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Q) What must be present in order for the user to be able to communicate well with the DSS?

Ans) An interface is a component of a system specifically intended to allow the user to access the internal components of that system in a relatively easy fashion and without having to know specifically how everything is put together or how it works together. The DSS interface is responsible for all interaction and communication with the user(s). The interface must not include software components such as menus and command languages and hardware components such as multiple monitoring and input facilities. It must also deal with factors relating to human interaction, accessibility, ease of use, user skill level, error capture and reporting, and issues relating to documentation, among many others. Because of these responsibilities, the interface is regarded as the single most important component in the system. DSs interface has two components the communication language and the presentation language. The Communication Language: The communication language, or action language, component deals with activities associated with the users direct dialog with the DSS. The various modes of data entry are included in this component. Data can be entered into the DSS by conventional methods such as keyboard, mouse, trackball, or

touchpad. Virtual reality devices such as biophysical input gloves, retinal scanners and head position monitors are becoming common input methods. DSS applications using joysticks, voice recognition and optical scanning devices are also being developed. The most common aspect of the communication languages is the menu. Menus provide the user with an organized an intuitive method of selecting among the many functions, alternatives, commands, or outcomes available through the DSS. Properly organized and logically designed, menus can serve as guides for the inexperienced DSS user and as efficient vehicles of navigation for the DSS expert. The Presentation Language: The presentation language component of the DSS interface is what the user actually sees, hears, or experiences during DSS use. Output devices such as printers, plotters, display monitors, audio monitors, and voice synthesizers are all part of this component. On-screen methods such as multiple windows, graphs, tables, charts, icons, messages, and audio triggers or alerts are also part of the presentation language. Just as the communication language component allows the user to transmit information and commands to the DSS, the presentation language component serves as the vehicle for the DSS to communicate with the user. These two components must be designed to work smoothly together if the DSS is to be

considered user-friendly. The presentation language system must be designed so that a wide variety of presentation methods can be either preselected as a preference or selected on the fly by the DSS user while viewing various stages of output. Various graphs, tables, charts, and combinations must be easily selectable by the user so that the output can be viewed from as many perspectives as possible. This flexibility ensures that the output is appropriate for the many different users of the DSS as well as for the range of problem contexts and decisions to be supported by the system. General functions of the DSS interface: Communication Language Allows for interaction with the DSS in a variety of dialog styles Identifies the form of input to enter requests into the DSS Provides support for communication among multiple DSS users Can be effected in a variety of formats including menu driven, question/answer, procedural command language, or natural command language Can capture and analyze previous dialogs so that future interactions can be improved Presentation Language

Provides for the presentation of the data in a variety of formats Allows for detailed support definition and generation by the DSS users Allows for the creation of forms, tables and graphics for data output Can provide for multiple windows or views, of the data to be available simultaneously