MINOR PROJECT REPORT RECTENNA-(Rectifying Antenna

)
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication

Guide: Mr. S K Kundu

Submitted By: Stanley K Varkey (1331152808) Satya Deep Chatterjee (1371152808) Kunal Jain (1381152808) Richa Daga (2171152808)

BHARATI VIDYAPEETH’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING A-4, PASCHIM VIHAR, ROHTAK ROAD, NEW DELHI- 110063 AFFILIATED TO GURU GOBIND SINGH INDRAPRASTHA UNIVERSITY, DELHI-1100006 (2008-2012)

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the minor project report titled “RECTENNA (Rectifying Antenna)” done by ‘Mr. STANLEY K VARKEY (1331152808)’ ,‘Mr. SATYA DEEP CHATTERJEE (1371152808)‘, ‘Mr. KUNAL JAIN (1381152808)’, ‘Ms. RICHA DAGA(2171152808)’ is an authentic work carried out by them at Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering affiliated to GGSIP University, Dwarka, Sector-16, Delhi, under my guidance. The matter embodied in this project work has not been submitted earlier for the award of any other degree to the best of my knowledge and belief.

DATE: NOVEMBER 21st , 2011

Mr. S.K. Kundu Assistant Professor

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to articulate our profound gratitude and indebtedness to our project guide Mr. S.K. Kundu, who has always been a constant motivation and guiding factor throughout the project time in and out as well. It has been a great pleasure for us to get an opportunity to work under him and complete the project successfully. We wish to extend our sincere thanks to Prof. Anuradha Basu, Head of Department, for approving our project work with great interest. An undertaking of this nature could never have been attempted with our reference to and inspiration from the works of others whose details are mentioned in references section. We acknowledge our indebtedness to all of them.

Satya Deep Chatterjee (1371152808)

Richa Daga (2171152808)

Kunal Jain (1381152808)

Stanley K Varkey (1331152808)

The rectenna is used to harvest electric energy from the RF signals that have been radiated by communication and broadcasting systems at ISM band centred in 2.. measuring and testing an antenna and rectifier circuit (RECTENNA) optimized for incoming signals of low power density. 1. Low Pass Filter circuit 3. RF energy recycling being aware of the energy consumption and effect to the natural environment. An RF energy harvesting device consists of three primary subsystems. The Receiving Antenna 2. Powering of low-power sensor 2.4 GHz. Goal: The goal of this work is to determine the usefulness of low-power rectification. .ABSTRACT The work focuses on designing. This work contains methods to simulate rectennas with Harmonic Balance and electromagnetic full-wave Momentum by Agilent Advanced Design Software. The rectification circuitry Motivation: The work is motivated by two types of applications: 1.

1 MICROSTRIP LINE FEED 9 9 3.2.3 1.1.1.2.2 1.1.2 Momentum Simulation 2.1 Distributed Element Filter 4.4 Formulas Used in the Design of Patch Antenna 3.3.2 VSWR 3.1 MICROWAVE FILTERS 4.4 1 2 2 3 4 History: Previous Power Transfer Technologies Recent Technologies of Rectenna General Block Diagram Application in the ISM band (2.1.5 Design a rectangular patch 10 11 Chapter 4: LOW PASS FILTER 4.1.1.3 Bandwidth 7 7 8 8 8 8 3.3 KURODA’S IDENTITIES 13 13 13 14 15 .1 Brief Background on Simulation tools used 2.1 1.1 Brief Introduction 3.3 LineCalc Tool 5 5 5 6 6 Chapter 3: ANTENNA 3.1 Antenna Efficiency 3.2 Some Important Performance Parameters 3.INDEX ABSTRACT Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1.4-2.3 FEED TECHNIQUES 3.2.5 GHz) Chapter 2: RECTENNA DESIGN 2.2 RICHARD’S TRANSFORMATION 4.1 Harmonic Balance Simulation 2.

2.2 Rectifying Circuit 6.1.1.1 Rectifying Circuit 17 17 Chapter 6: Simulation Results 6.1 Circuit Diagram 6.2 Input v/s Output Graphs 22 22 22 Conclusion 23 REFERENCES 24 .Chapter 5: RECTIFIER 5.2.1 Microstrip Patch Antenna 6.1 Patch Antenna 3-D Geometry 6.2 Simulation Results 19 19 19 19 6.

these devices are powered by batteries. they present many disadvantages such as: the need to either replace them or recharge them periodically and their big size and weight compared to high technology electronics. small dimensions are a basic feature of portable devices. The way technology advance every year allow the decrease of certain characteristics in digital systems. Currently. like size and power consumption. when talking about wireless communications. wind energy and solar power. [2] Harvesting wireless power techniques are mostly based on radio-frequency identification. is a feature that is really important to take into account because of the influence it has on the autonomy. A solution proposed to this problem was stated before: to extract (harvest) energy from the environment to either recharge a battery. Then. or even to directly power the electronic device. that will lead to the gain of new ways of computing and use of electronics. Therefore. As a general idea. as an example we have wearable devices and wireless sensor networks. e. weight and size of portable devices. This kind of environmental friendly energy sources include energy harvesting from rectennas. Basically. so the rectenna should be the same way. we can say that wireless power transfer is better suitable for low-power applications. we present a rectenna design modelled with numerical analysis and harmonic balance simulation. passive human power. a tag composed by an antenna and a microchip responds by sending back data about the object it is attached to. a low-power wireless sensor. As a conclusion. This provides a good insight in the effect of the several parameters on the performance of the rectenna.. Power we can extract from those techniques is limited by regulations and free-space path loss. energy harvesting techniques have been proposed to try to give solution to this problem: we can have a variety of alternative energy sources that are less harmful to the environment. or RFID. however.Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION Power.g. . In order to be able to transfer power wirelessly an efficient rectenna is needed. Therefore.[17] Small sizes result in the received power to be low. the transmission part sends RF signals that carries information to a chip to convert it to DC electricity to power the application.

1. (The rectenna using the active devices is not passive element). The rectenna can receive and rectify a microwave power to DC. microstrip antenna. he describes a method for utilizing effects transmitted through natural media. C. [1] 1. and thereby bringing the latter into action. Though described in somewhat confusing legal language. or even parabolic antenna. The antenna of rectenna can be any type such as dipole. mainly determines the RF-DC conversion efficiency. directing them upon a receiving or recording apparatus at a distance. rectennas with FET [19] or HEMT [11] appear in recent years. Yagi-Uda antenna. This method has been brought particularly into prominence in recent years through investigations by Heinrich Hertz.1 History: Previous Power Transfer Technologies Over 100 years ago. storage of the energy in a capacitor and energy management over time. operated without any power source. it is obvious that the disturbances in Tesla's patent are electromagnetic waves. Brown in 1960's. The rectenna can also take any type of rectifying circuit such as single shunt full-wave rectifier. for periods of time predetermined as to succession and duration. What is described above is wireless transmission of energy. especially diode. which consists in storing in a condenser electrical energy derived from an independent source. spiral antenna. monopole. is passive element with a rectifying diode. full-wave bridge rectifier. the accumulated energy so obtained to operate a receiving device. Tesla first describes several ways of transmitting electrical disturbances through the natural media: One of these ways consists of producing by a suitable apparatus rays or radiations that is disturbances which are propagated in straight lines through space.2 Recent Technologies of Rectenna The word rectenna is composed of rectifying circuit and antenna. and using. the concept of wireless power transmission began with the patented ideas and demonstrations by Tesla [1][2]. The circuit.The world record of the RF-DC conversion efficiency among developed rectennas is approximately 90% at 8W input of 2. who demonstrated the electromagnetic wave propagation in free space using parabolic reflectors at both ends (transmitting and receiving) of the system." Power transmission by radio waves dates back to the early work of Heinrich Hertz around 1880. coplanar patch.45 GHz microwave. Claim 11 of this patent specifies that the patented method of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media from a distant source. or other hybrid rectifiers. . In this patent. The rectenna and its word were invented by W.

cheap components availability. 2. 3.4 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band has been utilized due to the presence of Wi-Fi networks. If we consider that the use of batteries has some disadvantages like the limited life period they have. and high conversion efficiency. 900 MHz and 1800MHz also present good alternatives for electromagnetic energy harvesting systems.4 GHz. and so on. [4][8] The frequency bands corresponding to mobile telephone systems such as 800 MHz. although they require a larger antenna size.3 General Block Diagram In the figure we can see how our system works: 1. Then the rectifier circuit will “extract” the power from those signals and convert it in DC voltage efficiently. differential-heat generators. Traditionally the 2. The Low Pass filter circuit helps in removing unwanted frequencies. RF energy recycling. [2] This work has two goals: 1. additionally the 5. surface acoustic wave devices. it is very encouraging to think that if every wireless sensor in the world have the kind of power source presented in this work. plus the pollution generated from their disposal. Powering of low-power applications 2. RFID.1. Several operating frequencies for the rectenna have been investigated in the literature. Along the previous years. bio-batteries. A starting point is to ask ourselves if there is an efficient way to power active devices. . Both frequency bands present similar advantages because they have comparably low atmospheric loss. First. there have been some methods proposed and implemented: microwave power transmission.8 GHz ISM band has also been considered which implies a smaller antenna aperture area than that of 2. it would be a great progress in the way we try to keep our planet clean. the antenna is in charge of capturing all the RF signals. piezoelectric generators. solar cells.

4-2. a matching and filtering network between the antenna and rectifying circuit can be avoided[6][13]. the system must maximize reading distance and robustness to collisions with cheap tag fabrication. A important application for wireless power transmission is to identification tags. An efficiency of 52% for 0 dBm input power has been realized at 2. With the aid of analytical models for the antenna and the rectifying circuit.45 GHz for a rectenna on a standard PCB material. . and its minimal attenuation through the atmosphere even in heavy rainstorms. Invented in 1980. there has been a trend to take RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology from labs to commercial applications. By conjugate matching a rectifying circuit directly to a micro strip patch antenna. and so on.1.4 Application in the ISM band (2.5 GHz) 2. scientific. in recent years. The challenge lies in maximizing the power conversion efficiency for low input power and – at the same time– minimizing the dimensions of the rectenna. and medical (ISM) band. internally matched and filtered PCB rectennas may be designed for low input power. then the conversion efficiency of the rectenna continued to increase from the 1960's through the 1970's at this frequency.4-2. single-layer. intelligent systems at home. A series connection of these rectennas is able to power a standard household electric wall clock. automatic selling systems. RF-ID is the first commercial wireless power transmission application system in the world Rectennas are used for converting wireless RF power into DC power. Tags can be used to keep track on some retail products for inventory control. location at the center of an industrial.[6][7] In this application.5 GHz emerged as the transmitting frequency of choice due to its advanced and efficient technology base.

Chapter 2: RECTENNA DESIGN The design and simulation results of a single rectenna working at ISM band 2. which would cause problems for numerical solvers of the nonlinear differential equations. The Harmonic Balance method has the advantage of avoiding time constants. up to a given cut-off.1 Brief Background on Simulation tools used 2.[14][17] The entire circuit is split up into a linear and a nonlinear sub-circuit connected by N ports. assuming it is an M-port. the following systems scan be written: . which are much greater than the inverse of the excitation frequency and require integration over many periods.[14][15] 2. HB analysis is performed in the frequency domain Fourier space.small signal and the frequency domain based harmonic balance analysis.[14] The antenna was chosen to be a micro strip square patch with inset feed matched to a 50 Ω transmission line The antenna was simulated using the Method of Moments technique in IE3D while the Rectifying circuit was simulated using the Harmonic Balance method in Advanced Design Systems Simulator. The software used to design and simulate the micro strip patch antenna was IE3D[21] while the design for the rectifying circuit was accomplished in Advanced Design Systems(ADS) by Agilent. thus avoiding differential equations. the port-voltages must not only be known for the sinusoidal fundamental frequency of the excitation. For the entire circuit. but for all harmonics k = 1 ::: K. two major techniques are known: the time domain based large signal .4 GHz will presented in the following pages. Because the nonlinear devices create harmonics.1.1 Harmonic Balance Simulation For analyzing nonlinear circuits.[14] These can differ from each other by several orders of magnitude.

LineCalc accurately computes and for microstrip as well as for a large number of other planar waveguides. whereas letters without hats belong to the linear subcircuit. In addition to simulating antenna structures.k have to be found.2 Momentum Simulation Agilent Momentum is based on the Method-of-Moments (MoM) which is a numerical method to solve Maxwell’s equations for planar structures in multilayer dielectric substrates [18]. and Ylin and ^ Ynlin are the admittance matrices of the sub-circuits. As soon as those voltages are found. this type of simulation is used to accurately determine the electromagnetic behavior of planar transmission lines and interconnects. This gives a smoother approximation to the current distribution. the “n-th moment” is obtained by integrating the product of the Green’s function with the n-th basis function. so that In. or respective currents.where Um. In.k. Compared to a circuit simulator such as Agilent S-parameter simulator. that solve both equations. i. as well as coupling among adjacent circuit components.k are k-th harmonics of port voltages. i. In the simplest case.k = -I’n. in which the current distribution is piecewiselinear between the matching points.e. For the N connecting ports. The next more complicated basis functions are triangular in shape.3 LineCalc Tool The dimensions of the various transmission lines used in the antenna and rectenna design were obtained using the tool LineCalc of Agilent ADS. it additionally accounts for radiation.k = -I’n.k. To solve for the entire circuit.k and Im. The conducting surfaces of a given antenna structure are meshed into different cells and the currents flowing on them are discretized and expanded in a set of basic functions according to the mesh structure and subsequently determined numerically. and Un.k = -U’n. the circuit is analyzed.k. Kirchhoff's current law.1. An example of the graphical interface of LineCalc is shown[17] Chapter 3: ANTENNA . must be satisfied for all n = 1 ::: N. 2. Because the widths of the rectangular sections are non-zero. port-voltages Un.1.e. the basic functions are rectangular approximations to the Dirac delta function. Conversely. The hat notation relates to the nonlinear sub-circuit. it can synthesize a land width given the other parameters such as and frequency. only a finite (reasonably small) number of them are needed to cover the antenna wire structure. [14][15] Given the physical dimensions and material properties. Kirchhoff's voltage law.[15] 2. In general.

separated by a dielectric substrate. and circular polarizations.2 Some Important Performance Parameters . which makes them very useful for integrated active antennas in which circuit functions are integrated with the antenna to produce compact transceivers. [17][18] Microstrip antennas have numerous advantages such as 1.(Square Patch Microstrip Antenna) 3.40 GHz. Microstrip antennas can be in various shapes and configurations but for the purpose of this work a square patch microstrip antennas was used.) 2. and they can generate linear. These antennas are inexpensive to fabricate using printed circuit board etching. They can easily be combined to form linear or planar arrays.1 Brief Introduction A microstrip patch antenna consists of a very thin metallic patch (usually gold or copper) placed a small fraction of a wavelength above a conducting ground plane. They are light weight. 4. 3. 3. dual. they can be designed to operate over a large range of frequencies (1.

[17][18] 3. of the power delivered to the antenna. 3. .3. the return loss S11=20*log10(0. although this doesn't always work over a sufficient bandwidth. Hence. A common measure of how well matched the antenna is to the transmission line or receiver is known as the Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR).3 Bandwidth Bandwidth is typically quoted in terms of VSWR.2. A VSWR of 1 indicates no mismatch loss (the antenna is perfectly matched to the Tx line). A low efficiency antenna has most of the power absorbed as losses within the antenna.[18] The antenna efficiency (or radiation efficiency) can be written as the ratio of the radiated power to the input power of the antenna: The total efficiency of an antenna is the radiation efficiency multiplied by the impedance mismatch loss of the antenna.2)=-13. an antenna may be described as operating at 100-400 MHz with a VSWR<2.3 FEED TECHNIQUES Microstrip patch antennas can be fed by a variety of methods.1 ANTENNA EFFICIENCY The efficiency of an antenna relates the power delivered to the antenna and the power radiated or dissipated within the antenna.98 dB. Higher values of VSWR indicate more mismatch loss. VSWR is a real number that is always greater than or equal to 1. Alternatively.2.2.2 across the quoted frequency range. This can be somewhat alleviated via impedance matching. or reflected away due to impedance mismatch. only 4% of the power is reflected back to the transmitter. A high efficiency antenna has most of the power present at the antenna's input radiated away. A poorly matched antenna will not radiate power.2 VSWR An antenna's impedance is important for minimizing impedance-mismatch loss. This can be summarized in the following equation where et= total efficiency Ml=loss die to mismatch er=antenna radiation efficiency 3. This statement implies that the reflection coefficient is less than 0. For instance. when connected to a transmission line or receiver (radio or transmitter). Practically antenna design aims to reduce achieve a VSWR of less than 2.

1 MICROSTRIP LINE FEED In this type of feed technique. In the contacting method. The conducting strip is smaller in width as compared to the patch and this kind of feed arrangement has the advantage that the feed can be etched on the same substrate to provide a planar structure. The microstrip line.[5][18] 3. 2. The purpose of the inset cut in the patch is to match the impedance of the feed line to the patch without the need for any additional matching element. Coaxial probe (both contacting schemes).These methods can be classified into two categories. The four most popular feed techniques used are:1. a conducting strip is connected directly to the edge of the microstrip patch as shown in figure. 3. . Hence this is an easy feeding scheme. electromagnetic field coupling is done to transfer power between the microstrip line and the radiating patch. In the non-contacting scheme. This is achieved by properly controlling the inset position.3. In our antenna design we have used the Microstrip line feed technique (Inset feed) to couple power power captured by the antenna to a rectifying circuit. Aperture coupling and 4.contacting and non-contacting. since it provides ease of fabrication and simplicity in modelling as well as impedance matching. the RF power is fed directly to the radiating patch using a connecting element such as a microstrip line. Proximity coupling (both non-contacting schemes).

For this purpose the following design aspects and parameters were used/calculated.However as the thickness of the dielectric substrate being used.3)(W/h + 0. the enlargement on L is given by ∆L = 0.8)] Where the effective (relative) permittivity is The effective length of the patch is now Leff = L + 2 ∆L For a given resonance frequency fo. increases.412d(εreff + 0. which hampers the bandwidth of the antenna. surface waves and spurious feed radiation also increases.264)/[(εreff − 0. Because of the fringing effects. The feed radiation also leads to undesired cross polarized radiation. electrically the patch of the antenna looks larger than its physical dimensions.258)(W/h + 0.4 Formulas Used in the Design of Patch Antenna The Micro strip patch antenna was designed to work in the ISM range centred around 2.[17][18] 3.4 GHz. the effective length is given by as An optimized width for an efficient radiator is .

Based on these simplified formulas. Experimentally and theoretically. Following the design procedure suggested above and using the formulas to write code in MATLAB we obtain: • • • Width of the antenna (W) Length of the antenna (L) Effective Dielectric Constant (εreff) : : : 38. The input impedance behaviour for a coaxial probe-fed patch antenna has been studied analytically by means of various models. • Dielectric constant of the substrate ( εr ) : 4.7 mm 30.4 GHz. we can adopt the following design procedure to design the antenna: 3. including the transmission-line model and the cavity model.5 Design a rectangular patch The three essential parameters for the design of a rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna are: • Frequency of operation ( fo ) : 2. The antenna simulation was carried out using the electromagnetic simulator IE3D (Version 14.22 • Height of dielectric substrate ( h ) : 1.9262 A linearly polarized microstrip patch antenna (30.4 GHz. The antenna has been achieved and measured in a first time. and by means of full-wave analysis.1)[15].1 mm x 38. it has been found that an inset fed-patch antenna's input impedance exhibits behavior that follows the trigonometric function: Zin(x0) = Zin(0) cos2[π(y0/L)] .7 mm) has been associated with the rectifier to obtain the complete rectenna.1 mm 3. It showed a good input matching level at 2.6 mm.

071 mm .where: Zin(y0) = Input Impedance at distance y0 from the edge Zin(0) = Impedance at the edge L = the length of the patch and x0 = the position of the feed from the edge along the direction of the patch length L. Zin(0) = We can find that the recessed distance (the length cutting into the patch) is The width of the microstrip line feed of 50 ohm calculated using line calculator is wo = 3.

Patch antenna with dimensions .

Such filters are commonly used as building blocks for duplexers and diplexers to combine or separate multiple frequency bands.. The distributed element model applies at all frequencies. Wi-Fi. The most noticeable difference in behaviour between a distributed element filter and its lumped-element approximation is that the former will have multiple passband replicas .1 Distributed Element Filter A distributed element filter is an electronic filter in which capacitance. television. the input HF filter is a low pass filter (LPF) which rejects harmonics created by the diode. designed to operate on signals in the megahertz to gigahertz frequency ranges (medium frequency to extremely high frequency).. an output bypass capacitor and a resistive load. an input HF filter. wireless communication (cellphones. 4. Various Filter technologies are available like Lumped Element LC filters.). inductors and resistors as they are in conventional filters. This low pass filter can be directly included on the radiating element by using harmonic-rejecting antennas. cause a discontinuity on the transmission line. For our project. Coaxial Filters. but because of this mixing of elements they cannot be treated as separate "lumped" capacitors and inductors.Chapter 4: LOW PASS FILTER The rectifier has a nonlinear characteristic and converts RF power into useful dc power. Usually. These discontinuities present a reactive impedance to a wavefront travelling down the line. capacitors or resonators. It also acts as a matching circuit between the antenna and the rectifying circuit. many distributed element components are made of short lengths of transmission line. The filter design is usually concerned only with inductance and capacitance. Cavity filters etc. There is no precise frequency above which distributed element filters must be used but they are especially associated with the microwave band (wavelength less than one metre). and thus most RF and microwave devices will include some kind of filtering on the signals transmitted or received. as required by the filter. A rectifier is often made up of a combination of Schottky diodes.[7] In our design the Filter system implemented is a low pass filter to help reject harmonics generated by the non linear diodes used for rectification. Distributed element filters. Distributed element filters. 4.1. etc. we have implemented the filter circuit using the Distributed Element Filter approach. This frequency range is the range used by most broadcast radio. and is used in transmission line theory. and these reactances can be chosen by design to serve as approximations for lumped inductors.1 MICROWAVE FILTERS Radio frequency (RF) and microwave filters represent a class of electronic filter. inductance and resistance (the elements of the circuit) are not localised in discrete capacitors.

of the lumped-element prototype passband.[7][18] If ‘l’ = λ/8 . the following identities hold for a capacitor and inductor . it was first designed as a lumped element filter and then converted into a Distributed Element Model. The conversion was carried out using Richard’s Transformation and Kuroda Identities. A lumped low-pass prototype filter can be implemented using λ/8 lines of appropriate Zo to replace lumped L and C elements. 4. because transmission line transfer characteristics repeat at harmonic intervals.[19] In order to realise a required Filter circuit. Open Circuit and Short Circuited transmission line stubs can be used as replacements for inductors and capacitors since they have reactive impedances as shown.2 RICHARD’S TRANSFORMATION Richards' transformation allows a lumped element design to be taken "as is" and transformed directly into a distributed element design using a very simple transform equation.1.

1. This was not possible to implement in planar technologies and was often inconvenient in other technologies. 2. Change impractical characteristic impedances into more realizable ones . This problem was solved by K. 3. Kuroda who used impedance transformers to eliminate the series elements [7].4.3 KURODA’S IDENTITIES The difficulty with Richards' transformation from the point of view of building practical filters was that the resulting distributed element design invariably included series connected elements. Transform series stubs into shunt stubs. Physically separate transmission line stubs. He published a set of transformations known as Kuroda's identities Kuroda’s Identities are used for the following: 1.

Given Circuit Kuroda Transformation .

reverse-recovery time (trr). . Schottky diodes typically have lower forward current (IF) and reverse voltage (VRRM and VDC) ratings than rectifying diodes and are thus unsuitable for applications involving substantial amounts of power. This makes them well suited for high-frequency applications. rectifiers are highly nonlinear and difficult to design based upon purely analytic equations. The used Schottky diodes are characterized by a low parasitic capacitance CJ0 (0.Chapter 5: RECTIFIER At low RF frequencies (kilohertz to low megahertz). so it is important to use a diode with a low turn-on voltage.14 pF) and a low serial resistor RS (20 Ω). there is generally not enough power to drive the diode in a high-efficiency mode. At microwaves (1 GHz and higher). When looking for a rectifying diode in the context of RF recycling. Unfortunately. both p-n diodes and transistors are used as rectifiers. 5.1 Rectifying Circuit The forward voltage drop (VF). Commercially available harmonic-balance (HB) simulators are useful at low power levels.. a diode with a high conversion efficiency. Schottky diodes (GaAs or Si) with shorter transit times are required.. Though they are used in low voltage switching regulator power supplies. For low-power applications. as is the case for collected ambient energy. The diode is not externally biased in this application. and junction capacitance (CJ) of Schottky diodes are closer to ideal than the average “rectifying” diode. though. even for very small incident power levels is required. At microwave frequencies.

. Agilent’s HSMS-285x family of zero bias Schottky detector diodes has been designed and optimized for use in small signal (Pin <-20 dBm). They are ideal for RF/ID and RF Tag applications where primary (DC bias) power is not available [20]. making the job of reactive matching a bit easier. In our Rectifier Circuit we have used the HSMS 2850 Schottky Diode. increasing the overall value of voltage sensitivity for the network (compared to a single diode detector). Second. First the voltage outputs of two diodes are added in series. the RF impedances of the two diodes are added in parallel.A glance at the above figure will suggest that two types of single diode detectors be combined into a full wave rectifier [20](known also as a two diode voltage doubler). Such a circuit offers several advantages.

1 Microstrip Patch Antenna 6.2 Simulation Results VSWR .1.1.1 Patch Antenna 3-D Geometry 6.Chapter 6: Simulation Results 6.

Frequency .S-Parameter Efficiency vs.

Total Field Vs. Frequency 3-D Radiation Pattern .

1 Circuit Diagram 6.2 Input v/s Output Graphs Input Power= -10dB .6.2.2 Rectifying Circuit 6.2.

no via-hole connection is required. has been accurately designed and optimized by means of ADS Agilent simulation technique. .Input Power= 0 dB Input Power= 10dB Conclusion In this study. a low cost and efficient rectenna. Also. Due to the differential measurements of the output dc voltage. based on modified bridge configuration. no input low pass filter is needed due to the no rejection of harmonics at the input (P0) of the rectifier.

Germany. Lotfi Osman and Ali Gharsallah. C. University of Tunis El Manar. F. Pozar. 23-27.D. Inc. Visser. Escola Tècnica Superior d‟Enginyeria de Telecomunicació de Barcelona Department de Teoría de Senyal i Comunicacions . [12] H.” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. B Allard. July2009 [6] Omar André Campana Escala. Doodeman. no. L. B.S. John Wiley & Sons. 187–190.REFERENCES [1] Nicolas Tesla. [19] Qijuan He and Changjun Liu.45 GHz Rectenna Design with High Harmonic Rejection for Wireless Power Transmission”. van Beurden. UK. ―Handbook of Microstrip Antennas Peter Peregrinus Ltd. Zbitou. March 2009. pp.45-GHz low cost and efficient rectenna”. J. [5] Gianfranco Andi Vera. [3] N. “Microwave Engineering”. McGraw. and HALL P. Tunisia [10] J. Fremont. Takhedmit. IEEE Trans. Lett. 4. Brown. [4] W. Toutain. Technical Data “Surface Mount Microwave Schottky Detector Diodes”.pdf. B Merabet. Akkermans. IEEE Trans. Berlin. C Vollaire.gatech. 24. N. M. “High efficiency microwave rectenna circuit: modeling and design. Lan Sun Luk and F. [13] A. El Manar 2092. pp 147152. 1984. [17] JAMES J. [20]Agilent Technologies. School of Electronics and Information Engineering. G.. C. Inc. B. O Picon “A 2. http://www. China. J. 1904.A. [14] (2009) The Advanced Design System by Agilent [15] IE3D Software Release 14. Pp 2321-2325.. Brown. 1989 [18] Balanis. 05/UR/11-10: CSEHF. Douyere. 1991. vol. C. 32(9):1230{1242.USA [16] Hewlett Packard. G. 2005. “Study of the efficiency of rectifying antenna systems for electromagnetic energy harvesting” . Experiments with Alternate Current of High Potential and High Frequency. Vollaire and O. Third Edition..” Electronics Letters. 54. J. [2] William C.. ‘Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design’. Nov. 2006. vol. London. Merabet. 2005. Shinohara.R. “The history of power transmission by radio waves”.”Wireless power transmission for solar power satellite” (sps second draft). Jan. 44. MTT. California. 2006. 2008.October 2010 [7] David M... Alicalapa. IEEE Antennas and Propagation EuCAP 2010 Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on (2010) [9] Zied Harouni.45 GHz rectenna using a global analysis technique. on Microw. Latrach and S. “An experimental low power density rectenna”.. Allard. 1998 [8] H Takhedmit. vol. C. “Design of a 2. “Analytical models for low-power rectenna design. John Wiley &Sons. no. Picon.” EuCAP 2009. A. “Efficient 2. Theory and Tech. “Hybrid Rectenna and Monolithic Integrated ZeroBias Microwave Rectifier”.edu/wptshinohara.1 (Zeland Software Inc.sspi. “An Enhanced Microwave Rectifying Circuit Using HSMS-282”. Microwave Symp. Chengdu 610064. [11] J. “Surface Mount Zero Bias Schottky Detector diode” Technical Data Sheet . Sichuan Uni versity. Cirio. F Costa. and H. “Efficient Rectenna Design for Ambient Microwave Energy Recycling” Escola Tecnica Superior d'Enginyeria de Telecomunicaci_o de Barcelona.1. M. L Cirio. IEEE MIT-S Int. Costa.

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