grew. For instance, one life insurance company grew because their white counterparts would either not offer life insurance to blacks or would do so at an unfavourable rate. This meant that the black customers went to the black company. 3. Of the 10% or so who moved north, most blacks still lived in lower-than-average conditions for same or higher rates than whites. In Harlem in the 1880s, the first black Ghetto was forming and a black culture was developing in the entire North. 4. In the south, informal segregation on public transport and in public places had been present for a few years, but in 1887 to 1891, the Jim Crow laws were instated, these laws formalised segregation. 5. There was a growth of theories such as Social Darwinism in the south and many southerners truly believed that blacks were a lower caste of human and needed to be kept in that place. This spread to the courts where one mans fight to sue for a segregation issue led to it being ruled totally constitutional. 6. During the time of Reconstruction, some blacks had even managed to acquire positions of political power. Due to the fact that the white southerners could not find it psychologically possible to see blacks as equals, this annoyed them greatly. 7. To ensure that black enfranchisement ended and reversed, southern states set up a series of rules and regulations that, while not racist, aimed at ending black voting. These included a pole tax, literacy test and the Grandfather clauses, whereby a voter had to know their grandfather had voted before reconstruction. 8. At this point, the Northern states were beginning to see their southern counterparts as politically and economical secondary in their thoughts 9. Lynching involved forming a mob and tracking down a black man, usually for alleged rape, then punishing them for said crime by hanging. 10. Ida B. Wells argued for things such as a trial for members of lynch mobs and for a call of question on the part of white women involved in the rapes that usually caused a lynch. She eventually went onto join a black newspaper company and further her campaign. 11. Lynching and leasing convicts showed that whites were still incensed at the civil rights of blacks and were going to do whatever it took to compromise them. 12. Washington started his career in education, and then moved on to setting up his own institute so others could benefit from the effects of education like he had. 13. The Atlanta speech brought a great deal of support to the idea of a better education for blacks, mostly from whites. 14. Washington managed to gain the support of President Theodore Roosevelt and therefore granted him a respectable reputation. 15. Washingtons critics argued he was ignoring the serious crimes of Lynching and other day to day problems that the blacks had to deal with.

16. Even after these criticisms, Washington remained focused on Education and, although he was greatly affected and began attacking his critics, he did not change his views.

Key Qs:

1. After Reconstruction, not only did the Northern states have less power of the now more independent southern states, but also the backers for Black civil rights in those Northern states had decreased in size and many Northerners now saw segregation as a less than important issue. This meant that racist white governments in the south were allowed to write their own laws on segregation. 2. Washingtons critics believed that he was focusing far too much on the higher echelons of black society and thereby taking away the focus from the much more violent and some would say serious crimes being done against them at the lower end of the spectrum, lynching for instance.