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A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible; while some can be compressed, the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport liquids.
Types of compressor :
Centrifugal compressors use the rotating action of an impeller wheel to exert centrifugal force on refrigerant inside a round chamber (volute). Refrigerant is sucked into the impeller wheel through a large circular intake and flows between the impellers. The impellers force the refrigerant outward, exerting centrifugal force on the refrigerant. The refrigerant is pressurized as it is forced against the sides of the volute. Centrifugal compressors use a rotating disk or impeller ishaped housing to force the gas to the rim of the impeller, increasing the velocity of the gas. . A diffuser (divergent duct) section converts the velocity energy to pressure energy. They are primarily used for continuous, stationary service in industries such as oil refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants and natural gas processing plants
also known as blades or rotors.Axial-flow compressors: Axial-flow compressors are dynamic rotating compressors that use arrays of fan-like airfoils to progressively compress the working fluid. usually as pairs: one rotating and one stationary. accelerate the fluid. and within certain chemical plants. The stationary airfoils. also known as stators or vanes. The arrays of airfoils are set in rows. around 90% polytropic at their design conditions. . preparing it for the rotor blades of the next stage Axial compressors are almost always multi-staged. with the crosssectional area of the gas passage diminishing along the compressor to maintain an optimum axial Mach number. Axial compressors can have high efficiencies. in natural gas pumping stations. Axial-flow compressors can be found in medium to large gas turbine engines. They are used where there is a requirement for a high flow rate or a compact design. The rotating airfoils. decelerate and redirect the flow direction of the fluid.
The orbiting action of the lower disk inside the stationary disk creates sealed spaces of varying volume. They are commonly used in automobile air conditioning systems and commercial chillers. Refrigerant is sucked in through inlet ports at the perimeter of the scroll. . The compressed refrigerant is discharged through a port at the centre of the upper disk. As the volume decreases. Scroll compressors are quiet.Scroll Compressors: In a scroll compressor refrigerant is compressed by two offset spiral disks that are nested together. A quantity of refrigerant becomes trapped in one of the sealed spaces. The upper disk is stationary while the lower disk moves in orbital fashion. As the disk orbits the enclosed space containing the refrigerant is transferred toward the centre of the disk and its volume decreases. the refrigerant is compressed. smooth-operating units with the highest efficiency ratio of all compressor types.
so there is very little pulsation or surging of flow.Rotary screw compressor: A rotary screw compressor is a type of gas compressor which uses a rotary type positive displacement mechanism. . They are commonly used to replace piston compressors where large volumes of high pressure air are needed. as occurs with piston compressors. either for large industrial applications or to operate high-power air tools such as jackhammers. The gas compression process of a rotary screw is a continuous sweeping motion.
Reciprocating compressor: A reciprocating compressor or piston compressor is a positivedisplacement compressor that uses pistons driven by a crankshaft to deliver gases at high pressure. gas pipelines. chemical plants. then flows into the compression cylinder where it gets compressed by a piston driven in a reciprocating motion via a crankshaft. The intake gas enters the suction manifold. and is then discharged. One specialty application is the blowing of plastic bottles made of . Applications include oil refineries. natural gas processing plants and refrigeration plants.
.Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET).