“Design and Fabrication of DIE for compaction of Metal Powder in Powder Metallurgy”
for the degree of


Submitted By:
Mohit Assudani Pranay Vyas Aditya Pagare (081116052) (081116081) (081116086)

Under the Guidance of:
Asst. Professor Dr. Rajesh Purohit Asst. Professor R.S. Rana

Mirza Amir Ahmed Beg (081116058)


Words shall never be able to pierce through the gamut of emotions that are suddenly exposed during the routine of our life. They shall never be able neither to describe the spirit with which we worked together nor shall they ever be able to express the feeling we felt towards our guides.

This project was a struggle that was made much more difficult due to several reasons. Sometimes we were like rudderless boat without knowing what to do next. It was then the timely guidance of them that has seen us through all these odds. We would be very grateful to them for their inspiration, encouragement and guidance in all phases of the discretion. It is our pleasure that Dr. R.M. Sarvaiya, HOD of Mechanical Engineering for his constant encouragement and valuable advice during the course of our project. We would also thank Associate Professor Dr. Rajesh Purohit & Asst. Professor R.S. Rana who has tremendously contributed to this project directly or indirectly, gratitude from the depths of our heart is due for them.

Mohit Assudani Mirza Amir Ahmed Beg Pranay Vyas Aditya Pagare


This is to certify that Mr. Mohit Assudani, Mr. Mirza Amir Ahmed Beg, Mr. Pranay Vyas and Mr. Aditya Pagare students of final year B.Tech Mechanical Engineering in the academic year 2011-12 of this institute have completed major project work entitled “Design and Fabrication of DIE for compaction of Metal Powder in Powder Metallurgy” based on the syllabus and have submitted a satisfactory report on it as a partial fulfillment for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering.

Project Guide Associate Professor Dr. Rajesh Purohit & Asst. Professor R.S. Rana Department of Mechanical Engineering, MANIT Bhopal.

Head of theDepartment Dr. R.M. Sarvaiya Department of Mechanical Engineering, MANIT Bhopal.

Die Material (High Carbon High Chromium Steel) 3.3 Applications 7 4.1 Available Options for Die Material 3.CONTENTS S.2 Properties and Technical Data for High Carbon High Chromium Steel 3. No.3 Components for Die Toolsets 2. Introduction 1. Die 2.2 Die Forming 2. Design of Die 4.1 Introduction 4.1 What are we aiming to do! 1 2. 1.3 Die Design in PRO E 13 .4 Die Operation & Types 3 3.1 Introduction 2. Topic Page No.2 Calculations 4.

6 Aluminum Supply 7.5 Aluminum Alloys .Heat Treatment & Welding 6.5.Product Applications 6.3 Boring 5.4 Aluminum .7 Sintering 7.2 History 7.4 Internal Grinding 5.8 Powder Metallurgy using Aluminum 30 . Die Fabrication 5. Specimen Manufacturing (Powder Metallurgy) 7.3 Powder Manufacturing or Atomization 7.5 Oil Quenching 20 6.4 Zinc Stearate as Lubricant 7.1 Introduction 7.5 Powder Blending 7.1 Introduction 6.1 Turning 5.2 Drilling 5.6 Powder Compaction 7. Aluminum (Metal Powder) 26 6.2 Properties of Aluminum 6.3 Why Aluminum? 6.

7. Scope of Improvement 58 10.5 Hardness Test 44 9.9 Aluminum comparison to other P/M materials 8.3 Compression Test 8.4 Density Comparisons 8.1 Introduction to Universal Testing Machine 8. Testing of Specimens 8. References 61 .2 Indirect Tensile Test 8. Final Conclusions 60 11.

and total die length. sometimes number of rings and interference or interferences. interferences and allowable stresses have been explored. Both room temperature and warm compaction have been investigated. based either on analytical or numerical methods. or compact height. compaction and radial pressure. corresponding to the lowest stresses on both items. A wide range of compaction pressures. When employed in a general sense. no unwanted alteration of material microstructures and maximum stresses always below the allowable limits. and approximated the analytical calculations and cost considerations. When used in a more limited manner. The design targets are: diameters of insert and ring. The calculations by analytical methods overestimate the stresses. die materials and geometries. the size of the cavity. .Introduction The word "die" is a very general one and it may be well to define its meaning as it will be employed in our work. and the outer radius. Usually the design is based on engineering experience. The report presents some suitable nomograms for the comparison of results of calculations performed either by Lame’s Formula or by sophisticated numerical methods. To compare the results. implemented into FEM calculation codes. no risk of relative motion at part ejection. powder mix composition. The two areas of concern were the stresses at the interior corner of the die cavity and the distortion of the cavity wall due to the interference fit between the two pieces and the pressure exerted on the die during the compaction process. enable one to optimize the common diameter of insert and ring. The constraints include: no tensile stresses on the insert. Two-piece designs were considered in order to make the dies easier to assemble than the five-piece dies that were previously used. The initial data needed to design metal powder compaction die are: compact shape and density. This study is focused on the use of numerical methods to determine the design parameters of dies for powder compaction. However. A successful die design would have stresses less than the yield stress of the material. Numerical algorithms. The differences among the results depend on the consideration of the actual stressed length. It is used in two distinct ways. company knowhow. when the FACTOR OF SAFETY of is removed. Adding a FACTOR OF SAFETY of 3 to the compaction force tends to lead to conservative estimates of the stresses but not for the wall distortion. or to find the minimum value of the outer diameter. it refers to that component which is machined to receive the blank. part number and tool materials. the wall distortion is not affected enough to discard the design. Design factors that were investigated include the compaction force. as differentiated from the component called the punch which is its opposite member.1. it means an entire press tool with all components taken together. circular dies have been investigated.

. calculating thickness of the shell to bear the load to be applied on die in the process. Fabrication of die by using different processes i. Selection of a material for die manufacturing based on working conditions & the type of product to be created using this die.1.1      What Are We Aiming To Do ! Learn about the working of dies. drilling. Calculations for design of die i. turning.e. boring etc.e. Preparing specimens using this die & testing them.

For the forming of sheet metal. Punch plate .This part along with the Blank Die produces the blanked part.This part is used to control the depth that the punch goes into the die. dies are generally customized to the item they are used to create. performs the stretching. two parts may be used. In the case of an automotive component there will usually be a shearing operation after the main forming is done and then additional crimping or rolling operations to ensure that all sharp edges are hidden and to add rigidity to the panel. Stripper plate . Blank punch . Components for Die Toolsets The main components for Die Toolsets are:          Die block . called the die block. called the punch. such as automobile body parts. Pilot . Setting (Stop) Block .This is the main part that all the other parts are attached to. and/or blanking operation. Like molds.This part along with the Pierce Die removes parts from the blanked finished part. while another part.1 Introduction of Die A die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing industries to cut or shape material using a press.DIE 2. bending. Pierce punch . and/or blanking operation. stretching. Guide / Back gage / Finger stop .This is used to hold the material down on the Blank/ Pierce Die and strip the material off the punches. The die is a metal block that is used for forming materials like sheet metal and plastic. Vacuum forming is considered a simple molding thermoforming process but uses the same principles as die forming.See Blanking Punch . 2. securely clamps the work piece and provides similar. Blanking Dies . Products made with dies range from simple paper clips to complex pieces used in advanced technology. typically to form transparent plastic containers (called blister packs) for merchandise.These parts are all used to make sure that the material being worked on always goes in the same position.This is used to keep the material being worked on in position. as the last one.This part holds and supports the different punches in place. one.2 Die forming Forming dies are typically made by tool and die makers and put into production after mounting into a press.2. within the die. The work piece may pass through several stages using different tools or operations to obtain the final form. bending. For the vacuum forming of plastic sheet only a single form is used.

Appearance. 3. Shank-used to hold in the presses. often used for parts with no internal features. 2.  Pierce Die . with each tooth cutting behind the other. Since the part is blanked in one operation. Three benefits to die blanking are: 1.See Pierce Punch.  Blanking: A blanking die produces a flat piece of material by cutting the desired shape in one operation. Operations are not limited to one specific die as some dies may incorporate multiple operation types:  Bending: The bending operation is the act of bending blanks at a predetermined angle. with the correct amount of clearance between the punch and die. A properly sharpened die. A broaching die is often used to remove material from parts that are too thick for shaving.  Broaching: The process of removing material through the use of multiple cutting teeth. The finish part is referred to as a blank. it should be align and situated at the center of gravity of the plate. Accuracy. The main difference between a forming operation and a bending operation is the bending operation creates a straight line bend (such as a corner in a box) as where a form operation may create a curved bend (such as the bottom of a drink can). . For example a bending operation is performed by a bending die. will produce a part that holds close dimensional tolerances in relationship to the parts edges. 2. Generally a blanking die may only cut the outside contour of a part. An example would be an "L" bracket which is a straight piece of metal bent at a 90° angle. Due to the even compression of the blanking process. the end result is a flat part that may retain a specific level of flatness for additional manufacturing operations. Flatness.3 Die operations and types Die operations are often named after the specific type of die that performs the operation. the finished edges of the part produce a uniform appearance as opposed to varying degrees of burnishing from multiple operations.

The coining die and punch flow the metal by squeezing the blank within a confined area. 2. A door hinge is an example of a part created by a curling die. A metal cup with a detailed feature at the bottom is an example of the . the surface on the back would be the reverse image of the front. For example: an Olympic medal that was formed from a coining die may have a flat surface on the back and a raised feature on the front. instead of bending the blank. leaving the part sitting on the lower punch (after being shed from the upper matrix on the press return stroke) instead of blanking the part through.  Curling: The curling operation is used to roll the material into a curved shape.  Compound operations: Compound dies perform multiple operations on the part. 1. The compound operation is the act of implementing more than one operation during the press cycle. Similar to the way a chef‟s hat bulges out at the top from the cylindrical band around the chefs head. Bulging rubber dies: Uses a rubber pad or block under pressure to move the wall of a work piece.  Cut off: Cut off dies are used to cut off excess material from a finished end of a part or to cut off a predetermined length of material strip for additional operations.  Compound die: A type of die that has the die block (matrix) mounted on a punch plate with perforators in the upper die with the inner punch mounted in the lower die set. these features being transferred from the face of the punch or die respectively.  Coining: is similar to forming with the main difference being that a coining die may form completely different features on either face of the blank. Bulging: A bulging die expands the closed end of tube through the use of two types of bulging dies.  Drawing: The drawing operation is very similar to the forming operation except that the drawing operation undergoes severe plastic deformation and the material of the part extends around the sides. Bulging fluid dies: Uses water or oil as a vehicle to expand the part. An inverted type of blanking die that punches upwards. If the medal was formed (or embossed). A compound die allows the cutting of internal and external part features on a single press stroke.

 Roll forming: a continuous bending operation in which sheet or strip metal is gradually formed in tandem sets of rollers until the desired cross-sectional configuration is obtained.difference between formed and drawn.  Forming: Forming dies bend the blank along a curved surface. Extrusion dies use extremely high pressure from the punch to squeeze the metal out into the desired form.  Trimming: Trimming dies cut away excess or unwanted irregular features from a part. The bottom of the cup was formed while the sides were drawn.  Cold forming (cold heading): Cold forming is similar to extruding in that it squeezes the blank material but cold forming uses the punch and the die to create the desired form. The end of a shell casing that captures the bullet is an example of swaging. . Roll forming is ideal for producing parts with long lengths or in large quantities.  Swaging: Swaging (necking) is the process of "necking down" a feature on a part.  Extruding: Extruding is the act of severely deforming blanks of metal called slugs into finished parts such as an aluminum I-beam. extruding does not. An example of a part that has been formed would be the positive end(+) of a AA battery. Swaging is the opposite of bulging as it reduces the size of the part. The difference between cold forming and extrusion is extruded parts do not take shape of the punch. they are usually the last operation performed.

and as the punch gets thicker. • Highest possible toughness and fatigue strength after hardening. punches must possess high compressive yield strength.3. have a sufficiently high surface hardness. Die Material (High Carbon High Chromium Steel) Powders are usually compacted with pressures between approx. Surface-hardening of punches. it eventually jams in the die and breaks and possibly damages the entire tool.All dies of the compacting tool have to withstand these high loads not only once but several 100 000 to 1 000 000 times without breaking or getting plastically deformed. if necessary. 300 and 650 N/mm 2. in order to avoid embrittlement and surface cracking. has to be carried out with great care. Only the toughest types of tool steels are suitable for punches. high toughness and high fatigue strength. Ideally. . Even an ever so small amount of plastic deformation during one compacting cycle would. Neither may they under these loads expand elastically to such an extent that they jam in the punch. In cases where punches form part of the side walls of the compacting tool. after a number of cycles. in addition to the mentioned properties. Thus. lead to a sizable shortening and thickening of the punch. they must. It does not take much imagination to realize the consequences: As the punch gets shorter. the height of the compacts increases correspondingly. they should combine the following properties: • Good machinability when soft-annealed.

• Highest possible dimensional stability and lowest possible susceptibility to cracking in the hardening procedure. H13 tool steel 5% chromium hot work tool steel.1 Available Options for die material: O1 tool steel General purpose oil hardening tool steel which hardens at a relatively low temperature with minimum distortion. 3. This steel can be vacuum hardened when minimum distortion is required. P20 can also give a higher hardness than its supply condition and can be nitrided. 1. D3 tool steel Similar steel to D2 tool steel. H13 tool steel can be vacuum hardened and may be water cooled in service. akin to D3 tool steel.2767 tool steel . with good abrasion resistance. A2 tool steel Air hardening tool steel which is easier to machine than D2 or D3 but offers high abrasion resistance with good toughness. with high hardness achievability and good abrasion resistance. S1 tool steel Excellent tough and shock resisting tool steel. • Highest possible wear resistance. D2 tool steel High carbon high chromium tool steel giving a good hardness with added toughness. this steel attains a slightly higher hardness and has good abrasion resistance. This steel is air hardening with very little distortion. D6 tool steel Popular European high carbon high chromium tool steel. When hardened S1 has a good cutting ability with great toughness P20 tool steel Pre-hardened high tensile steel which is readily machinable.

M2 which offer good wear resistance and superior toughness and machinability.25% nickel steel. A cold work tool steel which has high dimensional stability when heat treated. 420 stainless steel gives a good polish and is resistant to attack from corrosive plastics. with good resistance to cracking.2767 is capable of taking a good polish and is commonly used as a plastic mould steel. 1. M2 high speed steel 420 stainless steel General purpose high speed steel.30% 12. 1. Cr.50% 0. 13% chromium stainless steel which will achieve a high hardness. 1.80% 0.4.2 Properties and Technical Data for High Carbon High Chromium Steel Chemical Composition: Typical Analysis C. Mo.00% 0.90% Physical Properties: Temperature: 20°C 200°C 400°C . V. A high quality cobalt molybdenum high speed steel. Si.2842 tool steel M42 high speed steel 3. which achieves a good through hardness. suitable core components that require high hardness and superior cutting performance.

s °C) Specific heat (cal/g °C) Modulus of elasticity: Kp/mm² N/mm² 7.   Hardening: Pre heat slowly to 750/780°C and thoroughly soak.65 7.8 x 106 6 50.0 x 10.4 x 10. After forging cool slowly. Hardness after annealing will be approx.110 19 700 193 000 19 200 188 000 17 650 173 000 7. 225 brinell.2 x 1040. Double tempering should be carried out with intermediate cooling to room temperature.Density (kg/dm³) Coefficient of thermal expansion (per °C from 0°C) Thermal conductivity (cal/cm.9 x 10-3 3 3 0. Continue heating to the final hardening temperature of 1000/1030°C and allow the component to be heated through.55. Quench in oil or cool in air. Tempering: Heat uniformly and thoroughly at the selected tempering temperature and hold for at least one hour per inch of total thickness. Annealing: Anneal at 850°C and slow furnace cool.  Tempering °C HRc 150 200 250 300 350 400 62/61 61/60 60/59 57/56 56/55 56/55 .60 11.10.70  Forging: Heat slowly and uniformly to 700°C then more rapidly to 900/1040°C.

 Stress Relieving: If machining operations have been heavy or if the tool has an unbalanced section. Mechanical Properties Conditions Treatment Properties Density (×1000 kg/m3) Poisson's Ratio Elastic Modulus (GPa) Tensile Strength (Mpa) Yield Strength (Mpa) Elongation (%) Reduction in Area (%) Hardness (HB) 7. Tempering is to be performed immediately after chromium plating. equalize then cool slowly. if possible.7-8.  Welding: Due to the high risk of crack formation welding of D2 tool steel should be avoided. tempered at 425°C 25 oil quenched.03 190-210 1158 1034 15 53 335 T (°C) 25 25 0. fine grained. tempered at 425°C Thermal properties Conditions T (°C) Treatment Properties .  Hard Chromium Plating: After hard chromium plating tempering of D2 tool steel is recommended at 180°C for 4 hours to avoid hydrogen embrittlement.27-0. remove stresses before hardening by heating up to 700°C.30 25 25 oil quenched. fine grained.

500 8000 . Typical Applications for high carbon high chromium steel       Stamping and Forming Dies Punches Forming Rolls Knives.7 477 100 50-100 Physical Properties Quantity Thermal expansion Thermal conductivity Specific heat Melting temperature Service temperature Density Resistivity 16 .1400 0 .8000 0.17 16 . Shear Blades Tools Scrap Choppers Tyre Shredders . Slitters.500 1370 .7 . They are used for tooling applications like blocks in stamping dies (particularly when the dies will be used on stainless blanks) and blocks in draw dies for forming. High carbon High Chromium tool steel gives a good hardness with added toughness.mm2/m 3.3 Applications They can be heat treated to be both tough and hard.7 Ohm.K °C °C kg/m3 Unit 500 .Thermal Conductivity (W/m-K) Specific Heat (J/kg-K) 42.K J/kg.16 Value e-6/K W/m. This steel can be vacuum hardened when minimum distortion is required.0.

They are: 1. It is now possible to list all the items which will be required before he can begin designing intelligently. The part print 2. Design of Die 4.1 Introduction DESIGNING THE DIE Before a designer begins to draw. In addition. he may have a reference drawing of a die similar to the one he is to design or a sketch of a proposed design prepared by the chief tool designer or group leader suggesting a possible approach to solution of the problem. A press data sheet. . there are a number of things which he must seriously consider.4. The design order 4. The operation sheet or route sheet 3. Let us consider further the information required: Part Print: The part drawing gives all necessary dimensions and notes. Any missing dimension must be obtained from the product design department before work can proceed.

and the number of parts expected to be stamped by the die. LAYOUT Laying out the die consists of drawing all views necessary for showing every component in its actual position. Often the first idea proves entirely impractical and another method of operation must be substituted. In fact. These will become a guide for beginning the actual full-size layout on tracing paper. In time you will come to realize the importance of careful and repeated study of the part print. The latter will establish the class of die to be designed. Consider particularly the operation to be performed. All views required for showing the contour of every component including the work piece. The Machine Data Sheet: The die to be designed must fit into a particular press and it is important to know what space is available to receive it and what interferences may be present. place the part print. In addition. the first or second idea sketched out can · be considerably improved by alteration as work progresses. The three must be studied together so that a complete and exact understanding of the problem will be realized. In the layout stage. This is very important. After the die has been laid out. the die maker can work to best advantage. DRAWING If the information on a drawing is complete. These are dimensions which will be required for assembling the parts and those for machining operations to be performed after assembly. All assembly dimensions. the sketch will clarify your ideas before a formal layout is attempted. The first step in originating plans for a new die is the preparation of a sketch or sketches of significant features of the proposed die. the press in which the die is to be installed. any cuts which were applied in a previous operation must be shown. When the views of the stamping are laid out. the steps necessary for completing the set of working drawings are more or less a routine. operation sheet. However. The sketch you make may be a very simple one for simple operations or it may be more elaborate.Operation Sheet: The operation sheet or route sheet must be studied to determine exactly what operations were performed upon the work piece previously. no dimensions are applied and neither is the bill of material nor the record strip filled out. The Design Order: This must be studied very carefully because it specifies the type of die to be designed. 13 it is a mistake to spend too much time in this phase of the work or to try to develop the entire design in sketch form because then decisions can become too arbitrary and inflexible. it will form the basis for a realistic estimate of the size of the finished die so that you may select the proper sheet size for the layout. and design order before you on the drawing table. which will meet every requirement. often. A properly prepared assembly drawing contains six general features: 1. This study will form the basis for the creation of a mental picture of a tool suitable for performing the operations . a number of sketches may be required for more complex operations and intricate designs. operation sheet. and design order because there can be no deviation from the specifications given. . In any event. 2. and presented in the simplest possible manner. Before beginning the sketch. Always keep your mind open to possible improvements as you develop the design in layout form. You will find that.

All explanatory notes. P = 300 MPa . purchased components. Tangential Stress > Longitudinal Stress > Radial Stress  For High carbon High Chromium Steel. since for thick cylindrical shells. = 585.2 Calculations Lame‟s Equation for calculating the thickness of Thick Cylindrical Shells - (√ Where d = internal diameter of shell (mm) P = internal pressure (MPa or N/mm2) = tangential stress (MPa or N/mm2) = (where S = ultimate tensile stress) ) We design the thick cylindrical shells to be safe against tangential stress. Ultimate Tensile Stress. S = 1757 MPa Designing for a factor of safety = 3 Tangential Stress. 5. Finish marks and grind marks to indicate those surfaces to be machined after assembly. materials. 6. = = = 585.  Aluminum Powder. A bill of material listing sizes.67 MPa For compacting of Al powders. 4. 4. and number required for all parts.3.67 MPa Therefore. A title block and record strip with identifying information noted properly.

00 70. d = 19.5 mm Final Calculations. D = d + 2t D = 19.50 25. t Outer Diameter.00 .5 + 2*25 D = 69. t = 24.5 mm 70 mm Final Dimensions as per our Design are: Dimension Internal Diameter.For compacting various Al alloys. d Thickness of cylindrical shell.9587 mm t 25 mm Hence. D Value (mm) 19. P = 500 MPa (maximum) Hence designing for P = 500 MPa  Internal diameter chosen for specimens. Outer diameter. (√ ) (√ ) Therefore.

Note.3 Die Design in PRO E 1. Die- .This DIE will be safe for maximum internal pressures of 500 N/mm2 4.


Punch- .2.


which itself is attached to the turning machine. The work piece is a piece of pre-shaped material that is secured to the fixture. The turning process requires a turning machine or lathe. Turning is used to produce rotational. tapers. Die Fabrication 5. work piece. it is ideal for adding precision rotational features to a part whose basic shape has already been formed.1 Turning Turning is a form of machining. The cutter is typically a single-point cutting tool that is also secured in the machine. and cutting tool. a material removal process. . grooves. various diameter steps. such as custom designed shafts and fasteners. The cutting tool feeds into the rotating work piece and cuts away material in the form of small chips to create the desired shape. Due to the high tolerances and surface finishes that turning can offer. and even contoured surfaces. which is used to create rotational parts by cutting away unwanted material. Turning is also commonly used as a secondary process to add or refine features on parts that were manufactured using a different process. parts that have many features. Parts that are fabricated completely through turning often include components that are used in limited quantities. fixture. such as holes.5. threads. perhaps for prototypes. typically axi-symmetric. and allowed to rotate at high speeds. although some operations make use of multi-point tools.

in blind hole the drill does not exit the work piece. There are various types of boring. Drills usually have a high length to diameter ratio that is capable of producing deep hole. A through hole is made when a drill exits the opposite side of the work. and can be used to cut a tapered hole. however due to its flexibility. The drill bit is a multipoint. for example as in boring a cannon barrel.2 Drilling Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole in solid materials. Approximately 75% of all metal-cutting process is of the drilling operation. which forms chips at the cutting edge. The boring bar may be supported on both ends (which only works if the existing hole is a through hole). end cutting tool.3 Boring In machining. by means of a single-point cutting tool (or of a boring head containing several such tools).5. Drilled holes can be either through holes or blind holes (see Figure 4. back-boring) is the process of reaching . or it may be supported at one end. Backboring (back boring.1). boring is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled (or cast). Lineboring (line boring. which cuts external diameters. line-boring) implies the former. Boring is used to achieve greater accuracy of the diameter of a hole. 5. It cuts by applying pressure and rotation to the work piece. Boring can be viewed as the internal-diameter counterpart to turning. Drilling is the most common machining process whereby the operation involves making round holes in metallic and nonmetallic materials. necessary precaution need to be taken to maintain accuracy and prevent drill from breaking.

4 Internal Grinding Internal cylindrical grinding is a machining process used to finish machine internal diameters to a high degree of accuracy with a fine finish. Internal cylindrical grinding is used to finish machine internal diameters such as bearing journals. plain bearings. . Materials can be ground unhardened or hardened. Particularly in the case of intermittent cuts which can easily break ceramic cutting tools. bushes.through an existing hole and then boring on the "back" side of the work piece (relative to the machine headstock). jig bushes. In the case of materials that are hardened or coated in hard materials such as hard chrome. Internal grinding provides an easy solution. hard facing alloys or ceramic. 5. cutting tool guides. seal surfaces. internal cylindrical grinding is often the method of choice to finish machine the diameter to final size. or any internal diameter that needs to be finished to a high level of accuracy.

This adds further stresses particularly in parts of varying cross section. different heating and cooling rates and variable tempering procedures must . for example. The rate of quenching required to produce martensite depends primarily on the alloy content. the austenite reverts to ferrite and carbide E. while highly alloyed steel usually can be air-quenched at a much slower rate. The high carbon high-chromium steels. which take no direct part in the hardening.5. which give them in large measure the high degree of abrasion resistance possessed by this class of steel. This operation known as tempering or drawing also serves to relieve those residual stresses which otherwise would cause brittleness in the steel. Different temperatures.5 Oil Quenching Rapid cooling of a material results in high internal stresses. If quenching is not rapid enough. To avoid this. the steel is reheated to an intermediate temperature D to soften the part to the desired hardness level. brittle nature of martensite can be sufficient to cause cracking. The transformation from austenite to martensite involves some volumetric expansion. Influence of Heat Treatment on Die Life Each type of die steel must be handled slightly differently from any other for optimum results. These stresses together with the hard. and high hardness is not obtained. most die steels retain excess or undissolved carbides. Low alloy steels require rapid cooling in water or oil. Throughout all these heat-treating reactions. have large quantities of excess iron-chromium carbide.

but there is a small chance that it may cause distortion and tiny cracking. needle-like grain structure. To prevent steam bubbles the bath is agitated. Most materials are heated from anywhere to 815 to 900 °C (1. Intermediate rates between water and oil can be obtained with water containing 10-30% Ucon. Pearlite is a mixture of ferrite andcementite formed when steel or cast iron are manufactured and cooled at a slow rate. The soaking time in air furnaces should be 1 to 2 minutes for each millimeter of cross-section. heating it to the required temperature.500 to 1. whale. The first temper affects the martensite formed during quenching and conditions the austenite so that it transforms upon air-cooling from the draw. the longer it will wear. while the softer a die is. the microstructure of the material is a pearlite grain structure that is uniform and laminar. Within limits. cottonseed and mineral oils are used. the microstructure of the material form into martensite as a fine. i. In general. which forms after the first draw. Double drawing is necessary to affect the martensite. To minimize distortion.e. The quenching velocity (cooling rate) of oil is much less than water. Process Quenching metals is a progression. These often tend to oxidize and form a sludge. The next item on the progression list is the cooling of the used as recommended. a substance with an inverse solubility which therefore deposits on the object to slow the rate of cooling. Effect of Oil Quenching Before the material is hardened.650 °F). When hardness can be sacrificed. Water is one of the most efficient quenching media where maximum hardness is acquired. Double drawing and in some instances triple drawing is desirable for tools in severe applications. For a bath the time can range a little higher. and thick sections should enter the bath first. Oil-hardening steel may work best on one application at Rockwell C62 and on another involving higher stresses and shock at Rockwell C58. it may be said that the harder a given die. dies which are wearing out too quickly should be made harder for improved life and dies which are breaking or cracking should be made softer. Assuming the proper die steel is being used. further increasing toughness. heat treatment can be used to adjust these variables to best advantage. The recommended time allotment in salt or lead baths is 0 to 6 minutes. flat workpieces are quenched on edge. long cylindrical work pieces are quenched vertically. Before using this technique it is essential to look up the rate constants for the quenching of the excited states of metal ions. This is because steels retain austenite when quenched. or a bath. After quench hardening. Equipment . Triple drawing eliminates nearly all retained austenite. the first step is soaking the metal. Adjustments of the drawing temperature easily produce the hardness desired. the tougher it becomes. Uneven heating or overheating should be avoided at all cost. Soaking can be done by air (air furnace). which consequently lowers the efficiency.

.64 mm. Each is used depending on what other processes or types of quench hardening are being done on the different materials.There are three types of furnaces that are commonly used in quench hardening: salt bath furnace. Quenching media When quenching. These media are used to increase the severity of the quench. Quenching Distance Quenching distance is an important property in the study of combustion. continuous furnace and box furnace. Some of the more common include: air. brine (salt water). It is defined as the smallest hole a flame can travel through. there are numerous types of media. oil and water. For example hydrogen has a quenching distance of 0.

Aluminum (Metal Powder) 6. and maximum limits. Base powder Alloying powder YS. sintering practices and thermal treatments. and they account for the majority of die castings in terms of tons of components produced. Eight available aluminum die casting alloys give the designer the widest choice among the four primary alloy groups.7% silicon. 6.6. expressed as a single number. Other major alloying elements in the aluminum-silicon system are magnesium and iron. The eutectic (system) composition. % RA. are imposed. % Oxygen content.2 Properties of Aluminum: Mechanical and Performance Properties of Powder Metal Aluminum: Powder metal aluminum parts can be produced with a range of property levels.1 Introduction The element aluminum (Al) has a specific gravity of 2. The seven alloys are further grouped as either controlled copper content or restricted copper content. MPa Elong. % . is a convenient reference point for grouping them. Further secondary processing such as hot or cold forming can yield properties approaching those of conventional wrought aluminum materials. MPa UTS. copper and magnesium. Powder metallurgy aluminum mechanical properties are very good and typically are a significant factor in the material selection process. Seven of the eight alloys are based on the aluminum-silicon system.7. placing it among the light-weight structural metals. 11. Some constituents are considered impurities. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength can vary from 20 ksi (130 MPa) to 50 ksi (330 MPa) depending upon the composition and density of the alloy. It is used as a base for die casting alloys with three primary constituents: silicon.

nickel. In fact. aluminum enjoys better than a 3 to 1 weight advantage over iron.20 6. allowing designers to engineer optimum shape and performance for each specific application. When you link the usual advantages of powder metallurgy to the attributes of an exceptional material like aluminum. is also a hallmark of powder metal aluminum.25 ASM Standard  828  897  10  20  0.11-0. See Figure 2 (next page) for a comparison.strong. Powder metal aluminum can compete successfully with less costly materials because of the advantages it brings in primary and secondary weight savings. Conductivity Excellent conductivity.  Highly resistant to corrosion  Strong.5 23-29 0.about a third as heavy as copper or steel. and copper. Aluminum offers product forms and alloys that surpass any other material. not brittle. Aluminum powder metallurgy offers a number of additional advantages related to the specific properties of basic aluminum. such as anodizing  Completely recyclable (and. both electrical and thermal. therefore.Al Al-V alloy master 850-930 960-990 10-12. you have a winning combination.3 Why Aluminum? Aluminum is:  Light in weight . structural performance and design flexibility. Aluminum powder metallurgy parts are comparable to their wrought counterparts and can be utilized as heat sinks or electrical conductors. Light Weight Lighter weight is a distinguishing characteristic of powder metal aluminum. and it can be made stronger by alloying and heat treatment  An excellent conductor of heat and electricity  Nonmagnetic. . in intense cold  Good machinability  Good response to a variety of finishing processes. The design flexibility of aluminum is unparalleled. energy-efficient) The combination of aluminum's light weight and moderate strength give it an excellent strength-toweight ratio. a valuable property around sensitive electronics  Outstanding in cryogenic properties .

Parts may also be chromate conversion coated or anodized for increased resistance to corrosion. and painting. Excellent thread characteristics can be obtained in powder metallurgy aluminum parts above the 90% density level. These include mechanical finishing and etching to achieve textures. Appearance The natural appearance of powder metal aluminum parts is suitable for most applications where good appearance is a requirement. Low-temperature aging treatments may be used for stress relief or dimensional stability. In particular. T4 and T5 temper results in properties quite similar to those which might be obtained if given a full T6 temper. 6. Many of the decorative and protective treatments currently employed for wrought and cast aluminum alloys can also be applied to aluminum powder metallurgy parts. A T2 or T5 temper may be given to improve properties. electroplating. The ductility of parts in the upper density range is also sufficient for self-tapping fasteners. Sintered aluminum parts can be successfully fastened by adhesive bonding. coloring for decorative or functional purposes.Corrosion Resistance Powder metal aluminum alloys have excellent resistance to corrosion. although the use of threaded fasteners is a more conventional method of joining multiple parts. In addition.Heat Treatment & Welding Aluminum alloy die castings are not usually solution heat treated. a wide range of decorative finishes is available. Joining and Bonding Powder metal aluminum lends itself to a variety of joining and bonding techniques. their “as-cast” structure approaches that of the solution heat-treated condition. Because of the severe chill rate and ultra-fine grain size in die castings. . Hard type anodize finishes can be applied for water-resistant applications. smooth surface finish and superior tool life. when compared to ferrous-based products. including high cutting speeds. the Al-Mg-Si alloys exhibit extremely high resistance to general corrosion. Machining Powder metallurgy aluminum parts also offer many of the important advantages of wrought aluminum in machining operations.4 Aluminum Alloys .

Current projections indicate that the supply of recycled aluminum will be adequate to meet the needs for aluminum die casting into the foreseeable future. Die castings are not generally gas or arc welded or brazed.As stated above aluminum alloy die castings are not usually heat treated. 1 Aluminum smelters are widely dispersed across internationally. however. . such as the Silafonts. however. Secondary (recycled) aluminum is more economical to produce than primary because it requires only 5% as much energy to produce a pound. 6.6 Aluminum Supply Aluminum die casting alloys are made from recycled metal. Used beverage cans (UBC) comprise a large portion of the aluminum available recyclers. developments in high integrity die casting processes coupled with specialty alloys has enabled the successful welding of die castings in specific applications. The supply has been enhanced by the widespread recycling of beverage cans. Contact your die caster or alloy producer for more information. there are heat treatable specialty alloys available for structural applications.

Recent developments have made it possible to use rapid manufacturing techniques which use the metal powder for the products.7. pressing them into a desired shape (compacting). Optional secondary processing often follows to obtain special properties or enhanced precision. are either difficult or impossible to make by other methods. and then heating the compressed material in a controlled atmosphere to bond the material (sintering). savings in energy and raw materials along with mass production of quality precision components. Generally the emphasis is on the metallic material but the principal of the process apply with little modification to ceramic. The other reason is that powder metallurgy process of manufacturing structural components competes with other manufacturing products such as casting machining and forging. Powder metallurgy is the process of blending fine powdered materials. Two main techniques used to form and consolidate the powder are sintering and metal injection molding. The process offers economy. Specimen Manufacturing (Powder Metallurgy) 7. tungsten carbide. Nowadays powder metallic techniques are increasingly used to provide exceptional properties that are required in highly sophisticated aerospace electronic and nuclear energy industries. porous self lubricating bearings etc. It is a material processing technique in which particulate material are consolidate to semi finished and finished products. Products like tungsten filament. polymers and a variety of composite materials composed of metallic and non metallic phases. and scrap losses at the same time is suited to high volume production of components.1 Introduction Powder metallurgy is concerned with the production of metal powders and converting them to useful shapes. . Compacting is generally performed at room temperature. and the elevatedtemperature process of sintering is usually conducted at atmospheric pressure. There are two important reasons to use powder metallurgy by industries. Powder metallurgy process minimizes or eliminates the machining. better mechanical strength can be accomplished. Because with this technique the powder is melted and not sintered. However an automobiles industry is the major consumer of powder metallurgy product today.

But in modern India the progress made in this field is mainly during the past two decades. However. when the role of powder metallurgy has grown so enormously. its history has received little study. In Greece the manufacture of iron components were widespread in 800-600 B. The historical notes in the books considered above provide merely a background or introduction to the analysis of each specific topic.  Finishing operations. Yet it is precisely today. The manufacture of large objects were known to Indians as early as 300A.C. Thus. powder metallurgy has behind it a long and anything but straight road. These developments ultimately led to the modern renaissance of powder metallurgy in the beginning of twentieth century with the manufacture of tungsten filaments for the incandescent lamp industry. since the technology to obtain temperature high enough to melt pure iron was not available until about 1800.C.The powder metallurgy process generally consists of four basic steps:  Powder manufacturing. 7.  Powder blending.  Compacting. Today the technology is used advantageously to process advanced material for the nuclear. and the famous Delhi iron pillar weighing more than six tons is a typical master piece indeed . These include the ancient Egyptian iron implants which date from at least 3000 B. These are processed by direct reduction of iron oxide without melting. The significant development in the use of the powder metallurgy principle took place during the early part of nineteenth century for processing platinum and the credit to this is to be given to Wollaston in England and Sobolevskiy in Russia.  Sintering. as can be seen from the present review. that .2 History Powder metallurgy principle of shaping metallic objects without melting from powdered materials can be traced back to the early civilizations. The invention of electric lamp by Thomas Edison and Swan a century ago has contributed substantially to the rapid progress of this field.D. electronics and aerospace industries. Powder metallurgy emerged as a new dimension in materials technology in twentieth century particularly during the world war period and subsequent years.

Basic Flow chart of Powder Metallurgy START Metal Powder Preparation Blending Compaction START Auxiliary Operations Sintering 7. A thorough study should be made of all the relevant facts. which allows better compacting. and nonporous and have a greater breadth of size. involving their objective interpretation. precise documentation. Most atomized powders are annealed. cleaner. A gas is introduced into the metal stream just before it leaves the nozzle. and scientific ideas of the past. serving to create turbulence as the entrained gas expands (due to heating) and exits into a large collection volume exterior to the orifice. events. . The collection volume is filled with gas to promote further turbulence of the molten metal jet. air and powder streams are segregated using gravity or cyclonic separation.3 Powder Manufacturing or Atomization Atomization is accomplished by forcing a molten metal stream through an orifice at moderate pressures. which helps reduce the oxide and carbon content. The water atomized particles are smaller. and full analysis. On is particularly important to discover links between present-day practice and historical experience.


polyurethane and polyester processing system. benzene and chlorinated hydrocarbons) when heated. As a chief ingredient in "fanning powder".. Structural Formula: Applications of Zinc Stearate:      As a synergic stabilizer for Ba/Cd and Pb stabilizer systems.   .7. used by magicians performing card manipulation to decrease the friction between the cards. It is the most powerful mold release agent among all metal soaps. It is insoluble in polar solvents such as alcohol and ether but soluble in aromatic hydrocarbons (e. Its main application areas are the plastics and rubber industry where it is used as a releasing agent and lubricant which can be easily incorporated. It contains no electrolyte and has a hydrophobic effect.4 Zinc stearate as Lubricant Zinc stearate (Zn(C18H35O2)2) is a zinc soap that repels water.g. As a die release agent in powder metallurgy. As a lubricant in cosmetics to improve texture. As an activator system for rubber vulcanization by sulfur and accelerators. As a gloss imparting agent in paint industry. As a metal release agent in rubber.

or otherwise the size of particles will be decreased. and they will be hardened. Ethanol & Ether Moisture Content Total Ash Content Free Stearic Acid Zinc Content (as ZnO) Bulk Density Fineness through 240 mesh pH Less than 2%.124ºC Insoluble in Water. Distribution of properly sized particles is attained by mixing elementary powder with alloy powders to obtain a homogeneous mixture. Less than 3%. Lubricants are also mixed with powders to minimize the wear of dies and reduce friction between the surfaces of dies and the particles of powder during compaction.5 Powder Blending Blending and mixing are carried out to achieve uniformity of the product manufactured.5 7.0.Specifications: Characteristics Appearance Melting Point Solubility Properties White Fine Powder 120ºC .10 Gm/CC 99% passes 6. Mixing time depends upon the results desired. . 13-15 % App. and over-mixing should be prevented.5 – 7. Between 14-16%.

7.)  Speed: 100 rpm (Approx.  Provision for filling Argon gas for creating inert atmosphere through non return valves in the ball mill is available.  Hose pipes for filling Argon gas should be provided. The cavity of the die is filled with a specified quantity of blended powder. and then the compacted part is ejected. Typically the tools are held in the vertical orientation with the punch tool forming the bottom of the cavity.6 Powder Compaction Powder compaction is the process of compacting metal powder in a die through the application of high pressures. In a number of these applications the parts may require very little additional work for their intended use. Friction between the powder and the wall of the die opposes the pressure applied.) (With speed regulator)  Material of the ball mill: Stainless steel  Material of Balls: Stainless steel.  Two or three different diameter balls should be provided. properties of the powder used. and the density required of the compaction. . Pressing is performed at room temperature.)  Width: 120 mm (Approx.Horizontal Ball Mill (Tumbler ball mill): Specifications:  Diameter: 320 mm (Approx. Thus the ratio of length and diameter is kept low to prevent substantial variations in density. making for very cost efficient manufacturing. the pressure depends upon the material. the pressure decreases with depth and causes uneven density in the compact. The powder is then compacted into a shape and then ejected from the die cavity. necessary pressure is applied.  Extra balls should be provided to replace for the worn out balls.

doubleaction with floating die. Tooling must be designed so that it will withstand the extreme pressure without deforming or bending. This involves rigid dies and special mechanical or hydraulic presses. The die wall friction prevents uniform . Powders do not respond to pressing in the same way as fluids and do not assume the same density throughout the compact. Die compaction represents the most widely used method and is considered as the conventional technique. The compacting techniques used may be characterised by references to the movement of the individual tool elements – upper punch. opposed double-action with two punch motions. The pressing operation is carried out solely by the upper punch as it moves into the fixed die. used for thin. The friction between the powder and die wall and between individual powder particles hinders the transmission of pressure. which accommodates thicker components. Pressing within fixed dies can be divided into: – Single action pressing – Double action pressing In the former the lower punch and the die are both stationary.There are four major classes of tool styles: single-action compaction. lower punch and die relative to one another. and double action withdrawal die. Densities of up to 90 % of full density can be achieved following the compaction cycle. the duration of which may be of the order of just a few seconds for very small parts. Tools must be made from materials that are polished and wear-resistant. Double action classes give much better density distribution than single action. flat components. A high uniformity in green parts can be achieved depending on: – the kind of compacting technique – the type of tools – the materials to be pressed and the lubricant.

The compact is ejected and can be moved out of the way by the loading shoe. In the centre there remains a „neutral zone‟ which is relatively weak. In the case of thin parts with large projected area. After the upper punch has entered the die cavity. . On the other hand. as it involves friction between the green part and tool walls. In many cases no tool holders are required. In this case. The major advantage of withdrawal system of tooling is that the lower punches are relatively short and are well supported during compaction and ejection. the lower punch does not move during compacting cycle. When there are multiple lower punches. Pressing in order to achieve required green density and part thickness. the balance of forces in the interior of the die ends. In the case of parts with two different thicknesses. 3. The consequence is high density at the top and undersides of the compact.g. Ejection: The tooling must be done in such a manner so that the ejection of part is feasible. During second world war another tooling method was developed in Germany. The former pushes the part still lying in the die cavity upwards. while the latter tends to expand the part. the die wall is carried down. 2. e. The green strength must be high to resist the bending stresses introduced by the ejection force. The friction will vary slightly from stroke to stroke. Ejection of a part of complex forms is rather problematic. the elastic spring back of the lower punch is the greatest danger. As soon as the friction between the powder and the die wall exceeds the spring power. It also depends on the degree of wear in the tools so that a constant density distribution is difficult to maintain over a period. the upper punch moves up but the die plate and lower coupler move further down until the top of the die plate is flush with the lower punch.1). There is another type of compaction involving upper punch pressing with floating die. As the upper punch withdraws. flange with a hub. Other problems are protrusions required on the upper face of the part. After the compact has been pressed. Compact has a higher density on top than on the bottom. In the latter type of pressing only the die is stationary in the press. as many of them as possible rest directly on the base plate. cracking is common due to elastic spring back of the lower punch and the part itself. known as „withdrawal tooling‟. Filling of the die cavities with the required quantity of powder.pressure distribution. Die plate and lower coupler then move back into the filling position and the cycle repeats. Withdrawal of the upper punch from the compact: Here the risk of cracking of green parts is felt. This is characterized by a stationary lower punch the upper punch moves into a die supported by spring. Upper and lower punches advance simultaneously from above and below into the die (Fig. Pressing Operation: The pressing operations can be sequenced as follows: 1. in the tooling system with ejection by the lower punches the motions of the punches are built into the multiple action presses. both upper punch and die plate move downwards. Withdrawal tooling can be built for very complex parts.5.

The words Solid State in Solid State Sintering simply refer to the state the material is in when it bonds. neck growth proceeds rapidly but powder particles remain discrete.7 Sintering Solid state sintering is the process of taking metal in the form of a powder and placing it into a mold or die. most densification occurs. . During the first.7. isolated pores tend to become spheroidal and densification continues at a much lower rate. Under heat. During the second. bonding takes place between the porous aggregate particles and once cooled the powder has bonded to form a solid piece. During the third. the structure recrystallizes and particles diffuse into each other. Sintering can be considered to proceed in three stages. solid meaning the material was not turned molten to bond together as alloys are formed. Once compacted into the mold the material is placed under a high heat for a long period of time.

Maximum temperature: 1500 C 2. without purging inert gas. surface damage and contamination can be reduced while maximizing furnace loading. 7. Most of the energy serves to melt that portion of the compact where migration is desirable for densification. this technique is not applicable to electrically insulating powders. Arrangement to remove the air by vacuum pump and purge the inert gas (Argon).One recently developed technique for high-speed sintering involves passing high electrical current through a powder to preferentially heat the asperities. 6. By matching the material and particle size to the ware being sintered. . The furnace should be programmable to control the rate of heating and cooling. zirconia and magnesia. Suitable vacuum pump (10-3 torr vacuum). Length = 180 mm 3.) 4. 9. These sheets are available in various materials such as alumina. Dimension of Heat Zone: Diameter = 100 mm. 5. with vacuum pump continuously „on‟ while heating. Naturally. Length of Furnace = 500 mm (Approx. many manufacturers separate ware using Ceramic Powder Separator Sheets. CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE FURNACE SPECIFICATIONS: 1. To allow efficient stacking of product in the furnace during sintering and prevent parts sticking together. 8. They are also available in fine medium and coarse particle sizes. comparatively little energy is absorbed by the bulk materials and forming machinery. Cooling arrangement for gas or air before entering the vacuum pump. Provision to run the furnace at vacuum. Provision to measure the vacuum.

the cost of fabrication coupled with a need to improve part recovery has led to significant growth in the net-shaped component manufacturing processes. Guarantee of 3 years. The primary driver for the use of aluminum P/M is the unique properties of aluminum coupled with the ability to produce complex net or near net shape parts which can reduce or eliminate the operational and capital costs associated with intricate machining operations. Arrangement to set at maximum desired temperature. The aluminum P/M process consists of three basic steps: 1. 13. Aluminum premixes exhibit excellent compressibility and yield high density parts at low compaction and ejection pressures. weight. 14. Generally a powdered lubricant is added to permit the consistent production of high density parts without seizing of the punches or cold welding to the die walls. Outside skin temperature of furnace should be as low as possible (not more than 60 C). Aluminum powders of controlled purity and particle size are mixed with alloying metal powders in precisely controlled quantities. good response to a variety of finishing processes. has led to increased use of aluminum. Additionally. In addition. primarily driven by the need to reduce energy consumption in a variety of societal and structural components. 12. aluminum P/M parts can be further processed to eliminate porosity and improve bonding yielding properties that compare favorably to those of conventional wrought aluminum products. The premix is compacted using precision metal dies in specially designed P/M presses to yield a green compact. corrosion resistance. Aluminum Powder Metallurgy (P/M) offers components with exceptional mechanical and fatigue properties. and which are competitive on a cost per unit volume basis. One Argon cylinders (for inert gas supply).8 Powder Metallurgy using Aluminum Increased demand for light weight components. 2. This lubricant is carefully chosen to ensure that there is no residual ash to interfere with bonding during sintering. Typical economics tend to favor iron parts but the unique characteristics of aluminum such as strength. in terms of the potential for ferrous based product substitution. corrosion resistance. However. high thermal and electrical conductivity. Aluminum P/M can replace other P/M in certain applications on a direct basis. 11. One argon regulator for Argon cylinder and Hoses.10. low density. Premixes can be compacted to 90% density at only 12 tsi . 7. excellent machinability. each potential application needs to be considered on a case by case basis. and machinability can make the aluminum parts economically viable.

The recommended atmosphere is nitrogen with a furnace dew point range of -40 to -60°F. Most aluminum P/M alloys are sintered between 1000 and 1200°F with a sintering time of 7 to 20 minutes. 3. 7. Higher dew points yield reduced properties and very high dew points can result in gross expansion of the compact. The green compacts are sintered in a controlled atmosphere furnace at closely regulated temperatures. Aluminum powder sintering is difficult to achieve because the aluminum oxide is not reduced by common furnace atmospheres at sintering temperatures.  Alloying elements having a high solubility in aluminum are added to generate low melting phases.9 Aluminum comparison to other P/M materials .  Atmospheres contain low levels of moisture and oxidizing gases. Typical green strengths range from 450 to 1500 psi which is sufficiently strong to withstand normal handling without chipping or breaking. However. successful sintering is accomplished in environments containing hydrogen. nitrogen and dissociated ammonia as long as the following conditions are observed:  The lubricant is essentially free of moisture and low in ash contact.and 95% at 25 tsi. This process metallurgically bonds the powder particles together and develops the desired physical and mechanical properties.

finishing characteristics and corrosion resistance not available with other P/M products. has lower. Since hydrogen gas is 3-4x more expensive than nitrogen. Aluminum has excellent conductivity values.A direct comparison of mechanical properties of aluminum P/M with ferrous based products reveals that. Sintering temperatures for aluminum P/M parts are much lower (1100°-1200°F) than other P/M parts (>2000°F). and also lowers shipping costs. Aluminum P/M is comparable to it‟s wrought counterparts and significantly better than brass. The natural appearance of aluminum P/M parts after chemical or mechanical cleaning is suitable for most applications where good appearance is a requirement. when considered on a cost per unit volume or individual part weight basis. strength levels. a wide range of decorative and functional finishes are available with aluminum P/M that are not possible with other P/M materials. the use of nitrogen alone can translate into further cost savings. there are many major property advantages associated with aluminum P/M alloys. An analysis of a hypothetical P/M flange . Other significant property advantages associated with aluminum P/M include corrosion resistance. In addition to properties such as low density. Parts will weigh less and relatively small changes in part dimensions can yield bulk properties comparable to the ferrous based parts while still maintaining an overall weight advantage. processing and economic benefits. the relatively high cost per pound of aluminum P/M raw materials becomes less significant and more competitive with typical P/M materials. Aluminum P/M blends can be compacted to 90% theoretical density at only 12 tsi and 95% at 25 tsi which is much lower than comparable ferrous based materials. greater productivity). These blends exhibit excellent compressibility and yield high density parts at low compaction and ejection pressures. This lighter weight can also be translated into a potentially higher volume of parts per inch of belt in the sintering operation (i. but competitive. Aluminum P/M parts offer many advantages over other P/M products. Aluminum P/M also offers economic advantages in the parts fabrication area. In addition. A major advantage is the density of aluminum which is translatable into many property. This corrosion resistance also means that no special coatings are necessary for normal shipping and storage. This yields significant energy savings in the production process. These lower pressures permit the use of smaller. faster presses to produce larger parts and in some cases allow the use of multiple cavity tooling. like its wrought aluminum counterpart. aerospace and chemical industry applications. bronze and ferrous based materials. The atmosphere of choice for aluminum tends to be low dew point nitrogen while other P/M parts use a combination of hydrogen (5-15%) and nitrogen. thermal and electrical conductivity. In addition. both thermal and electrical.. Lower compaction pressures reduce the possibility of damage in fragile tool designs and tool breakage is less likely with aluminum. This is a major benefit in today‟s energy conscious world. In normal outdoor exposure aluminum P/M alloys will provide corrosion resistance equivalent to brass. because of the lower density. The sintering in presence of atmospheric gases for aluminum part production also tends to be more economical. The excellent corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys has been well established through years of experience in marine. However. bronze and stainless steel P/M parts and significantly better than ferrous based products.e. aluminum can be economically viable on a direct part replacement basis. conductivity and finishing characteristics.

materials testing machine or materials test frame.75 inches suggests a 30% lower cost than 316L SS. is used to test the tensile stress and compressive strength of materials. components and structures. It is named after the fact that it can perform many standard tensile and compression tests on materials. a 20% lower cost than Bronze 9010 and a comparable cost with FC0008 at a density of 6.part with a flange diameter of 1 inch and the length of 0. also known as a universal tester.6.06 inches coupled with an overall length and body OD of 0.1 Introduction to Universal Testing Machine (UTM): A universal testing machine. Testing Of Specimens 8. . 8.

shearing. Output device . the machine itself can record the displacement between its cross heads on which the specimen is held. Conditioning . This specifies the sample preparation. and resonance drive are used. Extensometers are sometimes used.Components:        Load frame . specimen holding jaws. pressure. often published by a standards organization. universal testing machines have a moveable structure which can vertically move up and down to realize both tensional and compression tests. testing at constant deformation. servo-hydraulic. The specimen is placed in the machine between the grips and an extensometer if required can automatically record the change in gauge length during the test. Load cell . linear drive. Normally. etc.Many tests require controlled conditioning (temperature. analysis.A movable cross head (crosshead) is controlled to move up or down. bending and flexural tests .usually consisting of two strong supports for the machine. Means of measuring extension or deformation. Usually this is at a constant speed: sometimes called a constant rate of extension (CRE) machine. Many newer machines have a computer interface for analysis and printing. Cross head . Throughout the tests the control system and its associated software record the load and extension or compression of the specimen. Some machines can program the crosshead speed or conduct cyclical testing. Once the machine is started it begins to apply an increasing load on specimen. fixturing. Some older machines have dial or digital displays and chart recorders.A means of providing the test result is needed.A force transducer or other means of measuring the load is required. Some small machines have a single support. testing at constant force. Use: The set-up and usage are detailed in a test method. The machine can be in a controlled room or a special environmental chamber can be placed around the test specimen for the test. If an extensometer is not fitted. Test fixtures. this method not only records the change in length of the specimen but also all other extending / elastic components of the testing machine and its drive systems including any slipping of the specimen in the grips. etc. Tensional tests include tensile.Many tests require a measure of the response of the test specimen to the movement of the cross head. and related sample making equipment are called for in many test methods. etc. humidity.). tear and peel tests Compression tests include compressive. gauge length (the length which is under study or observation). However. Electromechanical. Periodic calibration is usually called for. Machines range from very small table top systems to ones with over 53 MN (12 million lbf) capacity.

a servo motor which is controlled by a servo drive to drive the crossbeam up and down. the indirect tensile strength of the material can be computed. which yields a tensile failure. such as HUALONG servo-hydraulic universal testing machine Electromechanical: it has two screws and a moveable crossbeam.Universal testing machines can be classified into two categories according to their driving methods: servo-hydraulic drive and electromechanical drive. By registering the ultimate load and by knowing the dimensions of the specimen. Calculations of the indirect tensile strength of specimen are as follows: . and the oil feeding rate to oil cylinder is controlled by a servo valve.   Servo-hydraulic: it has a tensile structure mounted on a oil cylinder which is used to drive the tensile structure up and down.2 Indirect tensile strength test : A cylindrical specimen is loaded diametrically across the circular cross section. 8. the crossbeam could move up and down to achieve tensile and compression tests. Below is a figure showing the load fixture and a principal picture of the loading. The loading causes a tensile deformation perpendicular to the loading direction.

where St = Indirect tensile strength. mm D = Specimen diameter. . mm Figure 2: Proper alignment of specimen within the loading strips for the indirect tensile test. N t = Specimen thickness. kPa P0 = Maximum load sustained by the specimen.

Calculate the numerical index of the asphalt mixture's response to the detrimental effect of water as follows: where Yd = average tensile strength of dry subset Yc = average tensile strength of conditioned subset. .Figure 3. Chart for visual percentage estimation.

Calculate the Relative Variation in Strength (RVS) as follows: where: CVc = coefficient of variation for conditioned subset (Sc/Yc) CVd = coefficient of variation for dry subset (Sd/Yd) where Sc and Sd are calculated using the following equations: where Stc1 = tensile strength of the first conditioned specimen Stc2 = tensile strength of the second conditioned specimen Stc3 = tensile strength of the third conditioned specimen Yc = (Stc1 + Stc2 + Stc3)/3 and where Std1 = tensile strength of first dry specimen Std2 = tensile strength of second dry specimen Std3 = tensile strength of third dry specimen Yd = (Std1 + Std2 + Std3)/3 .TSR values near one are indicative of mixtures which will have very low susceptibility to stripping after exposure to moisture and freeze-thaw conditions.

these range from very small table top systems to ones with over 53 MN capacity. the compressive strength of a material is that value of uniaxial compressive stress reached when the material fails completely. Measurements of compressive strength are affected by the specific test method and conditions of measurement. rather than applying a uniaxial tensile load. The compressive strength is usually obtained experimentally by means of a compressive test. a uniaxial compressive load is applied. Compressive strength is often measured on a universal testing machine.3 Compression Testing Compressive strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand axially directed pushing forces. . However. Compressive strengths are usually reported in relationship to a specific technical standard. materials are crushed. As can be imagined. When the limit of compressive strength is reached.8. The apparatus used for this experiment is the same as that used in a tensile test. the specimen (usually cylindrical) is shortened as well as spread laterally.

Load Vs Displacement

Stress Vs Displacement

Stress Vs Strain .

002486 0.No.002597 2.2157 0.15 6736.40 19. 1.476 18.0398 0.12 2932.325 18.48 3086.88 19.002486 gm/mm3 = 0.22 19. 10.809 7.002585 Ave rage 0.002619 Calculations : Average Density before Sintering Average Density after Sintering Change in Density = 0.0.893 7.46 19.48 7113.000133 gm/mm3 Percentage Change in Density = 5. Before Sintering Length (mm) Diameter (mm) Volume (mm3) Weight (gms) Density (gm/mm3) Length (mm) After Sintering Diameter (mm) Volume (mm3) Weight (gms) Density (gm/mm3) Speci men No.4 Density Test Observations : S.0627 0.48 9967.002539 23. 23.002619 .6799 0.12 9366.36 19.2578 0.002619 gm/mm3 = (0.64 19.002486) gm/mm3 = 0.8.002433 32.002488 10. 33.207 24.6186 0.002676 3.3499 % .893 24.

Meyer and Leeb).5 Hardness Testing Hardness is the measure of how resistant solid matter is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a force is applied. strain. strength. therefore there are different measurements of hardness: scratch hardness. There are a large number of hardness testing methods available e. toughness. indentation hardness. concrete. and viscosity. The area of the sloping surface of the indentation is calculated. it is possible to give an approximate material-specific comparison table. and rebound hardness. plasticity. Rockwell.8. Common examples of hard matter are ceramics. and superhard materials. certain metals. in the form of a right pyramid with a square base and an angle of 136 degrees between opposite faces subjected to a load of 1 to 100 kgf. The Vickers hardness is the quotient obtained by dividing the kgf load by the square mm area of indentation. The full load is normally applied for 10 to 15 seconds. but the behavior of solid materials under force is complex.g. Vickers. which can be contrasted with soft matter. . elastic stiffness. The two diagonals of the indentation left in the surface of the material after removal of the load are measured using a microscope and their average calculated. Brinell. Hardness is dependent on ductility. The Vickers hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond indenter. Although it is impossible in many cases to give an exact conversion. Macroscopic hardness is generally characterized by strong intermolecular bonds. viscoelasticity.

Although thoroughly adaptable and very precise for testing the softest and hardest of materials. which is much better than the arbitrary changing of scale with the other hardness testing methods. The advantages of the Vickers hardness test are that extremely accurate readings can be taken. the Vickers machine is a floor standing unit that is more expensive than the Brinell or Rockwell machines . d1 and d2 in mm HV = Vickers hardness When the mean diagonal of the indentation has been determined the Vickers hardness may be calculated from the formula. and just one type of indenter is used for all types of metals and surface treatments. Several different loading settings give practically identical hardness numbers on uniform material. was obtained using a 10 kgf force. The Vickers hardness should be reported like 800 HV/10.F= Load in kgf d = Arithmetic mean of the two diagonals. which means a Vickers hardness of 800. under varying loads. but is more convenient to use conversion tables.

The die wall is rigid so that it is a kinematic constraint and a radial stress radial is developed. It will be henceforth regarded as Measuring Instrument. That said. Symmetrical Load Distribution on Punches:    . deeming it as makeshift powdered material. so as to recover the Von-Mises criterion of plastic yield in ductile metals. where elastic stresses are stored up until plastic onset. This is actually the problem whose solution is sought when designing a parameter identification rig. The results were used to track the radial stresses on a notional compaction process. which must be traced out so that the resulting plots convey the desired material parameters. Small deformation. The upper punch load conveys an axial stress axial to the powder body. Upper punch displacement data permits volumetric strain computation in turn. Scope Of Improvement This report addresses the problem of finding the radial stress within a powder body undergoing plastic deformation by confined compression. An elliptic yield surface is selected.9. These two stresses allow for computing stress invariants p and q. occurs. such as die-wall friction and Non-uniformities within the specimen thereof –both in axial and radial directions-. In the light of this. is relinquished on behalf of mathematical tractability. In a first approximation to this problem the analysis of seemingly influential factors. and applied to the design of an instrumented closed die. radial stress and porosity within the specimen. or just MI. elastoplastic behavior is assumed. which is undergoing uniaxial confined compression. whose aspect ratio approaches zero as full density is neared. CLOSED DIE DESIGN Common constitutive equations for mechanical behaviour of granular bodies imply a joint evolution of axial stress. it is clear that some estimation of radial stress exerted by the powder body. motivated by the compaction test for powdered materials. dictated by the mentioned material model. it was decided to turn to a yield surface expression devised for aluminum foams. The end result is a solution to the problem of uniaxial confined compression of a specimen of increasing relative density. too thick and hoop strains could not be properly gauged. with porosity as the parameter governing the evolution of material properties.  A crucial point is the determination of an appropriate value for die wall thickness: too thin and it would collapse upon loading of the powder specimen. is to be done in advance.

not only to choose the right tool material but also to avoid profiles that provoke high stress peaks under load. on punches with unsymmetrical crosssections.The tool assembly on the press should be carefully centered. • Avoid core rod diameters smaller than 1/3. that clearances between them and the die wall get out of concentricity. Achieving a symmetrical load distribution. An uneven density distribution adds to this effect. punches scrape hard on die walls and core rods. In a badly centered tool. causing excessive local wear which. keep unguided portions of core rods and connecting rods as short as possible. In particular. if not detected and corrected in time.  Influence of Profiles: For good functionality and long life of the various tool members it is important. Their cross-sectional center of gravity can certainly be brought in line with the center line of the press. • Avoid sharp-edged protrusions or incisions on punch faces. When loaded asymmetrically. and frictional forces act symmetrically upon their lateral faces. For punches with circular or regular cross-section. . is a more complicated affair. forming excessive burrs on the face of the compact. At places of narrowed clearance. their cross-sectional center of gravity can easily be brought in line with the center line of the press. They scrape hard on die and core rods. to warrant the punches being loaded as symmetrically as possible during compacting. This leads to excessive tool wear and increases the risk of jammed punches and broken core rods. Photo-elastic stress analysis with plexi-glass models can help to avoid unsuitable shapes and 1/5 the length of the core rod‟s portion in contact with the powder. At places of enlarged clearance. leads to a complete break-down of the tool. the optimal centering of the tool assembly on the press may constitute a serious problem. In order to avoid kinking under load. the following points should be observed: • Avoid sharp corners and edges on the cross-sectional profiles of die. punches get out of parallel with die and core rods when subjected to the compacting load. punches and core rods. Since those frictional forces cannot be calculated very accurately in beforehand. powder is being extruded into the gap. thin and sleeve-like punches tend to bend elastically to such a degree. but frictional forces do not act symmetrically upon their lateral faces.

Hence the designed die is efficient and produces close to exact results. Drilling. Conclusions  The Die which is designed as per our requirements can withstand a maximum pressure of 500 MPa and it will be safe under any value of tangential stresses upto 500 MPa.  The fabrication process of the die which includes Turning. .  The calculated compressive strength of aluminum is 51 MPa which is very close to the data given in DESIGN DATA BOOK.  The designed die can be used for the compaction of Aluminum powders. Aluminum powdered alloys as well as Ferrous Powders which require compaction pressure of about 450 MPa. Boring and Oil Quenching Processes has been carried out very carefully taking into consideration proper tolerances and allowances to each dimensions.10.

(1965). G. Heidelberg (1988). Stuttgart 1968.und Anlagenbau. G. USA. References                            Höganäs Data Sheets. Pulvermetallurgie . Schatt. H.und Anlagenbau. The Porosity-Pressure Curve and its Relation to the Size Distribution of Pores in Iron Powder Compacts. G. 2. Stuttgart 1968. S. Verformungsarbeit. Metall 18. G. Bockstiegel. G. Höganäs 1967). Einfluß des Vor. Heidelberg 1988. W. 1960. p. Proceedings of the 1965 International Powder Metallurgy Conference. Bockstiegel. Sinter. Archiv für das Eisenhüttenwesen 28 (1957) 3. Kochel a. Bockstiegel. Bockstiegel. 2.und Verbundwerkstoffe. Bockstiegel. Kochel a.und Nachpressdruckes sowie der Sintertemperatur auf die Eigenschaften von Sinterteilen aus Eisenpulvern. New York. Bockstiegel. 6.und Anlagenbau. Courtesy: Dorst Maschinen.und Verbundwerkstoffe. M. Höganäs 1967. Schatt. Hewing. Verfestigung und Seitendruck beim Pressen von Metallpulvern. Courtesy: Dorst Maschinen. Sinter . Verfestigung und Seitendruck beim Pressen von Metallpulvern. No. See. Dr. Bockstiegel und J. Bockstiegel und J. Fischmeister and E. Hewing. Kochel a. G. Pulvermetallurgie. W. Hüthig Verlag.16 in: W. Höganäs 1964. Europäisches Symposium über Pulvermetallurgie. G. Courtesy: Dorst Maschinen. Höganäs Data Sheets.167 -177. 6. See. NY. Exner. G.11. Long. 113. Powder Metallurgy. Example: the yield point s0(T) decreases with increasing temperature T (T3 > T2 > T1). Europäisches Symposium über Pulvermetallurgie. Alfred Hüthig Verlag. See Illustration No. Höganäs 1967. . Verformungsarbeit.

1205. Illustration No. Höganäs PM Iron Powder Information. 02. Guka. Vol. Archiv f.05American Society for Testing and Materials.29 in: W.29 in: W.H. pp. Pulvermetallurgie . Bockstiegel. Bockstiegel. Schatt. [7]. 167-177. Kingery and M. Phys. G.und Verbundwerkstoffe. M. G. 1957 pp. Archiv f. Bockstiegel. (1957).d.P. see ref. Heidelberg (1988). Taskinen. . Illustration No. Eisenhüttenwesen 28.d. Stahl u. Bockstiegel. 1990. Heidelberg (1988). Appl. Berg.167-177 (1957). Eisenhüttenwesen 28. 97. 6. Bockstiegel. pp. Metallurgie iii . G. Pulvermetallurgie . pp. Tikkanen and G. (1975). 26. p.4. Kolar and I. Hüthig Verlag. Sinter. Data according to G. Hüthig Verlag. PM 80-8 (1980). Standard ASTM B331-85: Compressibility of Metal Powders in Uniaxial Compaction. D. 3. Bockstiegel. G. 1187-1201. section E.und Verbundwerkstoffe. (1959). G.(1955). chapter 20.D. Science of Sintering 7. Schatt. Bockstiegel. 6. J. Eisen 79. 67-78 (1962). Sinter. Höganäs Iron Powder Handbook.               W. p.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful