HYDRAULIC DESIGN

SOFTWARE

from

AQUAVARRA RESEARCH LIMITED


USER MANUAL





Mar-03

Copyright
© 1998-2003 Aquavarra Research Limited; all rights reserved. No part of
this User Manual and the associated software may be copied, transmitted,
transcribed, stored in any retrieval system, or translated into any language
or computer language, in any form or by any means, without written
permission from Aquavarra Research Limited.



Disclaimer Aquavarra Research Limited has extensively tested its ARTS software
with the objective of producing an error-free high quality product.
However, Aquavarra Research Limited makes no representations or
warranties in respect of the ARTS software or User Manual contents and
specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness
for any particular purpose.



Trade Marks
Windows™ is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation



Customer
support
Aquavarra Research provides a technical support service to registered
users of its ARTS software suite.

Address Aquavarra Research Limited,
Cannonbridge House,
22A Brookfield Avenue,
Blackrock, Co. Dublin,
Ireland.

Tel. +353 1 2783107
Fax +353 1 2783108
Email info@aquavarra.ie
Web www.aquavarra.ie


Table of Contents

1. GETTING STARTED 1-1
1.1 INTRODUCTION 1-1
1.2 SCOPE OF ARTS 1-1
1.3 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 1-2
1.4 INSTALLATION 1-3
1.5 STARTING ARTS 1-5
1.6 UNIT SYSTEM 1-5
1.7 GETTING HELP 1-6
1.8 QUITTING ARTS 1-6

2. THE ARTS USER INTERFACE 2-1
2.1 INTRODUCTION 2-1
2.2 QUICK START 2-1
2.3 THE MAIN DESIGN SCREEN 2-1
2.4 THE DESIGN SHEET 2-2
2.5 THE TOOL PALETTE 2-3
2.6 THE SPREADSHEET VIEW 2-4

3. SKETCHING THE SYSTEM LAYOUT 3-1
3.1 INTRODUCTION 3-1
3.2 QUICK START 3-1
3.3 PLACING OBJECTS ON THE DESIGN SHEET 3-1
3.4 SELECTING OBJECTS 3-2
3.5 RE-SIZING OBJECTS 3-3
3.6 MOVING OBJECTS 3-3
3.7 DELETING OBJECTS 3-3
3.8 COPYING AND PASTING OBJECTS 3-4
3.9 DRAWING HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS 3-5
3.10 CONTINUITY CHECK 3-8
3.11 DRAWING TIPS 3-9


4. HYDRAULIC OBJECTS AND OTHER TOOLS 4-1
4.1 INTRODUCTION 4-1
4.2 QUICK START 4-1
4.3 ACCESSING PROPERTY PAGES 4-1
4.4 PIPES 4-2
4.5 CHANNELS 4-4
4.6 RESERVOIRS 4-5
4.7 PUMPS 4-5
4.8 ACTIVATED SLUDGE REACTORS 4-7
4.9 AIR VESSEL 4-9
4.10 BIOFILTER 4-10
4.11 FLOW DIVIDER 4-11
4.12 FLUMES 4-12
4.13 FLOW 4-15
4.14 MANIFOLD 4-15
4.15 SEDIMENTATION TANK 4-16
4.16 STORM OVERFLOW WEIRS 4-17
4.17 SCREEN 4-19
4.18 DETRITOR 4-20
4.19 JUNCTIONS 4-21
4.20 BLANKET SLUDGE CLARIFIER 4-22
4.21 RAPID GRAVITY FILTER 4-24
4.20 THE PROPERTIES TOOL 4-25
4.21 THE WEIR TOOL 4-25
4.22 THE TEXT TOOL 4-25
4.23 THE RECTANGLE TOOL 4-25
4.24 THE LINE TOOL 4-26

5. HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS/DESIGN : GENERAL APPLICATIONS 5-1
5.1 INTRODUCTION 5-1
5.2 PIPE FLOW 5-1
5.2.1 The Pipe Property Pages 5-1
5.2.2 The Pipe Calculator Tool 5-3
5.2.3 Pipe systems 5-5
5.2.4 Pump/rising main systems 5-7
5.3 OPEN CHANNEL FLOW 5-13
5.3.1 Uniform flow computations 5-13
5.3.2 The Channel Property Pages 5-13
5.3.3 The Channel Calculator Tool 5-15
5.3.4 Gradually varied flow 5-15
5.3.5 Channels in series 5-18
5.4 FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES 5-19
5.4.1 Flumes 5-19
5.4.2 Weirs 5-22


6. WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM HYDRAULIC DESIGN 6-1
6.1 INTRODUCTION 6-1
6.2 HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF PROCESS UNITS 6-2
6.2.1 Sedimentation tank 6-2
6.2.2 Biofilter 6-3
6.2.3 Activated sludge reactor (ASR) 6-5
6.2.4 Blanket Sludge Clarifier 6-6
6.2.5 Rapid Gravity Filter 6-6
6.2.6 Flow divider 6-7
6.2.7 Mechanical screens 6-7
6.2.8 Detritors 6-8
6.3 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 6-8
6.3.1 Drawing the system 6-8
6.3.2 Specifying the flow range for the system 6-10
6.3.3 Preparing for Auto Design 6-10
6.3.4 Implementing the Auto Design procedure 6-10
6.3.5 Refining the initial design 6-11
6.3.6 Examining the system at maximum flow 6-12
6.3.7 Examining the system at minimum flow 6-12
6.3.8 Examining the system at current/average flow 6-13
6.4 SCREEN DISPLAY OF RESULTS 6-13
6.5 EXAMINING EXISTING SYSTEMS 6-15
6.6 EXAMPLES 6-15

7. WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL 7-1
7.1 INTRODUCTION 7-1
7.2 DATA INPUT 7-1
7.3 ANALYSIS 7-3
7.3.1 Pump trip-out, without air-vessel protection. 7-3
7.3.2 Pump trip-out, with air vessel protection 7-4
7.4 EXAMPLES 7-5

8. FILE MANAGEMENT, PRINTING, DATA EXPORT 8-1
8.1 INTRODUCTION 8-1
8.2 CREATING A NEW SHEET 8-1
8.3 OPENING/CLOSING FILES 8-1
8.4 SAVING FILES 8-2
8.5 PRINTING 8.2
8.6 EXPORT TO OTHER APPLICATIONS 8.3


Getting Started

1-1
1. Getting Started
1.1 Introduction

Welcome to ARTS, which is an hydraulic analysis/design software package, developed with the
needs of water and wastewater engineers in mind. In scope, it spans the spectrum of hydraulic
problems encountered in water and wastewater engineering as well as incorporating specific
features related to the hydraulic design of wastewater treatment systems. It is operated through a
user-friendly graphical interface, which enables the user to sketch an outline representation of the
hydraulic system under consideration. This sketch is then interpreted by the software in order to
return a solution to the problem at hand.

The operational features of the user interface are explained in detail in the following chapters of this
manual. A summary of the applied hydraulics, which underpins the ARTS computer coding, is
presented in the Appendix.

1.2 Scope of ARTS

ARTS caters for the following range of hydraulic analysis/design tasks:

PIPES:
(flow of air, water, Newtonian liquids and sludges in closed conduits)
• simple pipes
• pipe links containing fittings such as bends and valves
• pipe manifolds
• pipe networks, including booster pumps
CHANNELS:
(flow of water in open conduits)
• various cross sections
• gradually varied flow
• rapidly varied flow
• decanting channels with distributed lateral inflow
• storm overflow with distributed lateral outflow
FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES:
(for measurement of flow in open channels)
• broad-crested weir
• various critical depth flumes
• Parshall flume
• various thin-plate weirs
Getting Started

1-2
PUMPING INSTALLATIONS:
• rotodynamic pump characteristics
• duty point computation for single or multiple pump systems at rated or other
speeds

WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS:
(analysis and control of waterhammer pressures associated with pump trip-out)
• plot of maximum and minimum pressure envelopes
• plot of transient pressure fluctuation at any point along rising main.
• selection/design of appropriate waterhammer protection devices, including air
vessel and air valves.

WATER / WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM HYDRAULIC DESIGN:
• Hydraulic design of individual process units
• Setting relative levels of process units for gravity flow
• Auto design feature to give initial design
• Linear or distributed systems
• Report of maximum/minimum total heads for entire system
• Plotting of hydraulic profile



1.3 System requirements

ARTS has been designed to run in Windows 95 or later versions and Windows NT 3.51 or later
versions and hence you must have the appropriate Windows software installed on your PC before
you can install and use ARTS.

The ARTS hardware requirements are the same as required for the Windows interface. The
recommended minimum processor hardware specification is:

• Pentium personal computer with 90 MHz or higher processor
• a hard disk with at least 20 Mb of free disk space
• 24 MB of RAM (32 MB recommended) for Windows 95; 24 MB of RAM (32 MB
recommended) for Windows NT Workstation 4.0
• Microsoft Windows 95 or later operating system or Microsoft Windows NT
Workstation operating system version 4.0 (Service Pack 3) or later
• a two-button mouse or other pointing device
• a printer supported by Windows if you wish to get hardcopy output of your
analysis

Getting Started

1-3
1.4 Installation

ARTS can only be used when it has been installed on your computer’s hard disk and the hardware
lock has been attached. The following procedure describes how to install ARTS directly to your
computer’s hard disk from the supplied CD ROM. As with any software, before you install the ARTS
software on your PC, you should carry out steps 1 to 3.


To install ARTS on your computer (single user version),

1. If you have a back up system, make a back up of your PC.

2. If you are using a virus-detection utility, disable it before running Setup. If you do not disable the
utility, Setup may conflict with it and not run.

3. Make sure that you close all open applications. This includes applications that run automatically
when you start Windows, possibly Microsoft Office or a virus-detection utility.

4. Insert the ARTS CD ROM into your PC.

5. The install procedure should start automatically after a few seconds. If it does not, click on the
START button, and choose Run. A dialog box appears as in Figure 1.1.

6. In the Open: box, type the letter of the drive that contains the CD ROM, followed by :\ and the
word setup. For example, type d:\setup

7. Choose the OK button, and then follow the instructions on
the screen. Setup asks you to close any open applications.
If applications are open, and you need more information
about how to close them, choose the Help button. To close
Help, choose Exit from the File menu in Help.



ARTS is supplied with an installation procedure which creates a working directory on your hard disk,
into which all the ARTS files are transferred.

Please do not attach the hardware lock until the end of the software install procedure, but prior to
running ARTS.


Figure 1.1 The Run Dialog box
Getting Started

1-4
Click the Next button to continue installation. You will be prompted for some user information and
details on how you wish to configure the software installation, however, all the options can be left at
their default values.

On completion of file transfer, the installation procedure adds ARTS to the Start menu. When ARTS
is installed onto a computer, it is installed as an inactive copy. This copy cannot be used fully unless
the hardware lock is attached to the machine.


To install ARTS on your computer (network version),

1. Select the machine on the network on which you want to attach the hardware lock. Insert the
ARTS CD ROM into this PC. Run NetSetup.exe. This will install the necessary software for the
hardware lock to function on the network. This machine is referred to as the ARTS Hardware
Lock Server.

2. Once this is complete, attach the hardware lock and run DDnet.exe. You will be prompted to
enter a path – this is the ARTS Licence Server Path. All workstations need full access to this
path.

3. Install ARTS on all workstations using Setup.exe. This will install ARTS and the required support
files. Each workstation copy of ARTS, when run the first time, will ask for the ARTS Licence
Server Path from step 2, as called from the workstation. Once you enter this, you will need to
restart ARTS. The workstation copy should now work.

For more detailed information please refer to the Readme file on the ARTS CD.

Figure 1.2 ARTS setup welcome
screen
Getting Started

1-5
1.5 Starting ARTS

From the Windows Desktop, you can start ARTS by:

• Selecting the ARTS icon on the Desktop
or
• by choosing ARTS from the START menu.

To start ARTS using the desktop icon:
• Click the ARTS icon.
• Press the ENTER button on your keyboard.

To start ARTS from the START menu:
• Click the Start button.
• Move the cursor to Programs
• Move the cursor to ARTS
• Release the cursor when over ARTS hydraulics.

1.6 Unit system

When ARTS is run for the first time, the default unit system is the Systeme International (SI) system.
The default unit system can be changed to US units by clicking on the Tools > Options menu and
selecting the required unit system as displayed in Figure 1.3. The default unit system determines
which units are displayed on the ARTS dialog boxes and windows.

The units used for data input on a dialog window can also be changed to alternative units by clicking
on the unit label, and selecting the desired unit from the menu that appears as displayed in Figure
1.4. However, all data output will be in standard SI or US units as used in ARTS.



Figure 1.3 Default unit selection
dialog

Figure 1.4 Changing individual units
Getting Started

1-6

1.7 Getting help

To gain access to Online Help select Help from the menu bar at the top of the screen. The online
help contains detailed information regarding problem solving, technical support and user interface.
1.8 Quitting ARTS

• From the File menu, Choose Exit, or
• Press Alt+F4, or
• Double-click the Control-menu button at the top-left corner of the ARTS window, or
• from the Control menu, choose Close
The ARTS User Interface

2-1
2. The ARTS User Interface
2.1 Introduction

If you already use Windows applications, you will be familiar with the concepts and interface
architecture presented in this chapter. For those who are not familiar with Windows, a careful study
of the introductory subject matter in this chapter is recommended before attempting the tutorials in
the following chapters.

2.2 Quick Start
The ARTS user interface is similar to most vector-based drawing packages. The primary difference
is that objects are drawn using two clicks (one at start, one at end) which is a feature usually found
in CAD packages rather than drawing packages.

2.3 The main design screen
To start-up ARTS,

• Select ARTS hydraulics from the Desktop.

The main design screen is displayed, with the main components identified on Figure 2-1

Figure 2-1 The main ARTS window
The ARTS User Interface

2-2

The menu bar: contains a list of menus. You open menus and
then choose commands from them to instruct ARTS to perform
actions. Each menu contains a set of related commands. The File Menu, for example, contains
commands that affect files; the Edit Menu has commands for editing text and graphics, and so on.
To give a command to the software, you must select the command from a menu. To select a
command, place the mouse cursor on the name of a menu, press and hold the mouse button down,
move the mouse to the desired command, and release the mouse button. You can abort a
command by moving the cursor off the open menu before releasing the mouse button. If a menu or
a command is grey, it is not available in the current circumstances. Some menu bar commands can
also be accessed using the icons in the Main Window Tool Bar, immediately beneath the menu bar.


Maximise, minimise and close buttons: these buttons are located at the right-hand end
of the title bar on main and sub-windows. You can reduce a window to the taskbar by clicking on its
minimise button (left button); reducing a window does not close the application, which remains open
and available. Clicking on the taskbar icon restores the window size. You can maximise a window by
clicking on its maximise button (middle button). Clicking on the right button, which has an x on it, will
close the associated window.


Control-menu icon: the control-menu box is located at the top left-hand
end of the title bar on main and sub-windows. A single click on the icon will display
a command list, a double-click on the icon selects its Close command i.e. closes
the application.

2.4 The design sheet
The Design Sheet sub-window is the ARTS workspace on which you construct a schematic
representation of your hydraulic system, using the objects contained on the tool palette.

You can change the window size to suit your drawing space requirements. To do so, position the
cursor on a border of the window (the cursor will change to a double-headed sizing arrow); drag
inwards to reduce the window area or outwards to increase its area. By placing the cursor on the
south-east corner of the window border you can increase/decrease its height and width dimensions
simultaneously.

To move the design sheet to a new position the screen, position the mouse cursor on its title bar,
click and drag.

You can have multiple design sheets open at the same time. You open them the same way as you
open a single file. You can arrange their simultaneous display on screen, using the commands on
the Window menu.
The ARTS User Interface

2-3
2.5 The tool palette
The tool palette contains a collection of buttons, which either select a tool for drawing hydraulic
objects or execute commands that carry out specific tasks. To pick up (or select) a drawing tool,
place the mouse cursor on the button for the object and click. The currently selected tool is
highlighted. Only one tool can be selected at a time. When you click on a new tool, the currently
selected tool is de-selected.

The tool palette is described as "floating" i.e. it can be moved to any position on the main screen. To
move the tool palette to a new position the screen, position the mouse cursor on its title bar, click
and drag.

The following page displays a brief description of the contents of the ARTS tool palette. You can
also use the Quick Help feature to identify a tool by positioning the cursor over its button. After a
short time a small yellow box will appear with a short description of the button you are over.

Figure 2-2 The toolbar
The ARTS User Interface

2-4




Selection tool
For selecting and manipulating
objects

Properties Command Icon
Displays the properties of the
currently selected object.

GVF Command Icon
Displays the gradually varied
flow plotter, applied to the
currently selected channel

Graph Command Icon
Displays a graph. Used with
channels, pipes and flumes

Zoom Tool
Equivalent to selecting Zoom
Area from the View menu

Calculator Command Icon
Displays the calculator

Flow Tool
Used to create an inflow or
outflow from a system

Pipe Tool
For creating pipes of constant
diameter

Channel Tool
For creating channels of
constant shape and slope

Reservoir Tool
For creating reservoirs of fixed
water level

Pump Tool
For creating rotodynamic pumps

Air Vessel Tool
For creating pressure vessels
with air cushions for use in
waterhammer control

Screen Tool
For creating a water/wastewater
screening device

Flume Tool
For creating a flow
measurement device

Weir Tool
For creating a flow
measurement device

Sedimentation Tool
For creating a primary or
secondary sedimentation unit

Activated Sludge Tool
For creating an open tank type
unit

Biofilter Tool
For creating a biofilter
wastewater treatment unit

Clarifier Tool
For creating a clarifier unit

Detritor
For creating grit removal objects

Divider Tool
For creating a flow-dividing
chamber

Manifold Tool
For creating flow distribution unit

Storm Overflow
For creating a storm overflow
channel with side-weirs

Rapid Gravity Filter Tool
For creating a RG Filter unit

Rectangle Tool
For creating a rectangle
(Graphic only)

Text Tool
For creating text (graphic only)

Line Tool
For creating lines (graphic only)



2.6 Spreadsheet View
The spreadsheet view provides a quick means of viewing all of the data on the screen in a
spreadsheet format. It also allows you to sort data by rows and change data by columns. It is
particularly useful when dealing with Networks. You can also use it to highlight objects, by clicking in
the Ref Code Column. This will display an arrow at the location of the object on the screen. When
the spreadsheet view is visible, you cannot manipulate any other of the ARTS windows. To hide the
spreadsheet view, click on the Windows close control button (top right hand side of window) or
choose Close from the View menu.


NB When you change a property such as pipe diameter on the spreadsheet view, the flow
distribution in the system may change. If the flow distribution does change, the values in the
spreadsheet view which are dependent on the flow are no longer valid. You must re-run an analysis
and then re display the spreadsheet view in order to see the new flow distribution.

The ARTS User Interface

2-5
Menus

View Menu
The view menu displays the object types which are available. The currently displayed object type is
checked. Selecting another of the menu items will fill the spreadsheet view with the corresponding
objects. The spreadsheet view can currently display the following objects:
Nodes
Pipes
Pumps
Flows
Reservoirs

Edit Menu
The Copy command copies the entire spreadsheet in tab delimited format to the Windows
Clipboard for pasting into a spreadsheet program.

Sort Menu
The spreadsheet view can sort rows in order of an increasing or decreasing parameter. To sort data,
you must select the cells in the column by which you want the sorting done. For example, to view a
list of pipes in order of increasing velocity, select some cells in the Velocity column and the click on
the Sort > Ascending command. Only the rows containing selected cells are sorted. You can select
all the cells in a column by clicking on the column heading.

Change Menu
This displays an input box, which allows you to change the value of all the selected cells
simultaneously. The cells you select must be in the same column, and all the selected cells will be
changed to the same value.


Figure 2-3 The spreadsheet view
The ARTS User Interface

2-6
2.7 System Fluid
The system fluid is specified using the Tools>Options menu. The selected fluid is sheet specific, so
each sheet has it’s own fluid. By default this fluid is water at 15 degrees C. The fluid can be changed
to air, water/wastewater, sludge (several types) and Other Newtonian liquids by changing the Type
dropdown list box.


Figure 2-4 The Fluid Options dialog

Fluid type: specifies whether the fluid is water, a Newtonian liquid fluid, air or one of several types
of sludge (these relate to pipe flow only).
Fluid temperature (
o
C /
o
F): only available if you have selected Water/Wastewater or air as the fluid
type
Solids concentration (kg/m
3
/ lb/ft
3
): only available if you have selected a sludge as the fluid type
Density ( kg/m³ / lb/ft³): only available if you have selected Other Newtonian liquid. Used to
calculate the Kinematic Viscosity.
Viscosity ( N.s/m² / lb.s/ft²): only available if you have selected Other Newtonian liquid. Used to
calculate the Kinematic Viscosity.
Sketching the system layout

3-1
3. Sketching the system layout
3.1 Introduction

In the same way that you might sketch a problem on a piece of paper, when solving problems with
ARTS, you sketch the system you are analysing on the computer screen. ARTS provides you with a
set of hydraulic objects, which are the building blocks for creating hydraulic systems on the screen.
These objects can be placed on the design sheet using the mouse, in a similar fashion to any
Windows drawing package. Once you have constructed your hydraulic system, you can run the
appropriate Analysis command to carry out the required hydraulic analysis.

The first step is to draw a sketch of the system on the design sheet. This applies whether the
hydraulic system is a single pipe or channel or a complex series of process units linked by pipes. In
all cases, the system components and configuration are communicated to ARTS by drawing a
sketch diagram on the design sheet.

3.2 Quick Start
Draw the system you are trying to analyse as you would on a piece of paper. Draw your pipes and
channels so that they start and end in the objects they are connecting.

Reminder
• Click means press and release the left-hand mouse button quickly;
• Double-click means press and release the left-hand mouse button twice in quick succession;
• Drag means move the mouse while holding down the left-hand mouse button;
3.3 Placing objects on the design sheet
To draw an object on the design sheet:

1. Select the desired object type by clicking on its tool button. The selected tool button is depressed
and remains so until another tool button is pressed
2. Move the cursor to one of the intended corner positions for the object on the design sheet. The
cursor shape should be in the shape of a cross-hair.
3. Click and then move the cursor to draw an outline of the object to the required size - the cursor
movement traces a dotted outline of the object on the design sheet.
4. When the dotted outline is of the required size, click again to place the object on the design
sheet.

If the drawn object is a linear element such as a pipe or channel, its terminal points are identified by
a pair of small black squares, known as selection handles; if it is a process unit such as a tank or
pump, its drawn outline space is identified by a set of 4 selection handles.
Sketching the system layout

3-2
Exercise

Draw the objects shown on Figure 3.1. These will be used again in the next exercise to create
Figure 3.2.


3.4 Selecting objects

To select one object:

• If the selection tool is not already selected, click on the selection tool

• Click on the object you wish to select

• Small black squares appear at the extremities of the selected object to indicate that it is
selected

Not selected


Selected
PU 1
R 1
R 2
R 3
P 1
P 2
P 3
P 4

Figure 3.1 Reservoirs, pipes and a pump - drawing exercise
Sketching the system layout

3-3
To select several objects:

• If the selection tool is not already selected, click on the selection tool

• Drag across the objects you wish to select, enclosing them in the dotted selection
rectangle which appears. The starting point of a selection rectangle must not be at the
same place as one of the objects on the sheet

• Small black squares appear at the extremities of each of the selected objects to indicate
that they are selected
3.5 Re-sizing objects

To re-size an object:

• Select the object you wish to resize

• Place the cursor over one of the selection handles, the cursor changes shape to a
double-headed arrow

• Drag to re-size
3.6 Moving objects

To move an object:

• Select the object or objects that you wish to move

• Place the cursor over the object, a small 4-headed arrow appears to the bottom right of
the cursor arrow

• Drag to move to a new location.
3.7 Deleting objects

To delete an object:

• Select the object or objects that you wish to delete

• Press the Delete key on the keyboard or

• Choose Delete from the Edit menu

Sketching the system layout

3-4
Exercise

Move and resize the objects from the previous exercise to a layout similar to Figure 3.2



3.8 Copying and Pasting objects

To copy an object:

• Select the object or objects that you wish to copy

• Choose Copy from the Edit menu

• A copy of the object is placed onto the internal ARTS clipboard

To paste a previously copied object:

• Choose Paste from the Edit menu

• An object will be pasted onto the worksheet adjacent to object which was originally
copied.

PU 1 R 1
R 2
R 3
P 1
P 2
P 3
P 4

Figure 3.2 Reservoirs, pipes and a pump - moving exercise
Sketching the system layout

3-5
3.9 Drawing hydraulic systems

Pipes and channels:

Both pipes and channel convey fluid from one point to another and can both be regarded as links.
An individual link is defined by the locations of its end points. Any link that starts or terminates at the
end point of another link is considered to be connected to that link. Pipes and channels should start
and end either in another object or at the end of another link. If you try connecting links to the very
edge of other objects, ARTS may not register the connection.

P 1
P 2
J 1
J 2
J 3
R 1

Figure 3.3 Connected pipes

P 3 P 4
J 4
J 5 J 6
J 7
R 1

Figure 3.4 Unconnected pipes

Other hydraulic objects:

Treatment process units

These objects should not be placed in other objects. Links are deemed to be connected to a
process unit such as a reservoir or biofilter, if one of the link’s end points is located within the screen
area enclosed by the screen outline of the process unit. In Hydraulic profile analysis each unit can
only have two connections (one in and one out). In Steady pipe flow and Unsteady pipe flow
analysis, reservoirs can have multiple connections.
P 3
P 4
J 4
J 5
J 6
J 7
S 1

Figure 3.5 One inflow and one outflow pipe
Sketching the system layout

3-6
Pumps

ARTS uses the standard graphical representation of a rotodynamic pump, which distinguishes its
suction/inflow and delivery/outflow points (the central line represents inflow, the tangential line
represents outflow). Basically, think of a pump as having 2 small pipes coming out from it (one on
each side) onto which you connect your links.
PU 1

Figure 3.6 Pump with one inflow and one outflow pipe

Supply/demand:

The flow object is used to represent either an inflow/supply or an outflow/demand.

To indicate an inflow/supply at a pipe or channel junction:

• Draw the flow object on the sheet with the arrow pointing towards the junction (start the
drawing process at a point away from the junction).

To indicate an outflow/demand at a pipe or channel junction:

• Draw the flow object on the sheet with the arrow pointing towards the junction (first
mouse click at the junction).

Note: The flow object can only be used at junctions i.e. it cannot be connected directly to a process
unit. All flow objects which are not connected to junctions will be ignored.


Figure 3.7 Inflow

Figure 3.8 Outflow
Sketching the system layout

3-7
Exercise

Modify the previously drawn object to create a system similar to Figure 3.9. Then select New from
the File menu and draw the linked hydraulic system shown on Figure 3.10.




PU
R 1
R 2
P 1
P 2
P 3
P 4
PU 2
PU 3
P 5
P 6
P 7
P 8
P 9
P 10
P 11

Figure 3.9 Pumping system - system creation exercise
O 1
P 10
P 11
P 1
S 1 B 1
S 2
P 2
P 3
P 4
SCR 2

Figure 3.10 WWTP - system creation exercise
Sketching the system layout

3-8
3.10 Continuity check

When you have completed your layout sketch of the hydraulic system, you can check that the
connectivity of its elements has been correctly interpreted by the software by running the Compile
command from the Analysis menu. On completion of the compilation process, ARTS places a solid
circle over each registered junction according to the following colour coding:

1. pipe-to-pipe junctions are represented by a red circle
2. a green circle is placed at each junction which has registered an inflow or outflow
3. a blue solid circle is placed at all other junctions (channel-to-channel, pipe-to-process unit, pipe-
to-channel) that have been registered by the compilation process.

A correctly registered system should comply with the foregoing colour coding and each compiled
node should be represented by a single solid coloured circular dot. Check that your systems match
those displayed in Figure 3.11 and Figure 3.12.

Deviation from the foregoing requirements at any node indicates that its junction connectivity has not
been correctly registered by ARTS i.e. the terminal points of the elements that meet at the junctions
are not sufficiently close for ARTS to conclude that they are connected.

Connectivity faults can be corrected by repositioning the objects on the design sheet.




O 1
P 10
P 11
P 1
S 1 B 1
S 2
P 2
P 3
P 4
SCR 2
J 12
J 13
J 14
J 15
J 16 J 17
J 18
J 19
J 20 J 21
J 22
green
red

Figure 3.11 WWTP - compile exercise (all nodes blue, except marked)
Sketching the system layout

3-9

3.11 Drawing tips

1. Make full use of the screen space available for the design sheet by expanding the design window
area to its limiting size.
2. Draw your system to the largest practical scale to allow adequate space for ARTS to print flow
and pressure values on the diagram
3. There is no computational advantage in attempting to make sketch diagrams to approximate
scale; best use of the available drawing area can usually be made by allocating each element in
your system approximately the same screen space. Try to create a schematic of the system
under consideration.
4. Note that each object you draw on the design sheet has a label associated with it. When you
move an object, its label also moves. You can, however, move the label independently of the
object by the selecting the label itself.
5. If you right click on an object, a popup menu will appear allowing you to manipulate the object,
e.g. copy it.
6. When clicking on the design sheet to select an object, the order of preference for selecting is:
labels, nodes, pipes, other objects.
7. Always use the Compile command to check the connectivity of your system before you proceed
to analysis or design

PU 1
R 1
R 2
P 1
P 2
P 3
P 4
PU 2
PU 3
P 5
P 6
P 7
P 8
P 9
P 10
P 11
J 1
J 2
J 3
J 4
J 5
J 6
J 7
J 8
J 9
J 10
J 11
J 12
J 13
J 14
red

Figure 3.12 Pumping system - Compile exercise (all nodes blue, except
marked)
Sketching the system layout

3-10

Hydraulic Objects

4-1
4. Hydraulic Objects and other tools
4.1 Introduction

Every hydraulic object that you place on the design sheet has properties associated with it. These
properties are accessible via dialog boxes known as Property Pages. For example, a pipe object
has a length property, a diameter property, a surface roughness property etc. When you place an
object on the design sheet you are essentially creating a virtual version of a real world object. For
example, when you place a pipe on the screen and then display its Property Pages, you will find that
the pipe has a value for length, diameter as well as its other properties. You will probably have to
change these values in order represent the element of the real world system you are trying to model.
Objects that have not had their initial properties changed are drawn in grey on the design sheet. All
objects can be used individually to design an individual object without using the analysis functions.
Not all the objects can be used with all the analysis functions. For example, Air Vessels can only be
used in Unsteady pipe flow analysis and will be ignored by the other analysis functions.


4.2 Quick Start
Right click on an object to get at its properties. Once you have set all the relevant properties of all
objects, choose the analysis function you want to carry out, from the main menu bar.


4.3 Accessing Property Pages
To access the properties of any object,

• select the object and then,
• press the properties tool button on the tool
palette.

Alternatively, click on the object with the RIGHT mouse
button. A menu should appear over the object. Select
Properties from this menu.

The Property Pages for every object have a similar layout.
The Property pages for pipe objects are displayed in Figure
4-1.


Figure 4-1 Pipe property pages
Hydraulic Objects

4-2
Property pages consist of a window with various grouped controls which are accessed via tabs along
the top of the widow. In Figure 4-1 the tabs are Main, Unsteady flow, Extras and Status. Clicking
on a tab displays the properties relevant to the tab caption. For pipe objects, diameter, shape/type,
length and roughness are displayed under the Main tab as these properties are generally of most
significance. Drawings with dimensions that are coloured red can be edited.

Important: when finished editing the value in a text box, or a dimension value, you should press the
Enter key on the keyboard to register the new value that you have inserted.
4.4 Pipes
Pipes are conduits flowing full at all times. Pipes are drawn as thin blue lines and can be used with
all the analysis functions.

Main
Diameter (mm / in): the internal diameter of the pipe
Type: the shape of the pipe, rectangular, square or circular
Length (m / ft): the total length of the pipe
Roughness (mm / in): the roughness of the internal wall
surface
Width (mm / in): The internal width of the pipe (square and
rectangular pipes only)
Height (mm / in): The internal height of the pipe
(rectangular pipes only)



Unsteady flow
The properties grouped on this tab are used by the unsteady
pipe flow analysis functions only. If you are performing an
unsteady pipe flow analysis, you should set all these values
first. If you are not performing an unsteady pipe flow
analysis, you may leave these values at their default
settings.
Wall thickness (mm / in): the average wall thickness of the
pipe
Young’s Modulus (Nm
-2
/ psi): Young’s modulus for the
pipe material
Material: Selecting a material here will modify the value in
the Young’s modulus edit box, which you can also modify
directly.


Figure 4-2 Main tab

Figure 4-3 Unsteady Tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-3

Extras
The extras page contains a list of the fittings currently in the
pipe. The fittings that are in the pipe can be displayed in
textual list form or as a graphical plot of elevation versus
chainage, by clicking on the option buttons on the bottom
left.

Chainage (m / ft): distance along the pipe to the location of
the fitting
Elevation (mOD / ftAD): the vertical distance from some
datum to the centre of the fitting
Total K value: The sum of the K values of all fittings
contained in the pipe. You can add to this value, but you
cannot make it less than the sum of the included fittings.
Fitting K value: The K value of the currently selected fitting.
Fitting: Use these two drop down lists to specify fittings to add to the pipe.

New fittings can be selected from the dropdown lists on the top right-hand side. The first list contains
general fitting types, and the second contains fitting sub-types. Once you have selected the desired
fitting type, you can add them to the pipe by clicking on the Add button. Fittings that are already in
the pipe can be removed by clicking on the fitting to remove and then clicking the Remove button.
As an alternative to adding individual fittings, a total K-value can be specified for the pipe.


Note: Each fitting inserted using the Add button, must have a unique chainage, and must not be
located at the beginning or end of the pipe - use the connected nodes to define properties of these
two points.


The addition of fittings depends on the analysis required:
Steady pipe flow and hydraulic profile analyses:
Edit the Total K value if you know the total K for all the fittings in the pipe.
Or
Add fittings at various chainages along the pipe, selecting individual fittings. (ignore
elevational data)

Unsteady flow - Rising main:
Add chainage and elevational data at various points along the pipe to define the profile of
the rising main, and include fittings if desired. This is particularly important with air valves,
see Chapter 7


Figure 4-4 Extras tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-4
Status
Shows the steady state values of the key hydraulic
parameters for the pipe object, based on the currently
specified value in the flow edit box and the current pipe
properties. Entering a new value in the flow edit box will
cause the associated hydraulic parameters to be re-
calculated.

The currently selected sheet fluid is displayed on the status
page.


4.5 Channels
Channels are conduits which have a free surface at all times. Channels are drawn as purple lines
and are slightly thicker than the lines for pipes. Channels can only be used in the hydraulic profile
analysis functions.

Main
Type: The shape of the channel, Rectangular, trapezoidal,
circular, U shaped, V shaped and parabolic
Side angle (degrees): The angle that the face makes with
the horizontal
Bottom width (mm / in): The width of the bottom of the
channel
Gradient: The slope of the bottom of the channel
Height (mm / in): the height of the vertical side face of the
channel
Length (m / ft): The total length of the channel
Roughness (mm / in): The surface roughness of the
internal face of the channel


Status
Shows computed steady uniform flow channel parameter
values for the flow value indicated in the flow edit box. If you
enter a new value in the flow edit box, the associated
uniform flow hydraulic parameters are re-calculated.




Figure 4-5 Status tab

Figure 4-6 Main tab

Figure 4-7 Status tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-5
4.6 Reservoirs
Reservoirs are tanks with a free surface which is at a fixed
level. Can be used with all analysis procedures.

Main
Surface Level (mOD / ftAD): the vertical distance above
some datum



Status
Reference Code: The name used by ARTS to refer to the
object.









4.7 Pumps
The pump object models rotodynamic pumps. Pumps can be incorporated into systems analysed by
the Steady Pipe Flow, Network and Unsteady Pipe Flow analysis procedures.

Main
Suction diameter (mm / in): The internal diameter of the
pipe connecting to the central line of the pump
Delivery diameter (mm / in): The internal diameter of the
pipe connecting to the tangential line on the pump
Moment of inertia (kg.m
2
/ lb.ft
2
): For use with
waterhammer calculations only. The sum of the pump and
motor moments of inertia.
Elevation (mOD / ftAD): The vertical distance to the centre
of the pump from some datum. Used in waterhammer
calculations.
Current speed (rpm): The speed at which the pump is
currently running.
Rated speed (rpm): The speed to which the characteristic curves apply (see later re characteristic
curves)

Figure 4-8 Main tab

Figure 4-9 Status Tab

Figure 4-10 Main tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-6
H-Q
The characteristic curve for the pump is entered by inputting
3 points from which a fitted curve is calculated and plotted.
The software uses the fitted curve in subsequent
calculations.

The 3 control points are marked as 1,2,3. You can select a
point by clicking on the point. Once a point is selected, you
can alter its data using the two text boxes to the right of the
graph. Once you have input the data for all 3 points, press
the Recalculate Curve button. Point 2 must be above a
straight line between points 1 and 3, to ensure a correct
curve shape.

You can input the flow data in a variety of units - click on the
edit boxes unit labels and select the desired unit.

Note: Only press the Recalculate Curve after you have entered all 3 control points, otherwise the
software will attempt to fit a curve to invalid data

The 3 control points used to input a pump characteristic curve should be roughly equally spaced
along the curve and should preferably include the start and end points of the curve (i.e. values at
zero Q and Q
max
., respectively).



P-Q
The characteristic curve for power is used in pumping
efficiency and waterhammer calculations. The information is
entered in the same way as the H-Q curve.










Figure 4-11 H-Q tab

Figure 4-12 P-Q tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-7
NPSH
The characteristic curve for NPSH is used to check for
cavitation problems. The information is entered in the same
way as the H-Q curve.









Status
Shows computed pump parameter values at the current
pump speed for the flow value in the edit box. If you enter a
new value in the edit box, the pump parameter values are
re-calculated.








4.8 Activated sludge reactors
Activated sludge objects are used in hydraulic profile analysis functions only.

Main
Type: determines whether the tank is circular or rectangular
Max ww inflow (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s): the maximum inflow of
wastewater that the unit is designed to deal with. Flows in
excess of this design flow will cause an error to occur when
using the hydraulic profile analysis. Changing this value will
redesign the reactor, therefore you should set this prior to
any other values.
AS Recycle (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s): the return activated sludge flow
from a sedimentation unit.

Figure 4-13 The Pump NPSH-Q tab

Figure 4-14 The Pump Status tab

Figure 4-15 Main tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-8
Radius (mm / in): The internal radius of circular reactors.
Width (mm / in): The internal width of rectangular reactors.
Length (mm / in): The internal length of rectangular reactors.
Collector Channel Outlet: Determines whether the flow out of the collector channel is at one end,
or in the centre of the channel (rectangular tanks only).
Plan Area (m
2
/ ft
2
): The surface area of the tank (not editable)

Outlet
Specifies the distributed outlet system from the activated
sludge tank. Limits are given for the dimensional data by the
quick help.
Type: specifies the shape of the weirs or submerged ports
from the drop down list which includes v-notch weirs,
rectangular weirs, plain weir, circular orifices or rectangular
orifices.
Outlet length (mm / in): specifies the length available for
the distributed outflow system.
Weir Crest Elevation (mOD / ftAD): The level of the crest
of the outlet weir above some datum. Used when checking
existing systems.
No: The calculated required number of the selected opening
along the Outlet Length.






Collector
Specifies details of the collector channel into which the flow
from the outlet system discharges.
Slope (1:m): the bed slope of the collector channel
k value (mm / in): the Darcy-Weisbach surface roughness
factor (k)
Inlet drop (mm / in): the drop from the bottom of the outlet
system to the water surface at the upstream end of the
collector channel
Outlet depth (mm / in): the desired outlet depth at
maximum flow. This depth must be greater than or equal to
critical depth for the flow/channel conditions as indicated by
the quick help.
Outlet drop (mm / in): the drop from the outlet depth to the
water surface in the sump
Width (mm / in): the width of the collector channel
Length (mm / in): the length of the collector channel is determined by the length of the outlet
system (not editable).

Figure 4-16 Outlet tab

Figure 4-17 Collector tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-9
Upstream water depth (mm / in): the calculated depth of water at the dead end of the collector
channel (not editable)
Height (mm / in): the height of the collector channel (sum of the upstream water depth and the inlet
drop)


Status
Shows computed maximum headloss for unit.
Reference Code: The name used by ARTS to refer to the
object.








4.9 Air vessel
Air vessel objects are used in the Unsteady Pipe Flow analysis function only.

Main
Total volume (m
3
/ ft
3
): air vessel gross volume. This is the
primary property and therefore should be set first.
Dimensions (mm / in): air vessels are modelled as
cylinders, (the ends are ignored). Changing one dimension
will modify other dimensions based on the value set for the
Total Volume.
Initial air volume (m
3
/ ft
3
): air volume at steady flow
pumping pressure. This value is linked to the Initial Water
Level.
Initial water height (mm / in): sets the water level at steady
flow pumping pressure. This value is linked to the Initial Air
Volume.

Status
Shows computed maximum headloss for unit.
Reference Code: The name used by ARTS to refer to the object.




Figure 4-18 Status tab

Figure 4-19 Main tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-10
4.10 Biofilter
Biofilter objects are used in hydraulic profile analysis functions only.

Main
Max flow (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s): the maximum flow for which the unit
is designed. Changing this value causes the unit diameter,
the manifold system and the collector channel to be
redesigned.

Diameter (mm / in): biofilters are circular only
Inlet drop (mm / in): the drop from the manifold orifices to
the surface of the media
Media height (mm / in): the vertical height of the media
Outlet drop (mm / in): the drop at the centre of the biofilter
from the bottom of the media to the apex of the conical floor
below.
Floor slope (1:m): the bed slope of the collecting surface.
Collector Channel Crest Elevation (mOD / ftAD): the vertical distance of the top of the collector
channel above some datum. Used when checking existing systems.



Inlet
The inlet system to the biofilter consists of a manifold
distribution system.
No of orifices: the number of orifices per radial arm
Orifice diameter (mm / in): the diameter of each individual
orifice
Manifold k (mm / in): the surface roughness of the internal
face of the manifold pipework
No of radial arms: the biofilter can have from 1 to 4 radial
arms
Diameter (mm / in): arm diameter
Orifice spacing (mm / in): distance between individual
orifices
End spacing (mm / in): distance between the last orifice and the end of the pipe.


Some calculated values are displayed for inlet-related hydraulic parameters, including the manifold
inlet velocity, min./max. orifice discharge ratio, the manifold head loss.



Figure 4-20 Main tab

Figure 4-21 Inlet tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-11
Collector
See the collector for the activated sludge object (see 4.8)









4.11 Flow divider
Flow divider objects are used in hydraulic profile analysis functions only.

Plan
A dimensioned plan view of the flow divider, with a single
inflow chamber and multiple outflow chambers.
Max flow (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s): the maximum flow that the divider is
designed to cater for. Changing this value will redesign the
divider.
No of divisions: the inflow to the chamber on the left is
divided into this number of independent outflows.
Equal division: if this is checked then the outflow
percentage for each outflow chamber will be equal. If it is not
checked, you can edit the individual percentages. Note:
make sure that these add up to 100%, as indicated by the
Total display.



Side
The Side tab shows the computed weir head at maximum
flow.

Drop (mm / in): the drop from the weir crest to the water
surface level in the outflow chamber.

Weir Crest Elevation (mOD / ftAD): The level of the weir
crest above some datum level. Used when checking existing
systems.



Figure 4-22 Collector tab

Figure 4-23 Plan tab

Figure 4-24 Side tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-12
Status
Shows the computed head loss at maximum flow.
Reference Code: The name used by ARTS to refer to the
object.








4.12 Flumes
The flume object can be used for stand alone flume design or can be incorporated in treatment
systems amenable to analysis using the hydraulic profile analysis procedure.

Main
Flume type: specifies the type of the flume
Max. flow (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s): specifies the maximum flow which
the flume can measure accurately
Min. flow (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s): specifies the minimum flow which
the flume can measure accurately







Channels
The upstream and downstream channels must have the
same dimensions, but can have different slope and different
roughness

The drop down list determines whether the properties
displayed relate to the upstream or downstream channel.

For other properties see 4.5 Channels.

The upstream and downstream channels have a minimum
length specification of 2.5 times the flume head at maximum
flow


Figure 4-25 Status tab

Figure 4-26 Main tab

Figure 4-27 Channels tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-13
Throat
Quick help provides limit values for all dimensional data.
These limits should be adhered to.

Width (mm / in): the width of the lowest part of the throat
Side angle (deg): applies to trapezoidal flumes only
Step height (mm / in): optional
Roughness (mm / in): the surface roughness of the internal
face of the flume
Throat Invert Level (mOD / ftAD): the elevation of the base
of the throat above some datum. Used when checking
existing systems.

Setup: pressing this will create an initial design which is compliant with design norms (see
Appendix). This design is based on the specified upstream channel dimensions and the maximum
and minimum flow values.


Plan
Length (mm / in): the length of the throat
Expansion slope (1:m): the downstream expansion slope










Side
Displays a longitudinal water surface profile for the flume
and its attached channels. Various parameters for either
maximum flow or minimum flow are displayed using the
option buttons.



Figure 4-28 Throat tab

Figure 4-29 Plan tab

Figure 4-30 Side tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-14
Calibration
A plotted graph of flume head as a function of flow is
displayed as well as a fitted H/Q equation for the flume. This
graph may be copied to the Windows clipboard for insertion
into other applications by clicking on the graph with the right
mouse button and selecting Copy.








Status
Displays the modular ratio, upstream Froude number at
both max. and min. flow values; it also prints recommended
design limit values for modular ratio and upstream Froude
number and head loss across the flume at maximum flow.
If the recommended limit values are satisfied, the word
“VALID” is printed on the Status page; if not, the word
“INVALID” is printed.




Figure 4-31 Calibration tab

Figure 4-32 Status tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-15
4.13 Flow
The flow object/tool is drawn on the design sheet as an arrow and is used to represent either an
inflow/supply or an outflow/demand. The flow object must be used in conjunction with a
junction/node. An arrow pointing towards a junction (with the point end in the junction) represents an
inflow/supply, and an arrow that points away from a junction (with the tail end in the junction)
represents an outflow/demand. Used in Steady Pipe Flow, Network and Hydraulic Profile analysis
functions.

Main
Current flow (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s): this is used in all calculations
Minimum flow (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s): this is only used with the
hydraulic profile calculations.
Maximum flow (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s): this is only used with the
hydraulic profile calculations.











4.14 Manifold
The manifold object models a submerged manifold in which the manifold liquid has the same
properties as the liquid into which it is discharged.

Main
Specifies the manifold trunk pipe details
Length (mm / in): the total length of the trunk pipe
Diameter (mm / in): internal diameter of the trunk pipe
Slope (1:m): Input optional
k (mm / in): the Darcy-Weisbach surface roughness
parameter (k)
No: the total number of laterals (total of both sides)


Figure 4-33 Main tab

Figure 4-34 Manifold tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-16
Laterals
Specifies the lateral pipe properties. All laterals are taken as
identical
Length (mm / in): the length of an individual lateral
Diameter (mm / in): the internal diameter of each lateral
pipe
Orifice spacing (mm / in): the distance between orifices
from centre to centre
First pos (mm / in): Distance from dead end to centre of
first orifice
k (mm / in): the internal wall roughness of each lateral
Orifice No: Number of orifices per lateral
Orifice diameter (mm / in): the diameter of each orifice on
the laterals

Status
This tab can be used to display various calculated
parameters for the manifold for the flow which is entered in
the flow edit box.






4.15 Sedimentation tank
The sedimentation object can be used as a stand alone or in hydraulic profile analysis procedures

Main
Type: determines whether the tank is circular or rectangular
Max inflow (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s): the maximum inflow that the unit
is designed to deal with. Flows in excess of the design flow
will cause an error to occur when using the hydraulic profile
analysis. Changing this value will cause the tank to be
redesigned, and therefore this value should be changed
prior to any other values
Underflow (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s) : the settled sludge removal rate
Collector Channel Outlet: Determines whether the flow out
of the collector channel is at one end, or in the centre of the
channel (rectangular tanks only).
Plan Area (m
2
/ ft
2
): The surface area of the tank (not
editable)

Figure 4-35 Laterals tab

Figure 4-36 Status tab

Figure 4-37 Main tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-17
Outlet
Specifies the distributed outlet system from the
sedimentation tank. Limits are given for the dimensional data
by the quick help.
Type: specifies the shape of the weirs or submerged ports

The length, over which there is outflow, is taken as the full
width of rectangular tanks and the full perimeter length with
circular tanks.

Weir Crest Elevation (mOD / ftAD): The level of the crest
of the weir above some datum level. Used when checking
existing systems.

Collector
See the collector for the activated sludge object (see 4.8)









4.16 Storm-overflow weirs
The storm overflow object can only be used as a stand alone, it cannot be used in a system with any
of the analysis functions..

Main
Displays a dimensioned outline plan of the side-weir storm
overflow.

Length (mm / in): the length of the channel and weir
Channel type: specifies the shape of the channel
Max storm inflow (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s): The maximum flow that
will enter the upstream end of the storm overflow
Max forward flow (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s): The maximum flow that the
designer wants to proceed to treatment
Double Sided Outflow: Determines whether there is a weir
on one or both sides of the channel

Figure 4-38 Outlet tab

Figure 4-39

Figure 4-40 Main tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-18
Side
Displays the height of the weir crest above the channel
bottom at the downstream end. Since the weir is horizontal,
the height of the weir above the channel bottom at the
upstream end will be less than the specified value.

Control depth (mm / in): The downstream depth as
produced by a flume or a weir.

The designer specifies the downstream depth and then
presses the Calculate Weir Height button. The calculated
value will then be displayed.


Section
Specifies the channel dimensions. See 4.5 Channels, for
more information.












Status
Displays the calculated values for the lateral storm-overflow
and also the inflow to the unit (forward flow = inflow - storm-
overflow)






Figure 4-41 Side tab

Figure 4-42 Section tab

Figure 4-43 Status tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-19
4.17 Screen
The screen object models a mechanical screening device for wastewater. It can be used for stand
alone hydraulic computation or can be incorporated in a treatment system amenable to analysis by
the hydraulic analysis procedure.

Main
Displays the equation used to calculate the head loss
through the object

k: the resistance coefficient
B (m / ft): Blockage allowance







Status
Displays the head loss through the unit corresponding to the
flow in the edit box











Figure 4-44 Main tab

Figure 4-45 Status tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-20
4.18 Detritor
The detritor object models a wastewater sedimentation unit for the removal of grit particles. It can be
used for stand alone hydraulic design or can be incorporated in a treatment system amenable to
analysis by the hydraulic profile analysis procedure.

Main
Displays the equation used to calculate the head loss
through the object

k: the resistance coefficient








Status
Displays the head loss through the unit corresponding to the
flow in the edit box









Figure 4-46 Main tab

Figure 4-47 Status tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-21
4.19 Junctions
Junction/nodes/connections are placed at the end of every link (i.e. pipe or channel) by the Compile
command. Junctions have different properties depending on what type of analysis you are doing and
where the junction is located. By default, junctions have an elevation property only.

The behaviour of nodes is determined by the analysis that is performed.

When using Steady Pipe Flow, Network Flow and Unsteady Pipe Flow analysis commands,
junctions only have the elevation property

Elevation (mOD / ftAD): the vertical distance above some datum

When using Hydraulic Profile analysis commands, the junctions have different properties depending
on what object they are connecting

• Pipe to pipe
Elevation (mOD / ftAD): as before
Fitting: allows you to specify the fitting at the connection. If the pipes are of different
diameters you should choose a Union (reducer or taper), otherwise you can select one of a
variety of fittings.

• Pipe to free surface
Elevation (mOD / ftAD): as before
Submerged or Free discharge: you can select whether you want the pipe to discharge
below surface or above the surface.
Minimum invert submergence (mm / in): only available for submerged pipes. the
minimum allowable submergence of the pipe below the free surface. This is usually with
respect to the water levels at minimum flow.
Minimum drop (mm / in): only available for free discharge pipes. This is usually with
respect to the water levels at maximum flow.




Hydraulic Objects

4-22
There are several other types of junctions available when performing hydraulic profile analyses. In all
cases the options available are displayed on the property pages once the Assign flows command
has been executed from the Analysis>Hydraulic Profile menu. For more information, see the ARTS
help file, which is available from the main menu.


4.20 Sludge Blanket Clarifier
The sludge blanket clarifier object can be used as a stand alone or in hydraulic profile analysis
procedures

Main
Max inflow (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s): the maximum inflow that the unit
is designed to deal with. Flows in excess of the design flow
will cause an error to occur when using the hydraulic profile
analysis. Changing this value will cause the tank to be
redesigned, and therefore this value should be changed
prior to any other values
Length (mm / in): the overall length of the tank
Width (mm / in): the overall width of the tank
Manifold Configuration: Determines whether the tank is
fed by a single manifold or two manifolds.
Main Collector Location: Determines whether the main is
at the centre or edge of the tank, determining the length of
the transverse collectors.
Plan Area (m
2
/ ft
2
): The surface area of the tank (not
editable)




Manifold
Specifies the distributed inlet system to the tank.

For more information on these properties on the manifold
sub tabs of Main, Laterals, and Status see the Manifold
object (4.14)









Figure 4-48 Main tab

Figure 4-49 Manifold tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-23

Transverse Collectors
Specifies the transverse collector channels which feed the
main collector channel.

Main
Cntr to cntr spacing (mm / in): The centre to centre
spacing of the transverse collector channels

Outlet
See 4.8 Outlet for Activated Sludge Reactor

Channels
See 4.8 Collector for Activated Sludge Reactor

Status
See 4.8 Status for Activated Sludge Reactor


Main Collector
Specifies the main collecting channel properties.

See 4.8 Collector for Activated Sludge Reactor

With the main collector channel, the inlet drop is taken as
fixed. The level of the top of the transverse collectors and
the level of the top of this channel are taken as the same,
being the level of the outlet weir crest.





Status
Shows computed maximum head loss for unit some
information on levels within the tank.
Reference Code: The name used by ARTS to refer to the
object.






Figure 4-50 Transverse Collector
tab

Figure 4-51 Main Collector tab

Figure 4-52
Hydraulic Objects

4-24
4.21 Rapid Gravity Filter
The rapid gravity filter object can be used as a stand alone or in hydraulic profile analysis
procedures

Main
Max inflow (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s): the maximum inflow that the unit
is designed to deal with. Flows in excess of the design flow
will cause an error to occur when using the hydraulic profile
analysis. Changing this value will cause the tank to be
redesigned, and therefore this value should be changed
prior to any other values
Length (mm / in): the overall length of the tank
Width (mm / in): the overall width of the tank
Plan Area (m
2
/ ft
2
): The surface area of the tank (not
editable)
Design TWL (mOD / ftAD): The level of the top water level
of the tank above some datum level. Used when checking
existing systems only.
No cells: this object can be used to model a cluster of rapid
gravity filter cells. If the No cells is greater than 1, the object acts like a flow divider, with each cell
providing at out flow. This allows you to construct the outlet manifold system.




Side
Specifies the distributed outlet system from the
sedimentation tank. Limits are given for the dimensional data
by the quick help.
Design headloss (mm / in): specifies the max design head
loss as determined by a controlling valve.






Figure 4-53 Main tab

Figure 4-54 Outlet tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-25
Status
Reference Code: The name used by ARTS to refer to the
object.









4.22 The Properties tool
The Properties tool is used to display the properties of the objects drawn on the screen. It can be
used to display the property pages for a selected object on the design sheet, as outlined in section
4.3. Alternatively, it can be used to select the parameter values that are displayed on the design
sheet. This latter function is activated by pressing the Properties tool button, without selecting any
object from the system drawn on the design sheet. This action displays the design sheet Properties
dialog. Select an Object and Label from the respective drop-down lists on the dialog; press the
Update display button, followed by the OK button; the targeted screen object should now display the
selected label value.
4.23 The Weir tool
The weir tool is operates in the same manner as the flume tool (4.12). It provides for the design of
V-notch, rectangular notch, Sutro and broad crested weirs.
4.24 The Text tool
The Text tool is used to add text to the design sheet. Select the Text tool and draw a text object on
the design sheet at the intended location of the text. Select the Properties tool to display the text
entry dialog; enter the text and press the OK button to display the text at the selected location on the
design sheet.

4.25 The Rectangle tool
The Rectangle tool is used to draw rectangular boxes on the design sheet. Select the Rectangle
tool; click at the required corner location on the design sheet and draw the rectangular box to the
required size.


Figure 4-55 The Status tab
Hydraulic Objects

4-26
4.26 The Line tool
The Line tool is used to draw lines on the design sheet. Select the Line tool; click on the design
sheet at the required line starting point and draw the line in the direction and to the length required.


Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 1
5. Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications
5.1 Introduction
While ARTS has special capabilities in relation to the hydraulic design of wastewater treatment
systems, it has been developed to cater also for the broader general needs of water/wastewater
conveyance engineering. Examples of its application to a general range of steady flow hydraulic
problems are presented in this chapter. These examples are outlined in a step-by-step procedure
that will enable you to execute sample problems in parallel with your reading of the chapter.

5.2 Pipe flow
The designation “pipe flow”, as used in this manual, refers to conduits that are flowing full throughout
their length (if a pipe is flowing partly filled, it is designated as a channel in conventional hydraulics
terminology). The conveyed fluid may be air, water/wastewater, sewage sludge.

ARTS has several ways of dealing with steady pipe flow problems:

1. the Status page (Fig 4.5, Chapter 4) for a pipe element - this output property page
displays the values of velocity, Reynolds number, friction factor and total head loss, for
the specified flow, based on the properties defined on the Main and Extra property
pages for the pipe element.
2. the Pipe Calculator tool, which provides an instant correlation of friction head and flow.
3. the Steady Pipe Flow command on the Analysis menu - this command analyses the
flow and pressure head distribution in multi-pipe systems, including pumps and
reservoirs (points of fixed head).
4. The Graph tool will display a plot of Head vs. Flow for the currently selected pipe


5.2.1 The Pipe Property pages
For steady flow problems, the properties of interest are contained on the Main and Extras pages
(Chapter 4). The computed total head loss shown on the Status property page takes into account
the local losses associated with the total k-value printed at the bottom of the Extras property page. If
you want entry and exit losses to be included, when analysing a single pipe element, the total k-
value must be inclusive of their contribution. (Note that the Hydraulic Profile commands on the
Analysis menu automatically take entry and exit losses into account and hence, where this
command is used to analyse multi-component hydraulic systems, it is not necessary to allow for
entry and exit losses in the assigned total k-values on the Extras property pages).

Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 2
To use the pipe element Status page as a computational tool:

• either select an existing pipe or place a new one on the design sheet
• click on the Properties tool to display the pipe’s properties
• change the properties on the Main tab and on the Extras tab as required
• click on the Status tab
• enter a flow value by editing the Flow edit box value. A new set of computed values for velocity,
Reynolds number, friction factor and total head loss will appear once the flow has been entered.

Example

Calculate the headloss in a pipe, having an ID of 605mm and a surface roughness of 0.06mm, at a
flow of 0.3m³/s. The pipe length is 3,459m and it includes four 90º short-radius bends.


Step 1 Step 2
Draw a pipe on the design sheet (the
pipe will be grey until you set some of
it’s properties)

Edit the Main property page:




Step 3 Step 4
Edit the Extras property page:


Click on the Status page



Solution: The headloss through this pipe is 4.6m at 0.3m³/s.
Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 3
5.2.2 The Pipe Calculator Tool

This provides a fast and convenient interactive means of examining the inter-relationship of the pipe
flow parameters:


length, diameter, surface roughness, flow and head loss


To use the Pipe Calculator tool:

• either select an existing pipe on the design sheet or place a new one on the design sheet
• click on the calculator tool; the calculator dialog box appears, as on Figure 5.1.




The dialog box displays a set of editable hydraulic parameter values and a corresponding set of
calculator buttons. When you click on a calculate button, ARTS calculates its parameter value as a
function of the current values of the remaining parameters.



Note: If you use the Pipe Calculator to calculate a pipe parameter, this new value is assigned to the
pipe object.


Figure 5.1 The Pipe Calculator
Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 4

Example

An old rising main is 6580m long and has an internal diameter of 345mm. Under normal steady
state operational conditions, the flow has been measured at 100 l/s and the corresponding headloss
has been measured at 19.5m. Compute the effective pipe wall roughness.



Step 1 Step 2
Draw a pipe on the design sheet
(the pipe will be grey until you set
some of it’s properties)

Edit the Main property page:




Step 3 Step 4
Click on the pipe calculator tool


Set the parameters on the pipe calculator
dialog and press “k value”



Solution: The effective k value is 0.1414mm.


Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 5
5.2.3 Pipe systems
A pipe system is any collection of pipes that is linked together to create a continuous
flow path. ARTS will handle any pipe system configuration, provided:

1. it is correctly drawn on the design sheet
2. it constitutes a feasible conveyance system
3. its boundary conditions are sufficient to define the flow distribution.

Figure 5.2 shows a trunk and branch pipe system, as it would appear on the design sheet after
compilation; it includes five pipe elements, 3 demands, an upstream reservoir plus an additional
supply.

Figure 5.3 shows the flow and head distribution for the system depicted on Figure 5.2 - this is the
screen output that is generated by execution of the Steady Pipe Flow command on the Analysis
menu (each pipe length was set to 100m, each pipe roughness to 0.01mm, each demand to 0.01
m
3
/s, the independent supply to 0.01 m
3
/s and the reservoir TWL to 100m AD).

R 1
P 1
P 2
P 3
P 4
P 5
J 1 J 2
J 3
J 4
J 5
J 6
O 1
O 2
O 3
O 4

Figure 5.2 Network system
100.000mOD
0.0200m³/s
0.01000m³/s
0.0300m³/s 0.01000m³/s
0.01000m³/s
100.000m
94.654m
96.152m
83.353m
81.855m
81.855m
0.01000m³/s
0.01000m³/s
0.01000m³/s
0.01000m³/s

Figure 5.3 Solved Network system
Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 6
Figure 5.4 shows a looped pipe system, as it would appear on the design sheet after compilation; it
includes six pipe elements, 2 supply reservoirs and 4 demands.



Figure 5.5 shows the flow and head distribution for the system depicted on Figure 5.4 - this is the
screen output that is generated by execution of the Steady Pipe Flow command on the Analysis
menu (each pipe length was set to 100m, each pipe roughness to 0.01mm, each demand to 0.01
m
3
/s, reservoir 1 to a TWL of 100m AD, reservoir 2 to a TWL of 106 mAD).




R 1
R 2
P 1
P 2
P 3
P 4
P 5
P 6
J 2
J 3
J 4
J 5
O 1
O 2
O 3 O 4
J 9
J 10

Figure 5.4 Looped Network System
106.000mOD
100.000mOD
0.0257m³/s
0.00493m³/s
0.0107m³/s
0.000740m³/s
0.00926m³/s
0.0143m³/s
97.527m
97.110m
95.823m
95.808m
0.01000m³/s
0.01000m³/s
0.01000m³/s 0.01000m³/s
106.000m
100.000m

Figure 5.5 Solved Looped Network System
Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 7

Exercise 5.1
• Construct a pipe system similar to that shown on Figure 5.2 on your design sheet
• click on the Compile command in the Analysis menu; the pipe system nodes are now
highlighted by coloured circles (pipe-to-pipe junctions are red, inflow/outflow nodes are green, all
other nodes are blue). Note that each pipe junction should be represented by a single coloured
circle. If there are two coloured circles at a pipe junction, or the colour coding is not correct, the
junction is not correctly registered by ARTS and a correction must be made (Chapter 3).
• select each pipe element in turn (first click the selection tool and then click the drawn pipe
element) and edit its values for diameter, length and surface roughness, using the property
pages so that each pipe is 100m long, with a surface roughness of 0.01mm and a diameter of
100mm.
• select each supply and demand in turn and edit its value; edit the current flow value to 0.01m
3
/s.
• Click on the Steady Pipe Flow command on the Analysis menu to compute flow and pressure
distribution. The computed flow and head values are printed on the design sheet, as are the flow
directions, as shown in Figure 5.3.

Exercise 5.2
• construct a pipe system similar to that shown on Figure 5.4 on your design sheet
• click on the Compile command in the Analysis menu; the pipe system nodes are now
highlighted by coloured circles (pipe-to-pipe junctions are red, inflow/outflow nodes are green, all
other nodes are blue). Note that each pipe junction should be represented by a single coloured
circle. If there are two coloured circles at a pipe junction, or the colour coding is not correct, the
junction is not correctly registered by ARTS and a correction must be made. (Chapter 3).
• select each pipe element in turn (first click the selection tool and then click the drawn pipe
element) and edit the values for length and surface roughness, using the property pages so that
each pipe is 100m long, with a surface roughness of 0.01mm and a diameter of 100mm.
• select each demand in turn and edit the current flow value to 0.01m
3
/s.
• select one of the reservoir elements and alter its water surface elevation to 106.00m.
• select the other drawn reservoir element and alter its water surface elevation to 100.00m.
• Click on the Steady Pipe Flow command on the Analysis menu to compute flow distribution and
head loss. The computed flow values are printed on the design sheet as are the flow directions,
as shown in Figure 5.5.

5.2.4 Pump/rising main systems
The performance characteristics of rotodynamic pumps are normally supplied by pump
manufacturers in a graphical format as plots of head versus flow (H/Q), power versus flow (P/Q),
required net positive suction head versus flow (NPSH/Q). The procedure by which these plotted
characteristics are transferred to ARTS via the pump property box pages are outlined in Chapter 4.

ARTS uses the pump and pipe system input data, together with the specified static lift, to compute
the steady pump discharge rate. It can cope with single or multiple pumps in parallel and with single
or complex rising main systems.

Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 8
Pump installations typically draw water/wastewater from a low-level reservoir or sump and discharge
the pumped flow through a rising main to a high-level reservoir, as illustrated on the ARTS design
sheet in Figure 5.6, which shows a simple single pump/rising main installation.


You will note that the system pipework, as drawn, has 3 pipe elements - a suction pipe (P1), a
delivery pipe (P2) and a rising main (P3). The suction and delivery pipes are the pipes connected to
the suction and delivery sides of the pump, respectively (commonly designated as the pumphouse
pipework); they normally carry fittings such as valves, bends and tapers, resulting in a significant
local head loss. Where there are multiple pumps, the suction and delivery pipework is typically
replicated for each pump.

Figure 5.7 shows the flow and head distribution for the pump/rising main system depicted on Figure
5.6 - this is the screen output that is generated by execution of the Steady Pipe Flow command on
the Analysis menu

R 1
R 2
PU 1
P 1
P 2
P 3
J 1 J 2
J 3 J 4
J 5

Figure 5.6 Pump system
Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 9



Reminder: the basic property requirements for an ARTS pipe element are that its diameter and
surface roughness should be constant throughout its length.




Exercise 5.3
• Draw the system shown on Figure 5.6 on your design sheet
• compile your system (Compile command on the Analysis menu) and make any corrections
necessary (refer Chapter 4).
• make the following changes to the system values:
reservoirs: change the downstream reservoir level to 200.00m (check that the upstream
sump level is 100.00 m)
suction pipe: use the Extras page of its property box to add a 90
o
elbow bend.
delivery pipe: use the Extras page of its property box to add a non-return valve, a gate
valve and a 90
o
elbow bend.
rising main: set its length as 500m and internal diameter to 200mm.
• use the Steady Pipe Flow command on the Analysis menu to compute the pump duty point
• check the duty point head, efficiency and required NPSH by entering the duty flow in the flow text
box on the Status property page for the pump.

100.000mOD
200.000mOD
PU 1
0.0569m³/s
0.0569m³/s
0.0569m³/s
100.000m
94.289m
215.439m
206.204m
200.000m

Figure 5.7 Solved pump system
Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 10
Exercise 5.4
Fig 5.8 shows a 3-pump installation with two parallel rising mains, inter-connected.


• Draw the system shown on Fig 5.8 on your design sheet
• compile your system (Compile command on the Analysis menu) and make any corrections
necessary (refer Chapter 4).
• make the following changes to the system default values:
reservoirs: set the upstream sump level to 100.00m and the downstream reservoir level to
200.00 m
suction pipes: use the Extras page of its property box to add a 90
o
elbow bend.
delivery pipes: use the Extras page of its property box to add a non-return valve, a gate
valve and a 90
o
elbow bend.
rising mains: set lengths as 500m. Enter diameters of 250mm and 200mm, respectively for
the two mains.
• use the Steady Flow command on the Analysis menu to compute the pump duty point
• check the pump duty point head, efficiency and required NPSH for each pump by examining the
Status property page for each pump.

R 1
PU 1
PU 2
PU 3
P 1
P 2
P 3
P 4
P 5
P 6
P 7
P 8
R 2
P 9
P 10
J 1 J 2
J 3 J 4
J 5 J 6
J 7 J 8
J 9 J 10
J 11 J 12
J 13
J 14

Figure 5.8 Multi pump system
Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 11

Comment: the copy/paste facility is useful for inputting data for multiple pumps (see 3.8)



Figure 5.9 Pump Status page
100.000mOD
PU 1
PU 2
PU 3
0.0504m³/s
0.0486m³/s
0.0487m³/s
0.0504m³/s
0.0486m³/s
0.0487m³/s
0.00732m³/s
0.0413m³/s
200.000mOD
0.0917m³/s
0.0560m³/s
94.383m 100.000m
94.764m 100.000m
94.748m 100.000m
213.997m
205.017m
214.401m
206.043m
214.384m
206.001m
200.000m
200.000m

Figure 5.10 Solved multi pump system
Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 12
5.2.5 Air Systems

The flow object in ARTS can be used to represent air as well as water/wastewater and sludges. To
analyse the flow of compressed air in a pipe system, the user must select Air as the fluid in the flow
object. The gauge pressure at the discharge end of the pipe system is defined by the submergence
at the outlet node which must be placed in a reservoir object. The difference between the reservoir
TWL and the outlet node elevation determines the submergence. The required input into the flow
object is normal m
3
/s (Nm
3
/s) or normal ft
3
/s (Nft
3
/s) and air temperature.

For systems with multiple discharges, ARTS will only analyse systems with discharges at equal
submergence. Upon running a Steady Flow Analysis, the gauge pressure at each node is displayed
in millibar (mb / psi), and the compressed air flow is displayed in each pipe. The Status Page of the
pipe property pages indicates the Adiabatic Temperature Rise (ATR) of the air. The analysis
assumes that the difference in the density of the air from the inlet end to the outlet end is negligible.

Example
The system displayed in Figure 5.11 shows the result of an analysis on a system comprising of two
50m lengths of 50mm pipe, an end submergence of 5m, and an inflow of 0.1 Nm
3
/s at 20
o
C.



100.000mOD
0.1000Nm³/s
490.50mb
964.61mb
727.17mb
0.0809m³/s
0.0809m³/s

Figure 5.11 Analysed Air System



Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 13
5.3 Open channel flow
The defining characteristic for open channel flow is the existence of a “free” liquid surface, i.e. a
water/wastewater surface in contact with air at atmospheric pressure. In conventional hydraulics
terminology, steady flow in open channels is described as belonging in one of the following three
categories:

1. Uniform flow
2. Gradually varied flow
3. Rapidly varied flow

Uniform flow infers a constant velocity/depth over the channel length;

Gradually varied flow (GVF) infers a gradual variation in velocity/depth over the channel length

Rapidly varied flow infers a localised change in velocity/depth, as, for example, at an hydraulic
jump.

Uniform flow is also further characterised by the channel bottom slope, as follows:

mild slope ⇒ sub-critical or tranquil flow (F
r
< 1)
critical slope ⇒ critical flow (F
r
= 1)
steep slope ⇒ super-critical flow (F
r
>1)

where Fr is the Froude number (refer to the Appendix for definition and further discussion)

5.3.1 Uniform flow computations
As in all ARTS projects, the first step is to place a channel object on the design sheet using the
channel tool. You can then make the required computations by one of two methods:

(a) using the channel element property pages (refer Fig 4.9, Chapter 4)
(b) by use of the Channel Calculator tool

5.3.2 The channel property pages
To use the channel object Status page as a computational tool:

• Either select an existing channel on the design sheet or place a new one on the sheet
• Click on the Properties tool to display the channel’s properties.
• Edit the channel properties as required
• Click on the Status tab.
• Enter a flow value in the Flow edit box; computed values for normal depth, mean velocity and
Froude number will be displayed. The computed critical depth, critical slope and channel capacity
(flowing full value at normal depth) are also displayed.
Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 14

Example
Calculate the normal depth in a concrete U-shaped channel, which has a base width of 1200mm, a
gradient of 1 to 1500 and is used to convey sewage at a flow rate of flow 1.65m³/s


Step 1 Step 2
Draw a channel on the design sheet (the
channel will be grey until you set some
of it’s properties)

Edit the Main property page:




Step 3
Click on the Status page.





Solution: The normal depth is 1085mm at 1.65m³/s.






Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 15
5.3.3 The Channel Calculator tool

The channel-calculator tool provides a fast and convenient
interactive means of examining the inter-relationship of the
channel parameters under uniform flow conditions:

length, k-value, flow, flow depth and head loss

• click on the channel tool and draw a channel element on
the design page
• click on the calculator and the channel calculator dialog
box appears, as on Figure 5.12.

The dialog box displays a set of hydraulic parameter values and a corresponding set of calculator
buttons. When you click on a parameter calculator button, ARTS calculates its parameter value as a
function of the current values of the remaining parameters.
When the dialog box first appears, its text boxes contain editable default values. Note that ARTS
provides the option of using velocity instead of flow.


5.3.4 Gradually varied flow
ARTS provides a versatile capability for the analysis of gradually varied flow (GVF) by use of the
GVF tool on the tool palette, with the aid of which you can analyse and plot GVF profiles for a wide
range of channel GVF flow conditions:

• Either select an existing channel on the design sheet or place a new one on the sheet
• Click on the Properties tool to display the channel’s properties.
• Edit the channel properties as required, then click OK
• Click on the GVF tool
the dialog box shown on Figure 5.13 appears on the screen; it shows
1. a channel outline with water depth values at its ends

Figure 5.12 Channel calculator

Figure 5.13 GVF Plotter
Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 16
2. check boxes for the specification of upstream and/or downstream control water
depths.
3. edit boxes for the specification of the end inflow and lateral inflow rates;
4. option buttons for the selection of output format - plot or tabulation
5. command buttons for Plot and Done actions.
• clear the check boxes for upstream and downstream controls
• specify end and lateral inflow values by editing the edit box values
• select the Plot option and click the Plot command button;
the normal and critical depth lines are plotted on the channel profile (note the relative
positions of the normal and critical depth lines - if the normal depth line is above the critical
depth line, the flow is sub-critical, whereas if it is below the critical depth line the flow is
super-critical).

To enter a downstream control depth:
• Click the Downstream control checkbox
• Enter the downstream control depth by editing its current value

To enter an upstream control depth:
• click the Upstream control checkbox; enter the upstream control depth by editing its current
value

You may specify an upstream control or a downstream control or both or neither.

• click on the Plot command button to plot the GVF profile.

Feasible control depth specifications are summarised in Table 5.1

Table 5.1
GVF control depth specification
(parameters y
cont
= control depth; y
N
= normal depth y
C
= critical depth)


Channel slope

Mild Steep
Upstream control y
cont
< y
C
y
cont
< y
C

Downstream control y
cont
> y
C
y
cont
> y
C

Upstream + downstream control* upstream: y
cont
< y
C
downstream: y
cont
> y
C

upstream: y
cont
< y
N
downstream: y
cont
> y
C

* infers the existence of an hydraulic jump, which may not occur within channel reach, in which case
ARTS takes the upstream control as the determinant of the flow profile.
Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 17
Exercise 5.5
Determine the water surface profile in a parabolic channel with the following properties:

length (m) 25
width (mm) 2000
height (mm) 1500
k-value (mm) 1
bottom slope 1:1200
end inflow (m
3
/s) 1.5
lateral inflow (m
3
/s) 0.1
outlet end control depth (mm) 850



Figure 5.14 Plot from exercise 5.5


Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 18
5.3.5 Channels in series
ARTS has the capability of dealing with flow in a set of channels in series, as shown on Figure 5.15,
starting from a control depth at outlet end (if the outlet end channel has a steep slope, the specified
outlet end control depth will exert an influence on the flow depth only if it is equal to or greater than
the sequent depth of an hydraulic jump in the channel at the specified flow rate).

The procedure by which this is done (using the Hydraulic Profile commands) is the same as
outlined for the hydraulic analysis/design of wastewater treatment systems, as outlined in Chapter 6
of this Manual (a set of channels in series is a gravity flow system, similar in hydraulic behaviour to a
wastewater treatment system).

Figure 5.15 and Figure 5.16 illustrate the output results as printed on the screen graphic.

You can display the resulting water surface profile in an individual channel of the set by using the
GVF tool. To use the GVF tool, first select the individual channel and then select the GVF tool. The
water surface dialog box (Fig 5.13) appears; press the Plot Profile button to display the water
surface profile over the channel length.

You can plot a hydraulic profile for the set of channels by using the Hydraulic Profile commands, as
outlined in Chapter 6.

C 1
C 2
C 3
1.0000m³/s
101.092m
100.961m
100.804m
100.468m

Figure 5.15 Channels in series (at max flow)
C 1
C 2
C 3
0.1000m³/s
100.456m
100.356m
100.255m
100.101m

Figure 5.16 Channels in series (at min flow)
Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 19
5.4 Flow measurement structures
ARTS caters for a comprehensive range of open channel flow measurement structures, including:

Flumes:
long-throated flumes of rectangular, trapezoidal and U cross-section
short-throated flumes of rectangular cross-section
Parshall flumes
Weirs:
broad-crested weirs
thin-plate weirs, including V-notch, rectangular notch and Sutro types.

Normally, flow measurement structures are designed to measure flows within a specified flow range.
To ensure an acceptable level of accuracy over the design flow range, the structure dimensions
must satisfy established design constraints (refer Appendix for details). ARTS guides the user
through the design process, using quick help to indicate the limits for key dimensions of the
structure being designed.

5.4.1 Flumes
To initiate the design of a flow measurement flume, place a flume object on the design sheet using
the Flume tool. Click on the Properties tool to display the flume’s properties - you will note from the
button bar at the top of the property page that the flume object has 7 tabs. They comprise four data
entry pages, entitled Main, Channels, Throat and Plan, and three output pages entitled Side,
Calibration and Status.

Data is entered on the property pages in the above button order, starting with the Main page.

On the Main page select the flume type (i.e. throat sectional shape), choosing from the drop-down
list, which includes rectangular/trapezoidal long-throated flumes, U-shaped flumes, rectangular
short-throated flumes, and Parshall flumes. Enter the min and max flow values - these values define
the design flow range for the flume.

The Channels page contains a dimensioned channel section, the shape of which is dependent on
the type of flume already selected on the main page - rectangular/trapezoidal flumes can be used in
rectangular/trapezoidal channels; U-shape flumes can only be used in U-shape channels; short-
throated and Parshall flumes are restricted to rectangular channels). First, input the data for the
upstream channel by editing the dimensions and the slope, length and surface roughness values.
Select the downstream channel and enter its slope, length and surface roughness values (note that
the downstream section dimensions are not now editable as ARTS assumes the upstream and
downstream channels have the same section.

Next, select the Throat property page; Press Setup to provide a set of compliant throat dimensions.
You may then alter the throat dimensions by editing the displayed default values. When you place
the cursor over a dimension value, the tool tip feature shows the current design limit values for that
dimension. You should note that when you change one dimension, the limit values for other
Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 20
dimensions also change. It is best therefore to first set the most critical dimension, which, in the
case of flumes, is usually the throat width (the throat width determines the upstream head). Then,
edit the remaining dimensions, using the quick help guide.

On the Plan property page, enter the throat length and downstream expansion, complying with the
Quick Help range limit.

The Side output page shows the water surface profile for the current flume; use the max or min
option button to display the corresponding profile and associated water depth values.

The Calibration output page shows a graph of head as a function of flow over the design flow range
and also prints a fitted equation for the structure.

The Status page prints the modular ratio and upstream Froude number for the structure at max and
min flow and indicates whether its design complies with the design criteria outlined in the Appendix.
If all the design criteria are satisfied, the word VALID is printed on the Status page; if not, the word
INVALID is printed. You can also use the Status page to calculate the head at any flow by entering
the flow value in the flow text box - the associated head is automatically displayed.


Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 21
Example
Design a rectangular flume to measure flow in the range 3 - 5 m³/s. The flume is to fit into a 3m wide
by 2m deep channel which has a slope of 1:800

Step 1 Step 2
Draw a flume on the design sheet (the
flume will be grey until you set some of
it’s properties)

Edit the Main property page:


Step 3 Step 4
Click on the Channels page and edit
the properties of both channels.

Click on the Throat page and press
Setup.

Step 5 Step 6
Edit the Throat parameters to suitable
values.

Edit the Plan parameters to suitable
values.



Solution: A flume of 1750mm x 2250mm and 100mm step.
Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications

5- 22
5.4.2 Weirs
To initiate the design of a flow measurement weir, place a weir object on the design sheet using the
Weir tool. Then, follow the same procedure as outlined in section 5.4.1 for flume design.
Example
Design a rectangular weir to measure flow in the range 10 - 50 l/s. The weir is to fit into a 1m wide
by 1m deep channel which has a slope of 1:1000

Step 1 Step 2
Draw a weir on the design sheet (the
weir will be grey until you set some of
it’s properties)

Edit the Main property page:

Step 3 Step 4
Click on the Channels page and edit
the properties of both channels.

Click on the Section page and press
Setup and edit the width.

Step 5 Step 6
Click on the Side page.

Click on the Status page


Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-1
6. Treatment System Hydraulic Design
6.1 Introduction

ARTS incorporates a number of features that have been specifically developed for the hydraulic
analysis/design of water/wastewater treatment systems. These features enable the user to:

• carry out a detailed hydraulic analysis/design of the components of a wastewater treatment
system, including the process units and the inter-connecting pipes.

• set the relative elevations of the treatment process units that comprise the treatment
system, to permit gravity flow through the system, at all flows within a specified design flow
range

• compute the hydraulic profile for flow through the system at any flow rate between the
specified maximum and minimum flow rates.

The head loss across each unit is a function of the flow rate and the internal geometric configuration
of the unit. ARTS provides a facility for the internal hydraulic analysis/design of individual treatment
units, allowing the user to specify the internal dimensions that govern head loss. This is done by
editing the properties of the treatment units, as outlined in Chapter 4; the Status property page for
the unit displays the head loss across the unit at the design(max) flow.

Provision is made for the sub-division of flow into parallel streams, using the Flow-divider tool, and
also for the re-combination of flows into a single stream. “Drops” may be incorporated into the
treatment system layout to cater for varying site topography.

The treatment system may incorporate any of the following hydraulic objects on the tool palette; the
pipe links convey the inter-process flow.

• activated sludge reactor
• biofilter
• clarifier
• detritor
• flow divider
• flume
• pipe
• reservoir
• rapid gravity filter
• screen
• sedimentation tank
• weir

Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-2
6.2 Hydraulic design of process units
6.2.1 Sedimentation tank
Sedimentation tanks are used for primary (raw wastewater) and secondary (post-biological or
physicochemical treatment) clarification in wastewater treatment systems. They may be of circular or
rectangular tank configuration.

ARTS registers the inflow to a sedimentation tank at an inflow node which is the terminal point of an
inflow pipe. Normally, the inflow is submerged, in which case the inflow node head represents the
water surface level in the sedimentation tank. If the inflow cascades into the sedimentation tank,
then the inflow node elevation represents the invert level of the inflow pipe. The clarified wastewater
flows over an outlet weir into a collector channel, which discharges to an outlet or overflow chamber.

ARTS registers the outflow from a sedimentation tank at an outflow node, which is the entry point to
the effluent pipe. The latter is always submerged, hence the outflow node head represents the water
surface level in the overflow chamber of the sedimentation tank

The ARTS property pages for sedimentation tanks are shown in Chapter 4.

The Main property page specifies the tank type (circular and rectangular options), the Max inflow
and the underflow (sludge flow).

The hydraulic design parameters for a circular sedimentation tank are illustrated on Figure 6.1.
Inflow is at the tank centre with radial flow outwards over peripheral weir (1) into collector channel
(2). Flow in the latter bifurcates at the summit point A, flowing in opposing directions to the overflow
chamber at B.

inflow
A
1
2
B
underflow
overflow

Figure 6.1 Plan outline of circular sedimentation tank
Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-3
The ARTS Outlet property page specifies the type of outlet, offering a choice of V-notch weir,
rectangular notch weir, plain weir, circular orifice and square orifice . Having selected the type of
outlet, the user can then edit its default dimensions as required for the application in hand. Note that
all figured dimensions printed in red are editable.

The ARTS Collector property page facilitates the hydraulic design of the peripheral collector
channel through specification of its width, slope, outlet control depth and surface roughness.
Provision is made for the inclusion of a water surface drop at the outlet end of the channel. This can
be used to build in a safety margin to the hydraulic design or to cater for site topography where the
site gradient is greater than the minimum required for gravity flow through the system.

The hydraulic design parameters for a rectangular sedimentation tank are illustrated on Figure
6.2.

ARTS caters for the design of the outlet system (1) and the collector channel (2), by editing their
respective property pages in the manner already outlined for circular tanks. Note that the overflow
discharge may be from the midpoint of the collector channel (A) or from one of its ends (B) - the
location is specified by the option buttons on the Main property page.




6.2.2 Biofilter
The biofilter configuration to which the ARTS hydraulic design procedure relates, is illustrated on
Figure 6.3.

The inflow wastewater is irrigated on to the surface of the biofilter medium by the multi-arm manifold
distributor (1); it trickles down through the medium on to a sloping floor which directs the flow radially
outwards to the peripheral collector channel (2). Flow in the peripheral channel bifurcates at the high
point A, flowing both clockwise and anticlockwise to the outlet at B.
inflow
underflow
A
B
1
overflow
2

Figure 6.2 Plan outline of rectangular sedimentation tank
Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-4

ARTS registers the inflow to a biofilter at an inflow node which is the terminal point of the inflow pipe
supplying the distribution manifold. The inflow node head represents the pressure head at the
terminal point of the inflow pipe.

ARTS registers the outflow from a biofilter tank at an outflow node, which is the entry point to the
effluent pipe. The latter is always submerged, hence the outflow node head represents the water
surface level in the outflow chamber of the biofilter.

The Main property page specifies the flow rate and the biofilter dimensions; note that there are 4
vertical dimension components:

1. distance between the distributor invert and the top surface of the medium
2. height of the medium
3. distance between underside of medium and highest point of floor (at centre)
4. floor gradient (from centre to inner boundary of peripheral channel).


First, enter the design (max) flow rate. On registering a new flow value, ARTS automatically re-
designs the biofilter by setting the dimensions to normal values. Enter the new biofilter dimensions
by editing these values.

The Inlet property page specifies the details of the multi-arm rotating manifold distributor, including:

• the number of radial arms
• the radial arm length, diameter and surface roughness
• the diameter and spacing of orifices
A
1
medium
B
outflow
2

Figure 6.3 Plan outline of biofilter
Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-5
It also presents the following computed values:
• the radial arm inlet end velocity
• ratio of min/max orifice discharge
• the manifold pipe (radial arm) head loss

Edit the Inlet page data in the following order:
1. enter the number of radial arms
2. edit the dimensions displayed on the radial arm
3. enter the orifice diameter, number of orifices and pipe surface roughness.

The Collector property page facilitates the hydraulic design of the peripheral collector channel
through specification of its width, slope, outlet control depth and surface roughness. Provision is
made for the inclusion of a water surface drop at the outlet end of the channel. This can be used to
build in a safety margin into the hydraulic design or to cater for site topography where the site
gradient is greater than the minimum required for gravity flow through the system.

6.2.3 Activated sludge reactor (ASR)
As illustrated on the property pages for ASRs, ARTS caters for reactors of circular and rectangular
configuration. From an hydraulic design viewpoint, the ASR is simply a liquid-holding tank with a
regulated outflow.

ARTS registers the inflow to an ASR at an inflow node which is the terminal point of an inflow pipe.
Normally, the inflow is submerged, in which case the inflow node head represents the water surface
level in the ASR tank. If the inflow cascades into the ASR tank, then the inflow node elevation
represents the invert level of the inflow pipe. The outflow mixed liquor flows over an outlet weir into a
collector channel, which discharges to an outlet or overflow chamber.

ARTS registers the outflow from an ASR tank at an outflow node, which is the entry point to the
effluent pipe. The latter is always submerged, hence the outflow node head represents the water
surface level in the outflow chamber of the ASR tank

The ASR Main property page specifies the tank type (circular and rectangular options), the
wastewater inflow rate and the sludge recycle rate.

The ASR Outlet property page specifies the type and length of outlet, offering a choice of V-notch
weir, rectangular notch weir, plain weir, circular orifice and square orifice (refer Fig 4.16). Having
selected the type of outlet, the user can then edit its dimensions as required for the application in
hand. Note that all figured dimensions printed in red are editable.

The ASR Collector property page facilitates the hydraulic design of the peripheral collector channel
through specification of its width, slope, outlet control depth and surface roughness. Provision is
made for the inclusion of a water surface drop at the outlet end of the channel. This can be used to
build in a safety margin to the hydraulic design or to cater for site topography where the site gradient
is greater than the minimum required for gravity flow through the system.

Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-6
6.2.4 Blanket Sludge Clarifier
From an hydraulic design viewpoint, the flow into a blanket sludge clarifier first passes through an
inlet manifold, then over an outlet weir into transverse collection channels. These transverse
collecting channels discharge into a main collecting channel, which discharges into and outlet or
overflow chamber for the unit.

ARTS registers the inflow to a blanket sludge clarifier at an inflow node which is the terminal point of
an inflow pipe. The inflow node head represents the water surface level in the clarifier tank. The
headloss in the manifold is registered in the inflow node, and its effect can be seen at the next
upstream node head.

ARTS registers the outflow from a blanket sludge clarifier at an outflow node, which is the entry point
to the outflow pipe. The latter is always submerged, hence the outflow node head represents the
water surface level in the outflow chamber of the clarifier tank

The Main Collector property page facilitates the hydraulic design of the main collector channel
through specification of its width, slope, outlet control depth and surface roughness. Provision is
made for the inclusion of a water surface drop at the outlet end of the channel. This can be used to
build in a safety margin to the hydraulic design or to cater for site topography where the site gradient
is greater than the minimum required for gravity flow through the system.

The top of the transverse collector channels and the top of the main collector channel are taken as
being in the same horizontal plane.

6.2.5 Rapid Gravity Filter
From an hydraulic design viewpoint, the rapid gravity filter is simply a liquid-holding tank with a
regulated headloss.

ARTS registers the inflow to a rapid gravity filter at an inflow node which is the terminal point of an
inflow pipe. Normally, the inflow is submerged, in which case the inflow node head represents the
water surface level in the rapid gravity filter. If the inflow cascades into the rapid gravity filter, then
the inflow node elevation represents the invert level of the inflow pipe.

ARTS registers the outflow from a rapid gravity filter tank at an outflow node, which is the entry point
to the outflow pipe. This is a pipe to pipe connection, hence the outflow node head represents the
pressure at the connection, downstream of the pressure regulating valve. If the rapid gravity filter is
set to model several cells, then the user must draw an outflow pipe for each cell on the screen,
similar to the divider object.


Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-7
6.2.6 Flow divider
The ARTS flow divider configuration is illustrated on Figure 6.4. It consists of
a rectangular inlet chamber, separated by a weir wall from a multi-
compartment outlet chamber.

ARTS registers the inflow to a flow divider at an inflow node which is the
terminal point of an inflow pipe. Normally, the inflow is submerged, in which
case the inflow node head represents the water surface level in the inflow
chamber of the flow divider. If the inflow cascades into the flow divider, then
the inflow node elevation represents the invert level of the inflow pipe. The
wastewater flows over a control weir into a number of outflow chambers.

ARTS registers the flow divider outflows at outflow nodes, which are the entry
points of the effluent channels or pipes. The latter are always submerged,
hence the outflow node heads represent the water surface levels in the
outflow chambers of the flow divider.

The Plan property page specifies the plan dimensions of the flow divider and
the number outlet streams into which the flow is to be split. First, specify the
max flow rate and then select the number of streams. Use the check box to
indicate equal flows or otherwise. Edit the plan dimensions of the divider.

The Side property page displays the drop from the weir cill to the water surface in the outlet
compartments and also displays the computed head on the dividing weir wall. Edit the drop height.

6.2.7 Mechanical screens
ARTS treats mechanical screens as devices which generate a head loss, which is represented as
the head difference between its inflow and outflow nodes. These nodes also define the terminal
points of the pipes which convey flow to and from the screen chamber.

A wide variety of mechanical screen types is used in wastewater treatment systems. ARTS
computes the head loss across a screen as follows:

h kQ
2
· + B
a


where h (m / ft) is the head loss at flow Q (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s), k is the screen head loss coefficient and B
a

(m / ft) is a fixed screen blockage allowance.
6.2.8 Detritors
Detritors are high rate sedimentation tanks, designed to remove grit and inorganic particulate matter.
The ARTS Detritor tool relates to tank detritors (as distinct from channel-type detritors). Tank
detritors may have a variety of configurations.

PLAN
SECTION

Figure 6.4
Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-8
ARTS treats detritors as devices which generate a head loss, which is registered as the head
difference between inflow and outflow nodes. These nodes also define the terminal points of the
channels which convey flow to and from the detritor.

ARTS computes the head loss for detritors according to the following relationship:

h kQ
2
·

where h (m / ft) is the head loss at flow Q (m
3
/s / ft
3
/s) and k is the detritor head loss coefficient.

The ARTS detritor property pages (Main and Status) are illustrated on Figures 4.46 and 4.47,
respectively, Chapter 4.




6.3 Hydraulic System Specification
6.3.1 Drawing the system
Drawing an outline schematic of the system on the design sheet; the system elements and
connectivity must comply with the following constraints:

6.3.1.1 Primary Inflow
The system must include one primary inflow stream (i.e. larger than all other inflows). The inflow
must be directed to an inflow link node at the head of the system (system head node), as indicated
in Figure 6.5.
O 1
PRIMARY INFLOW
Secondary Outflow
Secondary Inflow
J 1
J 2
PRIMARY OUTFLOW NODE
J 4
J 5 J 6

Figure 6.5 System flows
Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-9
6.3.1.2 Secondary Inflows and outflows
Secondary inflows/outflows cannot be connected directly to treatment plant objects, but may be
connected to intermediate link pipe nodes, that are external to treatment plant objects.

6.3.1.3 Primary Outflow
The system, as drawn on the design sheet, must have a single tail node, which ARTS identifies as
the primary outflow point (as Figure 6.5), and at which the outlet TWL must be specified. The outlet
level at this point may be specified on the design sheet graphic by either (a) setting the invert
elevation of the outlet node of a freely discharging outlet pipe or (b)
placing the end point of the outlet pipe in a reservoir and specifying
the reservoir TWL (this simulates a receiving water TWL).


6.3.1.4 Multi stream systems
Where it is required to split the flow into two or more parallel
streams, this must be done by incorporating a flow-divider in the
system (Figure 6.6). Flow dividers may be set to equal flow division
or to flow-splitting in user-specified proportions. Flow division cannot
be done using a simple pipe junction. Converging streams can,
however, be combined into a single stream using a simple pipe
junction (Figure 6.7).

When designing multi-stream processes, various operating
scenarios have to be examined, including options such as taking out
one stream for maintenance purposes. This can be readily modelled
in ARTS by setting one of the outflows from the flow divider to zero.


6.3.1.5 Connections
With the exception of the flow-divider, treatment plant objects
can have only one inflow pipe and one outflow pipe (Figure
6.8) e.g. if a treatment system has three parallel streams,
discharging from a set of three primary sedimentation units to
a single-tank activated sludge process, they must be
recombined into a single stream at a junction from which the
combined flow is conveyed in a single pipe to the activated
sludge unit (Figure 6.9). Flow dividers can have unlimited
inflows, and one outflow per division.
O1

Figure 6.6 Dividing
streams

Figure 6.7 Combining streams
P 5
J 11
O 4
P 6
J 12

Figure 6.8 Unit Connections
O 4

Figure 6.9 Multi stream to unit
Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-10
6.3.1.6 Available objects
The following tool palette objects cannot be incorporated into hydraulic systems that are to be
analysed by the Hydraulic Profile commands: pump, air vessel, pipe manifold, storm overflow
weir, Parshall flumes.
6.3.2 Specifying the design flow range for the system
6.3.2.1 System Inflow
Select the primary Inflow object and display its Main property page; set the maximum, minimum and
current inflow values. The user should think of these parameters as the Maximum Storm flow, the
minimum anticipated flow and the average flow respectively.
6.3.2.2 Activated sludge Recycle Flows
If the treatment system includes an activated sludge process, set the sludge recycle rate for the
activated sludge unit and also the related underflow rate(s) for the downstream secondary
sedimentation unit(s). Note that if the discharge from a single activated sludge unit, having a recycle
rate Q
r
, is split between n downstream sedimentation tanks, the recycle rate to be set for each
sedimentation unit is Q
r
/n. It is particularly important that the user ensures that these values are
correct, otherwise the system will not have balanced flows.
6.3.3 Preparing for Auto Design
6.3.3.1 Set known properties
Execution of the Auto Design command creates an initial hydraulically compliant design by re-sizing
the objects on the design sheet so that they have the hydraulic capacity to transmit the maximum
design flow. However, auto design takes certain object properties as fixed such as pipe length or
sedimentation tank shape, and will not alter them. The benefit gained from the auto design
procedure can be enhanced by setting the values of those parameters, not altered by auto design, to
their known values, prior to execution of the auto design command. These parameter values will
then be used in the auto design computation process.
6.3.4 Implementing the Auto Design procedure
6.3.4.1 Select Analysis > Hydraulic Profile > Auto Design
Execution of the Auto Design command modifies some properties of all objects on the screen
(including objects not connected as part of a system), replacing them with values based on the
ARTS design template norms. In effect, Auto Design presents the user with an initial design, in
which all the component elements have a sufficient hydraulic capacity to pass the maximum flow.
For example, the diameter of pipe links are modified so that the velocity in the pipe is between 0.8
and 2.0 m/s; the weir overflow and peripheral collector channels of sedimentation units are sized to
pass the maximum flow without surcharge.
Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-11
The Auto Design procedure may also be applied to individual units by right clicking on the object and
selecting auto design from the popup menu which appears.
6.3.5 Refining the initial design
6.3.5.1 Links and Units
It is probable that the user will generally want to refine the auto-designed system. This is done by
selecting each object on the screen graphic, in turn, and editing its properties, as outlined in Chapter
4. In general, the property values for the individual components of a treatment plant unit are inter-
dependent, hence a new value assigned to one parameter alters the permissible limits for related
parameters. The automatic tool-tip dynamically updates parameter limit values, displaying the
current limit range for the pointer-selected parameter. It will be noted that the design flow, which has
been set equal to the maximum inflow by the previously executed Auto Design command, is printed
in grey text and is not editable.
6.3.5.2 Nodes/Junctions
Necessary editing of node properties should also be carried out at
this point if required. This is done by selecting each node in turn and
editing its property pages, where required. The Main property page
defines the boundary conditions for the node. The default
connection setting for pipe nodes within treatment plant objects is
fully submerged. In the case of outflow nodes, such as J2 on Figure
6.10, this setting can be altered to a free discharge condition by the
user.

In the case of entry nodes, such as J1 on Figure 6.10, the submerged entry condition cannot be
changed by the user. However, the user can select from a range of pipe entry geometry (entries are
set to sharp-edged initially). At this point, the user is reminded that the ARTS Hydraulic Profile
commands automatically take into account entry and exit head losses in pipe links between
treatment units, as in Figure 6.10. The entry head loss depends on the entry boundary condition,
as specified on the node property page; the exit head loss is always taken as v
2
/2g. You can
examine the magnitude of head losses at nodes/junctions by using the sheet properties to display
head losses for all junctions.

As with entries to pipes, if you do not specify a transition connection where there is a change in
diameter in a pipe link connecting two treatment units, ARTS will insert a taper transition fitting at the
junction and automatically take the associated transition head loss into account. Refer to the
Appendix (page a-5) for data on fittings head loss characteristics.

The only junction type, at which ARTS does not automatically account for the local head loss, is a
multi-pipe junction (two or more converging pipe links). Hence, to account for the local head loss at
a multi-pipe junction, the user must enter appropriate k-values in the Extras property pages for the
junction pipes. In situations where there are only 3 pipes, the information presented in the Appendix
can be used (pages a-7,a-8).
O 1
O 2
P 1
J 1
J 2
J 3
J 5

Figure 6.10 Two interconnected
tanks in ARTS
Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-12
6.3.6 Examining the system at maximum flow
6.3.6.1 Select Analysis > Hydraulic Profile > @ max flow
Execution of this command primarily carries out two key tasks (a) it computes the TWLs for the
system objects, under maximum flow conditions, and displays their values on the design sheet, and
(b) based on the computed TWLs, it sets the required design elevations of the treatment plant units
relative to the system datum. These elevation settings are not changed by any subsequent hydraulic
profile computations for flows less than the maximum flow.
6.3.6.2 Interpretation of reported TWLs
Each unit has two TWL values (refer Figure 6.11), an inflow
or upstream value (J 5, J 2) and a sump (J 1, J 3) or
downstream value. The difference between the upstream and
downstream values represents the head loss across the unit
at maximum flow.

6.3.7 Examining the system at minimum flow
6.3.7.1 Select Analysis > Hydraulic Profile > @ min flow
Execution of this command primarily carries out two key tasks: (a) it computes the TWLs for the
system objects, under minimum flow conditions, based on the object elevations set by the previously
executed @ max flow command (b) it checks the elevations of the pipe inverts to ensure
submergence at minimum flow and adjusts them if necessary. The computed TWLs are displayed
on the design sheet. It should be noted that, at minimum flow, the downstream or sump TWL for any
unit is determined by the upstream TWL of the following unit, taking into account the head loss in the
connecting pipe link at minimum flow.

O 1
O 2
P 1
J 1
J 2
J 3
J 5

Figure 6.11 Two interconnected tanks




J5
J1
J2
J3
Weir
Crest
Weir
Crest

Figure 6.12 Reported values
O 1
O 2
P 1
100.902m
100.860m
100.358m
101.432m

Figure 6.13 after min flow analysis
O 1
O 2
P 1
101.245m
100.888m
100.674m
101.460m

Figure 6.14 after max flow analysis
Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-13
6.3.8 Examining the system at the current/average flow
6.3.8.1 Select Analysis > Hydraulic Profile > @ current flow
Execution of this command computes the TWLs for the system objects, at the current flow rate,
based on the object elevations set by the previously executed @ max flow command. The computed
TWLs are displayed on the screen graphic. It should be noted that, for flows less than the maximum
flow, the downstream or sump TWL for any unit is determined by the upstream TWL of the following
unit, taking into account the head loss in the connecting pipe link at the prevailing flow.

6.4 Screen display of results
Potential Heads
On completion of each of the Hydraulic Profile @ commands, the potential head values at the node
points of the system are printed, for the current flow, relative to the system datum (datum to which
the specified outflow level relates). Thus, you can generate an hydraulic profile for any flow within
the min. to max. flow range.
(Note: for process units with a free water surface, such as channels or sedimentation tanks, the
inflow node head corresponds to the unit’s TWL)

When you execute the Hydraulic Profile command on the Analysis menu, having set up your
system using the sequence of steps outlined above, ARTS prints the potential head values (TWLs)
at the key level-control points on the system, as shown in Figure 6.15

You can also plot an hydraulic profile for treatment systems using the Hydraulic Profile, Plot Full
Profile command as in Figure 6.16.

Thirdly, you can print a textual summary of the computed hydraulic profile data by selecting
View>Text output, which produces an output similar to that shown on Figure 6.17.






0.2200m³/s
S 1
S 2
P 1
P 2
P 3
P 4
O 2
101.940m
101.767m
101.549m
101.340m
101.120m
100.911m
100.693m
100.485m

Figure 6.15 Hydraulic profile defined by TWLs
Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-14













Figure 6.16 Hydraulic profile

Figure 6.17 Textual data summary
Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-15
6.5 Examining Existing Systems
ARTS can be used for examining existing systems. When examining existing systems, you need to
set all elevational data for the objects on the sheet prior to performing any analysis. This includes,
weir levels, node levels, etc.

Once this has been done, choose Analysis> Hydraulic Profile > Check Existing System. ARTS
will then pass the Max flow through the system and report any overflow problems. ARTS will report
where overflows occur and where inlet pipes are not fully submerged.

ARTS does not model the transition from full flow to party full flow for pipes. If you have a situation
where this occurs, you need to look at the two conditions separately.

For the activated sludge, sedimentation and clarifier units, ARTS will report if the units are flooded
due to downstream and where the flooding occurs.

6.6 Examples
For examples of wastewater treatment plant analysis and design, see the ARTS help file (refer
section 1.7 for information on accessing the help file).


Treatment System Hydraulic Design

6-16

Waterhammer Analysis and Control

7-1
7. Waterhammer Analysis and Control
7.1 Introduction

As outlined in section 5.2.4 and illustrated on Figure 7.3, the ARTS model of a pump /rising main
system consists of a suction pipe, a delivery pipe and a rising main. The suction and delivery pipes
represent the pumphouse pipework and typically include fittings such as bends, valves etc. Their
lengths are normally short relative to the length of the rising main. The Unsteady Pipe Flow
command in the Analysis menu analyses transient waterhammer conditions arising from sudden
pump trip out on pump/rising main systems, subject to the following:

1. The lengths of the suction and delivery pipes (pumphouse pipework) are short relative to
the length of the rising main.
2. The pump set is located in or close to the pump sump or wet well (transient pressure
fluctuations in the suction main are not taken into account)
3. The system has a single rising main
4. If the installation has multiple pumps in parallel, they must be identical and their delivery
pipes must connect at a common point to the rising main as illustrated in Figure 7.4.

ARTS caters for the inclusion of the following pressure control devices:

• air vessel (single vessel located at the upstream end of the rising main connected to the
rising main by a throttle pipe), as illustrated in Figure 7.8.
• air valves (air valves may be located at any point on the rising main)

The results output includes max. and min. pressure envelopes for the rising main and also a plot of
the temporal pressure fluctuation at a user-selected point on the rising main.

7.2 Data input
You start by drawing the pump/rising main system on the design page, and then specifying the
properties of its component elements, as outlined in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. In this context, it
is important to note that, unlike steady flow analysis, waterhammer analysis uses the full range of
pump and pipe properties, listed on the property pages, and hence you must enter the full range of
values for your system (otherwise incorrect values may be used in the analysis). The vertical profile
of the rising main also has an important bearing on the gauge pressures caused by pump trip-out;
you can input the elevation data for the rising main on its Extras property page.




Waterhammer Analysis and Control

7-2


Figure 7.1 Pipe Extras Tab as a list

Figure 7.2 Pipe Extras Tab as a plot


The end node elevations for the rising main are entered by editing the respective node property
pages (N1 and N2 in Figure 7.3). The ARTS waterhammer analysis coding places some restrictions
on the structure of pump rising main system, as explained in the next paragraph.

Typical ARTS design page examples of pump/rising main systems, structured for waterhammer
analysis, are shown on Figure 7.3 (single pump) and Figure 7.4 (multiple pumps). Note that each
pump can have an associated suction and delivery main. A single pump system may have multiple
suction pipes and delivery pipes once they are in series and are short relative to the rising main (in
total). The same applies in multiple pump systems except that all the delivery mains must be
connected to the rising main at the same point, and that the pumps, suction and delivery mains must
all be identical.



SUMP
DELIVERY
PUMP

N1
N2

Figure 7.3 Pump rising main system
Waterhammer Analysis and Control

7-3

Note: Unsteady Pipe Flow Analysis expects the rising main to be longer than the suction and
delivery pipes, hence the analysis will not run if all pipes are at their default length of 10m

7.3 Analysis
7.3.1 Pump trip-out, without air-vessel protection.
Having completed the system data input, you can initiate an analysis of waterhammer pressure
fluctuation caused by sudden pump trip-out:

• Select the Unsteady Flow command on the Analysis menu
the Dynamic Analysis Setup dialog box appears, as shown on Figure 7.5;
• Edit the unsteady flow computational parameters
• click the Start command button to initiate the computation


Number of computational divisions:
This is the number of divisions into which the rising main is
divided for calculation purposes, and should be a multiple
of 10; it is recommended that you use the default value of
100 as lower values may cause computational instability (a
lower value may be used for systems protected by an air
vessel).

SUMP
DELIVERY
PUMP
PUMP 2

Figure 7.4 Pump rising main system with multiple pumps

Figure 7.5 Dynamic Analysis Dialog
Waterhammer Analysis and Control

7-4
Number of wave cycles:
should be at least the number required for rising main flow reversal and the generation of a pressure
upsurge at the pump node (you cannot accurately predict this number, hence it is suggested that
you initially use a trial value of 10 cycles; if this proves too low, you can repeat the computation with
a higher number).

Plot node
This is the rising main node number at which you require a pressure head/time plot (the pump end
of the rising main is node 1, the discharge end is node n+1, where n is the number of divisions,
specified above).

Once you click on Start, a progress dialog box appears showing the estimated computation time and
progress bar.

The computed results are presented in 4 output windows, as illustrated on Figure 7.6, showing:

1. The pump/system head curve, indicating the duty point under steady flow conditions
2. A graph of the temporal pressure fluctuation at the user-selected point on the rising main
3. Graphs of the following:
rising main profile
steady flow hydraulic grade line
max. and min. transient pressure envelope lines
vapour pressure limit line
4. A textual summary of the input data and the computed results. A typical results page is
illustrated on Figure 7.7.






Note: the pressure envelopes are plotted as
potential head relative to the same datum as
the rising main; hence, the vertical distance
between the rising main and a pressure
envelope line, at any point, represents the
gauge pressure at that point.




Figure 7.6 Unsteady Pipe Flow Analysis Results
1
2
3
4
Waterhammer Analysis and Control

7-5
7.3.2 Pump trip-out, with air vessel protection
As explained in the Appendix, air vessels are used on rising
mains to control the pressure fluctuation resulting from pump
trip-out. The air vessel is connected to the rising main at its
upstream end node, i.e. at the junction of the delivery and
rising mains (node N1), as shown on Figure 7.8.


To analyse the transient pressure fluctuation on the air vessel-
protected system, caused by sudden pump trip-out, select the
Unsteady Flow command on the Analysis menu. This
initiates the analysis and the output of results follows, as
described above for the analysis of the unprotected system.







Typical results output sheets for a pump trip-out waterhammer analysis run on an air vessel-
protected rising main system are shown in Figure 7.9.

7.4 Examples
For examples on waterhammer analysis, see the ARTS Help file which is accessible from the main
menu.

Figure 7.7 Textual out of
Unsteady Flow analysis
R 1
R 2
PUMP
AV 1

N1

Figure 7.8 Pump/rising main system with air vessel
Waterhammer Analysis and Control

7-6

7.5 Analytical Assumptions
Pumps
ARTS uses the following assumptions for pump operation outside the positive H/Q quadrant:
1) Where the pump run-down computation indicated negative pump rotation, ARTS assumes a zero
rotational speed.
2) Where the pump run-down computation indicates operation in the negative H, positive Q zone,
ARTS uses the H/Q equation developed for the positive H/Q quadrant (based on the user pump
data input). It should be noted that this may underestimate the negative H value.

Air valves
ARTS uses the following simplified assumptions for air valve operation:
1) The head loss associated with air inflow or outflow is negligible
2) The influence of the admitted air mass on pressure transients is assumed to be negligible.

The locations of air valves are specified on the Extras property page for the rising main. Air valves
are mapped from their actual physical location in the rising main to the nearest computational node
as determined by the "Number of Divisions" setting. The exception to this is air valves which are at
the pump end of the rising main, which are mapped to the second computational node along the
rising main.

Figure 7.9 Unsteady Pipe Flow Analysis Results for
protected system
File management, printing

8-1
8. File management, printing, data export
8.1 Introduction

ARTS uses conventional Windows procedures for file management and printing.
File manipulation and printing are both executed through the File menu
commands, which appear as a drop-down listing when you click on the File
menu.


8.2 Creating a new sheet
To create a new sheet
• Click on the File menu
• Select New


8.3 Opening/closing files
ARTS allows you to open and work on multiple documents simultaneously.

To open a file
• Click on the File menu
• Select the Open command.
• Select the desired file from the dialog box
• Click on the Open button

The Open dialog box, as shown on Figure 8.1, is displayed.
This dialog box provides access to all stored ARTS files,
each file address being identified by its Drive, Directory and
File Name.

The dialog box initially lists files in the directory or folder in
which you last saved or opened a sheet. If the file you want is
not listed, click on another drive or directory, or volume or
folder.

To close a file
Click on the Close command on the File menu to close the
currently active file. If you have made changes to the file, a dialog box will appear asking if you wish
to permanently save all changes made.


Figure 8.1
File management, printing

8-2
8.4 Saving files
The File menu has two commands which are used to save files, Save and Save As.
The Save command is used to save changes to an existing file. The Save As command is used to
create a new file i.e. it is used when first saving a new sheet or when you want to save an existing
file under a new name.

To save a sheet to an existing file
• Click on the File menu
• Select Save

To save a sheet to a new file
• Click on the File menu
• Select Save As
• The Save As dialog box, as shown on Figure 8.2,
appears.
• Select the Drive and Directory destinations for your
file and type the file name in the File Name text box,
which already contains the text *.avs. All ARTS files
have the extension .avs.

8.5 Printing
There are three commands on the File menu that relate to printing: Print Setup, Print and Print
Preview. The Print Preview shows a template of the printed page(s) on the screen.

There are three printing choices
• Sheet graphics only
Prints out a page containing a graphical representation of the sheet as seen on the screen

• Textual report only
Prints out a textual report of all items on the graphics sheet and their properties

• Full report
Prints out a combination of the previous two options

To change the print setup

• Click on the File menu
• Select the Print Setup command
• Select the desired option from the Print Setup dialog box,
shown on Figure 8.3.
• Click OK


Figure 8.2

Figure 8.3
File management, printing

8-3
To print a sheet

• Click on the File menu
• Select the Print command
• Click OK on the print dialog box, as shown on Figure
8.4.


8.6 Export to other applications
ARTS includes several methods of exporting data for use in other applications.

Sheets:
• Graphical output
Sheet graphics can be copied to the Windows clipboard in Windows Metafile format. Once
this is done you can paste the graphic into any application which supports the metafile
format, including most word processing and spreadsheet packages. Metafiles are scaleable,
and therefore you can resize them without loss of quality in the destination package.

• Textual output
By selecting View - Text output, a textual listing of all objects on the sheet will appear. The
properties for all the objects will also be listed. This information can also be copied to the
Windows clipboard as Rich Text Format data. This type of data allows the formatting of the
text to be copied also (such as Bold, Italic etc). Once in the Windows clipboard, this data
can be pasted into applications as plain text or RTF format text. You can also save this data
to file using the File - Save command on the Text window. This file can then be opened by
word processing packages or other packages which are capable of opening RTF format
files.

Graphs
• Graphical output
By selecting Edit - Copy - Picture from the graph menu, graphs can be copied to the
Windows clipboard as a graphic Windows Metafile. This allows you to paste a scaleable
graph directly into a destination package. However, you cannot access the data used to
create the graph when you do this and therefore cannot modify the graph, other than
changing the shape.
• Textual output
By selecting Edit - Copy - Data from the graph menu, you can copy the data used to create
the graph to the Window clipboard in Tab delimited format. This format will paste directly
into rows and columns of spreadsheet packages. The textual format is useful for pasting
into applications that have graphing capabilities in order to customise the appearance of the
graph.

Figure 8.4
File management, printing

8-4

APPENDIX
Table of Contents

A PIPE FLOW A-1
INTRODUCTION A-1
HEAD LOSS IN PIPE FLOW A-1
FLOW IN PIPE MANIFOLDS A-2
HEAD LOSS IN PIPE FITTINGS AND FLOW CONTROL DEVICES A-4
FLOW IN PIPE NETWORKS A-9
FLOW OF SEWAGE SLUDGE IN PIPES A-11

B OPEN CHANNEL FLOW B-1
INTRODUCTION B-1
STEADY UNIFORM FLOW B-1
GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW B-2
RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW B-4

C OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES C-1
INTRODUCTION C-1
BROAD-CRESTED WEIR C-1
THIN-PLATE WEIRS C-3
CRITICAL DEPTH FLUMES C-7

D PUMPING INSTALLATIONS D-1
INTRODUCTION D-1
ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS D-1
CHARACTERISTIC EQUATIONS FOR ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS D-2

E WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL E-1
INTRODUCTION E-1
BASIC EQUATIONS E-1
BOUNDARY CONDITION EQUATIONS E-3
Appendix PIPE FLOW

a-1
a PIPE FLOW
INTRODUCTION
Pipes are the most frequently used conduits for the conveyance of fluids, both gases and liquids.
They are produced in a variety of materials, including steel, cast iron, ductile iron, concrete,
asbestos cement, plastics, glass, and non-ferrous metals. In their new condition, the internal wall
surfaces of these materials vary considerably from the very smooth glass or plastic surface to the
relatively rough concrete surface. The pipe wall roughness is likely to vary with time in use due to
corrosion (ferrous metals) or scale deposition.

HEAD LOSS IN PIPE FLOW
The basic hydraulic parameters of steady pipe flow are the mean velocity v and the hydraulic
gradient or friction slope S
f

(ie. head loss per unit length). ARTS pipe flow computations are based
on the following correlation between these parameters:

v 1.25 gDS ln
0.56 D gDS
k
3.7 D
f
f
· − +
¸
¸

_
,

ν
. . . a-1

where D is the pipe diameter, k is the pipe wall roughness and ν is the kinematic viscosity.

The correlation of mean velocity v and friction slope S
f
may also be expressed in terms of the
Darcy-Weisbach equation:

S
f v
2g D
f
2
· . . . a-2

where the friction factor f is a function of relative roughness k/D and Reynolds number R
e
:

R
vd
e
·
ν
. . . a-3

in turbulent flow
1
f
0.88 ln
k
3.7 D
2.5
R f
e
· − +
¸
¸

_
,

. . . a-4

Appendix PIPE FLOW

a-2
in laminar flow f
64
R
e
· . . . a-5

Flow is categorised in laminar/turbulent terms according to its R
e
value as follows:

laminar flow: R
e
≤ 2300
transitional flow: 2300 ≤ R
e
≤ 4000
turbulent flow: R
e
≥ 4000

FLOW IN PIPE MANIFOLDS
As used here, the term pipe manifold refers to a pipe with multiple discharge points along its
length. Manifolds are important components of several water and wastewater treatment processes,
including biofilters, sand filters, and fluidised bed clarifiers.


Orifice-type pipe manifold
A definition diagram for an orifice-type pipe manifold is illustrated in Figure a.1.

vm
O
s
HGL
h
EGL
E
q
q
n
n-1

Figure a.1 Orifice-type pipe manifold

The discharge through such orifices may be expressed as follows:

q C A 2g E
o D o
· . . . a-6
Appendix PIPE FLOW

a-3
where C
D
is an empirical discharge coefficient, A
o
is the orifice cross-sectional area, E is the total
differential head across the orifice i.e the sum of the differential pressure head across the orifice
and the velocity head in the manifold at the orifice location, v
m
2
/2g. The discharge coefficient
varies with flow conditions and has been found to be a function of the ratio of the manifold velocity
head and the total differential head, that is, (v
m
2
/2g)/E. ARTS computes C
D
according to the
following correlations:

bellmouth (rounded) orifices C 0.975 1
v / 2g
E
D
m
2
0.375
· −
¸
¸

_
,

. . . a-7
sharp-edged orifices (water) C 0.66 0.75
v
E
D
m
2
· −
/ 2g
. . . a-8

Computation of orifice discharge starts at the “dead” end of the manifold and proceeds towards the
delivery end, considering each orifice in turn, taking into account the head loss along the manifold
and the manifold slope.


Pipe manifold with laterals
The analysis of flow distribution into the individual laterals of a manifold pipe/pipe lateral system is
carried out by an iterative procedure similar to that described for the orifice manifold system. The
discharge q
L
into an individual lateral pipe may be written as follows:

q C E h
L L m e
· − . . . a-9

where C
L
is the lateral discharge coefficient, E
M
is the total differential head at the manifold/lateral
junction, and h
e
is the lateral entry head loss. The coefficient C
L
correlates flow into the lateral to
the total head in the lateral on the downstream side of its junction with the manifold. Typically, the
lateral may be a submanifold pipe with orifices, in which case the discharge coefficient C
L
is
calculated in the manner described above for an orifice-type pipe manifold. The lateral entry head
loss h
e
is computed as follows:

long laterals: h
v
2g
0.9
v
v
0.4
e
L
2
m
L
2
·
¸
¸

_
,
+
¸
¸

_
,

. . . a-10

short laterals (length< 3 lateral diams.) h
v
2g
1.67
v
v
0.7
e
L
2
m
L
2
·
¸
¸

_
,
+
¸
¸

_
,

. . . a-11
Appendix PIPE FLOW

a-4
As in the case of an orifice manifold, computation starts at the dead end and proceeds, lateral by
lateral, towards the supply end of the manifold, taking into account the head loss along the
manifold and the manifold slope.


HEAD LOSS IN PIPE FITTINGS AND FLOW CONTROL DEVICES
Pipe fittings include inlets, bends, tees and tapers; control devices include sluice or gate valves,
butterfly valves, non-return valves, pressure-reducing valves.

The head loss in pipe fittings, h
fit
, is expressed as a function of the velocity head v
2
/2g as follows:

h K
v
2g
fit
2
· . . . a-12

where h
fit
is the head loss across the fitting and K is an empirical numerical coefficient.

The fittings K-values used in the ARTS coding are presented in Table a.1-Table a.6, inclusive.

Table a.1
Pipe entry K-factors

K-value
0.5 inward projecting
inward projecting
sharp edge
K-value
0.8
sharp or square
edge
bellmouth
slightly rounded
0.1
0.25
bellmouth
0.2




Appendix PIPE FLOW

a-5
Table a.2
K-factors for pipe tapers

d/D 0.20 0.35 0.50 0.65 0.80
K 1.00 0.30 0.60 0.35 0.15
d/D 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
K 0.5 0.45 0.35 0.2
Sudden enlargement
D d
v
d/D 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
K 0.2 0.17 0.1 0.05 0
Taper: flow to small end
D d
v
D
Sudden contraction
d
v
Taper: flow to large end
d/D 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
K 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.10 0
v
d D


Table a.3
K-factors for valves

% open Butterfly Gate Float
100 0.3 0.1 4.2
90 0.5 0.2 4.8
80 0.9 0.4 5.5
70 2.5 0.8 6.6
60 6.3 1.7 8.5
50 14.5 3.3 11.8
40 32.6 5.8 19.0
30 80.0 10.0 41.0
20 220.0 23.0 171.0
10 1000.0 80.0 2500.0
0 (valves closed, zero flow)


The set of default K-values used in ARTS for butterfly, gate and float valves is presented in
Table a.3, where the head loss through the valve, h
valve
, is represented as:

Appendix PIPE FLOW

a-6
h K
v
2g
valve
2
· . . . a-13
where v is the computed velocity through a fully open valve.

Table a.4
K-factors for bends, mitred bends and elbows

Bends and elbows
Diameter
range
K Mitre bends* α K
Cast iron:
90o D/F bends 50-1200 0.4 Type 1 90
o
1.20
45o D/F bends 50-1200 0.2 80
o
1.00
70
o
0.80
Steel welding bends: 60
o
0.60
90
o
short radius 50-400 0.40 50
o
0.40
45
o
short radius 50-400 0.20 40
o
0.30
90
o
long radius 50-400 0.35 30
o
0.15
45
o
long radius 50-400 0.17 20
o
0.10
10
o
0.05
PVC/ABS:
90
o
elbows 0.5″-8″ 1.25
45
o
elbows 0.5″-8″ 0.50 Type 2 60
o
0.30
90
o
long radius bends 0.25″-4″ 0.45 45
o
0.25
90
o
long radius bends 150-600 0.30 30
o
0.20
45
o
long radius bends 0.5″-4″ 0.25
45
o
long radius bends 150-600 0.15
22.5
o
long radius
bends
150-600 0.10 Type 3 90
o
0.30
11.25
o
long radius
bends
150-600 0.05 75
o
0.25
60
o
0.20
Screwed steel:
90
o
elbows 0.5″-6″ 1.25
45
o
elbows 0.5″-6″ 0.50
* mitre bend types

Mitre type 1
α α
Mitre type 2
α
Mitre type 3


Appendix PIPE FLOW

a-7
Table a.5
K-factors for square-edged tees


v
combining flow
branch
main
q
Q
branch
main
v
Q
dividing flow
q



Diameter ratio Diameter ratio
Flow
ratio
(branch/main) Flow
ratio
(branch/main)
q/Q 0.5 0.75 1.0 q/Q 0.5 0.75 1.0
head loss in line head loss in line
0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0 0.1 0.1 0.1
0.25 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.25 0 0 0
0.50 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.50 0 0 0
0.75 1.0 0.8 0.75 0.2 0.2 0.2
headloss:
branch to main
headloss:
main to branch
0.25 0.7 0 -0.2 0.25 2.2 1.0 0.9
0.50 3.5 0.9 0.5 0.50 6.5 1.3 0.9
0.75 7.0 2.0 0.9 0.75 11.0 1.7 1.1
1.00 11.0 3.0 1.2 1.00 14.0 2.3 1.3
Combining equal flows Dividing flow equally
Diameter ratio =1 K=0.7 Diameter ratio = 1 K = 1.2
v
main
branch
main
branch
v



Appendix PIPE FLOW

a-8
Table a.6
K-factors for radiused tees

combining flow
main
branch
q
v
Q
v
Q
main
branch
dividing flow
q


Diameter ratio Diameter ratio
Flow
ratio
(branch/main) Flow
ratio
(branch/main)
q/Q 0.5 0.75 1.0 q/Q 0.5 0.75 1.0
head loss in line head loss in line
0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0 0.1 0.1 0.1
0.25 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.25 0 0 0
0.50 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.50 0 0 0
0.75 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.75 0.2 0.2 0.2
headloss:
branch to main
headloss:
main to branch
0.25 0.7 0 -0.2 0.25 1.5 0.8 0.4
0.50 1.4 0.4 0.2 0.50 2.8 0.8 0.6
0.75 3.5 0.7 0.4 0.75 3.9 0.8 0.6
1.00 8.3 2.0 0.7 1.00 4.9 1.0 0.7
Combining equal flows Dividing flow equally
Diameter ratio =1 K=0.4 Diameter ratio = 1 K = 0.8
main
branch
v
main
branch
v


Appendix PIPE FLOW

a-9
FLOW IN PIPE NETWORKS
A pipe network can be described as a system of interconnected pipes, forming one or more closed
loops. A loop may be defined as a connected set of pipes and their end nodes, every node of which
is an end node of exactly two pipes of the set. The term node is applied to any point at which water
enters or leaves the network or to any pipe junction within the network. Thus each pipe is defined
by a pair of end nodes.
The distribution of flow within such a pipe system is determined by the following factors:

1. the head-discharge relationship for each pipe
2. the governing network flow equations
3. the boundary conditions of the system


Head-discharge relationship for pipes
Equations (a2), (aA4) and (a5) above define the relation between pipe friction slope and mean flow
velocity. Hence, head loss may be correlated with flow as follows:

h rQ
2
· . . . a-14

where Q is the flow rate and r is the pipe resistance coefficient:

r
8f L
gD
Q
2 5
2
·
π
. . . a-15

where L is the pipe length and D is the pipe diameter.


Network equations
In any pipe network the number of unknown flows corresponds to the number of pipes in the
network and their evaluation involves the solution of an equal number of simultaneous equations.
These equations are of two types, described as continuity equations and loop equations.

Consider a pipe network having P pipes and N nodes. The continuity or node equations take the
general form:

Q E 0
ij i
+ ·

. . . a-16

where Q
ij
infers flow from node i to node j, the subscript j representing nodes connected to node i.
E
i
is the external supply or demand at node i. The application of the continuity equation requires
the adoption of a sign convention that differentiates between flow towards a node and flow away
Appendix PIPE FLOW

a-10
from a node. ARTS uses the convention that flow away from a node is positive (i.e. demands are
positive) and flow towards a node is negative (i.e. supplies are negative). The maximum number of
independent node equations is N-1.

The loop equations are of the general form:

h 0
ij
·

. . . a-17

where h r Q
ij ij ij
2
· is the head loss in the pipe connecting nodes i and j and the summation covers all
pipes which comprise the loop. The sign convention adopted in ARTS is that the head loss
associated with clockwise flow is considered positive and head loss associated with anticlockwise
flow is considered negative. The maximum number of independent loop equations is P- (N-1). Thus
the total number of independent equations, derived from the continuity and loop conditions, equals
P, the number of pipes in the network.


Network boundary conditions
The boundary conditions must be sufficient to define flow distribution. Boundary conditions for pipe
networks include: supplies (inflows to the system) and demands (outflows from the system); nodes
having constant head, for example reservoirs. Typical examples of sets of boundary conditions
sufficient to define flow and pressure distribution in pipe networks are:

1. the magnitudes of supplies and demands are known; one nodal pressure is known.
2. magnitudes of pressures at supply nodes and magnitudes of demands are known.


Flow regulation devices
ARTS makes provision for the inclusion of the following flow control devices:

• non-return valves (NRVs)
• pressure-reducing valves (PRVs)
• pumps

An NRV permits forward flow only; a PRV effects a head drop h
d
according to the relationship:

h CQ
d
2
· . . . a-18
The head rise h
p
across a pump is defined by the quadratic pump equation:

h A A Q A Q
p 0 1 2
2
· + + . . . a-19
Appendix PIPE FLOW

a-11
Analysis of flow distribution
The ARTS coding establishes a set of independent loops from the input pipe data and solves the
resulting set of network, boundary condition and control device equations, using an iterative loop
flow correction procedure (Casey, 1992).
FLOW OF SEWAGE SLUDGE IN PIPES
The extent to which the head loss associated with sludge flow in pipes exceeds that for water flow
is dependent on both the concentration and nature of the component suspended solids. The linear
correlation of shear stress and shear rate, characteristic of Newtonian fluids, does not apply to
sewage sludges at suspended solids above certain threshold levels. The relation of shear stress
and shear rate is non-linear and may be represented as follows:

τ τ · +
¸
¸

_
,

y
n
K
dv
dy
. . . a-20

where τ
y
is the yield stress, K is a consistency coefficient and n is a non-dimensional consistency
index. Recommended guideline values for these parameters for various types of sewage sludge,
based on data reported by Frost (1983) are given in Table a7.

Table a7
Guideline values for rheological parameters K, n and τ τ
y

C is the sludge solids concentration (kg/m
3
)
Sludge type K n τ
y

Primary 5 x 10
-5
C
2.82
0.79C
-0.17
1.3 x 10
-4
C
2.72

Activated 9 x 10
-5
C
3.00
1.70C
-0.45
1.3 x 10
-4
C
3.00

Anaerobically
digested
6 x 10
-6
C
3.50
0.90C
-0.24
1.4 x 10
-5
C
3.37

Humus 2 x 10
-5
C
3.00
1.90C
-0.45
1.6 x 10
-5
C
3.00



Sludge flow in pipes may be categorised in laminar, transitional and turbulent flow categories using
a modified form of the flow Reynolds number as follows:

( ) { } ( )
R
vD
K 3n 1 / 4n 8v / D
e
n
n 1
·
+

ρ
. . . a-21

where ρ is the water density, v is the mean velocity and D is the pipe diameter.
Appendix PIPE FLOW

a-12
The flow is categorised by R
e
as follows:

1. laminar flow: R
e
< 2300
2. transitional flow: 2300 < R
e
<4000
3. turbulent flow: R
e
> 4000

Under laminar flow conditions the discharge is given by the expression:

Q
D
8
n
3n 1 K
1
/
2n 1
1
2n
n 1
1
n
3
w y
1/ n
y w y
w
y
w
·
+
¸
¸

_
,

− ¸
¸

_
,

+
+
+
¸
¸

_
,
+
¸
¸

_
,

¸

1
]
1
1
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
π
τ τ τ τ τ
τ
τ
τ
. . . a-22

where τ
w
is the wall shear stress:

τ ρ
w h f
gR S · . . . a-23

where R
h
is the hydraulic radius = D/4.

Under turbulent sludge flow conditions, it has been found that head loss can be reliably related to
the corresponding head loss for clean water (equations a1-a4) at the same velocity and
temperature. The relation is expressed (Frost, 1982) in the form of head loss ratio (HLR) factors as
follows:

1. primary sludge: HLR = 1.5
2. activated sludge: HLR = 0.88 + 0.024C for C > 5 kg/m
3

3. anaerobically digested sludge: HLR = 0.80 + 0.016C for C > 15 kg/m
3

4. humus sludge: HLR = 0.84 + 0.020C for C > 10 kg/m
3


where C is the sludge solids concentration.

The ARTS coding uses the foregoing equations for hydraulic computations related to flow of
sludges in pipes.


References
Casey, T J (1992) Water and Wastewater Engineering Hydraulics, Oxford University Press,
Oxford OX2 6DP.
Frost, R C (1982) Prediction of friction losses for the flow of sewage sludge in straight pipes,
TR175, Water Research centre, Stevenage.

Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW

b-1
b OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
INTRODUCTION
The flow of water in open channels is characterised by the existence of a “free” surface, that is, an
upper boundary in contact with air at atmospheric pressure. Gravity is the motive force. ARTS
caters for the analysis of open channel flow and the design of open channels encompassing
uniform, gradually varied and rapidly varied steady flow. The categorisation of flow as “steady”
implies that the velocity vector at a particular location does not change with time.

The following range of channel geometry is included:



Rectangular Trapezoidal V-shape Circular U-shape Parabolic


STEADY UNIFORM FLOW
The relation between the slope of the energy grade line or friction slope S
f
and the mean velocity v
under steady open channel flow conditions is given by the expression:
v 7.8 R S ln
k
14.8R
R 8gR S
h f
h
h h f
· − +

¸

1
]
1
1
0 625 . ν
. . . b-1
where R
h
is the hydraulic radius i.e. the ratio of the water cross-sectional area to the wetted
perimeter length, k is the channel wall surface roughness and ν is the water kinematic viscosity.
The relation between v and S
f
can also be expressed through the Darcy-Weisbach equation:
S
f v
8 g R
f
2
h
· . . . b-2
where f is the friction factor, which is dependent on the channel relative roughness k/R
h
and the
flow Reynolds number according to the relationship:

1
f
0.88 ln
k
14.8 R
0.625
R f
h
e
· − +

¸

1
]
1
1
. . . b-3

where the Reynolds number Re = vR
h
/ν. When the flow Reynolds number exceeds about 1100, as
is invariably the case in open channels, the flow is turbulent.
Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW

b-2

While v and R
h
are the primary computational variables in the above equations, they are frequently
replaced in practical hydraulic computations by the discharge Q (Q = vA, where A is the water cross-
sectional area), and the flow depth y, respectively.

The ARTS software uses the foregoing set of equations for the computation of flow parameters in
uniform and gradually varied open channel flow problems.

GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW
In gradually varied steady open channel flow, velocity and depth vary along the channel length but
are invariant with time at any particular location. Such flow occurs in the vicinity of control sections,
in channel transitions where there is a change of channel slope or cross-section, in collector
channels, as used in sedimentation tanks and sand filters, and in channels with side overflow weirs.

The water surface slope in an open channel under gradually varied conditions is given by the
following equation:
3
2
2
f o
A g
Q W
1
dx
dQ
A g
Q
S S
dx
dy
α
α

− −
· . . . b-4
where dy/dx is the water surface slope, S
o
is the channel bottom slope, dQ/dx is the spatial variation
in discharge along the channel length (positive where there a lateral inflow and negative where there
is a lateral outflow), α is the kinetic energy factor (generally taken to have unit value in practical flow
computation).

ARTS uses the Runge-Kutta computational scheme to integrate equation (b4) to compute the
variation in flow depth y over a channel reach, starting at either an upstream or a downstream
control section at which the depth is defined. The range of gradually varied flow regimes within the
software scope includes the following:


(a) Channels of mild slope

• downstream control: specified downstream depth ≥ critical depth
sets start depth = downstream depth; calculates GVF profile working step-wise in
the upstream direction.
Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW

b-3
upstream control: specified upstream depth ≤ critical depth
(a) set all depths equal to normal depth
(b) sets start depth = specified upstream depth; calculates GVF profile working
step-wise in the downstream direction until sequent depth of HJ = normal depth

upstream and downstream controls: specified upstream depth ≤ critical depth,
specified downstream depth ≥ critical depth
(a) sets start depth = downstream depth; calculates GVF profile working step-wise
in the upstream direction.
(b) sets start depth = upstream depth; calculates GVF profile working step-wise in
the downstream direction until sequent depth of HJ = depth calculated at (a).


(b) Channels of steep slope

• upstream control: specified upstream depth ≤ critical depth
sets start depth = upstream depth; calculates GVF profile working step-wise in the
downstream direction.
• upstream control: specified upstream depth > critical depth
sets upstream depth = critical depth
sets start depth = upstream depth; calculates GVF profile working step-wise in the
downstream direction.

• downstream control: downstream depth ≥ critical depth
(a) sets all depths equal to normal depth
(b) sets start depth = specified downstream depth; calculates GVF profile working
step-wise in the upstream direction until incident depth of HJ = normal depth

• upstream and downstream controls: specified upstream depth ≤ critical depth and
specified downstream depth ≥ critical depth.
(a) sets start depth = upstream depth; calculates GVF profile working step-wise in
the downstream direction.
(b) sets start depth = downstream depth; calculates GVF profile working step-wise
in the upstream direction until incident depth of HJ = depth calculated at (a).
• upstream and downstream controls: specified upstream depth > critical depth and
specified downstream depth ≥ critical depth; sets upstream depth = critical depth
(a) sets start depth = upstream depth; calculates GVF profile working step-wise in
the downstream direction.
(b) sets start depth = downstream depth; calculates GVF profile working step-wise
in the upstream direction until incident depth of HJ = depth calculated at (a).

Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW

b-4
(c) Some GVF water profile examples

Case 2 Intersection of channel of mild slope
with channel of steep slope;
Critical depth control
Case 4 Channel of steep slope with
weir control at outlet end
Case 3 Channel of mild slope with lateral inflow
and free overflow at outlet end
Case 5 Channel of mild slope with lateral outflow
and control structure at outlet end
Case 1: Channel of mild slope with
downstream weir control



RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW
In rapidly varied flow the flow depth changes between sub-critical and super-critical over a short
length of channel. When the change is from super-critical to sub-critical, an hydraulic jump occurs,
as illustrated in Case 4 above. When the change is from sub-critical to super-critical, an hydraulic
drop occurs, as illustrated in Case 2 above. While the latter exhibits a smooth surface profile, that
can be determined by the application of equation (b4) above, the hydraulic jump (an unconfined
deceleration), on the other hand, occurs more abruptly with significant loss of energy. ARTS uses
the following equation to compute either the incident depth y
1
or the sequent depth y
2
at an
hydraulic jump:
A y A y
Q
g
1
A
1
A
0
1 1 2 2
2
2 1
− − −
¸
¸

_
,
· . . . b-5
where A
1
and A
2
are the upstream downstream flow cross-sectional areas, respectively; y
1
and y
2

are the corresponding centroidal depths.
Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES

c-1
c OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES
INTRODUCTION
Open channel flow measurement structures are so designed that the flow can be reliably
determined from measurement of the upstream head relative to a reference level in the ‘control
section’ of the structure. The control section may incorporate a weir, orifice plate or critical depth
flume.

To insure that there is a unique relationship between the upstream head and flow rate it is essential
that the upstream head is not influenced by variations in the downstream or ‘tailwater’ level. When
flow is not influenced by the tailwater level, conditions are said to be ‘modular’. and the upstream
head is entirely determined by the control section of the measuring structure.

ARTS caters for the following flow measurement structures:

• The broad-crested weir
• thin-plate weirs; v-notch, rectangular notch, proportional flow.
• critical depth flumes; long-throated flumes, short-throated flumes, Parshall flume

BROAD-CRESTED WEIR

cill block
y
1
p
1
L
r
2
v
H
1
h
1
1
2g
rounded nose
Energy grade line
2
p
y
2
H
2

Figure c.1 Longitudinal profile of broad-crested weir

The broad-crested weir, as illustrated on Fig c1, has a raised horizontal cill of sufficient length in
the flow direction to effect a horizontal surface and hydrostatic pressure distribution for at least a
short distance. The ARTS program uses the following head/discharge relationship for broad-
crested weirs:

Q C C
2
3
b
2
3
g h
d v 1
1.5
· . . . c-1

Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES

c-2
where
C
d
is an empirically determined discharge coefficient
C
v
is the velocity coefficient
b is the weir width
h
1
is the upstream gauged head

The discharge coefficient is taken to have the following value:

( ) ( )
C 1
2x L r
b
1
x L r
h
d
1
1.5
· −

¸

1
]
1


¸

1
]
1
. . . c-2

where x is a boundary layer displacement factor, taken as 0.003 for smooth plastic or metallic
surfaces and 0.005 for well-finished concrete surfaces; L is the horizontal crest length in the flow
direction; b is the weir width.

The velocity coefficient has the following value:

C
H
h
v
1
1
1.5
·
¸
¸

_
,
. . . c-3

Modular limit
Within the normal design range the modular limit H
2
/H
1
upper bound is calculated as follows:

H
H
0.85 ln
H
p
2
1
1
2
≤ +
¸
¸

_
,
006 . . . . c-4

where H
1
is the total upstream head and p
2
is the downstream step height.

The following design limits are applied:

1. weir length L ≥ 1.75 H
1(max)

2. h
1(min)
≥ 0.06 m or ≥ 0.05L, whichever is greater
3. radius of the cill nose = 0.2 H
1(max)

4. upstream weir step height ≥0.15m or ≥0.67H
1
, whichever is greater
5. upstream Froude number ≤ 0.5

Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES

c-3
THIN-PLATE WEIRS
Thin-plate or sharp-crested weirs are widely used for the measurement of small to medium
discharges. ARTS caters for the design of V-notch, rectangular and proportional-flow (Sutro) thin-
plate weirs.

V-NOTCH WEIR
0.05m
1
p
p
2
h
1
B
θ

Figure c.2 V-notch Weir

ARTS uses the following head-discharge equation for V-notch weirs:

( ) Q C
8
15
2g tan / 2 h
e e
2.5
· θ . . . c-5

where C
e
, the discharge coefficient, is a function of the notch angle θ, as given in Table c.1. The
effective head h
e
= h
1
+ K
h
, where K
h
is an empirical head correction factor, also a function of the
notch angle θ, as given in Table c.1.

Table c.1
V-notch sharp-crested weir coefficients
(Kindsvater and Carter, 1957)
Notch angle θ (deg) 20 40 60 80 100
C
e
0.595 0.581 0.577 0.577 0.580
K
h
(mm) 2.8 1.8 1.2 0.85 0.80

Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES

c-4
ARTS applies the following design limits in V-notch weir computations:

• h
1
/p
1
≤ 1.2
• h
1
/B ≤ 0.4; B ≥ 0.60 m
• 0.60 ≥ h
1
≥ 0.05 m
• p
1
≥ 0.10 m
• 100
o
≥ θ ≥ 25
o

• tailwater level ≥ 0.05 m below vertex of V-notch

RECTANGULAR SHARP-EDGED WEIR

0.05m
1
p
p
2
h
1
B
b

Figure c.3 Rectangular notch weir

ARTS uses the following head-discharge equation for rectangular sharp-crested weirs:

Q C
2
3
2g b h
e e e
1.5
· . . . c-6

where the coefficient C
e
= K
1
+ K
2
(h
1
/p
1
); the effective weir width b
e
= b + K
b
; and the effective weir
head h
e
= h
1
+ 0.001m. The numerical values used by ARTS for these coefficients are given in
Table c2.
Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES

c-5
Table c.2
Coefficient values for sharp-edged rectangular weirs
(Kindsvater and Carter 1957)
b/B K1 K2 Kb
1.0 0.602 0.075 -0.0009
0.9 0.599 0.064 0.0037
0.8 0.597 0.045 0.0043
0.7 0.595 0.030 0.0041
0.6 0.593 0.018 0.0037
0.5 0.592 0.011 0.0030
0.4 0.591 0.0058 0.0027
0.3 0.590 0.0020 0.0025
0.2 0.589 -0.0018 0.0024
0.1 0.588 -0.0021 0.0024
0 0.587 -0.0023 0.0024


ARTS applies the following design limits in rectangular sharp-crested weir computations:

• h
1
≥ 0.03 m
• h
1
/p1 ≤ 2; p
1
≥ 0.10 m
• b ≥ 0.15 m

PROPORTIONAL-FLOW WEIR

0.05 m
h
1
p
p
1
2
x
Weir opening profile
z
b
a
1
B

Figure c.4 Sutro weir profile

The width x of the Sutro weir opening varies with vertical distance z1 as follows:

Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES

c-6
x
b
1
2
tan
z
a
1 1
· −

π
. . . c-7

ARTS uses the following head-discharge equation for proportional flow weirs:

Q C b 2ga h
1
3
a
d 1
· −
¸
¸

_
,

. . . c-8

The discharge coefficient C
d
is a function of the a and b dimensions. ARTS uses the C
d
values
given in Table c.3.

Table c.3
Discharge coefficient C
d
for Sutro weir
a b (m)
(m) 0.15 0.23 0.30 0.38 0.46
0.00
6
0.60
8
0.61
3
0.61
7
0.61
8
0.61
9
0.01
5
0.60
6
0.61
1
0.61
5
0.61
7
0.61
7
0.03
0
0.60
3
0.60
8
0.61
2
0.61
3
0.61
4
0.04
6
0.60
1
0.60
6
0.61
0
0.61
2
0.61
2
0.06
1
0.59
9
0.60
4
0.60
8
0.61
0
0.61
0
0.07
6
0.59
8
0.60
3
0.60
7
0.60
8
0.60
9
0.09
1
0.59
7
0.60
2
0.60
6
0.60
8
0.60
8



ARTS applies the following design limits in rectangular sharp-crested weir computations:

• h
1
≥ 2a or ≥ 0.03 m, whichever is greater
• a ≥ 0.005 m
• b ≥ 0.15 m
• b/p
1
≥ 1
• B/b ≥ 3
• tailwater level ≥ 0.05 m below the weir crest

Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES

c-7
CRITICAL DEPTH FLUMES

LONG-THROATED FLUMES
(trapezoidal flume in trapezoidal channel)
THROAT CROSS-SECTIONS
(channel cross-sections shown as dotted lines)
Trapezoidal Rectangular U-shape
v h H
y
1 1
y
c
height
1 1
step
LONGITUDINAL SECTION
throat length
L
2g
v
1
2
H y
2
h
2 2

Figure c.5 Long-throated flume

Long-throated flumes are critical flow measuring devices, having a restricted cross-sectional area
or throat, across which the flow undergoes a transition from subcritical on the upstream side,
through critical flow to supercritical flow on the downstream side. ARTS caters for the design of
flumes of ARTS caters for the design of rectangular, trapezoidal and U-shaped long-throated
flumes.

Head/discharge relationships are computed as follows:

Under critical flow conditions:
( )
Q gA / W
c
3
c
0.5
· . . . c-9
H y
A
2W
e c
c
c
· + . . . c-10
Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES

c-8
where
Q is the flume discharge (m
3
/s)
A
c
is the critical flow cross-sectional area in the flume throat (m
2
).
W
c
is the water surface width at the critical section (m)
H
e
is the effective total upstream head (m)
y
c
is the critical depth (m)

The actual total upstream head H
1
is found by adding a boundary layer -related head correction to
the effective total upstream head H
e
as follows:

H H
P
W L
L
1 e
c
c
· +
δ
. . . c-11
where
P
c
is the section perimeter length at the critical section
δ is the boundary layer displacement thickness
L is the throat length

δ/L is a function of the throat wall roughness and the throat Reynolds number, the latter being
defined as v L/
c
ν , where v
c
is the critical velocity in the throat and ν is the kinematic viscosity. For
smooth plastic or metallic surfaces δ/L may be is taken equal to 0.003 and for well-finished
concrete surfaces as 0.005.

The measured upstream head h
1
is related to the total upstream head H
1
as follows:

h H
v
2g
1 1
1
2
· − . . . c-12

where v
1
is the mean velocity in the approach channel at the head-gauging point.

The modular limit requirement for the flume is satisfied if the available head difference between
the upstream and downstream water levels can accommodate the head losses through the
structure. A major component of this head loss is due to the flow expansion from the throat cross-
section to the downstream channel section. The program applies the following modular limit values:

Downstream
expansion
Modular
limit (H
2
/H
1
)
1:20 0.91
1:10 0.83
1:6 0.80
1:3 0.74

Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES

c-9
On the inflow side, a convergence rate not exceeding 1:3 is recommended for the transition from
the upstream channel section to the throat section.

To ensure accurate flow measurement, the program checks that the flume dimensions are
compliant with the following recommended design limit values:

1. h
1
≥ 0.05m or ≥ 0.05L, whichever is the greater

2. Froude number F
r
= v
1
/ (g A
1
/ W
1
)
0.5
in approach channel to ≤ 0.5

3. 0.67 ≥ h
1
/ L

4. b ≥ 0.1m

5. h ≤ 2m

SHORT-THROATED FLUMES

b
PLAN
r
s
· 4p
LONGITUDINAL SECTION
1
m
d
y
h
1 1
=
upstream
transition
downstream
transition
CriticalDepth
B
B
THROAT
CROSS-SECTION
2
y
b
H

Figure c.6 Short-throated flume


The short-throated flume (also described as throatless flume) is similar to the long-throated flume
except that it effectively has a zero throat length and hence does not offer as high a level of
accuracy of flow measurement over the design flow range. ARTS caters for the design of short-
throated flumes of rectangular throat section and having the geometrical configuration shown in the
above diagram.
Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES

c-10
The head-discharge equation for a critical depth flume of rectangular throat section may be written
in the form:

Q C C
2
3
2
3
g b h
d v
0.5
1
3/ 2
·

¸

1
]
1
. . . c-13

where C
d
is the coefficient of discharge and C
v
is the approach velocity coefficient; the latter has a
value somewhat greater than unity, taking into account the fact that h
1
is used in the discharge
equation in place of H
1
(refer eqn. c12). ARTS applies the following geometric constraints that
enable the discharge coefficient C
d
to be taken as unity for design purposes (Bos, 1976) :

• the radius of the upstream side walls r
s
lies between 1.6 H
1
max and 2.0 H
1
max.
• the angle of divergence of the side walls lies in the range 1:6 to 1:10.

For reliable flow measurement the following design limits are also applied:

• the modular limit is defined by the correlation
• the recommended lower limit for h
1
is 0.06m
• the upstream Froude number should not exceed 0.5
• the throat width b should not be less than 0.20m or less than H
1
max.

PARSHALL FLUME

head measurement
location
P
M B L G
PLAN
D
a
b
LONGITUDINAL SECTION
1:4
N
E
h1
C
K

Figure c.7 Parshall flume

Parshall flumes are calibrated open channel flow measurement structures. They were developed in
the United States by R. Parshall (1922). The Parshall flume has a rectangular cross-section with a
Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES

c-11
side wall geometry as illustrated on the above plan view. The upstream end has a transition reach
of length M, with an upward sloping floor at a gradient of 1:4 as shown on the above longitudinal
section. This is followed by a converging section of length B, having an horizontal floor and leading
to a throat section of length L with a downward sloping floor; the throat section discharges to a
diverging section of length G with an upward sloping floor.

Parshall flumes have a defined head measurement location on the flume structure itself as shown
on the above plan view. Calibration equations have been developed for a standard range of
Parshall flumes, based on head measurement at this point and subject to operation within specified
modular limit values.

Dimensional data for the standard range of Parshall flume sizes are given in Table c.4. Flow
measurement ranges, discharge equations and modular limit values are given in Table c.5.

Table c.4
Parshall flume dimensions (mm)
b a B C D E L G K M N P
1" 25.4 242 356 93 167 229 76 203 19 - 29 -
2" 50.8 276 406 135 214 254 114 254 22 - 43 -
3" 76.2 311 457 178 259 457 152 305 25 - 57 -
6" 152.4 414 610 394 397 610 305 610 76 305 114 902
9" 228.6 587 864 381 575 762 305 457 76 305 114 1080
1' 304.8 914 1343 610 845 914 610 914 76 381 229 1492
l'6" 457.2 965 1419 762 1026 914 610 914 76 381 229 1676
2' 609.6 1016 1495 914 1206 914 610 914 76 381 229 1854
3' 914.4 1118 1645 1219 1572 914 610 914 76 381 229 2222
4' 1219.2 1219 1794 1524 1937 914 610 914 76 457 229 2711
5' 1524.0 1321 1943 1829 2302 914 610 914 76 457 229 3080
6' 1828.8 1422 2092 2134 2667 914 610 914 76 457 229 3442
7' 2133.6 1524 2242 2438 3032 914 610 914 76 457 229 3810
8' 2438.4 1626 2391 2743 3397 914 610 914 76 457 229 4172
10' 3048.0 1829 4267 3658 4756 1219 914 1829 152 - 343 -
12' 3658.0 2032 4877 4470 5607 1524 914 2438 152 - 343 -
15' 4572.0 2337 7620 5588 7620 1829 1219 3048 229 - 457 -
20' 6096.0 2845 7620 7315 9144 2134 1829 3658 305 - 686 -
25' 7620.0 3353 7620 8941 10668 2134 1829 3962 305 - 686 -
30' 9144.0 3861 7925 10566 12313 2134 1829 4267 305 - 686 -
40' 12192.0 4877 8230 13818 15481 2134 1829 4877 305 - 686 -
50' 15240.0 5893 8230 17272 18529 2134 1829 6096 305 - 686 -
Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES

c-12
Table c.5
Parshall flume discharge characteristics

Throat
width b
Discharge range
m
3
/s x 10
3

Equation

Head range
in metres
Modular

in ins or ft
min max
Q = K h
a
n

min max
limit
1′′ 0.09 5.4 0.0604 h
a
1.55

0.015 0.21 0.50
2′′ 0.18 13.2 0.1207 h
a
1.55

0.015 0.24 0.50
3′′ 0.77 32.1 0.1771 h
a
1.55

0.03 0.33 0.50
6′′ 1.50 111 0.3812 h
a
1.58

0.03 0.45 0.60
9′′ 2.50 251 0.5354 h
a
1.53

0.03 0.61 0.60
12′′ 3.32 457 0.6909 h
a
1.522

0.03 0.76 0.70
18′′ 4.80 695 1.056 h
a
1.538

0.03 0.76 0.70
2′ 12.1 937 1.428 h
a
1.550

0.046 0.76 0.70
3′ 17.6 1427 2.184 h
a
1.566

0.046 0.76 0.70
4′ 35.8 1923 2.953 h
a
1.578

0.06 0.76 0.70
5′ 44.1 2424 3.732 h
a
1.587

0.06 0.76 0.70
6′ 74.1 2929 4.519 h
a
1.595

0.076 0.76 0.70
7′ 85.8 3438 5.312 h
a
1.601

0.076 0.76 0.70
8′ 97.2 3949 6.112 h
a
1.607

0.076 0.76 0.70
10′ 160 8280 7.463 h
a
1.60

0.09 1.07 0.80
12′ 190 14680 8 h
a
1.60
.859

0.09 1.37 0.80
15′ 230 25040 10 h
a
1.60
.96

0.09 1.67 0.80
20′ 310 37970 14 h
a
1.60
.45

0.09 1.83 0.80
25′ 380 47140 17 h
a
1.60
.94

0.09 1.83 0.80
30′ 460 56330 21 h
a
1.60
.44

0.09 1.83 0.80
40′ 600 74700 28 h
a
1.60
.43

0.09 1.83 0.80
50′ 750 93040 35 h
a
1.60
.41

0.09 1.83 0.80

Selected list of references
Ackers, P, White, W R, Perkins, J A and Harrison, A J M (1979) Weirs and Flumes for Flow Measurement, John Wiley &
Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK.
British Standards Institution, BS 3680 (1981): Methods of measurement of liquid flow in open channels, Part 4C, Flumes.
Bos, M G (1976) Discharge Measurement Structures, Report No. 4, Landbouwhogeschool, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Casey, T J (1992) Water and Wastewater Engineering Hydraulics, Oxford University Press, Oxford OX2 6DP.
Kindsvater, C E and Carter, R W C (1957) Discharge characteristics of rectangular thin-plate weirs, J. Hyd. Div. ASCE, HY 6,
83.
Parshall, R L (1950) Measuring water in irrigation channels with Parshall flumes and small weirs; Soil Conservation Circular
No. 843, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Parshall, R L (1953) Parshall flumes of large size, Bull. 426-A, Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station,, Colorado State
University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Singer, J and Lewis, D C G (1966) Proportional-flow weirs for automatic sampling or dosing, Water and Water Engineering, 70,
105-111.
Appendix PUMPING INSTALLATIONS

d-1
d PUMPING INSTALLATIONS
INTRODUCTION
Pumps transfer energy to the fluid being pumped by effecting a step-increase in head or pressure.
ARTS caters for the analysis and design of pump/rising main systems, incorporating rotodynamic
pumps with fixed or variable speed.

ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS
The active element in a rotodynamic pump is the rotating impeller or propeller, which imparts a
momentum to the fluid, that, on deceleration, is converted to a pressure rise. Rotodynamic pumps
are categorised (Casey,1992) according to their specific speed N
s
, which is defined as follows:

N
NQ
H
s
0.5
0.75
· . . . d-1

where N is the pump speed (rpm), H is the pump manometric head (m) and Q is the pump
discharge (m
3
/s). The manometric head H is defined as the step change in total head across the
pump:

H
p
g
v
2g
p
g
v
2g
d d
2
s s
2
· +
¸
¸

_
,

− +
¸
¸

_
,

ρ ρ
. . . d-2

where the subscripts s and d relate to the pump suction and delivery sides, respectively.

Pump efficiency η is defined as the ratio of the hydraulic power transferred to the fluid, to the shaft
power, P:

η
ρ
·
gHQ
P
. . . d-3

The specific speed ranges for the three main categories of rotodynamic pump type are:

Pump type Specific speed (N
s
)
Centrifugal ≤ 80
Mixed flow 80 - 150
Axial flow 150 - 300
Appendix PUMPING INSTALLATIONS

d-2

where the parameter units are: N (rpm), Q (m
3
/s), and H (m).

CHARACTERISTIC EQUATIONS FOR ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS
Rotodynamic pumps are conventionally characterised by the parameters H, P, η, NPSH and Q,
where H, P Q and η are as already defined, and NPSH is the ‘net positive suction head’. NPSH is
defined as follows:

NPSH
p
g
p
g
s v
· −
¸
¸

_
,

ρ ρ
. . . d-4

where p
s
is the absolute pressure at the suction flange and p
v
is the prevailing vapour pressure.
The NPSH for a pump sets the practical limit of suction lift, which ensures that the risk of cavitation
within the pump impeller is avoided.

Pump characteristics are normally supplied by pump manufacturers in the form of graphical
representations of H, P, NPSH and efficiency η, as functions of pump discharge Q. Pump power
and pump torque are related as follows:

T
P
N
·
30
π
. . . d-5

where T (Nm/s) is the torque and N is the pump speed (rpm).
A typical sample set of characteristic curves is presented in Fig d1. Ideally, the operating point for a
rotodynamic pump should be close to its point of maximum pumping efficiency (η
max
), as identified
in Fig 1.

Q
η
η
max
η
P
H
P
H
η
P
H
Q
η
max
η
Q
P
H
η
max

Figure d.1 Rotodynamic pump characteristics

H is the manometric head; P is the power; η is the efficiency
Appendix PUMPING INSTALLATIONS

d-3
The H/Q relationship for a rotodynamic pump, driven at its rated speed N
R
, may be expressed in
quadratic equations of the form :

H A A Q A Q
R 0 1 2
2
· + + . . . d-6

where A
0
is the manometric head at zero flow, and A
1
and A
2
are constants.

The P/Q relationship for a rotodynamic pump, driven at its rated speed NR, may be similarly
expressed :
P B B Q B Q
R 0 1 2
2
· + + . . . d-7

where B
0
is the pump power draw at zero flow, and B
1
and B
2
are constants.

The H/Q equation for any other speed N, may be derived from the rated speed by scaling
according to the homologous pump relationships:

H
H
N
N
N
R R
·
¸
¸

_
,

2
and
Q
Q
N
N
N
R R
·

Thus, the P/Q equation for any speed N may be written as follows:

H A
N
N
A
N
N
Q A Q
N
R R
N N
·
¸
¸

_
,
+
¸
¸

_
,
+
0
2
1 2
2
. . . d-8

The P/Q equation for any other speed N, may be derived from the rated speed by scaling
according to the homologous pump relationships:

P
P
N
N
N
R R
·
¸
¸

_
,

3
and
Q
Q
N
N
N
R R
·

Thus, the P/Q equation for any speed N may be written as follows:

P B
N
N
B
N
N
Q B
N
N
Q
N
R R
N
R
N
·
¸
¸

_
,
+
¸
¸

_
,
+
¸
¸

_
,

0
3
1
2
2
2
. . . d-9


Appendix PUMPING INSTALLATIONS

d-4
ARTS sets up the pump characteristic equations in the foregoing quadratic form, using the co-
ordinates of 3 points from each characteristic curve, input by the user.

Pump operation in the energy-dissipating mode
The graphical representation of pump characteristics shown in Fig d1 relates to rotodynamic pumps
operating in their normal mode, i.e. the flow is from the suction side to the delivery side, while the
pressure head at the delivery flange exceeds the pressure head at the suction flange; in this normal
mode of operation both H and Q are conventionally defined as being positive. Under certain pump
trip-out conditions, however, the delivery flange pressure may temporarily drop below the suction
flange pressure (negative H), while maintaining forward flow (positive Q). Under such conditions,
the pump is said to be operating in an energy-dissipating mode. The H/Q characteristics for
operation in this mode are required in some waterhammer analysis problems, but are not generally
available from pump manufacturers. In the absence of specific manufacturer data for this mode of
operation, ARTS uses the following default relationship, which have been derived from the normal
mode correlations for H/Q and T/Q:

H/Q H A A Q A Q
D
· + + 2 2 2
0 1 2
2
. . . d-10

T/Q T B B Q B Q
D
· + + 2 2 2
0 1 2
2
. . . d-11

where H
D
represents the head drop (negative head rise) across the pump when operating in the
energy-dissipating mode and T
D
is the corresponding reactive torque.


References
Casey, T J (1992) Water and Wastewater Engineering Hydraulics, Oxford University Press
Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL

e-1
e WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL
INTRODUCTION
Waterhammer is the effect created in pressure pipe systems by the rapid acceleration or
deceleration of flow, such as may arise due the operation of flow regulating devices such as pumps
or valves. The resulting transient pressure changes are transmitted as elastic waves along the pipe
and may give rise to unacceptable pressure fluctuation. The lower limit to which the pressure can
drop is the water vapour pressure at the prevailing temperature. If a vapour pocket is created
during the pressure downsurge of the pressure fluctuation, it is liable to collapse in the following
pressure upsurge, emitting a hammer-like sound and causing pipe vibration.

BASIC EQUATIONS
The basic continuity and momentum equations, which are used to characterise unsteady pipe flow,
are written as follows:

continuity equation




θ
α ∂

H
t
v
H
x
v
g
v
x
+ − + · sin
2
0…... . . e-1

momentum equation g
H
x
v
v
x
v
t
fv| v|
2 D






+ + + · 0 . . . e-2
where
H is the pressure head; t denotes time
x is distance along the pipe; v denotes velocity
θ is pipe gradient angle α is the wavespeed
D is the pipe diameter

The wavespeed α is given by:

α
ρ ρ
·
+
1
/ K C D / T E
. . . e-3

where K is the bulk modulus for water, T is the pipe wall thickness, E is the Young’s modulus for
the pipe material, C is an anchorage coefficient. The ARTS analysis suite assumes a unit value for
C, which is appropriate for pipes with expansion joints.

The ARTS coding solves equations (E1) and (E2), plus the boundary condition equations for the
pipe system, using the method of characteristics (Casey,1992). The finite difference form of the
Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL

e-2
characteristic equations are set out with reference to the x-t finite difference grid illustrated in Fig
E1.


C
+

x-axis grid number
0
i-1
1 2
∆ 2 t
∆t
t
A
x
i+1 i N N+1
C
-
P
B
∆ x x

Figure e.1 The x-t finite difference grid




t
x
·
α
. . . e-4

C
+
equation:
( )
H H B Q Q RQ |Q |
p A p A A A
· − − − . . . e-5

C
-
equation:
( )
H H B Q Q RQ |Q |
p B p B B B
· + − + . . . e-6

where B
gA
·
α
and R
f x
2gDA
2
·

. . . e-7

where the head parameters H
A
, H
B
and H
p
are potential head values relative to a defined datum
level.

Equations (e5) and (e6) can be written in grid reference format as follows:

C
+
equation:
( )
H H B Q Q RQ |Q |
pi i 1 pi i 1 i 1 i 1
· − − −
− − − −
. . . e-8

C
-
equation:
( )
H H B Q Q RQ |Q |
pi i 1 pi i 1 i 1 i 1
· + − +
+ + + +
. . . e-9
Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL

e-3

Solving for H
pi
and Q
pi
:

H
CP CM
2
pi
·
+
. . . e-10

Q
CP CM
2B
pi
·

. . . e-11

where CP H BQ RQ |Q |
i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1
· + −
− − − −
and CM H BQ RQ |Q |
i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1
· − +
+ + + +


Thus an computation procedure uses the current values of H and Q at points i-1 and i+1 to
compute their values at point I at one time interval ∆t later. Usually the starting values are known
from an initial steady flow situation.

BOUNDARY CONDITION EQUATIONS
The ARTS software analyses the waterhammer conditions arising from sudden pump trip-out and
can handle the following boundary conditions:

1. pump, connected to a sump, at the upstream end of the rising main
2. non-return valve (NRV) at the upstream end of a rising main
3. air valve at any point on rising main
4. air vessel at the upstream end of the rising main
5. reservoir or free discharge at downstream end of rising main


Pump trip-out
ARTS deals only with rotodynamic pumps. The head and torque (or power) characteristics of
rotodynamic pumps, at the normal or rated speed N
R
, can be expressed as function of the rated
discharge Q
R
as follows:

head h A A Q A Q
R 0 1 R 2 R
2
· + + . . . e-12

torque T B B Q B Q
R 0 1 R 2 R
2
· + + . . . e-13

where A
0
, A
1
and A
2
are coefficients which define the h
R
/Q
R
relationship; B
0
, B
1
and B
2
are a
corresponding set of coefficients which define the T
R
/Q
R
relationship.

Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL

e-4
The following homologous relationships are assumed to apply when such pumps are operating at
speeds other than their rated speeds:

Q
Q
N
N
;
h
h
N
N
;
T
T
N
N
N
R R
N
R
2
R
2
N
R
2
R
2
· · · . . . e-14

where N is the operating speed. Application of these homologous relationships to equations (11)
and (12) results in the following expressions for pump head and pump torque at any speed N:

h A
N
N
A
N
N
Q A Q
N 0
R
2
1
R
2
2
·
¸
¸

_
,
+
¸
¸

_
,
+ . . . e-15

T B
N
N
B
N
N
Q B Q
N 0
R
2
1
R
2
2
·
¸
¸

_
,
+
¸
¸

_
,
+ . . . e-16

When a pump motor trips out, the inertia of the rotating parts maintains a decreasing pump output
in accordance with the deceleration relationship:

T I
d
dt
· −
ω
. . . e-17

where T is the reactive torque of the fluid, I is the moment of inertia of the rotating elements of the
pump set, and -dω/dt is the angular deceleration. Hence

d
T
I
dt ω · − or dN
60
2
T
I
dt
N
· −
π
. . . e-18

where dN is the change in rotational speed in r.p.m. in time dt. The pump characteristics at the
reduced speed can be determined from the rated values using equations (e15) and (e16).

Thus, for a pump at the upstream end of a rising main, as illustrated in Fig e2, the following set of
equations define unsteady flow following pump trip-out:

C
-
characteristic H CM BQ
p1 p1
· +
pump discharge H H h
p1 s N
− ·

Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL

e-5
where h
N
is the pump manometric head at pump speed N, as expressed by equation (e15).
Solution of this pair of simultaneous equations yields the instantaneous values of H and Q at the
pump delivery at the time t+∆t.

t
t +
H
s
1
pump
2
C
-
∆t

Figure e.2 Pump at upstream boundary


Non-return valve
An NRV at any node i imposes the condition: Q
pi
≥ 0. The ARTS coding assumes the inclusion of
an NRV on the delivery side of all pumps.


Air valve
Air valves are installed at high points on rising mains to allow escape of air. They also admit air
when the gauge pressure drops below atmospheric pressure and hence can be used to limit the
pressure downsurge under waterhammer conditions.

i-1
i+1 i
C
+
Q
av
t
i+1
t +
C
-
∆t

Figure e.3 Air valve boundary condition (under negative pressure conditions)

Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL

e-6
The ARTS coding applies the following air valve boundary condition equations, when the pressure
at the air valve location drops below atmospheric pressure:

H
pi
= H
id
. . . e-19
Q
i
+ Q
av
= Q
i+1
. . . e-20
where i is the air valve location node, H
id
is the rising main elevation at node I, Q
av
is the air inflow
rate.




Air vessel
Air vessels are frequently used on pump rising mains for the control of transient pressures. They
are typically located close to the pump, on the downstream side of the NRV. ARTS allows for the
location of an air vessel at the upstream end of the rising main. Fig e3 illustrates an air vessel on a
rising main located at node i.


H
id
i-1
i+1 i
C
+
Z
t
i+1
∆ t +
C -
air cushion
t

Figure e.4 Air vessel boundary

The governing equations for an air vessel boundary are:

C
+
characteristic H CP BQ
pi pi
· −

C
-
characteristic H CM BQ
p(i+1) p(i+1)
· +

air volume/head correlation h V constant
a a
γ
·

throttle pipe head loss h C Q
L a
2
·

h
a
/H
pi
correlation h H H H h Z
a pi id atm L
· − + + −

Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL

e-7
Continuity Q Q Q
pi a p(i 1)
+ ·
+


where h
a
is the absolute pressure head; H
atm
is the atmospheric pressure head; C is the head loss
coefficient for flow between the air vessel and the rising main; Q
a
is the air vessel flow; V
a
is the air
cushion volume; the air expansion exponent γ is taken to have a value of 1.35.

Reservoir
ARTS treats a rising main node connected to a reservoir as a point of fixed head:

H = H
i res
. . . e-21

where the reservoir is located at node i and H
res
is the reservoir water surface elevation.


Free discharge
ARTS treats a free discharge at the outlet end of a rising main as a point of fixed head:

H H
N 1 (N 1)d + +
· . . . e-22

where H
(N+1)d
is the rising main elevation at the outlet end.

Reference
Casey, T J (1992) Water and Wastewater Engineering Hydraulics, Oxford University Press, Oxford
OX2 6DP
Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL

e-8

Index
A
Activated sludge 4-7, 6-5
Add button 4-3
Air valves 4-3, 7-6,e-5
Air vessel 4-9, 7-5, e-6
Analysis menu
Hydraulic profile command 5-18, 6-11, 6-12
Steady pipe flow command 5-1, 5-5 - 5-8
Unsteady pipe flow command 7-3
Check existing system 6-15
Auto design 6-9

B
Biofilter 4-10
Broad-crested weir 4-22, c-1

C
Channels 4-4
Channel calculator 5-15
Channels in series 5-18
Colour code, junctions 3-8
Compile command 3-8
Continuity check 3-8
Control depth 5-16

D
Darcy Weisbach equation a-1
Design
Screen 2-1
Placing objects on 3-1
Sheet 2-2
Detritior 4-20, 6-6
Drawing
Hydraulic systems 3-5
Tips 3-9

E
Export to other applications 8-3
Extras 4-3

F
File management 8-1
Flow
Divider 4-11, 6-6
Measurement structures 5-19
Object 4-15
Sludge in pipes 4-15
Air in pipes 4-15, 5-12
Fluid 2-6
Flumes 4-12, 5-19
Froude number c-10


G
Gradually varied flow 5-13
GVF, control depth 5-16
GVF tool 5-15

H
Help 1-6
Hydraulic profile 6-11
Hydraulic objects 4-1

I
Installation 1-3

J
Junctions 4-21

K
K value 4-2, 4-15, 4-19, 4-20 , 5-2

L
Laterals 4-16
Line tool 4-26

M
Manifold 4-15
Menu bar 2-2

N
Network 5-5
New sheet 8-1
Nodes
Colour-coding 3-8

O
Objects
Copying 3-4
Deleting 3-3
Moving 3-3
Pasting 3-4
Re-sizing 3-3
Selecting 3-2
Open channel
Flow 5-13
Flow measurement structures 5-19
Open command 8-1






P
Pipe
Calculator 5-3
Fittings 4-3, a-4
Flow 5-1
Manifold 4-15, a-2
Network 5-5
Objects4-2
Systems 5-5
Property pages
Accessing 4-1
Tool 2-4
Pump
Object 4-5
H-Q 4-6, d-3
NPSH –Q 4-7, d-2
P-Q 4-6, d-3
Printing 8-2
Pump/rising main systems 5-7
Plot option 8-2

R
Rapidly varied flow 5-13
Rapid Gravity Filter 4-24, 6-6
Rectangle tool 4-25
Remove button 4-3
Reservoirs 4-5
Reynolds number a-1

S
Screen 4-19
Sedimentation tank 4-16
Selecting objects 3-2
Sludge 4-15
Sludge Blanket Clarifier 4-22, 6-6
Start
Arts 1-5
Menu 1-5
Status property page 4-2
Steady pipe flow 5-1, 5-2, 5-5 – 5-8, a-1
Storm overflow weir 4-17
Supply/demand object 4-15
Surface roughness 4-2, 4-15, 5-2


T
Text tool 4-25
Tool palette 2-4

U
Unsteady pipe flow 7-1
User interface 2-1

V
Valves
Air 4-3, 7-6,e-5
K values a-5
Vapour pressure limit 7-4

W
Waterhammer analysis 7-1
Wastewater treatment systems 6-1
Weirs
Broad crested 4-25, c-1
V notch 4-25, c-3
Rectangular sharp edged 4-25, c-4
Proportional flow 4-25, c-6

Y
Young’s modulus 4-2, e-1

Copyright

© 1998-2003 Aquavarra Research Limited; all rights reserved. No part of
this User Manual and the associated software may be copied, transmitted, transcribed, stored in any retrieval system, or translated into any language or computer language, in any form or by any means, without written permission from Aquavarra Research Limited.

Disclaimer

Aquavarra Research Limited has extensively tested its ARTS software with the objective of producing an error-free high quality product. However, Aquavarra Research Limited makes no representations or warranties in respect of the ARTS software or User Manual contents and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose.

Trade Marks

Windows™ is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation

Customer support

Aquavarra Research provides a technical support service to registered users of its ARTS software suite. Address Aquavarra Research Limited, Cannonbridge House, 22A Brookfield Avenue, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland. +353 1 2783107 +353 1 2783108 info@aquavarra.ie www.aquavarra.ie

Tel. Fax Email Web

Table of Contents
1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 GETTING STARTED INTRODUCTION SCOPE OF ARTS SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS INSTALLATION STARTING ARTS UNIT SYSTEM GETTING HELP QUITTING ARTS THE ARTS USER INTERFACE INTRODUCTION QUICK START THE MAIN DESIGN SCREEN THE DESIGN SHEET THE TOOL PALETTE THE SPREADSHEET VIEW SKETCHING THE SYSTEM LAYOUT INTRODUCTION QUICK START PLACING OBJECTS ON THE DESIGN SHEET SELECTING OBJECTS RE-SIZING OBJECTS MOVING OBJECTS DELETING OBJECTS COPYING AND PASTING OBJECTS DRAWING HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS CONTINUITY CHECK DRAWING TIPS 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-5 1-5 1-6 1-6 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-8 3-9

3 ACCESSING PROPERTY PAGES 4.16 STORM OVERFLOW W EIRS 4.6 RESERVOIRS 4.4 PIPES 4.3 5.4.19 JUNCTIONS 4.10 BIOFILTER 4.2 5.3.5 5. HYDRAULIC OBJECTS AND OTHER TOOLS 4.12 FLUMES 4.4 5.9 AIR VESSEL 4.2 QUICK START 4.3 5.23 THE RECTANGLE TOOL 4.13 FLOW 4.4.11 FLOW DIVIDER 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.5 CHANNELS 4.3 5.22 THE TEXT TOOL 4.1 5.18 DETRITOR 4.2 5.20 THE PROPERTIES TOOL 4.1 5.1 5.24 THE LINE TOOL 5.8 ACTIVATED SLUDGE REACTORS 4.2 HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS/DESIGN : GENERAL APPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION PIPE FLOW The Pipe Property Pages The Pipe Calculator Tool Pipe systems Pump/rising main systems OPEN CHANNEL FLOW Uniform flow computations The Channel Property Pages The Channel Calculator Tool Gradually varied flow Channels in series FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES Flumes Weirs 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-4 4-5 4-5 4-7 4-9 4-10 4-11 4-12 4-15 4-15 4-16 4-17 4-19 4-20 4-21 4-22 4-24 4-25 4-25 4-25 4-25 4-26 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-3 5-5 5-7 5-13 5-13 5-13 5-15 5-15 5-18 5-19 5-19 5-22 .17 SCREEN 4. 5.4 5.15 SEDIMENTATION TANK 4.1 5.4 5.3.20 BLANKET SLUDGE CLARIFIER 4.2 5.3.21 THE W EIR TOOL 4.14 MANIFOLD 4.3.7 PUMPS 4.3.2.21 RAPID GRAVITY FILTER 4.2.2.4.2.

2.3 7.6.4 6.2 6.8 6.4 6.2.3.1 7.2 7.2 6.3. PRINTING.7 6.3.1 6. 8.2 7.3.6 WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM HYDRAULIC DESIGN INTRODUCTION HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF PROCESS UNITS Sedimentation tank Biofilter Activated sludge reactor (ASR) Blanket Sludge Clarifier Rapid Gravity Filter Flow divider Mechanical screens Detritors HYDRAULIC SYSTEM SPECIFICATION Drawing the system Specifying the flow range for the system Preparing for Auto Design Implementing the Auto Design procedure Refining the initial design Examining the system at maximum flow Examining the system at minimum flow Examining the system at current/average flow SCREEN DISPLAY OF RESULTS EXAMINING EXISTING SYSTEMS EXAMPLES WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL INTRODUCTION DATA INPUT ANALYSIS Pump trip-out.2 8.2.6 6.5 8. with air vessel protection EXAMPLES FILE MANAGEMENT.6 6.2.5 6.8 6.3 .2 6.1 6.7 6. without air-vessel protection.1 8.3. 7.3.2 8.3 8.3 6.6 7.2.3 6.5 6.5 6.2.2. DATA EXPORT INTRODUCTION CREATING A NEW SHEET OPENING/CLOSING FILES SAVING FILES PRINTING EXPORT TO OTHER APPLICATIONS 6-1 6-1 6-2 6-2 6-3 6-5 6-6 6-6 6-7 6-7 6-8 6-8 6-8 6-10 6-10 6-10 6-11 6-12 6-12 6-13 6-13 6-15 6-15 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-3 7-3 7-4 7-5 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-2 8.1 7.1 6. Pump trip-out.3.3.4 8.2.3.3 6.4 6.3.4 8. 6.

.

it spans the spectrum of hydraulic problems encountered in water and wastewater engineering as well as incorporating specific features related to the hydraulic design of wastewater treatment systems.Getting Started 1. This sketch is then interpreted by the software in order to return a solution to the problem at hand. which is an hydraulic analysis/design software package. 1.1 Getting Started Introduction Welcome to ARTS. which enables the user to sketch an outline representation of the hydraulic system under consideration.2 Scope of ARTS ARTS caters for the following range of hydraulic analysis/design tasks: PIPES: (flow of air. 1. water. is presented in the Appendix. which underpins the ARTS computer coding. including booster pumps CHANNELS: (flow of water in open conduits) • various cross sections • gradually varied flow • rapidly varied flow • decanting channels with distributed lateral inflow • storm overflow with distributed lateral outflow FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES: (for measurement of flow in open channels) • broad-crested weir • various critical depth flumes • Parshall flume • various thin-plate weirs 1-1 . The operational features of the user interface are explained in detail in the following chapters of this manual. In scope. developed with the needs of water and wastewater engineers in mind. Newtonian liquids and sludges in closed conduits) • simple pipes • pipe links containing fittings such as bends and valves • pipe manifolds • pipe networks. A summary of the applied hydraulics. It is operated through a user-friendly graphical interface.

The ARTS hardware requirements are the same as required for the Windows interface. WATER / WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM HYDRAULIC DESIGN: • Hydraulic design of individual process units • Setting relative levels of process units for gravity flow • Auto design feature to give initial design • Linear or distributed systems • Report of maximum/minimum total heads for entire system • Plotting of hydraulic profile 1.Getting Started PUMPING INSTALLATIONS: • rotodynamic pump characteristics • duty point computation for single or multiple pump systems at rated or other speeds WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS: (analysis and control of waterhammer pressures associated with pump trip-out) • plot of maximum and minimum pressure envelopes • plot of transient pressure fluctuation at any point along rising main. The recommended minimum processor hardware specification is: • Pentium personal computer with 90 MHz or higher processor • a hard disk with at least 20 Mb of free disk space • 24 MB of RAM (32 MB recommended) for Windows 95.0 • Microsoft Windows 95 or later operating system or Microsoft Windows NT Workstation operating system version 4. including air vessel and air valves.51 or later versions and hence you must have the appropriate Windows software installed on your PC before you can install and use ARTS.3 System requirements ARTS has been designed to run in Windows 95 or later versions and Windows NT 3.0 (Service Pack 3) or later • a two-button mouse or other pointing device • a printer supported by Windows if you wish to get hardcopy output of your analysis 1-2 . 24 MB of RAM (32 MB recommended) for Windows NT Workstation 4. • selection/design of appropriate waterhammer protection devices.

Setup may conflict with it and not run. For example. To close Help. Insert the ARTS CD ROM into your PC. A dialog box appears as in Figure 1. If it does not.4 Installation ARTS can only be used when it has been installed on your computer’s hard disk and the hardware lock has been attached. but prior to running ARTS. choose Exit from the File menu in Help. 1-3 . possibly Microsoft Office or a virus-detection utility. choose the Help button. click on the START button. Please do not attach the hardware lock until the end of the software install procedure. 5. This includes applications that run automatically when you start Windows. To install ARTS on your computer (single user version).Getting Started 1. you should carry out steps 1 to 3. disable it before running Setup. 3. Figure 1.1 The Run Dialog box ARTS is supplied with an installation procedure which creates a working directory on your hard disk. Make sure that you close all open applications. 2. type the letter of the drive that contains the CD ROM. make a back up of your PC. 6. As with any software. and choose Run. 1. The following procedure describes how to install ARTS directly to your computer’s hard disk from the supplied CD ROM. into which all the ARTS files are transferred. Choose the OK button. and then follow the instructions on the screen. The install procedure should start automatically after a few seconds. 4.1. type d:\setup 7. Setup asks you to close any open applications. and you need more information about how to close them. before you install the ARTS software on your PC. If you have a back up system. followed by :\ and the word setup. In the Open: box. If applications are open. If you do not disable the utility. If you are using a virus-detection utility.

will ask for the ARTS Licence Server Path from step 2. attach the hardware lock and run DDnet. The workstation copy should now work. When ARTS is installed onto a computer. This copy cannot be used fully unless the hardware lock is attached to the machine. Each workstation copy of ARTS. On completion of file transfer. you will need to restart ARTS. 3. as called from the workstation. Once you enter this. Install ARTS on all workstations using Setup. This will install ARTS and the required support files. when run the first time. All workstations need full access to this path. Once this is complete. For more detailed information please refer to the Readme file on the ARTS CD. 1. it is installed as an inactive copy. Insert the ARTS CD ROM into this PC. You will be prompted for some user information and details on how you wish to configure the software installation. Run NetSetup.exe. Select the machine on the network on which you want to attach the hardware lock.2 ARTS setup welcome screen Click the Next button to continue installation. You will be prompted to enter a path – this is the ARTS Licence Server Path. the installation procedure adds ARTS to the Start menu.exe.Getting Started Figure 1. This will install the necessary software for the hardware lock to function on the network. 2. To install ARTS on your computer (network version).exe. 1-4 . This machine is referred to as the ARTS Hardware Lock Server. however. all the options can be left at their default values.

4 Changing individual units 1-5 .6 Unit system When ARTS is run for the first time.4. the default unit system is the Systeme International (SI) system. However. To start ARTS from the START menu: • Click the Start button. To start ARTS using the desktop icon: • Click the ARTS icon. The default unit system can be changed to US units by clicking on the Tools > Options menu and selecting the required unit system as displayed in Figure 1. 1.3 Default unit selection dialog Figure 1. • Press the ENTER button on your keyboard.3. The default unit system determines which units are displayed on the ARTS dialog boxes and windows. and selecting the desired unit from the menu that appears as displayed in Figure 1. The units used for data input on a dialog window can also be changed to alternative units by clicking on the unit label. Figure 1. • Move the cursor to Programs • Move the cursor to ARTS • Release the cursor when over ARTS hydraulics.Getting Started 1.5 Starting ARTS From the Windows Desktop. you can start ARTS by: • Selecting the ARTS icon on the Desktop or • by choosing ARTS from the START menu. all data output will be in standard SI or US units as used in ARTS.

1.7 Getting help To gain access to Online Help select Help from the menu bar at the top of the screen. technical support and user interface.8 Quitting ARTS • • • • From the File menu. or from the Control menu. choose Close 1-6 .Getting Started 1. The online help contains detailed information regarding problem solving. or Double-click the Control-menu button at the top-left corner of the ARTS window. or Press Alt+F4. Choose Exit.

with the main components identified on Figure 2-1 Figure 2-1 The main ARTS window 2-1 . 2.The ARTS User Interface 2. a careful study of the introductory subject matter in this chapter is recommended before attempting the tutorials in the following chapters. The primary difference is that objects are drawn using two clicks (one at start. • Select ARTS hydraulics from the Desktop. For those who are not familiar with Windows.1 Introduction If you already use Windows applications.2 Quick Start The ARTS user interface is similar to most vector-based drawing packages.3 The main design screen To start-up ARTS. The main design screen is displayed. one at end) which is a feature usually found in CAD packages rather than drawing packages. 2. The ARTS User Interface 2. you will be familiar with the concepts and interface architecture presented in this chapter.

The File Menu. position the cursor on a border of the window (the cursor will change to a double-headed sizing arrow). Clicking on the right button. using the commands on the Window menu. and so on. contains commands that affect files. Control-menu icon: the control-menu box is located at the top left-hand end of the title bar on main and sub-windows. To do so. 2-2 . Clicking on the taskbar icon restores the window size. reducing a window does not close the application. and release the mouse button. immediately beneath the menu bar. You open them the same way as you open a single file. place the mouse cursor on the name of a menu. Maximise. will close the associated window. You can maximise a window by clicking on its maximise button (middle button). which has an x on it.e. You can abort a command by moving the cursor off the open menu before releasing the mouse button. it is not available in the current circumstances. 2. you must select the command from a menu.4 The design sheet The Design Sheet sub-window is the ARTS workspace on which you construct a schematic representation of your hydraulic system. You can reduce a window to the taskbar by clicking on its minimise button (left button). a double-click on the icon selects its Close command i. To select a command. If a menu or a command is grey. Some menu bar commands can also be accessed using the icons in the Main Window Tool Bar. for example. You can have multiple design sheets open at the same time. A single click on the icon will display a command list. To give a command to the software. using the objects contained on the tool palette. minimise and close buttons: these buttons are located at the right-hand end of the title bar on main and sub-windows. Each menu contains a set of related commands. press and hold the mouse button down. You can change the window size to suit your drawing space requirements. which remains open and available. position the mouse cursor on its title bar.The ARTS User Interface The menu bar: contains a list of menus. move the mouse to the desired command. You open menus and then choose commands from them to instruct ARTS to perform actions. To move the design sheet to a new position the screen. drag inwards to reduce the window area or outwards to increase its area. the Edit Menu has commands for editing text and graphics. By placing the cursor on the south-east corner of the window border you can increase/decrease its height and width dimensions simultaneously. closes the application. click and drag. You can arrange their simultaneous display on screen.

Figure 2-2 The toolbar 2-3 . it can be moved to any position on the main screen. The currently selected tool is highlighted. You can also use the Quick Help feature to identify a tool by positioning the cursor over its button. When you click on a new tool. After a short time a small yellow box will appear with a short description of the button you are over. The tool palette is described as "floating" i. To pick up (or select) a drawing tool.The ARTS User Interface 2. which either select a tool for drawing hydraulic objects or execute commands that carry out specific tasks. click and drag. place the mouse cursor on the button for the object and click. the currently selected tool is de-selected. The following page displays a brief description of the contents of the ARTS tool palette. Only one tool can be selected at a time.e. position the mouse cursor on its title bar. To move the tool palette to a new position the screen.5 The tool palette The tool palette contains a collection of buttons.

To hide the spreadsheet view. If the flow distribution does change. NB When you change a property such as pipe diameter on the spreadsheet view. It is particularly useful when dealing with Networks. Zoom Tool Equivalent to selecting Zoom Area from the View menu Pipe Tool For creating pipes of constant diameter Pump Tool For creating rotodynamic pumps GVF Command Icon Displays the gradually varied flow plotter. applied to the currently selected channel Calculator Command Icon Displays the calculator Channel Tool For creating channels of constant shape and slope Air Vessel Tool For creating pressure vessels with air cushions for use in waterhammer control Weir Tool For creating a flow measurement device Biofilter Tool For creating a biofilter wastewater treatment unit Divider Tool For creating a flow-dividing chamber Rapid Gravity Filter Tool For creating a RG Filter unit Line Tool For creating lines (graphic only) Flume Tool For creating a flow measurement device Activated Sludge Tool For creating an open tank type unit Detritor For creating grit removal objects Storm Overflow For creating a storm overflow channel with side-weirs Text Tool For creating text (graphic only) 2.6 Spreadsheet View The spreadsheet view provides a quick means of viewing all of the data on the screen in a spreadsheet format. When the spreadsheet view is visible. the values in the spreadsheet view which are dependent on the flow are no longer valid. by clicking in the Ref Code Column. It also allows you to sort data by rows and change data by columns. This will display an arrow at the location of the object on the screen. you cannot manipulate any other of the ARTS windows. the flow distribution in the system may change. 2-4 . click on the Windows close control button (top right hand side of window) or choose Close from the View menu. pipes and flumes Flow Tool Used to create an inflow or outflow from a system Reservoir Tool For creating reservoirs of fixed water level Screen Tool For creating a water/wastewater screening device Sedimentation Tool For creating a primary or secondary sedimentation unit Clarifier Tool For creating a clarifier unit Manifold Tool For creating flow distribution unit Rectangle Tool For creating a rectangle (Graphic only) Properties Command Icon Displays the properties of the currently selected object. You can also use it to highlight objects. You must re-run an analysis and then re display the spreadsheet view in order to see the new flow distribution. Used with channels.The ARTS User Interface Selection tool For selecting and manipulating objects Graph Command Icon Displays a graph.

The spreadsheet view can currently display the following objects: Nodes Pipes Pumps Flows Reservoirs Edit Menu The Copy command copies the entire spreadsheet in tab delimited format to the Windows Clipboard for pasting into a spreadsheet program. For example. Sort Menu The spreadsheet view can sort rows in order of an increasing or decreasing parameter. to view a list of pipes in order of increasing velocity. Change Menu This displays an input box. Selecting another of the menu items will fill the spreadsheet view with the corresponding objects. Only the rows containing selected cells are sorted. you must select the cells in the column by which you want the sorting done. To sort data.The ARTS User Interface Menus View Menu The view menu displays the object types which are available. select some cells in the Velocity column and the click on the Sort > Ascending command. Figure 2-3 The spreadsheet view 2-5 . You can select all the cells in a column by clicking on the column heading. The currently displayed object type is checked. The cells you select must be in the same column. which allows you to change the value of all the selected cells simultaneously. and all the selected cells will be changed to the same value.

Used to calculate the Kinematic Viscosity.s/m² / lb. a Newtonian liquid fluid. Viscosity ( N. so each sheet has it’s own fluid. o o Fluid temperature ( C / F): only available if you have selected Water/Wastewater or air as the fluid type 3 3 Solids concentration (kg/m / lb/ft ): only available if you have selected a sludge as the fluid type Density ( kg/m³ / lb/ft³): only available if you have selected Other Newtonian liquid.The ARTS User Interface 2.s/ft²): only available if you have selected Other Newtonian liquid. sludge (several types) and Other Newtonian liquids by changing the Type dropdown list box. air or one of several types of sludge (these relate to pipe flow only). By default this fluid is water at 15 degrees C.7 System Fluid The system fluid is specified using the Tools>Options menu. The selected fluid is sheet specific. water/wastewater. 2-6 . Figure 2-4 The Fluid Options dialog Fluid type: specifies whether the fluid is water. The fluid can be changed to air. Used to calculate the Kinematic Viscosity.

This applies whether the hydraulic system is a single pipe or channel or a complex series of process units linked by pipes. In all cases. when solving problems with ARTS.the cursor movement traces a dotted outline of the object on the design sheet. Reminder • Click means press and release the left-hand mouse button quickly. Move the cursor to one of the intended corner positions for the object on the design sheet. if it is a process unit such as a tank or pump. When the dotted outline is of the required size. ARTS provides you with a set of hydraulic objects. in a similar fashion to any Windows drawing package. Select the desired object type by clicking on its tool button. the system components and configuration are communicated to ARTS by drawing a sketch diagram on the design sheet. Draw your pipes and channels so that they start and end in the objects they are connecting. its drawn outline space is identified by a set of 4 selection handles. which are the building blocks for creating hydraulic systems on the screen.3 Placing objects on the design sheet To draw an object on the design sheet: 1. The cursor shape should be in the shape of a cross-hair. click again to place the object on the design sheet. known as selection handles. These objects can be placed on the design sheet using the mouse. 3.1 Introduction In the same way that you might sketch a problem on a piece of paper.Sketching the system layout 3.2 Quick Start Draw the system you are trying to analyse as you would on a piece of paper. you sketch the system you are analysing on the computer screen. The first step is to draw a sketch of the system on the design sheet. Click and then move the cursor to draw an outline of the object to the required size . Once you have constructed your hydraulic system. 4. The selected tool button is depressed and remains so until another tool button is pressed 2. 3-1 . 3. its terminal points are identified by a pair of small black squares. • Drag means move the mouse while holding down the left-hand mouse button. 3. If the drawn object is a linear element such as a pipe or channel. Sketching the system layout 3. • Double-click means press and release the left-hand mouse button twice in quick succession. you can run the appropriate Analysis command to carry out the required hydraulic analysis.

1.Sketching the system layout Exercise Draw the objects shown on Figure 3.4 Selecting objects To select one object: • If the selection tool is not already selected.drawing exercise 3.1 Reservoirs. pipes and a pump .2. R2 R1 R3 P1 PU 1 P4 P2 P3 Figure 3. These will be used again in the next exercise to create Figure 3. click on the selection tool • Click on the object you wish to select • Small black squares appear at the extremities of the selected object to indicate that it is selected Not selected Selected 3-2 .

6 Moving objects To move an object: • • • Select the object or objects that you wish to move Place the cursor over the object.7 Deleting objects To delete an object: • Select the object or objects that you wish to delete • Press the Delete key on the keyboard or • Choose Delete from the Edit menu 3-3 . the cursor changes shape to a double-headed arrow • Drag to re-size 3.Sketching the system layout To select several objects: • If the selection tool is not already selected. enclosing them in the dotted selection rectangle which appears. click on the selection tool • Drag across the objects you wish to select.5 Re-sizing objects To re-size an object: • Select the object you wish to resize • Place the cursor over one of the selection handles. The starting point of a selection rectangle must not be at the same place as one of the objects on the sheet • Small black squares appear at the extremities of each of the selected objects to indicate that they are selected 3. a small 4-headed arrow appears to the bottom right of the cursor arrow Drag to move to a new location. 3.

8 Copying and Pasting objects To copy an object: • Select the object or objects that you wish to copy • Choose Copy from the Edit menu • A copy of the object is placed onto the internal ARTS clipboard To paste a previously copied object: • Choose Paste from the Edit menu • An object will be pasted onto the worksheet adjacent to object which was originally copied.2 Reservoirs.2 R3 P1 R1 PU 1 P3 P2 R2 P4 Figure 3.Sketching the system layout Exercise Move and resize the objects from the previous exercise to a layout similar to Figure 3.moving exercise 3. pipes and a pump . 3-4 .

9 Drawing hydraulic systems Pipes and channels: Both pipes and channel convey fluid from one point to another and can both be regarded as links.Sketching the system layout 3. Links are deemed to be connected to a process unit such as a reservoir or biofilter. if one of the link’s end points is located within the screen area enclosed by the screen outline of the process unit.4 Unconnected pipes Other hydraulic objects: Treatment process units These objects should not be placed in other objects. J1 J3 R1 P1 J2 P2 J7 J4 P3 J5 J6 P4 R1 Figure 3. If you try connecting links to the very edge of other objects. ARTS may not register the connection. In Steady pipe flow and Unsteady pipe flow analysis.3 Connected pipes Figure 3. reservoirs can have multiple connections. J4 P3 J5 J6 P4 S1 J7 Figure 3. An individual link is defined by the locations of its end points. In Hydraulic profile analysis each unit can only have two connections (one in and one out).5 One inflow and one outflow pipe 3-5 . Pipes and channels should start and end either in another object or at the end of another link. Any link that starts or terminates at the end point of another link is considered to be connected to that link.

7 Inflow Figure 3.8 Outflow 3-6 . which distinguishes its suction/inflow and delivery/outflow points (the central line represents inflow. To indicate an inflow/supply at a pipe or channel junction: • Draw the flow object on the sheet with the arrow pointing towards the junction (start the drawing process at a point away from the junction).e. Figure 3. To indicate an outflow/demand at a pipe or channel junction: • Draw the flow object on the sheet with the arrow pointing towards the junction (first mouse click at the junction).Sketching the system layout Pumps ARTS uses the standard graphical representation of a rotodynamic pump. think of a pump as having 2 small pipes coming out from it (one on each side) onto which you connect your links. All flow objects which are not connected to junctions will be ignored.6 Pump with one inflow and one outflow pipe Supply/demand: The flow object is used to represent either an inflow/supply or an outflow/demand. the tangential line represents outflow). it cannot be connected directly to a process unit. Basically. PU 1 Figure 3. Note: The flow object can only be used at junctions i.

10.9.10 WWTP .Sketching the system layout Exercise Modify the previously drawn object to create a system similar to Figure 3.9 Pumping system .system creation exercise O1 SCR 2 P 10 P 11 S1 P1 P2 B1 P3 S2 P4 Figure 3. Then select New from the File menu and draw the linked hydraulic system shown on Figure 3. R2 R1 PU P1 P7 PU 2 P2 P5 P 10 P8 P3 PU 3 P6 P4 P9 P 11 Figure 3.system creation exercise 3-7 .

pipeto-channel) that have been registered by the compilation process. green red P 11 J 14 J 16 J 17 J 18 J 19 P3 S2 J 20 P4 J 22 J 15 S1 P1 P2 B1 O1 P 10 J 12 SCR 2 J 13 J 21 Figure 3. pipe-to-process unit. Deviation from the foregoing requirements at any node indicates that its junction connectivity has not been correctly registered by ARTS i.12. Check that your systems match those displayed in Figure 3. except marked) 3-8 .11 and Figure 3. pipe-to-pipe junctions are represented by a red circle 2.e. you can check that the connectivity of its elements has been correctly interpreted by the software by running the Compile command from the Analysis menu. a green circle is placed at each junction which has registered an inflow or outflow 3. the terminal points of the elements that meet at the junctions are not sufficiently close for ARTS to conclude that they are connected.11 WWTP . a blue solid circle is placed at all other junctions (channel-to-channel.compile exercise (all nodes blue. ARTS places a solid circle over each registered junction according to the following colour coding: 1. Connectivity faults can be corrected by repositioning the objects on the design sheet.10 Continuity check When you have completed your layout sketch of the hydraulic system. On completion of the compilation process. A correctly registered system should comply with the foregoing colour coding and each compiled node should be represented by a single solid coloured circular dot.Sketching the system layout 3.

other objects. its label also moves. nodes.g. When clicking on the design sheet to select an object.Compile exercise (all nodes blue. best use of the available drawing area can usually be made by allocating each element in your system approximately the same screen space.11 Drawing tips 1. 7.Sketching the system layout R2 J 14 R1 J2 PU 1 J7 P1 P4 J8 P7 PU 2 P5 J9 P8 PU 3 J6 J 11 P6 J 12 J 10 P 10 P9 J 13 P 11 J1 J3 P2 J4 J5 P3 red Figure 3. Always use the Compile command to check the connectivity of your system before you proceed to analysis or design 3-9 . move the label independently of the object by the selecting the label itself. Note that each object you draw on the design sheet has a label associated with it. a popup menu will appear allowing you to manipulate the object. pipes. Make full use of the screen space available for the design sheet by expanding the design window area to its limiting size. When you move an object. If you right click on an object. 4. however. 5.12 Pumping system . Draw your system to the largest practical scale to allow adequate space for ARTS to print flow and pressure values on the diagram 3. 2. e. the order of preference for selecting is: labels. except marked) 3. You can. 6. There is no computational advantage in attempting to make sketch diagrams to approximate scale. Try to create a schematic of the system under consideration. copy it.

Sketching the system layout 3-10 .

These properties are accessible via dialog boxes known as Property Pages. The Property Pages for every object have a similar layout.2 Quick Start Right click on an object to get at its properties.3 Accessing Property Pages To access the properties of any object. • select the object and then. For example. 4-1 . Not all the objects can be used with all the analysis functions. Air Vessels can only be used in Unsteady pipe flow analysis and will be ignored by the other analysis functions. diameter as well as its other properties. a pipe object has a length property. All objects can be used individually to design an individual object without using the analysis functions. For example. Alternatively. you will find that the pipe has a value for length. click on the object with the RIGHT mouse button. Objects that have not had their initial properties changed are drawn in grey on the design sheet. when you place a pipe on the screen and then display its Property Pages. Figure 4-1 Pipe property pages The Property pages for pipe objects are displayed in Figure 4-1. choose the analysis function you want to carry out. For example. 4. Select Properties from this menu.1 Introduction Every hydraulic object that you place on the design sheet has properties associated with it. When you place an object on the design sheet you are essentially creating a virtual version of a real world object. a surface roughness property etc. A menu should appear over the object. 4. You will probably have to change these values in order represent the element of the real world system you are trying to model. from the main menu bar. Once you have set all the relevant properties of all objects. a diameter property. • press the properties tool button on the tool palette.Hydraulic Objects 4. Hydraulic Objects and other tools 4.

Extras and Status. In Figure 4-1 the tabs are Main. rectangular. shape/type. Important: when finished editing the value in a text box. Clicking on a tab displays the properties relevant to the tab caption. you should press the Enter key on the keyboard to register the new value that you have inserted. square or circular Length (m / ft): the total length of the pipe Roughness (mm / in): the roughness of the internal wall surface Width (mm / in): The internal width of the pipe (square and rectangular pipes only) Height (mm / in): The internal height of the pipe (rectangular pipes only) Figure 4-2 Main tab Unsteady flow The properties grouped on this tab are used by the unsteady pipe flow analysis functions only.4 Pipes Pipes are conduits flowing full at all times. diameter. or a dimension value. Main Diameter (mm / in): the internal diameter of the pipe Type: the shape of the pipe. Wall thickness (mm / in): the average wall thickness of the pipe -2 Young’s Modulus (Nm / psi): Young’s modulus for the pipe material Material: Selecting a material here will modify the value in Figure 4-3 Unsteady Tab the Young’s modulus edit box.Hydraulic Objects Property pages consist of a window with various grouped controls which are accessed via tabs along the top of the widow. Drawings with dimensions that are coloured red can be edited. you should set all these values first. Unsteady flow. If you are not performing an unsteady pipe flow analysis. you may leave these values at their default settings. For pipe objects. length and roughness are displayed under the Main tab as these properties are generally of most significance. Pipes are drawn as thin blue lines and can be used with all the analysis functions. 4-2 . If you are performing an unsteady pipe flow analysis. 4. which you can also modify directly.

a total K-value can be specified for the pipe. Fitting: Use these two drop down lists to specify fittings to add to the pipe. Note: Each fitting inserted using the Add button.use the connected nodes to define properties of these two points. You can add to this value. selecting individual fittings. must have a unique chainage. but you cannot make it less than the sum of the included fittings. Or Add fittings at various chainages along the pipe. The fittings that are in the pipe can be displayed in textual list form or as a graphical plot of elevation versus chainage. Chainage (m / ft): distance along the pipe to the location of the fitting Elevation (mOD / ftAD): the vertical distance from some datum to the centre of the fitting Total K value: The sum of the K values of all fittings Figure 4-4 Extras tab contained in the pipe. New fittings can be selected from the dropdown lists on the top right-hand side. The addition of fittings depends on the analysis required: Steady pipe flow and hydraulic profile analyses: Edit the Total K value if you know the total K for all the fittings in the pipe. Once you have selected the desired fitting type. by clicking on the option buttons on the bottom left. (ignore elevational data) Unsteady flow .Rising main: Add chainage and elevational data at various points along the pipe to define the profile of the rising main. This is particularly important with air valves. and include fittings if desired. and the second contains fitting sub-types.Hydraulic Objects Extras The extras page contains a list of the fittings currently in the pipe. you can add them to the pipe by clicking on the Add button. Fitting K value: The K value of the currently selected fitting. Fittings that are already in the pipe can be removed by clicking on the fitting to remove and then clicking the Remove button. As an alternative to adding individual fittings. The first list contains general fitting types. and must not be located at the beginning or end of the pipe . see Chapter 7 4-3 .

Hydraulic Objects Status Shows the steady state values of the key hydraulic parameters for the pipe object, based on the currently specified value in the flow edit box and the current pipe properties. Entering a new value in the flow edit box will cause the associated hydraulic parameters to be recalculated. The currently selected sheet fluid is displayed on the status page. Figure 4-5 Status tab

4.5 Channels
Channels are conduits which have a free surface at all times. Channels are drawn as purple lines and are slightly thicker than the lines for pipes. Channels can only be used in the hydraulic profile analysis functions. Main Type: The shape of the channel, Rectangular, trapezoidal, circular, U shaped, V shaped and parabolic Side angle (degrees): The angle that the face makes with the horizontal Bottom width (mm / in): The width of the bottom of the channel Gradient: The slope of the bottom of the channel Height (mm / in): the height of the vertical side face of the channel Length (m / ft): The total length of the channel Roughness (mm / in): The surface roughness of the Figure 4-6 Main tab internal face of the channel

Status Shows computed steady uniform flow channel parameter values for the flow value indicated in the flow edit box. If you enter a new value in the flow edit box, the associated uniform flow hydraulic parameters are re-calculated.

Figure 4-7 Status tab 4-4

Hydraulic Objects

4.6 Reservoirs
Reservoirs are tanks with a free surface which is at a fixed level. Can be used with all analysis procedures. Main Surface Level (mOD / ftAD): the vertical distance above some datum

Figure 4-8 Main tab Status Reference Code: The name used by ARTS to refer to the object.

Figure 4-9 Status Tab

4.7 Pumps
The pump object models rotodynamic pumps. Pumps can be incorporated into systems analysed by the Steady Pipe Flow, Network and Unsteady Pipe Flow analysis procedures. Main Suction diameter (mm / in): The internal diameter of the pipe connecting to the central line of the pump Delivery diameter (mm / in): The internal diameter of the pipe connecting to the tangential line on the pump 2 2 Moment of inertia (kg.m / lb.ft ): For use with waterhammer calculations only. The sum of the pump and motor moments of inertia. Elevation (mOD / ftAD): The vertical distance to the centre of the pump from some datum. Used in waterhammer calculations. Current speed (rpm): The speed at which the pump is Figure 4-10 Main tab currently running. Rated speed (rpm): The speed to which the characteristic curves apply (see later re characteristic curves)

4-5

Hydraulic Objects H-Q The characteristic curve for the pump is entered by inputting 3 points from which a fitted curve is calculated and plotted. The software uses the fitted curve in subsequent calculations. The 3 control points are marked as 1,2,3. You can select a point by clicking on the point. Once a point is selected, you can alter its data using the two text boxes to the right of the graph. Once you have input the data for all 3 points, press the Recalculate Curve button. Point 2 must be above a straight line between points 1 and 3, to ensure a correct curve shape. You can input the flow data in a variety of units - click on the edit boxes unit labels and select the desired unit. Note: Only press the Recalculate Curve after you have entered all 3 control points, otherwise the software will attempt to fit a curve to invalid data The 3 control points used to input a pump characteristic curve should be roughly equally spaced along the curve and should preferably include the start and end points of the curve (i.e. values at zero Q and Qmax., respectively).

Figure 4-11 H-Q tab

P-Q The characteristic curve for power is used in pumping efficiency and waterhammer calculations. The information is entered in the same way as the H-Q curve.

Figure 4-12 P-Q tab

4-6

Hydraulic Objects NPSH The characteristic curve for NPSH is used to check for cavitation problems. Figure 4-15 Main tab 4-7 . Figure 4-14 The Pump Status tab 4. 3 3 AS Recycle (m /s / ft /s): the return activated sludge flow from a sedimentation unit. Main Type: determines whether the tank is circular or rectangular 3 3 Max ww inflow (m /s / ft /s): the maximum inflow of wastewater that the unit is designed to deal with. therefore you should set this prior to any other values. If you enter a new value in the edit box.8 Activated sludge reactors Activated sludge objects are used in hydraulic profile analysis functions only. Changing this value will redesign the reactor. the pump parameter values are re-calculated. Figure 4-13 The Pump NPSH-Q tab Status Shows computed pump parameter values at the current pump speed for the flow value in the edit box. Flows in excess of this design flow will cause an error to occur when using the hydraulic profile analysis. The information is entered in the same way as the H-Q curve.

Collector Specifies details of the collector channel into which the flow from the outlet system discharges.Hydraulic Objects Radius (mm / in): The internal radius of circular reactors. Type: specifies the shape of the weirs or submerged ports from the drop down list which includes v-notch weirs. Weir Crest Elevation (mOD / ftAD): The level of the crest of the outlet weir above some datum. Slope (1:m): the bed slope of the collector channel k value (mm / in): the Darcy-Weisbach surface roughness factor (k) Inlet drop (mm / in): the drop from the bottom of the outlet system to the water surface at the upstream end of the collector channel Outlet depth (mm / in): the desired outlet depth at maximum flow. Outlet length (mm / in): specifies the length available for the distributed outflow system. Collector Channel Outlet: Determines whether the flow out of the collector channel is at one end. Length (mm / in): The internal length of rectangular reactors. plain weir. No: The calculated required number of the selected opening Figure 4-16 Outlet tab along the Outlet Length. This depth must be greater than or equal to critical depth for the flow/channel conditions as indicated by Figure 4-17 Collector tab the quick help. rectangular weirs. Outlet drop (mm / in): the drop from the outlet depth to the water surface in the sump Width (mm / in): the width of the collector channel Length (mm / in): the length of the collector channel is determined by the length of the outlet system (not editable). 2 2 Plan Area (m / ft ): The surface area of the tank (not editable) Outlet Specifies the distributed outlet system from the activated sludge tank. circular orifices or rectangular orifices. Used when checking existing systems. Width (mm / in): The internal width of rectangular reactors. or in the centre of the channel (rectangular tanks only). 4-8 . Limits are given for the dimensional data by the quick help.

This is the primary property and therefore should be set first.Hydraulic Objects Upstream water depth (mm / in): the calculated depth of water at the dead end of the collector channel (not editable) Height (mm / in): the height of the collector channel (sum of the upstream water depth and the inlet drop) Status Shows computed maximum headloss for unit. Initial water height (mm / in): sets the water level at steady flow pumping pressure. (the ends are ignored). Changing one dimension will modify other dimensions based on the value set for the Total Volume. Figure 4-18 Status tab 4. 3 3 Initial air volume (m / ft ): air volume at steady flow pumping pressure. Main 3 3 Total volume (m / ft ): air vessel gross volume. This value is linked to the Initial Water Level. Reference Code: The name used by ARTS to refer to the object. Dimensions (mm / in): air vessels are modelled as cylinders. This value is linked to the Initial Air Figure 4-19 Main tab Volume.9 Air vessel Air vessel objects are used in the Unsteady Pipe Flow analysis function only. 4-9 . Reference Code: The name used by ARTS to refer to the object. Status Shows computed maximum headloss for unit.

4-10 . the manifold system and the collector channel to be redesigned. Main 3 3 Max flow (m /s / ft /s): the maximum flow for which the unit is designed. Diameter (mm / in): biofilters are circular only Inlet drop (mm / in): the drop from the manifold orifices to the surface of the media Media height (mm / in): the vertical height of the media Outlet drop (mm / in): the drop at the centre of the biofilter from the bottom of the media to the apex of the conical floor Figure 4-20 Main tab below.10 Biofilter Biofilter objects are used in hydraulic profile analysis functions only. No of orifices: the number of orifices per radial arm Orifice diameter (mm / in): the diameter of each individual orifice Manifold k (mm / in): the surface roughness of the internal face of the manifold pipework No of radial arms: the biofilter can have from 1 to 4 radial arms Diameter (mm / in): arm diameter Orifice spacing (mm / in): distance between individual Figure 4-21 Inlet tab orifices End spacing (mm / in): distance between the last orifice and the end of the pipe. Used when checking existing systems. Inlet The inlet system to the biofilter consists of a manifold distribution system.Hydraulic Objects 4. Some calculated values are displayed for inlet-related hydraulic parameters. the manifold head loss. Collector Channel Crest Elevation (mOD / ftAD): the vertical distance of the top of the collector channel above some datum./max. Floor slope (1:m): the bed slope of the collecting surface. orifice discharge ratio. including the manifold inlet velocity. Changing this value causes the unit diameter. min.

Note: make sure that these add up to 100%. Plan A dimensioned plan view of the flow divider. Drop (mm / in): the drop from the weir crest to the water surface level in the outflow chamber. Side The Side tab shows the computed weir head at maximum flow. No of divisions: the inflow to the chamber on the left is divided into this number of independent outflows. Weir Crest Elevation (mOD / ftAD): The level of the weir crest above some datum level. If it is not checked.11 Flow divider Figure 4-22 Collector tab Flow divider objects are used in hydraulic profile analysis functions only. Used when checking existing systems. Changing this value will redesign the divider. Equal division: if this is checked then the outflow percentage for each outflow chamber will be equal. you can edit the individual percentages. Figure 4-24 Side tab 4-11 . with a single inflow chamber and multiple outflow chambers. as indicated by the Figure 4-23 Plan tab Total display. 3 3 Max flow (m /s / ft /s): the maximum flow that the divider is designed to cater for.8) 4.Hydraulic Objects Collector See the collector for the activated sludge object (see 4.

The upstream and downstream channels have a minimum length specification of 2. Figure 4-25 Status tab 4. but can have different slope and different roughness The drop down list determines whether the properties displayed relate to the upstream or downstream channel.12 Flumes The flume object can be used for stand alone flume design or can be incorporated in treatment systems amenable to analysis using the hydraulic profile analysis procedure.Hydraulic Objects Status Shows the computed head loss at maximum flow. Main Flume type: specifies the type of the flume 3 3 Max.5 Channels. For other properties see 4. flow (m /s / ft /s): specifies the minimum flow which the flume can measure accurately Figure 4-26 Main tab Channels The upstream and downstream channels must have the same dimensions. Reference Code: The name used by ARTS to refer to the object.5 times the flume head at maximum Figure 4-27 Channels tab flow 4-12 . flow (m /s / ft /s): specifies the maximum flow which the flume can measure accurately 3 3 Min.

This design is based on the specified upstream channel dimensions and the maximum and minimum flow values. Used when checking existing systems. Figure 4-30 Side tab 4-13 . Width (mm / in): the width of the lowest part of the throat Side angle (deg): applies to trapezoidal flumes only Step height (mm / in): optional Roughness (mm / in): the surface roughness of the internal face of the flume Throat Invert Level (mOD / ftAD): the elevation of the base of the throat above some datum. Plan Length (mm / in): the length of the throat Expansion slope (1:m): the downstream expansion slope Figure 4-29 Plan tab Side Displays a longitudinal water surface profile for the flume and its attached channels.Hydraulic Objects Throat Quick help provides limit values for all dimensional data. Figure 4-28 Throat tab Setup: pressing this will create an initial design which is compliant with design norms (see Appendix). Various parameters for either maximum flow or minimum flow are displayed using the option buttons. These limits should be adhered to.

and min. it also prints recommended design limit values for modular ratio and upstream Froude number and head loss across the flume at maximum flow. If the recommended limit values are satisfied. This graph may be copied to the Windows clipboard for insertion into other applications by clicking on the graph with the right mouse button and selecting Copy. if not. upstream Froude number at both max. Figure 4-31 Calibration tab Status Displays the modular ratio.Hydraulic Objects Calibration A plotted graph of flume head as a function of flow is displayed as well as a fitted H/Q equation for the flume. the word “INVALID” is printed. flow values. Figure 4-32 Status tab 4-14 . the word “VALID” is printed on the Status page.

14 Manifold The manifold object models a submerged manifold in which the manifold liquid has the same properties as the liquid into which it is discharged. Used in Steady Pipe Flow. and an arrow that points away from a junction (with the tail end in the junction) represents an outflow/demand. Main 3 3 Current flow (m /s / ft /s): this is used in all calculations 3 3 Minimum flow (m /s / ft /s): this is only used with the hydraulic profile calculations.Hydraulic Objects 4. An arrow pointing towards a junction (with the point end in the junction) represents an inflow/supply. The flow object must be used in conjunction with a junction/node.13 Flow The flow object/tool is drawn on the design sheet as an arrow and is used to represent either an inflow/supply or an outflow/demand. 3 3 Maximum flow (m /s / ft /s): this is only used with the hydraulic profile calculations. Main Specifies the manifold trunk pipe details Length (mm / in): the total length of the trunk pipe Diameter (mm / in): internal diameter of the trunk pipe Slope (1:m): Input optional k (mm / in): the Darcy-Weisbach surface roughness parameter (k) No: the total number of laterals (total of both sides) Figure 4-34 Manifold tab 4-15 . Figure 4-33 Main tab 4. Network and Hydraulic Profile analysis functions.

and therefore this value should be changed prior to any other values 3 3 Underflow (m /s / ft /s) : the settled sludge removal rate Collector Channel Outlet: Determines whether the flow out of the collector channel is at one end. 4.15 Sedimentation tank Figure 4-36 Status tab The sedimentation object can be used as a stand alone or in hydraulic profile analysis procedures Main Type: determines whether the tank is circular or rectangular 3 3 Max inflow (m /s / ft /s): the maximum inflow that the unit is designed to deal with. Changing this value will cause the tank to be redesigned. or in the centre of the channel (rectangular tanks only). 2 2 Plan Area (m / ft ): The surface area of the tank (not Figure 4-37 Main tab editable) 4-16 . Flows in excess of the design flow will cause an error to occur when using the hydraulic profile analysis. All laterals are taken as identical Length (mm / in): the length of an individual lateral Diameter (mm / in): the internal diameter of each lateral pipe Orifice spacing (mm / in): the distance between orifices from centre to centre First pos (mm / in): Distance from dead end to centre of first orifice k (mm / in): the internal wall roughness of each lateral Orifice No: Number of orifices per lateral Orifice diameter (mm / in): the diameter of each orifice on Figure 4-35 Laterals tab the laterals Status This tab can be used to display various calculated parameters for the manifold for the flow which is entered in the flow edit box.Hydraulic Objects Laterals Specifies the lateral pipe properties.

8) 4. Limits are given for the dimensional data by the quick help. Main Displays a dimensioned outline plan of the side-weir storm overflow.Hydraulic Objects Outlet Specifies the distributed outlet system from the sedimentation tank. Collector See the collector for the activated sludge object (see 4. Length (mm / in): the length of the channel and weir Channel type: specifies the shape of the channel 3 3 Max storm inflow (m /s / ft /s): The maximum flow that will enter the upstream end of the storm overflow 3 3 Max forward flow (m /s / ft /s): The maximum flow that the designer wants to proceed to treatment Double Sided Outflow: Determines whether there is a weir on one or both sides of the channel Figure 4-40 Main tab 4-17 .. is taken as the full width of rectangular tanks and the full perimeter length with circular tanks. it cannot be used in a system with any of the analysis functions. over which there is outflow. Type: specifies the shape of the weirs or submerged ports The length. Weir Crest Elevation (mOD / ftAD): The level of the crest of the weir above some datum level.16 Storm-overflow weirs Figure 4-39 The storm overflow object can only be used as a stand alone. Used when checking Figure 4-38 Outlet tab existing systems.

Control depth (mm / in): The downstream depth as produced by a flume or a weir. for more information. Since the weir is horizontal. The designer specifies the downstream depth and then presses the Calculate Weir Height button. the height of the weir above the channel bottom at the upstream end will be less than the specified value. The calculated value will then be displayed. Figure 4-42 Section tab Status Displays the calculated values for the lateral storm-overflow and also the inflow to the unit (forward flow = inflow .5 Channels. Figure 4-41 Side tab Section Specifies the channel dimensions.stormoverflow) Figure 4-43 Status tab 4-18 .Hydraulic Objects Side Displays the height of the weir crest above the channel bottom at the downstream end. See 4.

Main Displays the equation used to calculate the head loss through the object k: the resistance coefficient B (m / ft): Blockage allowance Figure 4-44 Main tab Status Displays the head loss through the unit corresponding to the flow in the edit box Figure 4-45 Status tab 4-19 .17 Screen The screen object models a mechanical screening device for wastewater. It can be used for stand alone hydraulic computation or can be incorporated in a treatment system amenable to analysis by the hydraulic analysis procedure.Hydraulic Objects 4.

It can be used for stand alone hydraulic design or can be incorporated in a treatment system amenable to analysis by the hydraulic profile analysis procedure.18 Detritor The detritor object models a wastewater sedimentation unit for the removal of grit particles. Main Displays the equation used to calculate the head loss through the object k: the resistance coefficient Figure 4-46 Main tab Status Displays the head loss through the unit corresponding to the flow in the edit box Figure 4-47 Status tab 4-20 .Hydraulic Objects 4.

19 Junctions Junction/nodes/connections are placed at the end of every link (i. 4-21 . If the pipes are of different diameters you should choose a Union (reducer or taper). pipe or channel) by the Compile command. Network Flow and Unsteady Pipe Flow analysis commands. This is usually with respect to the water levels at maximum flow. the minimum allowable submergence of the pipe below the free surface.e. otherwise you can select one of a variety of fittings. junctions only have the elevation property Elevation (mOD / ftAD): the vertical distance above some datum When using Hydraulic Profile analysis commands.Hydraulic Objects 4. This is usually with respect to the water levels at minimum flow. junctions have an elevation property only. When using Steady Pipe Flow. the junctions have different properties depending on what object they are connecting • Pipe to pipe Elevation (mOD / ftAD): as before Fitting: allows you to specify the fitting at the connection. By default. The behaviour of nodes is determined by the analysis that is performed. Junctions have different properties depending on what type of analysis you are doing and where the junction is located. Minimum invert submergence (mm / in): only available for submerged pipes. • Pipe to free surface Elevation (mOD / ftAD): as before Submerged or Free discharge: you can select whether you want the pipe to discharge below surface or above the surface. Minimum drop (mm / in): only available for free discharge pipes.

and therefore this value should be changed prior to any other values Length (mm / in): the overall length of the tank Width (mm / in): the overall width of the tank Manifold Configuration: Determines whether the tank is fed by a single manifold or two manifolds. 2 2 Plan Area (m / ft ): The surface area of the tank (not editable) Manifold Specifies the distributed inlet system to the tank. see the ARTS help file. Flows in excess of the design flow will cause an error to occur when using the hydraulic profile analysis. For more information. Main Collector Location: Determines whether the main is at the centre or edge of the tank. Laterals. Changing this value will cause the tank to be redesigned. which is available from the main menu. For more information on these properties on the manifold sub tabs of Main.14) Figure 4-49 Manifold tab 4-22 .20 Sludge Blanket Clarifier The sludge blanket clarifier object can be used as a stand alone or in hydraulic profile analysis procedures Main 3 3 Max inflow (m /s / ft /s): the maximum inflow that the unit is designed to deal with.Hydraulic Objects There are several other types of junctions available when performing hydraulic profile analyses. determining the length of Figure 4-48 Main tab the transverse collectors. and Status see the Manifold object (4. 4. In all cases the options available are displayed on the property pages once the Assign flows command has been executed from the Analysis>Hydraulic Profile menu.

The level of the top of the transverse collectors and the level of the top of this channel are taken as the same. Figure 4-51 Main Collector tab Status Shows computed maximum head loss for unit some information on levels within the tank. being the level of the outlet weir crest.8 Status for Activated Sludge Reactor Figure 4-50 Transverse Collector tab Main Collector Specifies the main collecting channel properties. Main Cntr to cntr spacing (mm / in): The centre to centre spacing of the transverse collector channels Outlet See 4. See 4. Reference Code: The name used by ARTS to refer to the object. the inlet drop is taken as fixed. Figure 4-52 4-23 .8 Collector for Activated Sludge Reactor With the main collector channel.8 Collector for Activated Sludge Reactor Status See 4.Hydraulic Objects Transverse Collectors Specifies the transverse collector channels which feed the main collector channel.8 Outlet for Activated Sludge Reactor Channels See 4.

21 Rapid Gravity Filter The rapid gravity filter object can be used as a stand alone or in hydraulic profile analysis procedures Main 3 3 Max inflow (m /s / ft /s): the maximum inflow that the unit is designed to deal with. Design headloss (mm / in): specifies the max design head loss as determined by a controlling valve. This allows you to construct the outlet manifold system. No cells: this object can be used to model a cluster of rapid gravity filter cells. Figure 4-54 Outlet tab 4-24 . Changing this value will cause the tank to be redesigned. Used when checking Figure 4-53 Main tab existing systems only. Limits are given for the dimensional data by the quick help. Side Specifies the distributed outlet system from the sedimentation tank. the object acts like a flow divider. and therefore this value should be changed prior to any other values Length (mm / in): the overall length of the tank Width (mm / in): the overall width of the tank 2 2 Plan Area (m / ft ): The surface area of the tank (not editable) Design TWL (mOD / ftAD): The level of the top water level of the tank above some datum level. Flows in excess of the design flow will cause an error to occur when using the hydraulic profile analysis. with each cell providing at out flow.Hydraulic Objects 4. If the No cells is greater than 1.

4-25 . it can be used to select the parameter values that are displayed on the design sheet. Select the Text tool and draw a text object on the design sheet at the intended location of the text. Select the Rectangle tool. This action displays the design sheet Properties dialog.23 The Weir tool The weir tool is operates in the same manner as the flume tool (4. Select an Object and Label from the respective drop-down lists on the dialog. the targeted screen object should now display the selected label value.22 The Properties tool The Properties tool is used to display the properties of the objects drawn on the screen. Figure 4-55 The Status tab 4. 4.12).Hydraulic Objects Status Reference Code: The name used by ARTS to refer to the object. 4. as outlined in section 4. 4. press the Update display button. followed by the OK button. rectangular notch. Select the Properties tool to display the text entry dialog. Alternatively. without selecting any object from the system drawn on the design sheet.24 The Text tool The Text tool is used to add text to the design sheet.3. click at the required corner location on the design sheet and draw the rectangular box to the required size. This latter function is activated by pressing the Properties tool button. It provides for the design of V-notch. enter the text and press the OK button to display the text at the selected location on the design sheet. Sutro and broad crested weirs.25 The Rectangle tool The Rectangle tool is used to draw rectangular boxes on the design sheet. It can be used to display the property pages for a selected object on the design sheet.

Hydraulic Objects 4. click on the design sheet at the required line starting point and draw the line in the direction and to the length required.26 The Line tool The Line tool is used to draw lines on the design sheet. 4-26 . Select the Line tool.

based on the properties defined on the Main and Extra property pages for the pipe element. it is not necessary to allow for entry and exit losses in the assigned total k-values on the Extras property pages). which provides an instant correlation of friction head and flow.5. Reynolds number. sewage sludge. it is designated as a channel in conventional hydraulics terminology). as used in this manual. 3. The conveyed fluid may be air.1 The Pipe Property pages For steady flow problems. 5-1 . ARTS has several ways of dealing with steady pipe flow problems: 1. the Pipe Calculator tool.1 Introduction While ARTS has special capabilities in relation to the hydraulic design of wastewater treatment systems. 5. the Steady Pipe Flow command on the Analysis menu . Examples of its application to a general range of steady flow hydraulic problems are presented in this chapter. when analysing a single pipe element. where this command is used to analyse multi-component hydraulic systems.this output property page displays the values of velocity.this command analyses the flow and pressure head distribution in multi-pipe systems. The Graph tool will display a plot of Head vs. The computed total head loss shown on the Status property page takes into account the local losses associated with the total k-value printed at the bottom of the Extras property page. refers to conduits that are flowing full throughout their length (if a pipe is flowing partly filled. 2. it has been developed to cater also for the broader general needs of water/wastewater conveyance engineering. water/wastewater. the Status page (Fig 4.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications 5. These examples are outlined in a step-by-step procedure that will enable you to execute sample problems in parallel with your reading of the chapter.2 Pipe flow The designation “pipe flow”. the total kvalue must be inclusive of their contribution. for the specified flow. 4. Chapter 4) for a pipe element . the properties of interest are contained on the Main and Extras pages (Chapter 4). If you want entry and exit losses to be included. (Note that the Hydraulic Profile commands on the Analysis menu automatically take entry and exit losses into account and hence.2. Flow for the currently selected pipe 5. friction factor and total head loss. Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications 5. including pumps and reservoirs (points of fixed head).

6m at 0.3m³/s. Step 1 Draw a pipe on the design sheet (the pipe will be grey until you set some of it’s properties) Step 2 Edit the Main property page: Step 3 Edit the Extras property page: Step 4 Click on the Status page Solution: The headloss through this pipe is 4.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications To use the pipe element Status page as a computational tool: • • • • • either select an existing pipe or place a new one on the design sheet click on the Properties tool to display the pipe’s properties change the properties on the Main tab and on the Extras tab as required click on the Status tab enter a flow value by editing the Flow edit box value.459m and it includes four 90º short-radius bends. 5-2 . A new set of computed values for velocity.06mm. having an ID of 605mm and a surface roughness of 0. at a flow of 0. Example Calculate the headloss in a pipe. The pipe length is 3. Reynolds number.3m³/s. friction factor and total head loss will appear once the flow has been entered.

5-3 . When you click on a calculate button. Figure 5. as on Figure 5. surface roughness. the calculator dialog box appears. this new value is assigned to the pipe object.1. ARTS calculates its parameter value as a function of the current values of the remaining parameters.2.1 The Pipe Calculator The dialog box displays a set of editable hydraulic parameter values and a corresponding set of calculator buttons. Note: If you use the Pipe Calculator to calculate a pipe parameter.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications 5.2 The Pipe Calculator Tool This provides a fast and convenient interactive means of examining the inter-relationship of the pipe flow parameters: length. diameter. flow and head loss To use the Pipe Calculator tool: • either select an existing pipe on the design sheet or place a new one on the design sheet • click on the calculator tool.

the flow has been measured at 100 l/s and the corresponding headloss has been measured at 19. 5-4 . Compute the effective pipe wall roughness. Step 1 Draw a pipe on the design sheet (the pipe will be grey until you set some of it’s properties) Step 2 Edit the Main property page: Step 3 Click on the pipe calculator tool Step 4 Set the parameters on the pipe calculator dialog and press “k value” Solution: The effective k value is 0.1414mm.5m. Under normal steady state operational conditions.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications Example An old rising main is 6580m long and has an internal diameter of 345mm.

01mm.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications 5. Figure 5. J5 O3 R1 J4 J1 P1 J2 P3 P5 O4 P2 J6 J3 O2 O1 P4 Figure 5.01000m³/s 0.01000m³/s Figure 5.01000m³/s 0. provided: 1. ARTS will handle any pipe system configuration. Figure 5.0300m³/s 83. the independent supply to 0.000m 0.01 3 3 m /s. an upstream reservoir plus an additional supply.855m 0.01 m /s and the reservoir TWL to 100m AD).01000m³/s 96.01000m³/s 81.2 shows a trunk and branch pipe system. it constitutes a feasible conveyance system 3. each demand to 0.01000m³/s 100.152m 0. it is correctly drawn on the design sheet 2. it includes five pipe elements.353m 0.3 Solved Network system 5-5 . its boundary conditions are sufficient to define the flow distribution. each pipe roughness to 0.0200m³/s 0.2 Network system 81.3 shows the flow and head distribution for the system depicted on Figure 5.3 Pipe systems A pipe system is any collection of pipes that is linked together to create a continuous flow path.654m 100.01000m³/s 0.000mOD 94.this is the screen output that is generated by execution of the Steady Pipe Flow command on the Analysis menu (each pipe length was set to 100m.2 . as it would appear on the design sheet after compilation. 3 demands.2.855m 0.

O3 R1 J2 J9 P1 P3 J4 O4 P2 R2 J 10 P6 J3 P4 P5 J5 O2 O1 Figure 5.823m 0.000m 0. reservoir 2 to a TWL of 106 mAD).01mm. it includes six pipe elements.01000m³/s 106.01000m³/s 0. 0.01 3 m /s. as it would appear on the design sheet after compilation.this is the screen output that is generated by execution of the Steady Pipe Flow command on the Analysis menu (each pipe length was set to 100m.808m 0. each pipe roughness to 0.0257m³/s 0.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications Figure 5. reservoir 1 to a TWL of 100m AD.000m 0.00493m³/s 100.00926m³/s 95.527m 106.5 shows the flow and head distribution for the system depicted on Figure 5.4 Looped Network System Figure 5.000740m³/s 0.01000m³/s 0.110m 0.01000m³/s Figure 5.000mOD 97.0107m³/s 95.4 shows a looped pipe system. each demand to 0.4 .0143m³/s 97.5 Solved Looped Network System 5-6 .000mOD 100. 2 supply reservoirs and 4 demands.

all other nodes are blue).Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications Exercise 5.4 on your design sheet • click on the Compile command in the Analysis menu.5. • select the other drawn reservoir element and alter its water surface elevation to 100. inflow/outflow nodes are green.1 • Construct a pipe system similar to that shown on Figure 5. • select each pipe element in turn (first click the selection tool and then click the drawn pipe element) and edit the values for length and surface roughness. or the colour coding is not correct.2. 5-7 . Exercise 5. 5.00m. length and surface roughness. the pipe system nodes are now highlighted by coloured circles (pipe-to-pipe junctions are red. Note that each pipe junction should be represented by a single coloured circle. (Chapter 3).01mm and a diameter of 100mm. If there are two coloured circles at a pipe junction. the pipe system nodes are now highlighted by coloured circles (pipe-to-pipe junctions are red. the junction is not correctly registered by ARTS and a correction must be made. using the property pages so that each pipe is 100m long. • select each pipe element in turn (first click the selection tool and then click the drawn pipe element) and edit its values for diameter.01m /s. The procedure by which these plotted characteristics are transferred to ARTS via the pump property box pages are outlined in Chapter 4. to compute the steady pump discharge rate. the junction is not correctly registered by ARTS and a correction must be made (Chapter 3). • Click on the Steady Pipe Flow command on the Analysis menu to compute flow and pressure distribution. power versus flow (P/Q). If there are two coloured circles at a pipe junction. 3 • select each demand in turn and edit the current flow value to 0. edit the current flow value to 0. with a surface roughness of 0.3.2 • construct a pipe system similar to that shown on Figure 5.01m /s. It can cope with single or multiple pumps in parallel and with single or complex rising main systems. as shown in Figure 5. The computed flow values are printed on the design sheet as are the flow directions. required net positive suction head versus flow (NPSH/Q). as shown in Figure 5.2 on your design sheet • click on the Compile command in the Analysis menu. inflow/outflow nodes are green. Note that each pipe junction should be represented by a single coloured circle.00m. using the property pages so that each pipe is 100m long.01mm and a diameter of 100mm. 3 • select each supply and demand in turn and edit its value. ARTS uses the pump and pipe system input data. • Click on the Steady Pipe Flow command on the Analysis menu to compute flow distribution and head loss. • select one of the reservoir elements and alter its water surface elevation to 106. as are the flow directions. The computed flow and head values are printed on the design sheet. all other nodes are blue). or the colour coding is not correct. with a surface roughness of 0. together with the specified static lift.4 Pump/rising main systems The performance characteristics of rotodynamic pumps are normally supplied by pump manufacturers in a graphical format as plots of head versus flow (H/Q).

as illustrated on the ARTS design sheet in Figure 5. the suction and delivery pipework is typically replicated for each pump. which shows a simple single pump/rising main installation. bends and tapers. Figure 5. respectively (commonly designated as the pumphouse pipework). as drawn.6 . Where there are multiple pumps. R2 J5 P3 R1 J3 J1 P1 J2 P2 J4 PU 1 Figure 5.a suction pipe (P1). resulting in a significant local head loss.this is the screen output that is generated by execution of the Steady Pipe Flow command on the Analysis menu 5-8 . has 3 pipe elements . The suction and delivery pipes are the pipes connected to the suction and delivery sides of the pump. they normally carry fittings such as valves.6.6 Pump system You will note that the system pipework.7 shows the flow and head distribution for the pump/rising main system depicted on Figure 5.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications Pump installations typically draw water/wastewater from a low-level reservoir or sump and discharge the pumped flow through a rising main to a high-level reservoir. a delivery pipe (P2) and a rising main (P3).

• make the following changes to the system values: reservoirs: change the downstream reservoir level to 200.289m PU 1 Figure 5. rising main: set its length as 500m and internal diameter to 200mm.204m 94. 5-9 .6 on your design sheet • compile your system (Compile command on the Analysis menu) and make any corrections necessary (refer Chapter 4).Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications 200. Exercise 5.439m 100. efficiency and required NPSH by entering the duty flow in the flow text box on the Status property page for the pump.00m (check that the upstream sump level is 100. • use the Steady Pipe Flow command on the Analysis menu to compute the pump duty point • check the duty point head.000m 0.000m 0. a gate o valve and a 90 elbow bend.000mOD 200.7 Solved pump system Reminder: the basic property requirements for an ARTS pipe element are that its diameter and surface roughness should be constant throughout its length.0569m³/s 100.0569m³/s 206.000mOD 0.0569m³/s 215.00 m) o suction pipe: use the Extras page of its property box to add a 90 elbow bend. delivery pipe: use the Extras page of its property box to add a non-return valve.3 • Draw the system shown on Figure 5.

respectively for the two mains.8 on your design sheet • compile your system (Compile command on the Analysis menu) and make any corrections necessary (refer Chapter 4). • make the following changes to the system default values: reservoirs: set the upstream sump level to 100. delivery pipes: use the Extras page of its property box to add a non-return valve. 5-10 . R2 R1 P9 J7 J2 P1 J1 P8 P 10 PU 1 J4 P2 J3 P7 J9 P5 J 10 J8 J 13 J 14 P4 PU 2 J 11 J6 P3 J5 P6 J 12 PU 3 Figure 5.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications Exercise 5. Enter diameters of 250mm and 200mm. inter-connected. • use the Steady Flow command on the Analysis menu to compute the pump duty point • check the pump duty point head.00m and the downstream reservoir level to 200. a gate o valve and a 90 elbow bend. efficiency and required NPSH for each pump by examining the Status property page for each pump.8 Multi pump system • Draw the system shown on Fig 5.4 Fig 5. rising mains: set lengths as 500m.00 m o suction pipes: use the Extras page of its property box to add a 90 elbow bend.8 shows a 3-pump installation with two parallel rising mains.

997m 205.0486m³/s 0.0560m³/s 100.384m 206.0504m³/s PU 1 0.764m 0.000m 200.043m 0.0486m³/s PU 2 0.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications Figure 5.8) 200.00732m³/s 214.0487m³/s 0.017m 100.000m 94.9 Pump Status page Comment: the copy/paste facility is useful for inputting data for multiple pumps (see 3.000m 0.401m 206.0504m³/s 0.10 Solved multi pump system 5-11 .748m 0.000mOD 200.0487m³/s PU 3 Figure 5.000m 94.000m 94.0413m³/s 214.383m 0.001m 100.0917m³/s 213.000mOD 100.

61mb 0.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications 5. The required input into the flow 3 3 3 3 object is normal m /s (Nm /s) or normal ft /s (Nft /s) and air temperature. and an inflow of 0.0809m³/s 727.1 Nm /s at 20 C.11 shows the result of an analysis on a system comprising of two 3 o 50m lengths of 50mm pipe.17mb 100. the gauge pressure at each node is displayed in millibar (mb / psi). an end submergence of 5m. the user must select Air as the fluid in the flow object. The analysis assumes that the difference in the density of the air from the inlet end to the outlet end is negligible. For systems with multiple discharges. and the compressed air flow is displayed in each pipe.50mb Figure 5.1000Nm³/s 0. ARTS will only analyse systems with discharges at equal submergence.000mOD 490. 964.11 Analysed Air System 5-12 .0809m³/s 0. Example The system displayed in Figure 5. Upon running a Steady Flow Analysis. The Status Page of the pipe property pages indicates the Adiabatic Temperature Rise (ATR) of the air. The difference between the reservoir TWL and the outlet node elevation determines the submergence. To analyse the flow of compressed air in a pipe system. The gauge pressure at the discharge end of the pipe system is defined by the submergence at the outlet node which must be placed in a reservoir object.2.5 Air Systems The flow object in ARTS can be used to represent air as well as water/wastewater and sludges.

Uniform flow 2. i.2 The channel property pages To use the channel object Status page as a computational tool: • • • • • Either select an existing channel on the design sheet or place a new one on the sheet Click on the Properties tool to display the channel’s properties. Enter a flow value in the Flow edit box.3. mean velocity and Froude number will be displayed.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications 5.3. 5-13 . for example. at an hydraulic jump. You can then make the required computations by one of two methods: (a) using the channel element property pages (refer Fig 4. Chapter 4) (b) by use of the Channel Calculator tool 5.9. as.1 Uniform flow computations As in all ARTS projects. The computed critical depth. In conventional hydraulics terminology. Rapidly varied flow Uniform flow infers a constant velocity/depth over the channel length. steady flow in open channels is described as belonging in one of the following three categories: 1. Edit the channel properties as required Click on the Status tab.3 Open channel flow The defining characteristic for open channel flow is the existence of a “free” liquid surface. a water/wastewater surface in contact with air at atmospheric pressure.e. Uniform flow is also further characterised by the channel bottom slope. critical slope and channel capacity (flowing full value at normal depth) are also displayed. Gradually varied flow 3. the first step is to place a channel object on the design sheet using the channel tool. computed values for normal depth. as follows: mild slope critical slope steep slope ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ sub-critical or tranquil flow (Fr < 1) critical flow (Fr = 1) super-critical flow (Fr >1) where Fr is the Froude number (refer to the Appendix for definition and further discussion) 5. Gradually varied flow (GVF) infers a gradual variation in velocity/depth over the channel length Rapidly varied flow infers a localised change in velocity/depth.

which has a base width of 1200mm.65m³/s.65m³/s Step 1 Draw a channel on the design sheet (the channel will be grey until you set some of it’s properties) Step 2 Edit the Main property page: Step 3 Click on the Status page. Solution: The normal depth is 1085mm at 1. 5-14 .Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications Example Calculate the normal depth in a concrete U-shaped channel. a gradient of 1 to 1500 and is used to convey sewage at a flow rate of flow 1.

its text boxes contain editable default values.13 appears on the screen. Edit the channel properties as required. Note that ARTS provides the option of using velocity instead of flow.3. When the dialog box first appears. then click OK Click on the GVF tool the dialog box shown on Figure 5.12 Channel calculator The dialog box displays a set of hydraulic parameter values and a corresponding set of calculator buttons. flow. flow depth and head loss • click on the channel tool and draw a channel element on the design page • click on the calculator and the channel calculator dialog box appears. ARTS calculates its parameter value as a function of the current values of the remaining parameters.3 The Channel Calculator tool The channel-calculator tool provides a fast and convenient interactive means of examining the inter-relationship of the channel parameters under uniform flow conditions: length. with the aid of which you can analyse and plot GVF profiles for a wide range of channel GVF flow conditions: Figure 5. 5.4 Gradually varied flow ARTS provides a versatile capability for the analysis of gradually varied flow (GVF) by use of the GVF tool on the tool palette. as on Figure 5.3.12.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications 5. Figure 5. k-value. it shows 1. When you click on a parameter calculator button.13 GVF Plotter • • • • Either select an existing channel on the design sheet or place a new one on the sheet Click on the Properties tool to display the channel’s properties. a channel outline with water depth values at its ends 5-15 .

5-16 . command buttons for Plot and Done actions. • click on the Plot command button to plot the GVF profile. To enter a downstream control depth: • Click the Downstream control checkbox • Enter the downstream control depth by editing its current value To enter an upstream control depth: • click the Upstream control checkbox.1 Table 5.1 GVF control depth specification (parameters ycont = control depth. in which case ARTS takes the upstream control as the determinant of the flow profile. check boxes for the specification of upstream and/or downstream control water depths.if the normal depth line is above the critical depth line. the flow is sub-critical. enter the upstream control depth by editing its current value You may specify an upstream control or a downstream control or both or neither. yN = normal depth yC = critical depth) Channel slope Mild Upstream control Downstream control Upstream + downstream control* ycont < yC ycont > yC upstream: ycont < yC downstream: ycont > yC Steep ycont < yC ycont > yC upstream: ycont < yN downstream: ycont > yC * infers the existence of an hydraulic jump. • clear the check boxes for upstream and downstream controls • specify end and lateral inflow values by editing the edit box values • select the Plot option and click the Plot command button. edit boxes for the specification of the end inflow and lateral inflow rates. option buttons for the selection of output format .Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications 2.plot or tabulation 5. whereas if it is below the critical depth line the flow is super-critical). 4. the normal and critical depth lines are plotted on the channel profile (note the relative positions of the normal and critical depth lines . 3. which may not occur within channel reach. Feasible control depth specifications are summarised in Table 5.

14 Plot from exercise 5.5 5-17 .5 0.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications Exercise 5.1 Figure 5.5 Determine the water surface profile in a parabolic channel with the following properties: length (m) width (mm) height (mm) k-value (mm) 1 bottom slope 3 end inflow (m /s) 3 lateral inflow (m /s) outlet end control depth (mm) 850 25 2000 1500 1:1200 1.

first select the individual channel and then select the GVF tool.961m C2 100. 1. press the Plot Profile button to display the water surface profile over the channel length.456m C1 100. The water surface dialog box (Fig 5. You can display the resulting water surface profile in an individual channel of the set by using the GVF tool. similar in hydraulic behaviour to a wastewater treatment system). starting from a control depth at outlet end (if the outlet end channel has a steep slope.0000m³/s 101.356m C2 100. To use the GVF tool.3. as outlined in Chapter 6 of this Manual (a set of channels in series is a gravity flow system. as shown on Figure 5.1000m³/s 100. the specified outlet end control depth will exert an influence on the flow depth only if it is equal to or greater than the sequent depth of an hydraulic jump in the channel at the specified flow rate).Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications 5.16 illustrate the output results as printed on the screen graphic. 5-18 .468m Figure 5. as outlined in Chapter 6.255m C3 100.092m C1 100.16 Channels in series (at min flow) The procedure by which this is done (using the Hydraulic Profile commands) is the same as outlined for the hydraulic analysis/design of wastewater treatment systems. Figure 5.13) appears.15 and Figure 5.15 Channels in series (at max flow) 0.5 Channels in series ARTS has the capability of dealing with flow in a set of channels in series. You can plot a hydraulic profile for the set of channels by using the Hydraulic Profile commands.15.101m Figure 5.804m C3 100.

using quick help to indicate the limits for key dimensions of the structure being designed. Next. U-shape flumes can only be used in U-shape channels. the limit values for other 5-19 . Press Setup to provide a set of compliant throat dimensions. Channels. length and surface roughness values (note that the downstream section dimensions are not now editable as ARTS assumes the upstream and downstream channels have the same section. On the Main page select the flume type (i. You should note that when you change one dimension. Normally. Click on the Properties tool to display the flume’s properties .you will note from the button bar at the top of the property page that the flume object has 7 tabs. flow measurement structures are designed to measure flows within a specified flow range.e. Data is entered on the property pages in the above button order. trapezoidal and U cross-section short-throated flumes of rectangular cross-section Parshall flumes Weirs: broad-crested weirs thin-plate weirs. place a flume object on the design sheet using the Flume tool. Select the downstream channel and enter its slope. choosing from the drop-down list. entitled Main. select the Throat property page. Calibration and Status. length and surface roughness values.these values define the design flow range for the flume. U-shaped flumes. including V-notch.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications 5. First. rectangular notch and Sutro types. input the data for the upstream channel by editing the dimensions and the slope. throat sectional shape). and three output pages entitled Side. shortthroated and Parshall flumes are restricted to rectangular channels). You may then alter the throat dimensions by editing the displayed default values. Throat and Plan.1 Flumes To initiate the design of a flow measurement flume. 5. ARTS guides the user through the design process. rectangular short-throated flumes. They comprise four data entry pages. starting with the Main page. which includes rectangular/trapezoidal long-throated flumes. and Parshall flumes. The Channels page contains a dimensioned channel section.4.rectangular/trapezoidal flumes can be used in rectangular/trapezoidal channels. To ensure an acceptable level of accuracy over the design flow range. the tool tip feature shows the current design limit values for that dimension. the structure dimensions must satisfy established design constraints (refer Appendix for details). including: Flumes: long-throated flumes of rectangular. the shape of which is dependent on the type of flume already selected on the main page . When you place the cursor over a dimension value.4 Flow measurement structures ARTS caters for a comprehensive range of open channel flow measurement structures. Enter the min and max flow values .

You can also use the Status page to calculate the head at any flow by entering the flow value in the flow text box . The Calibration output page shows a graph of head as a function of flow over the design flow range and also prints a fitted equation for the structure. if not. The Side output page shows the water surface profile for the current flume. the word INVALID is printed. The Status page prints the modular ratio and upstream Froude number for the structure at max and min flow and indicates whether its design complies with the design criteria outlined in the Appendix. complying with the Quick Help range limit. Then. is usually the throat width (the throat width determines the upstream head). enter the throat length and downstream expansion. which.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications dimensions also change. It is best therefore to first set the most critical dimension. use the max or min option button to display the corresponding profile and associated water depth values. On the Plan property page. using the quick help guide. If all the design criteria are satisfied. the word VALID is printed on the Status page.the associated head is automatically displayed. edit the remaining dimensions. in the case of flumes. 5-20 .

5 m³/s. The flume is to fit into a 3m wide by 2m deep channel which has a slope of 1:800 Step 1 Draw a flume on the design sheet (the flume will be grey until you set some of it’s properties) Step 2 Edit the Main property page: Step 3 Click on the Channels page and edit the properties of both channels. Step 5 Edit the Throat parameters to suitable values. Step 6 Edit the Plan parameters to suitable values. Solution: A flume of 1750mm x 2250mm and 100mm step.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications Example Design a rectangular flume to measure flow in the range 3 . Step 4 Click on the Throat page and press Setup. 5-21 .

2 Weirs To initiate the design of a flow measurement weir.4. Step 4 Click on the Section page and press Setup and edit the width. Step 5 Click on the Side page. Then.1 for flume design. place a weir object on the design sheet using the Weir tool. follow the same procedure as outlined in section 5. Step 6 Click on the Status page 5-22 .4.Hydraulic Analysis/Design : General Applications 5. The weir is to fit into a 1m wide by 1m deep channel which has a slope of 1:1000 Step 1 Draw a weir on the design sheet (the weir will be grey until you set some of it’s properties) Step 2 Edit the Main property page: Step 3 Click on the Channels page and edit the properties of both channels. Example Design a rectangular weir to measure flow in the range 10 .50 l/s.

This is done by editing the properties of the treatment units. Treatment System Hydraulic Design 6. These features enable the user to: • carry out a detailed hydraulic analysis/design of the components of a wastewater treatment system. the Status property page for the unit displays the head loss across the unit at the design(max) flow. “Drops” may be incorporated into the treatment system layout to cater for varying site topography.Treatment System Hydraulic Design 6. The head loss across each unit is a function of the flow rate and the internal geometric configuration of the unit. to permit gravity flow through the system. The treatment system may incorporate any of the following hydraulic objects on the tool palette. • • • • • • • • • • • • activated sludge reactor biofilter clarifier detritor flow divider flume pipe reservoir rapid gravity filter screen sedimentation tank weir 6-1 . allowing the user to specify the internal dimensions that govern head loss.1 Introduction ARTS incorporates a number of features that have been specifically developed for the hydraulic analysis/design of water/wastewater treatment systems. • set the relative elevations of the treatment process units that comprise the treatment system. the pipe links convey the inter-process flow. at all flows within a specified design flow range • compute the hydraulic profile for flow through the system at any flow rate between the specified maximum and minimum flow rates. and also for the re-combination of flows into a single stream. using the Flow-divider tool. as outlined in Chapter 4. Provision is made for the sub-division of flow into parallel streams. including the process units and the inter-connecting pipes. ARTS provides a facility for the internal hydraulic analysis/design of individual treatment units.

Treatment System Hydraulic Design 6. They may be of circular or rectangular tank configuration.1 Sedimentation tank Sedimentation tanks are used for primary (raw wastewater) and secondary (post-biological or physicochemical treatment) clarification in wastewater treatment systems. The hydraulic design parameters for a circular sedimentation tank are illustrated on Figure 6. Flow in the latter bifurcates at the summit point A.1 Plan outline of circular sedimentation tank 6-2 . Inflow is at the tank centre with radial flow outwards over peripheral weir (1) into collector channel (2). If the inflow cascades into the sedimentation tank.1. The clarified wastewater flows over an outlet weir into a collector channel. flowing in opposing directions to the overflow chamber at B. The Main property page specifies the tank type (circular and rectangular options). the inflow is submerged. hence the outflow node head represents the water surface level in the overflow chamber of the sedimentation tank The ARTS property pages for sedimentation tanks are shown in Chapter 4. The latter is always submerged. in which case the inflow node head represents the water surface level in the sedimentation tank. ARTS registers the outflow from a sedimentation tank at an outflow node. which discharges to an outlet or overflow chamber. Normally.2. 1 2 A B overflow underflow inflow Figure 6. the Max inflow and the underflow (sludge flow). then the inflow node elevation represents the invert level of the inflow pipe.2 Hydraulic design of process units 6. which is the entry point to the effluent pipe. ARTS registers the inflow to a sedimentation tank at an inflow node which is the terminal point of an inflow pipe.

2. it trickles down through the medium on to a sloping floor which directs the flow radially outwards to the peripheral collector channel (2). slope. plain weir. The ARTS Collector property page facilitates the hydraulic design of the peripheral collector channel through specification of its width.2. Flow in the peripheral channel bifurcates at the high point A. offering a choice of V-notch weir. flowing both clockwise and anticlockwise to the outlet at B.2 Biofilter The biofilter configuration to which the ARTS hydraulic design procedure relates. the user can then edit its default dimensions as required for the application in hand. Provision is made for the inclusion of a water surface drop at the outlet end of the channel. outlet control depth and surface roughness. The hydraulic design parameters for a rectangular sedimentation tank are illustrated on Figure 6. 6-3 . is illustrated on Figure 6.2 Plan outline of rectangular sedimentation tank 6.3.the location is specified by the option buttons on the Main property page. The inflow wastewater is irrigated on to the surface of the biofilter medium by the multi-arm manifold distributor (1). Note that all figured dimensions printed in red are editable. by editing their respective property pages in the manner already outlined for circular tanks. rectangular notch weir. ARTS caters for the design of the outlet system (1) and the collector channel (2). Having selected the type of outlet. Note that the overflow discharge may be from the midpoint of the collector channel (A) or from one of its ends (B) . This can be used to build in a safety margin to the hydraulic design or to cater for site topography where the site gradient is greater than the minimum required for gravity flow through the system. circular orifice and square orifice . 2 1 inflow A overflow B underflow Figure 6.Treatment System Hydraulic Design The ARTS Outlet property page specifies the type of outlet.

The Main property page specifies the flow rate and the biofilter dimensions. ARTS automatically redesigns the biofilter by setting the dimensions to normal values. First. enter the design (max) flow rate. 2. The inflow node head represents the pressure head at the terminal point of the inflow pipe. 3. diameter and surface roughness • the diameter and spacing of orifices 6-4 .Treatment System Hydraulic Design 2 1 B A outflow medium Figure 6. distance between the distributor invert and the top surface of the medium height of the medium distance between underside of medium and highest point of floor (at centre) floor gradient (from centre to inner boundary of peripheral channel). On registering a new flow value. 4. Enter the new biofilter dimensions by editing these values. note that there are 4 vertical dimension components: 1. ARTS registers the outflow from a biofilter tank at an outflow node.3 Plan outline of biofilter ARTS registers the inflow to a biofilter at an inflow node which is the terminal point of the inflow pipe supplying the distribution manifold. The Inlet property page specifies the details of the multi-arm rotating manifold distributor. hence the outflow node head represents the water surface level in the outflow chamber of the biofilter. The latter is always submerged. which is the entry point to the effluent pipe. including: • the number of radial arms • the radial arm length.

the wastewater inflow rate and the sludge recycle rate. From an hydraulic design viewpoint.3 Activated sludge reactor (ASR) As illustrated on the property pages for ASRs. number of orifices and pipe surface roughness. edit the dimensions displayed on the radial arm 3. Provision is made for the inclusion of a water surface drop at the outlet end of the channel. enter the number of radial arms 2. rectangular notch weir. the user can then edit its dimensions as required for the application in hand. The Collector property page facilitates the hydraulic design of the peripheral collector channel through specification of its width. Note that all figured dimensions printed in red are editable. Having selected the type of outlet. This can be used to build in a safety margin into the hydraulic design or to cater for site topography where the site gradient is greater than the minimum required for gravity flow through the system. outlet control depth and surface roughness.2. The latter is always submerged. The outflow mixed liquor flows over an outlet weir into a collector channel. If the inflow cascades into the ASR tank. This can be used to build in a safety margin to the hydraulic design or to cater for site topography where the site gradient is greater than the minimum required for gravity flow through the system. 6-5 . enter the orifice diameter. offering a choice of V-notch weir. outlet control depth and surface roughness. The ASR Outlet property page specifies the type and length of outlet. ARTS caters for reactors of circular and rectangular configuration. plain weir. hence the outflow node head represents the water surface level in the outflow chamber of the ASR tank The ASR Main property page specifies the tank type (circular and rectangular options). ARTS registers the inflow to an ASR at an inflow node which is the terminal point of an inflow pipe. which discharges to an outlet or overflow chamber. in which case the inflow node head represents the water surface level in the ASR tank. slope. 6. Provision is made for the inclusion of a water surface drop at the outlet end of the channel. circular orifice and square orifice (refer Fig 4.16). the ASR is simply a liquid-holding tank with a regulated outflow.Treatment System Hydraulic Design It also presents the following computed values: • the radial arm inlet end velocity • ratio of min/max orifice discharge • the manifold pipe (radial arm) head loss Edit the Inlet page data in the following order: 1. The ASR Collector property page facilitates the hydraulic design of the peripheral collector channel through specification of its width. then the inflow node elevation represents the invert level of the inflow pipe. Normally. the inflow is submerged. which is the entry point to the effluent pipe. ARTS registers the outflow from an ASR tank at an outflow node. slope.

the inflow is submerged.4 Blanket Sludge Clarifier From an hydraulic design viewpoint. the rapid gravity filter is simply a liquid-holding tank with a regulated headloss. slope. ARTS registers the inflow to a rapid gravity filter at an inflow node which is the terminal point of an inflow pipe. If the inflow cascades into the rapid gravity filter. outlet control depth and surface roughness. This is a pipe to pipe connection. These transverse collecting channels discharge into a main collecting channel. The inflow node head represents the water surface level in the clarifier tank. similar to the divider object. downstream of the pressure regulating valve. hence the outflow node head represents the water surface level in the outflow chamber of the clarifier tank The Main Collector property page facilitates the hydraulic design of the main collector channel through specification of its width. the flow into a blanket sludge clarifier first passes through an inlet manifold. Provision is made for the inclusion of a water surface drop at the outlet end of the channel. then over an outlet weir into transverse collection channels. This can be used to build in a safety margin to the hydraulic design or to cater for site topography where the site gradient is greater than the minimum required for gravity flow through the system. The top of the transverse collector channels and the top of the main collector channel are taken as being in the same horizontal plane.Treatment System Hydraulic Design 6.5 Rapid Gravity Filter From an hydraulic design viewpoint.2. 6-6 . ARTS registers the outflow from a rapid gravity filter tank at an outflow node. ARTS registers the outflow from a blanket sludge clarifier at an outflow node. which discharges into and outlet or overflow chamber for the unit. If the rapid gravity filter is set to model several cells. 6. which is the entry point to the outflow pipe. then the user must draw an outflow pipe for each cell on the screen. The latter is always submerged. Normally. in which case the inflow node head represents the water surface level in the rapid gravity filter. hence the outflow node head represents the pressure at the connection. then the inflow node elevation represents the invert level of the inflow pipe.2. and its effect can be seen at the next upstream node head. which is the entry point to the outflow pipe. The headloss in the manifold is registered in the inflow node. ARTS registers the inflow to a blanket sludge clarifier at an inflow node which is the terminal point of an inflow pipe.

Normally. Tank detritors may have a variety of configurations.4. separated by a weir wall from a multicompartment outlet chamber.2. ARTS registers the inflow to a flow divider at an inflow node which is the terminal point of an inflow pipe. Use the check box to indicate equal flows or otherwise. Edit the drop height. The ARTS Detritor tool relates to tank detritors (as distinct from channel-type detritors).6 Flow divider The ARTS flow divider configuration is illustrated on Figure 6. then the inflow node elevation represents the invert level of the inflow pipe.4 The Side property page displays the drop from the weir cill to the water surface in the outlet compartments and also displays the computed head on the dividing weir wall. in which case the inflow node head represents the water surface level in the inflow chamber of the flow divider. If the inflow cascades into the flow divider.Treatment System Hydraulic Design 6. 6-7 .8 Detritors Detritors are high rate sedimentation tanks. which are the entry points of the effluent channels or pipes. ARTS registers the flow divider outflows at outflow nodes. The Plan property page specifies the plan dimensions of the flow divider and the number outlet streams into which the flow is to be split. designed to remove grit and inorganic particulate matter. which is represented as the head difference between its inflow and outflow nodes. First. The latter are always submerged.2. PLAN SECTION Figure 6. the inflow is submerged. hence the outflow node heads represent the water surface levels in the outflow chambers of the flow divider. specify the max flow rate and then select the number of streams. 3 3 6. 6. A wide variety of mechanical screen types is used in wastewater treatment systems. k is the screen head loss coefficient and Ba (m / ft) is a fixed screen blockage allowance.2. These nodes also define the terminal points of the pipes which convey flow to and from the screen chamber. The wastewater flows over a control weir into a number of outflow chambers.7 Mechanical screens ARTS treats mechanical screens as devices which generate a head loss. ARTS computes the head loss across a screen as follows: h = kQ2 + Ba where h (m / ft) is the head loss at flow Q (m /s / ft /s). It consists of a rectangular inlet chamber. Edit the plan dimensions of the divider.

Treatment System Hydraulic Design ARTS treats detritors as devices which generate a head loss.1 Primary Inflow The system must include one primary inflow stream (i.47. Chapter 4. The ARTS detritor property pages (Main and Status) are illustrated on Figures 4. respectively.3 Hydraulic System Specification 6. ARTS computes the head loss for detritors according to the following relationship: h = kQ 2 where h (m / ft) is the head loss at flow Q (m /s / ft /s) and k is the detritor head loss coefficient.e. These nodes also define the terminal points of the channels which convey flow to and from the detritor.1. the system elements and connectivity must comply with the following constraints: 6. 3 3 6.3.1 Drawing the system Drawing an outline schematic of the system on the design sheet. as indicated in Figure 6. larger than all other inflows).5.3.46 and 4.5 System flows 6-8 . PRIMARY INFLOW Secondary Outflow Secondary Inflow PRIMARY OUTFLOW NODE J2 O1 J1 J6 J5 J4 Figure 6. which is registered as the head difference between inflow and outflow nodes. The inflow must be directed to an inflow link node at the head of the system (system head node).

1.2 Secondary Inflows and outflows Secondary inflows/outflows cannot be connected directly to treatment plant objects. This can be readily modelled in ARTS by setting one of the outflows from the flow divider to zero.g. must have a single tail node. which ARTS identifies as the primary outflow point (as Figure 6. including options such as taking out Figure 6. and at which the outlet TWL must be specified. The outlet level at this point may be specified on the design sheet graphic by either (a) setting the invert elevation of the outlet node of a freely discharging outlet pipe or (b) placing the end point of the outlet pipe in a reservoir and specifying O1 the reservoir TWL (this simulates a receiving water TWL). Flow dividers can have unlimited inflows.4 Multi stream systems Where it is required to split the flow into two or more parallel Figure 6.1. discharging from a set of three primary sedimentation units to Figure 6.Treatment System Hydraulic Design 6.8) e.9 Multi stream to unit 6-9 .9). if a treatment system has three parallel streams. Flow division cannot be done using a simple pipe junction. however. 6.7).3.5 Connections J 12 J 11 With the exception of the flow-divider.1. be combined into a single stream using a simple pipe junction (Figure 6.6 Dividing streams. and one outflow per division. they must be recombined into a single stream at a junction from which the combined flow is conveyed in a single pipe to the activated sludge unit (Figure 6.1.3 Primary Outflow The system.3.7 Combining streams one stream for maintenance purposes. treatment plant objects P 5 can have only one inflow pipe and one outflow pipe (Figure 6.3. Converging streams can.8 Unit Connections a single-tank activated sludge process. that are external to treatment plant objects. O4 P6 Figure 6. 6. as drawn on the design sheet. O4 6. When designing multi-stream processes. but may be connected to intermediate link pipe nodes.5). Flow dividers may be set to equal flow division or to flow-splitting in user-specified proportions. various operating scenarios have to be examined.3. this must be done by incorporating a flow-divider in the streams system (Figure 6.6).

These parameter values will then be used in the auto design computation process. the recycle rate to be set for each sedimentation unit is Qr/n. 6-10 . the weir overflow and peripheral collector channels of sedimentation units are sized to pass the maximum flow without surcharge. set the maximum. auto design takes certain object properties as fixed such as pipe length or sedimentation tank shape. set the sludge recycle rate for the activated sludge unit and also the related underflow rate(s) for the downstream secondary sedimentation unit(s).1. in which all the component elements have a sufficient hydraulic capacity to pass the maximum flow.2 Activated sludge Recycle Flows If the treatment system includes an activated sludge process.2.2 Specifying the design flow range for the system 6. storm overflow weir. 6. not altered by auto design. However. The user should think of these parameters as the Maximum Storm flow. to their known values. replacing them with values based on the ARTS design template norms. minimum and current inflow values.3. the diameter of pipe links are modified so that the velocity in the pipe is between 0. It is particularly important that the user ensures that these values are correct.1 Select Analysis > Hydraulic Profile > Auto Design Execution of the Auto Design command modifies some properties of all objects on the screen (including objects not connected as part of a system).1 System Inflow Select the primary Inflow object and display its Main property page.3.3. The benefit gained from the auto design procedure can be enhanced by setting the values of those parameters.0 m/s.4 Implementing the Auto Design procedure 6.4. 6.3 Preparing for Auto Design 6. prior to execution of the auto design command. is split between n downstream sedimentation tanks.Treatment System Hydraulic Design 6.8 and 2. the minimum anticipated flow and the average flow respectively.3. and will not alter them. pipe manifold. having a recycle rate Qr.6 Available objects The following tool palette objects cannot be incorporated into hydraulic systems that are to be analysed by the Hydraulic Profile commands: pump.3.2. In effect. Note that if the discharge from a single activated sludge unit. 6. otherwise the system will not have balanced flows.1 Set known properties Execution of the Auto Design command creates an initial hydraulically compliant design by re-sizing the objects on the design sheet so that they have the hydraulic capacity to transmit the maximum design flow.3. air vessel. 6.3. Parshall flumes. Auto Design presents the user with an initial design.3.3. For example.

a-8).5. At this point. which has been set equal to the maximum inflow by the previously executed Auto Design command.1 Links and Units It is probable that the user will generally want to refine the auto-designed system.10 Two interconnected fully submerged. 6-11 . where required. is a multi-pipe junction (two or more converging pipe links).10. the user is reminded that the ARTS Hydraulic Profile commands automatically take into account entry and exit head losses in pipe links between treatment units.Treatment System Hydraulic Design The Auto Design procedure may also be applied to individual units by right clicking on the object and selecting auto design from the popup menu which appears. As with entries to pipes. as in Figure 6. in turn.5. such as J2 on Figure tanks in ARTS 6. the user must enter appropriate k-values in the Extras property pages for the junction pipes. this setting can be altered to a free discharge condition by the user. hence a new value assigned to one parameter alters the permissible limits for related parameters. The Main property page defines the boundary conditions for the node. This is done by selecting each object on the screen graphic. In general.2 Nodes/Junctions Necessary editing of node properties should also be carried out at O1 O2 J5 J1 this point if required. the exit head loss is always taken as v /2g. In the case of entry nodes. the user can select from a range of pipe entry geometry (entries are set to sharp-edged initially). The automatic tool-tip dynamically updates parameter limit values. 2 as specified on the node property page. the information presented in the Appendix can be used (pages a-7. displaying the current limit range for the pointer-selected parameter.3. The default connection setting for pipe nodes within treatment plant objects is Figure 6. Refer to the Appendix (page a-5) for data on fittings head loss characteristics.10. You can examine the magnitude of head losses at nodes/junctions by using the sheet properties to display head losses for all junctions. 6. such as J1 on Figure 6. ARTS will insert a taper transition fitting at the junction and automatically take the associated transition head loss into account. In the case of outflow nodes. at which ARTS does not automatically account for the local head loss. the submerged entry condition cannot be changed by the user. This is done by selecting each node in turn and J2 P1 J3 editing its property pages. However. as outlined in Chapter 4. the property values for the individual components of a treatment plant unit are interdependent. to account for the local head loss at a multi-pipe junction. Hence. The entry head loss depends on the entry boundary condition. if you do not specify a transition connection where there is a change in diameter in a pipe link connecting two treatment units. is printed in grey text and is not editable. In situations where there are only 3 pipes.3. 6.10. The only junction type.5 Refining the initial design 6.3. It will be noted that the design flow. and editing its properties.

O1 101.3. The difference between the upstream and downstream values represents the head loss across the unit at maximum flow.1 Select Analysis > Hydraulic Profile > @ max flow Execution of this command primarily carries out two key tasks (a) it computes the TWLs for the system objects. The computed TWLs are displayed on the design sheet. J 3) or downstream value. it sets the required design elevations of the treatment plant units relative to the system datum.460m 101.7 Examining the system at minimum flow 6. under maximum flow conditions.11 Two interconnected tanks J5 Weir Crest J1 J2 Weir Crest J3 Figure 6.3. an inflow or upstream value (J 5. These elevation settings are not changed by any subsequent hydraulic profile computations for flows less than the maximum flow.902m O2 P1 100.11).6.2 Interpretation of reported TWLs Each unit has two TWL values (refer Figure 6. J 2) and a sump (J 1.245m O2 P1 100.13 after min flow analysis 6-12 .432m 100. based on the object elevations set by the previously executed @ max flow command (b) it checks the elevations of the pipe inverts to ensure submergence at minimum flow and adjusts them if necessary.1 Select Analysis > Hydraulic Profile > @ min flow Execution of this command primarily carries out two key tasks: (a) it computes the TWLs for the system objects. O1 J5 J1 P1 J2 O2 J3 Figure 6. and (b) based on the computed TWLs. at minimum flow.3.12 Reported values 6.7. taking into account the head loss in the connecting pipe link at minimum flow. under minimum flow conditions.3. and displays their values on the design sheet. the downstream or sump TWL for any unit is determined by the upstream TWL of the following unit.6.6 Examining the system at maximum flow 6. 6.358m Figure 6.3.888m 101. It should be noted that.14 after max flow analysis Figure 6.674m 100.Treatment System Hydraulic Design 6.860m O1 100.

16. having set up your system using the sequence of steps outlined above. such as channels or sedimentation tanks.3.15 You can also plot an hydraulic profile for treatment systems using the Hydraulic Profile.940m 101.549m P2 O2 S2 101.8 Examining the system at the current/average flow 6. to max. ARTS prints the potential head values (TWLs) at the key level-control points on the system. relative to the system datum (datum to which the specified outflow level relates). which produces an output similar to that shown on Figure 6. based on the object elevations set by the previously executed @ max flow command.Treatment System Hydraulic Design 6.340m 101. the inflow node head corresponds to the unit’s TWL) When you execute the Hydraulic Profile command on the Analysis menu. the downstream or sump TWL for any unit is determined by the upstream TWL of the following unit. you can print a textual summary of the computed hydraulic profile data by selecting View>Text output. The computed TWLs are displayed on the screen graphic.8.911m 100.3.15 Hydraulic profile defined by TWLs 6-13 .2200m³/s 101. for flows less than the maximum flow. as shown in Figure 6. you can generate an hydraulic profile for any flow within the min.1 Select Analysis > Hydraulic Profile > @ current flow Execution of this command computes the TWLs for the system objects. It should be noted that.485m Figure 6. at the current flow rate. the potential head values at the node points of the system are printed.4 Screen display of results Potential Heads On completion of each of the Hydraulic Profile @ commands. 0. flow range. (Note: for process units with a free water surface. Plot Full Profile command as in Figure 6.767m P1 S1 101. for the current flow.17.693m P4 100. Thus. taking into account the head loss in the connecting pipe link at the prevailing flow.120m P3 100. Thirdly. 6.

16 Hydraulic profile Figure 6.Treatment System Hydraulic Design Figure 6.17 Textual data summary 6-14 .

6 Examples For examples of wastewater treatment plant analysis and design. If you have a situation where this occurs.Treatment System Hydraulic Design 6.5 Examining Existing Systems ARTS can be used for examining existing systems. node levels. ARTS will report where overflows occur and where inlet pipes are not fully submerged. This includes. ARTS will then pass the Max flow through the system and report any overflow problems. sedimentation and clarifier units. 6-15 . For the activated sludge. you need to set all elevational data for the objects on the sheet prior to performing any analysis. ARTS does not model the transition from full flow to party full flow for pipes.7 for information on accessing the help file). see the ARTS help file (refer section 1. weir levels. ARTS will report if the units are flooded due to downstream and where the flooding occurs. you need to look at the two conditions separately. When examining existing systems. Once this has been done. 6. choose Analysis> Hydraulic Profile > Check Existing System. etc.

Treatment System Hydraulic Design 6-16 .

If the installation has multiple pumps in parallel. subject to the following: 1. listed on the property pages. as illustrated in Figure 7. you can input the elevation data for the rising main on its Extras property page. The lengths of the suction and delivery pipes (pumphouse pipework) are short relative to the length of the rising main. The pump set is located in or close to the pump sump or wet well (transient pressure fluctuations in the suction main are not taken into account) 3. and min. The vertical profile of the rising main also has an important bearing on the gauge pressures caused by pump trip-out. and then specifying the properties of its component elements. ARTS caters for the inclusion of the following pressure control devices: • air vessel (single vessel located at the upstream end of the rising main connected to the rising main by a throttle pipe).4.Waterhammer Analysis and Control 7. it is important to note that. the ARTS model of a pump /rising main system consists of a suction pipe.4 and illustrated on Figure 7. respectively. The Unsteady Pipe Flow command in the Analysis menu analyses transient waterhammer conditions arising from sudden pump trip out on pump/rising main systems. unlike steady flow analysis. 7-1 . pressure envelopes for the rising main and also a plot of the temporal pressure fluctuation at a user-selected point on the rising main.3. The system has a single rising main 4. a delivery pipe and a rising main. In this context.1 Introduction As outlined in section 5. as outlined in Chapters 3 and 4.2. waterhammer analysis uses the full range of pump and pipe properties.2 Data input You start by drawing the pump/rising main system on the design page. they must be identical and their delivery pipes must connect at a common point to the rising main as illustrated in Figure 7. The suction and delivery pipes represent the pumphouse pipework and typically include fittings such as bends. 7. Waterhammer Analysis and Control 7. Their lengths are normally short relative to the length of the rising main. • air valves (air valves may be located at any point on the rising main) The results output includes max.8. valves etc. and hence you must enter the full range of values for your system (otherwise incorrect values may be used in the analysis). 2.

Typical ARTS design page examples of pump/rising main systems. and that the pumps.1 Pipe Extras Tab as a list Figure 7. A single pump system may have multiple suction pipes and delivery pipes once they are in series and are short relative to the rising main (in total). structured for waterhammer analysis. as explained in the next paragraph. Note that each pump can have an associated suction and delivery main.3 Pump rising main system 7-2 . are shown on Figure 7. The ARTS waterhammer analysis coding places some restrictions on the structure of pump rising main system.3). suction and delivery mains must all be identical.2 Pipe Extras Tab as a plot The end node elevations for the rising main are entered by editing the respective node property pages (N1 and N2 in Figure 7.Waterhammer Analysis and Control Figure 7.4 (multiple pumps). The same applies in multiple pump systems except that all the delivery mains must be connected to the rising main at the same point.3 (single pump) and Figure 7. DELIVERY N2 SUMP N1 PUMP Figure 7.

4 Pump rising main system with multiple pumps Note: Unsteady Pipe Flow Analysis expects the rising main to be longer than the suction and delivery pipes. you can initiate an analysis of waterhammer pressure fluctuation caused by sudden pump trip-out: • Select the Unsteady Flow command on the Analysis menu the Dynamic Analysis Setup dialog box appears.3. • Edit the unsteady flow computational parameters • click the Start command button to initiate the computation Number of computational divisions: This is the number of divisions into which the rising main is divided for calculation purposes. Having completed the system data input. Figure 7. as shown on Figure 7.3 Analysis 7. and should be a multiple of 10.Waterhammer Analysis and Control DELIVERY SUMP PUMP PUMP 2 Figure 7.5 Dynamic Analysis Dialog 7-3 . without air-vessel protection.5.1 Pump trip-out. hence the analysis will not run if all pipes are at their default length of 10m 7. it is recommended that you use the default value of 100 as lower values may cause computational instability (a lower value may be used for systems protected by an air vessel).

7. where n is the number of divisions. A graph of the temporal pressure fluctuation at the user-selected point on the rising main 3.6 Unsteady Pipe Flow Analysis Results 7-4 . represents the gauge pressure at that point. the discharge end is node n+1. 3 Note: the pressure envelopes are plotted as potential head relative to the same datum as the rising main. Once you click on Start. and min. if this proves too low. at any point. The computed results are presented in 4 output windows. indicating the duty point under steady flow conditions 2. hence it is suggested that you initially use a trial value of 10 cycles. A typical results page is illustrated on Figure 7. Plot node This is the rising main node number at which you require a pressure head/time plot (the pump end of the rising main is node 1. The pump/system head curve. Graphs of the following: rising main profile steady flow hydraulic grade line max. hence. a progress dialog box appears showing the estimated computation time and progress bar.Waterhammer Analysis and Control Number of wave cycles: should be at least the number required for rising main flow reversal and the generation of a pressure upsurge at the pump node (you cannot accurately predict this number. transient pressure envelope lines vapour pressure limit line 4. you can repeat the computation with a higher number). the vertical distance between the rising main and a pressure envelope line. as illustrated on Figure 7. showing: 1. A textual summary of the input data and the computed results.6. specified above). 2 4 1 Figure 7.

7. at the junction of the delivery and rising mains (node N1). 7-5 .9. i. as described above for the analysis of the unprotected system. To analyse the transient pressure fluctuation on the air vesselprotected system. with air vessel protection As explained in the Appendix. The air vessel is connected to the rising main at its upstream end node.4 Examples For examples on waterhammer analysis.e. as shown on Figure 7. select the Unsteady Flow command on the Analysis menu. This initiates the analysis and the output of results follows. Figure 7. see the ARTS Help file which is accessible from the main menu.7 Textual out Unsteady Flow analysis of R2 AV 1 R1 PUMP N1 Figure 7.Waterhammer Analysis and Control 7.2 Pump trip-out. air vessels are used on rising mains to control the pressure fluctuation resulting from pump trip-out.8.3. caused by sudden pump trip-out.8 Pump/rising main system with air vessel Typical results output sheets for a pump trip-out waterhammer analysis run on an air vesselprotected rising main system are shown in Figure 7.

Air valves are mapped from their actual physical location in the rising main to the nearest computational node as determined by the "Number of Divisions" setting. The exception to this is air valves which are at the pump end of the rising main. which are mapped to the second computational node along the rising main. It should be noted that this may underestimate the negative H value. Air valves ARTS uses the following simplified assumptions for air valve operation: 1) The head loss associated with air inflow or outflow is negligible 2) The influence of the admitted air mass on pressure transients is assumed to be negligible. positive Q zone.5 Analytical Assumptions Pumps ARTS uses the following assumptions for pump operation outside the positive H/Q quadrant: 1) Where the pump run-down computation indicated negative pump rotation. ARTS assumes a zero rotational speed.Waterhammer Analysis and Control Figure 7.9 Unsteady Pipe Flow Analysis Results for protected system 7. 2) Where the pump run-down computation indicates operation in the negative H. The locations of air valves are specified on the Extras property page for the rising main. 7-6 . ARTS uses the H/Q equation developed for the positive H/Q quadrant (based on the user pump data input).

2 Creating a new sheet To create a new sheet • Click on the File menu • Select New 8. each file address being identified by its Drive. If you have made changes to the file.File management. printing. 8-1 . File management. • Select the desired file from the dialog box • Click on the Open button The Open dialog box. or volume or folder. 8. If the file you want is not listed. as shown on Figure 8. click on another drive or directory. The dialog box initially lists files in the directory or folder in which you last saved or opened a sheet.1 Click on the Close command on the File menu to close the currently active file. which appear as a drop-down listing when you click on the File menu.3 Opening/closing files ARTS allows you to open and work on multiple documents simultaneously. is displayed. Directory and File Name.1. data export 8. printing 8. To open a file • Click on the File menu • Select the Open command. a dialog box will appear asking if you wish to permanently save all changes made. File manipulation and printing are both executed through the File menu commands. This dialog box provides access to all stored ARTS files.1 Introduction ARTS uses conventional Windows procedures for file management and printing. To close a file Figure 8.

File management, printing

8.4 Saving files
The File menu has two commands which are used to save files, Save and Save As. The Save command is used to save changes to an existing file. The Save As command is used to create a new file i.e. it is used when first saving a new sheet or when you want to save an existing file under a new name. To save a sheet to an existing file • Click on the File menu • Select Save To save a sheet to a new file • Click on the File menu • Select Save As • The Save As dialog box, as shown on Figure 8.2, appears. • Select the Drive and Directory destinations for your file and type the file name in the File Name text box, which already contains the text *.avs. All ARTS files have the extension .avs. Figure 8.2

8.5 Printing
There are three commands on the File menu that relate to printing: Print Setup, Print and Print Preview. The Print Preview shows a template of the printed page(s) on the screen. There are three printing choices • Sheet graphics only Prints out a page containing a graphical representation of the sheet as seen on the screen • Textual report only Prints out a textual report of all items on the graphics sheet and their properties • Full report Prints out a combination of the previous two options To change the print setup • Click on the File menu • Select the Print Setup command • Select the desired option from the Print Setup dialog box, shown on Figure 8.3. • Click OK Figure 8.3 8-2

File management, printing To print a sheet • Click on the File menu • Select the Print command • Click OK on the print dialog box, as shown on Figure 8.4. Figure 8.4

8.6 Export to other applications
ARTS includes several methods of exporting data for use in other applications. Sheets: • Graphical output Sheet graphics can be copied to the Windows clipboard in Windows Metafile format. Once this is done you can paste the graphic into any application which supports the metafile format, including most word processing and spreadsheet packages. Metafiles are scaleable, and therefore you can resize them without loss of quality in the destination package. • Textual output By selecting View - Text output, a textual listing of all objects on the sheet will appear. The properties for all the objects will also be listed. This information can also be copied to the Windows clipboard as Rich Text Format data. This type of data allows the formatting of the text to be copied also (such as Bold, Italic etc). Once in the Windows clipboard, this data can be pasted into applications as plain text or RTF format text. You can also save this data to file using the File - Save command on the Text window. This file can then be opened by word processing packages or other packages which are capable of opening RTF format files.

Graphs • Graphical output By selecting Edit - Copy - Picture from the graph menu, graphs can be copied to the Windows clipboard as a graphic Windows Metafile. This allows you to paste a scaleable graph directly into a destination package. However, you cannot access the data used to create the graph when you do this and therefore cannot modify the graph, other than changing the shape. • Textual output By selecting Edit - Copy - Data from the graph menu, you can copy the data used to create the graph to the Window clipboard in Tab delimited format. This format will paste directly into rows and columns of spreadsheet packages. The textual format is useful for pasting into applications that have graphing capabilities in order to customise the appearance of the graph.

8-3

File management, printing

8-4

APPENDIX

Table of Contents
A PIPE FLOW INTRODUCTION HEAD LOSS IN PIPE FLOW FLOW IN PIPE MANIFOLDS HEAD LOSS IN PIPE FITTINGS AND FLOW CONTROL DEVICES FLOW IN PIPE NETWORKS FLOW OF SEWAGE SLUDGE IN PIPES B OPEN CHANNEL FLOW INTRODUCTION STEADY UNIFORM FLOW GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW C OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES INTRODUCTION BROAD-CRESTED WEIR THIN-PLATE WEIRS CRITICAL DEPTH FLUMES D PUMPING INSTALLATIONS INTRODUCTION ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS CHARACTERISTIC EQUATIONS FOR ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS E WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL INTRODUCTION BASIC EQUATIONS BOUNDARY CONDITION EQUATIONS A-1 A-1 A-1 A-2 A-4 A-9 A-11 B-1 B-1 B-1 B-2 B-4 C-1 C-1 C-1 C-3 C-7 D-1 D-1 D-1 D-2 E-1 E-1 E-1 E-3

7 D +  f Re f   . . In their new condition.7 D    f . head loss per unit length). HEAD LOSS IN PIPE FLOW The basic hydraulic parameters of steady pipe flow are the mean velocity v and the hydraulic gradient or friction slope Sf (ie.56 D gDS 3. They are produced in a variety of materials. the internal wall surfaces of these materials vary considerably from the very smooth glass or plastic surface to the relatively rough concrete surface. . a-4 a-1 . The pipe wall roughness is likely to vary with time in use due to corrosion (ferrous metals) or scale deposition. concrete. a-2 where the friction factor f is a function of relative roughness k/D and Reynolds number Re: Re = vd ν . and non-ferrous metals. plastics. k is the pipe wall roughness and ν is the kinematic viscosity. . cast iron. The correlation of mean velocity v and friction slope Sf may also be expressed in terms of the Darcy-Weisbach equation: f v2 2g D Sf = . including steel.25 gDS f ln +  0.5   = −0. both gases and liquids. ductile iron. . glass. a-1 where D is the pipe diameter. . ARTS pipe flow computations are based on the following correlation between these parameters:  k  ν  v = −1. asbestos cement. a-3 in turbulent flow 1  k 2. . .88 ln  3.Appendix PIPE FLOW a PIPE FLOW INTRODUCTION Pipes are the most frequently used conduits for the conveyance of fluids. .

Orifice-type pipe manifold A definition diagram for an orifice-type pipe manifold is illustrated in Figure a.1.1 Orifice-type pipe manifold The discharge through such orifices may be expressed as follows: q o = C D A o 2g E . a-5 Flow is categorised in laminar/turbulent terms according to its Re value as follows: laminar flow: transitional flow: turbulent flow: Re ≤ 2300 2300 ≤ Re ≤ 4000 Re ≥ 4000 FLOW IN PIPE MANIFOLDS As used here. . . . the term pipe manifold refers to a pipe with multiple discharge points along its length.Appendix PIPE FLOW f= 64 Re in laminar flow . including biofilters. a-6 a-2 . and fluidised bed clarifiers. EGL E HGL h vm q n-1 Os qn Figure a. . Manifolds are important components of several water and wastewater treatment processes. sand filters.

E is the total differential head across the orifice i.Appendix PIPE FLOW where CD is an empirical discharge coefficient. EM is the total differential head at the manifold/lateral junction. (vm2/2g)/E. a-7 sharp-edged orifices (water) . . . considering each orifice in turn. Typically. The coefficient CL correlates flow into the lateral to the total head in the lateral on the downstream side of its junction with the manifold.66 − 0. a-10 2   vm  v2  L short laterals (length< 3 lateral diams. .375 bellmouth (rounded) orifices .) h e = 1. . the lateral may be a submanifold pipe with orifices.75 v 2 / 2g m E 0.975 1 − m  E    C D = 0. a-11 a-3 . taking into account the head loss along the manifold and the manifold slope. and he is the lateral entry head loss. The lateral entry head loss he is computed as follows: 2  v2   vm  L he = 0.7  2g   vL    . .e the sum of the differential pressure head across the orifice and the velocity head in the manifold at the orifice location. The discharge qL into an individual lateral pipe may be written as follows: q L = CL E m − he .9  + 0. a-8 Computation of orifice discharge starts at the “dead” end of the manifold and proceeds towards the delivery end.4  2g   v L    long laterals: . vm2/2g. Ao is the orifice cross-sectional area. that is. ARTS computes CD according to the following correlations:  v 2 / 2g   C D = 0.67  + 0. . . . a-9 where CL is the lateral discharge coefficient. . in which case the discharge coefficient CL is calculated in the manner described above for an orifice-type pipe manifold. Pipe manifold with laterals The analysis of flow distribution into the individual laterals of a manifold pipe/pipe lateral system is carried out by an iterative procedure similar to that described for the orifice manifold system. The discharge coefficient varies with flow conditions and has been found to be a function of the ratio of the manifold velocity head and the total differential head. .

Appendix PIPE FLOW As in the case of an orifice manifold.2 bellmouth 0. hfit. HEAD LOSS IN PIPE FITTINGS AND FLOW CONTROL DEVICES Pipe fittings include inlets. . towards the supply end of the manifold. The head loss in pipe fittings. lateral by lateral. is expressed as a function of the velocity head v /2g as follows: v2 2g 2 h fit = K . pressure-reducing valves. Table a. butterfly valves.1 Pipe entry K-factors K-value K-value sharp or square edge 0.6. tees and tapers. . taking into account the head loss along the manifold and the manifold slope. non-return valves. bends. control devices include sluice or gate valves.1 a-4 . computation starts at the dead end and proceeds. inclusive. a-12 where hfit is the head loss across the fitting and K is an empirical numerical coefficient.5 inward projecting sharp edge 0. The fittings K-values used in the ARTS coding are presented in Table a.25 inward projecting bellmouth 0.8 slightly rounded 0.1-Table a.

0 171.65 0.5 0.3 1.8 6.0 80.5 0.3.6 0.2 4. is represented as: a-5 .7 0.30 0.5 3.80 K 1.60 0.7 8.20 0.2 K-factors for pipe tapers Taper: flow to small end v Taper: flow to large end D d v d D d/D 0.0 80.5 0.5 0.5 14. zero flow) The set of default K-values used in ARTS for butterfly.3 K-factors for valves % open 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Butterfly Gate Float 0.50 0.3 11.6 6.3 0.75 0.8 0.Appendix PIPE FLOW Table a.2 0.8 19.45 0.1 4.6 0.0 23.5 0.9 K 0.0 2500.9 K 0.05 0 d/D 0.2 0.0 220. gate and float valves is presented in Table a.15 Table a.50 0.1 0.0 41.9 0.6 0.17 0.6 5.8 32.5 2.00 0.35 0.25 0. where the head loss through the valve.35 0.8 K 0.0 (valves closed.0 10.35 0.5 0.10 0 Sudden enlargement v v Sudden contraction d D d D d/D 0.0 1000.2 d/D 0.8 0.7 0.4 5. hvalve.7 0.8 0.

40 0.15 0.20 1. . Table a.45 0.25o long radius bends Screwed steel: 90o elbows 45o elbows * mitre bend types Mitre type 1 Mitre type 2 Mitre type 3 Diameter range 50-1200 50-1200 K 0. .60 0.2 Mitre bends* Type 1 α 90 o 80 o 70 o 60 o 50 40o 30o 20o 10o 60o 45o 30o 90o 75o 60o o K 1.Appendix PIPE FLOW v2 2g h valve = K .5″-4″ 150-600 150-600 150-600 1.17 0.10 0.20 0.5″-8″ 0.30 0.10 0.15 0.25 0.5o long radius bends 11. a-13 where v is the computed velocity through a fully open valve.40 0.50 0.05 Type 2 0.25″-4″ 150-600 0.20 0.35 0. mitred bends and elbows Bends and elbows Cast iron: 90o D/F bends 45o D/F bends Steel welding bends: o 90 short radius 45o short radius 90o long radius 45o long radius PVC/ABS: 90o elbows 45o elbows 90o long radius bends 90o long radius bends 45o long radius bends 45o long radius bends 22.50 α α α a-6 .4 0.4 K-factors for bends.25 0.25 0.5″-6″ 0.20 Type 3 0.80 0.30 0.5″-6″ 1.25 0.00 0.05 50-400 50-400 50-400 50-400 0.30 0.5″-8″ 0.30 0.25 0.

0 0.00 0.2 1.4 0.4 0.0 6.1 0.2 0.9 1.2 headloss: main to branch 2.8 headloss: branch to main 0.9 1.2 v branch main main a-7 .5 1.75 Diameter ratio (branch/main) 0.25 0.75 1.2 0.7 0 3.1 1.5 0.50 0.2 0.0 3.7 14.0 Flow ratio q/Q 0 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.0 11.0 2.25 0.75 1.5 0.3 Combining equal flows Diameter ratio =1 K=0.3 11.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 head loss in line 0.7 0.5 1.1 0.00 -0.3 0.9 0.0 2.1 0.25 0.75 Diameter ratio (branch/main) 0.50 0.25 0.0 1.5 0.4 0.7 v branch Dividing flow equally Diameter ratio = 1 K = 1.0 head loss in line 0.9 7.Appendix PIPE FLOW Table a.5 K-factors for square-edged tees combining flow dividing flow q branch branch q v main Q Q v main Flow ratio q/Q 0 0.75 1.6 0.50 0.1 0.50 0.75 1.

8 2.3 0.50 0.50 0.75 1.Appendix PIPE FLOW Table a.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.1 0.8 0.00 0.2 0.4 3.00 -0.75 Diameter ratio (branch/main) 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.0 head loss in line 0.1 0.3 0.7 Combining equal flows Diameter ratio =1 K=0.2 0.75 1.5 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.25 0.1 0.6 K-factors for radiused tees combining flow dividing flow q branch q v main Q Q v main branch Flow ratio q/Q 0 0.3 0.75 Diameter ratio (branch/main) 0.2 headloss: main to branch 1.7 0 1.8 4.3 0.1 headloss: branch to main 0.75 1.2 0.25 0.5 0.6 0.0 Flow ratio q/Q 0 0.50 0.2 0.0 0.3 2.7 0.25 0.4 v branch Dividing flow equally Diameter ratio = 1 K = 0.9 0.6 0.50 0.8 3.1 0.75 1.5 0.8 v branch main main a-8 .9 1.7 8.0 head loss in line 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.

the subscript j representing nodes connected to node i. forming one or more closed loops. Network equations In any pipe network the number of unknown flows corresponds to the number of pipes in the network and their evaluation involves the solution of an equal number of simultaneous equations. a-14 where Q is the flow rate and r is the pipe resistance coefficient: r= 8f L π gD 2 5 Q2 . every node of which is an end node of exactly two pipes of the set. head loss may be correlated with flow as follows: h = rQ 2 .Appendix PIPE FLOW FLOW IN PIPE NETWORKS A pipe network can be described as a system of interconnected pipes. . The distribution of flow within such a pipe system is determined by the following factors: 1. Consider a pipe network having P pipes and N nodes. the governing network flow equations 3. Hence. a-15 where L is the pipe length and D is the pipe diameter. The application of the continuity equation requires the adoption of a sign convention that differentiates between flow towards a node and flow away a-9 . . The continuity or node equations take the general form: ∑ Qij + E i = 0 . These equations are of two types. . . (aA4) and (a5) above define the relation between pipe friction slope and mean flow velocity. . . The term node is applied to any point at which water enters or leaves the network or to any pipe junction within the network. Ei is the external supply or demand at node i. Thus each pipe is defined by a pair of end nodes. the head-discharge relationship for each pipe 2. A loop may be defined as a connected set of pipes and their end nodes. described as continuity equations and loop equations. the boundary conditions of the system Head-discharge relationship for pipes Equations (a2). a-16 where Qij infers flow from node i to node j.

the number of pipes in the network. derived from the continuity and loop conditions. a PRV effects a head drop hd according to the relationship: hd = C Q2 .(N-1). for example reservoirs. The maximum number of independent node equations is N-1. 2.Appendix PIPE FLOW from a node. . the magnitudes of supplies and demands are known. . The sign convention adopted in ARTS is that the head loss associated with clockwise flow is considered positive and head loss associated with anticlockwise flow is considered negative.e. . equals P. . magnitudes of pressures at supply nodes and magnitudes of demands are known. nodes having constant head. one nodal pressure is known.e. The maximum number of independent loop equations is P. Typical examples of sets of boundary conditions sufficient to define flow and pressure distribution in pipe networks are: 1. supplies are negative). Network boundary conditions The boundary conditions must be sufficient to define flow distribution. . Thus the total number of independent equations. Boundary conditions for pipe networks include: supplies (inflows to the system) and demands (outflows from the system). a-19 a-10 . The loop equations are of the general form: ∑ hij = 0 . a-17 where h ij = rijQ 2 is the head loss in the pipe connecting nodes i and j and the summation covers all ij pipes which comprise the loop. a-18 The head rise hp across a pump is defined by the quadratic pump equation: h p = A 0 + A 1Q + A 2 Q 2 . ARTS uses the convention that flow away from a node is positive (i. . Flow regulation devices ARTS makes provision for the inclusion of the following flow control devices: • non-return valves (NRVs) • pressure-reducing valves (PRVs) • pumps An NRV permits forward flow only. demands are positive) and flow towards a node is negative (i.

Appendix PIPE FLOW Analysis of flow distribution The ARTS coding establishes a set of independent loops from the input pipe data and solves the resulting set of network. transitional and turbulent flow categories using a modified form of the flow Reynolds number as follows: Re = ρvD K ( 3n + 1) / 4n { } n (8v / D) n−1 .72 1.37 1.3 x 10-4C3. Recommended guideline values for these parameters for various types of sewage sludge.50 2 x 10-5C3.00 6 x 10-6C3. K is a consistency coefficient and n is a non-dimensional consistency index. characteristic of Newtonian fluids. The relation of shear stress and shear rate is non-linear and may be represented as follows:  dv  τ = τ y + K   dy  n .3 x 10-4C2. . using an iterative loop flow correction procedure (Casey.82 n 0. The linear correlation of shear stress and shear rate.00 1. Table a7 Guideline values for rheological parameters K.6 x 10-5C3.24 1.90C-0.00 -5 2. 1992). FLOW OF SEWAGE SLUDGE IN PIPES The extent to which the head loss associated with sludge flow in pipes exceeds that for water flow is dependent on both the concentration and nature of the component suspended solids.79C 1. . does not apply to sewage sludges at suspended solids above certain threshold levels.00 Sludge flow in pipes may be categorised in laminar.45 0.17 τy 1. . .70C-0. a-11 . based on data reported by Frost (1983) are given in Table a7.45 -0. v is the mean velocity and D is the pipe diameter. a-20 where τy is the yield stress. boundary condition and control device equations. a-21 where ρ is the water density.4 x 10-5C3.90C-0. n and τ y C is the sludge solids concentration (kg/m3) Sludge type Primary Activated Anaerobically digested Humus K 5 x 10 C 9 x 10-5C3.

. Oxford OX2 6DP. Water Research centre.84 + 0. Under turbulent sludge flow conditions. it has been found that head loss can be reliably related to the corresponding head loss for clean water (equations a1-a4) at the same velocity and temperature. transitional flow: 3.80 + 0.024C for C > 5 kg/m3 HLR = 0.88 + 0. T J (1992) Water and Wastewater Engineering Hydraulics. . turbulent flow: Re < 2300 2300 < Re <4000 Re > 4000 Under laminar flow conditions the discharge is given by the expression: πD 3  n   τ w − τ y     8  3n + 1  K  1/n Q=  τy / τw  1 − 2n + 1    nτ y    2n  τ y       1 +  1 + τ w    n + 1 τw    . . . The ARTS coding uses the foregoing equations for hydraulic computations related to flow of sludges in pipes. 3.5 HLR = 0. a-22 where τw is the wall shear stress: τ w = ρ g R h Sf where Rh is the hydraulic radius = D/4. References Casey. 4.016C for C > 15 kg/m3 HLR = 0. Frost.020C for C > 10 kg/m3 . Oxford University Press. Stevenage. primary sludge: activated sludge: anaerobically digested sludge: humus sludge: HLR = 1. a-12 . TR175. a-23 where C is the sludge solids concentration. 2. 1982) in the form of head loss ratio (HLR) factors as follows: 1. R C (1982) Prediction of friction losses for the flow of sewage sludge in straight pipes. laminar flow: 2. The relation is expressed (Frost.Appendix PIPE FLOW The flow is categorised by Re as follows: 1.

b-2 where f is the friction factor. The categorisation of flow as “steady” implies that the velocity vector at a particular location does not change with time. ARTS caters for the analysis of open channel flow and the design of open channels encompassing uniform. .Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW b OPEN CHANNEL FLOW INTRODUCTION The flow of water in open channels is characterised by the existence of a “free” surface. b-1 . When the flow Reynolds number exceeds about 1100.625ν v = −7. k is the channel wall surface roughness and ν is the water kinematic viscosity. gradually varied and rapidly varied steady flow. . . that is. . b-1 where Rh is the hydraulic radius i. The relation between v and Sf can also be expressed through the Darcy-Weisbach equation: Sf = f v2 8 g Rh .625  = −0. b-3 where the Reynolds number Re = vRh/ν. . The following range of channel geometry is included: Rectangular Trapezoidal V-shape Circular U-shape Parabolic STEADY UNIFORM FLOW The relation between the slope of the energy grade line or friction slope Sf and the mean velocity v under steady open channel flow conditions is given by the expression:  k 0.8 R hS f ln  +  14. the ratio of the water cross-sectional area to the wetted perimeter length. which is dependent on the channel relative roughness k/Rh and the flow Reynolds number according to the relationship: 1  k 0. an upper boundary in contact with air at atmospheric pressure.e. Gravity is the motive force. the flow is turbulent.8R h R h 8gR h S f      .88 ln  +  f  14. as is invariably the case in open channels.8 R h R e f    . .

Such flow occurs in the vicinity of control sections. b-2 . α is the kinetic energy factor (generally taken to have unit value in practical flow computation). GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW In gradually varied steady open channel flow. respectively. starting at either an upstream or a downstream control section at which the depth is defined. and the flow depth y. dQ/dx is the spatial variation in discharge along the channel length (positive where there a lateral inflow and negative where there is a lateral outflow). and in channels with side overflow weirs. velocity and depth vary along the channel length but are invariant with time at any particular location. ARTS uses the Runge-Kutta computational scheme to integrate equation (b4) to compute the variation in flow depth y over a channel reach. calculates GVF profile working step-wise in the upstream direction. .Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW While v and Rh are the primary computational variables in the above equations. b-4 where dy/dx is the water surface slope. they are frequently replaced in practical hydraulic computations by the discharge Q (Q = vA. in collector channels. The water surface slope in an open channel under gradually varied conditions is given by the following equation: dy = dx So − Sf − α Q dQ g A 2 dx WQ 2 1−α gA 3 . in channel transitions where there is a change of channel slope or cross-section. . where A is the water crosssectional area). The ARTS software uses the foregoing set of equations for the computation of flow parameters in uniform and gradually varied open channel flow problems. The range of gradually varied flow regimes within the software scope includes the following: (a) Channels of mild slope • downstream control: specified downstream depth ≥ critical depth sets start depth = downstream depth. So is the channel bottom slope. as used in sedimentation tanks and sand filters.

calculates GVF profile working step-wise in the downstream direction. calculates GVF profile working step-wise in the upstream direction until incident depth of HJ = depth calculated at (a). calculates GVF profile working step-wise in the downstream direction. calculates GVF profile working step-wise in the upstream direction. • upstream control: specified upstream depth > critical depth sets upstream depth = critical depth sets start depth = upstream depth. sets upstream depth = critical depth (a) sets start depth = upstream depth. b-3 . • downstream control: downstream depth ≥ critical depth (a) sets all depths equal to normal depth (b) sets start depth = specified downstream depth. calculates GVF profile working step-wise in the downstream direction. • upstream and downstream controls: specified upstream depth > critical depth and specified downstream depth ≥ critical depth. (a) sets start depth = upstream depth. (b) Channels of steep slope • upstream control: specified upstream depth ≤ critical depth sets start depth = upstream depth. calculates GVF profile working step-wise in the downstream direction until sequent depth of HJ = depth calculated at (a). specified downstream depth ≥ critical depth (a) sets start depth = downstream depth. calculates GVF profile working step-wise in the upstream direction until incident depth of HJ = normal depth • upstream and downstream controls: specified upstream depth ≤ critical depth and specified downstream depth ≥ critical depth. (b) sets start depth = upstream depth. calculates GVF profile working step-wise in the upstream direction until incident depth of HJ = depth calculated at (a).Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW upstream control: specified upstream depth ≤ critical depth (a) set all depths equal to normal depth (b) sets start depth = specified upstream depth. calculates GVF profile working step-wise in the downstream direction until sequent depth of HJ = normal depth upstream and downstream controls: specified upstream depth ≤ critical depth. (b) sets start depth = downstream depth. calculates GVF profile working step-wise in the downstream direction. (b) sets start depth = downstream depth.

as illustrated in Case 2 above. b-4 . b-5 where A1 and A2 are the upstream downstream flow cross-sectional areas. . an hydraulic drop occurs. on the other hand. occurs more abruptly with significant loss of energy. When the change is from sub-critical to super-critical. y1 and y2 are the corresponding centroidal depths. Critical depth control Case 3 Channel of mild slope with lateral inflow and free overflow at outlet end Case 4 Channel of steep slope with weir control at outlet end Case 5 Channel of mild slope with lateral outflow and control structure at outlet end RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW In rapidly varied flow the flow depth changes between sub-critical and super-critical over a short length of channel. as illustrated in Case 4 above. When the change is from super-critical to sub-critical. an hydraulic jump occurs. While the latter exhibits a smooth surface profile. the hydraulic jump (an unconfined deceleration).Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW (c) Some GVF water profile examples Case 1: Channel of mild slope with downstream weir control Case 2 Intersection of channel of mild slope with channel of steep slope. . ARTS uses the following equation to compute either the incident depth y1 or the sequent depth y2 at an hydraulic jump: A 1 y1 − A 2 y 2 − Q2  1 1  −  =0 g  A 2 A1  . respectively. that can be determined by the application of equation (b4) above.

The ARTS program uses the following head/discharge relationship for broadcrested weirs: 2 b 3 2 g h1.5 1 3 Q = Cd Cv . rectangular notch. ARTS caters for the following flow measurement structures: • The broad-crested weir • thin-plate weirs. . v-notch. When flow is not influenced by the tailwater level. proportional flow.1 Longitudinal profile of broad-crested weir The broad-crested weir. c-1 c-1 . long-throated flumes.Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES c OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES INTRODUCTION Open channel flow measurement structures are so designed that the flow can be reliably determined from measurement of the upstream head relative to a reference level in the ‘control section’ of the structure. The control section may incorporate a weir. orifice plate or critical depth flume. has a raised horizontal cill of sufficient length in the flow direction to effect a horizontal surface and hydrostatic pressure distribution for at least a short distance. as illustrated on Fig c1. . Parshall flume BROAD-CRESTED WEIR v12 2g Energy grade line H1 y1 h1 rounded nose r p1 L p2 H2 y2 cill block Figure c. short-throated flumes. To insure that there is a unique relationship between the upstream head and flow rate it is essential that the upstream head is not influenced by variations in the downstream or ‘tailwater’ level. and the upstream head is entirely determined by the control section of the measuring structure. • critical depth flumes. conditions are said to be ‘modular’.

5. . weir length L ≥ 1.Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES where Cd is an empirically determined discharge coefficient Cv is the velocity coefficient b is the weir width h1 is the upstream gauged head The discharge coefficient is taken to have the following value:  2x( L − r )   x( L − r )  C d = 1 −  1 −  b h1    1. c-2 where x is a boundary layer displacement factor.5 . . 3. b is the weir width. c-4 where H1 is the total upstream head and p2 is the downstream step height. . 4.15m or ≥0. 2. .75 H1(max) h1(min) ≥ 0. c-3 Modular limit Within the normal design range the modular limit H2/H1 upper bound is calculated as follows: H  H2 ≤ 0.85 + 0. . The following design limits are applied: 1. whichever is greater upstream Froude number ≤ 0.06 ln 1  H1  p2  . The velocity coefficient has the following value: H  Cv =  1   h1  1.2 H1(max) upstream weir step height ≥0. taken as 0.5 c-2 .67H1.5 .05L.005 for well-finished concrete surfaces. .003 for smooth plastic or metallic surfaces and 0. L is the horizontal crest length in the flow direction. whichever is greater radius of the cill nose = 0.06 m or ≥ 0.

8 60 0.1. . as given in Table c.85 100 0. is a function of the notch angle θ. the discharge coefficient.05m p2 Figure c.2 80 0. also a function of the notch angle θ.595 2.8 40 0. . as given in Table c.577 0. where Kh is an empirical head correction factor.Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES THIN-PLATE WEIRS Thin-plate or sharp-crested weirs are widely used for the measurement of small to medium discharges.1.580 0.80 c-3 . rectangular and proportional-flow (Sutro) thinplate weirs. ARTS caters for the design of V-notch. The effective head he = h1 + Kh. c-5 where Ce. Table c.577 1.581 1. V-NOTCH WEIR B θ h1 p1 0.2 V-notch Weir ARTS uses the following head-discharge equation for V-notch weirs: Q = Ce 8 2g tan(θ / 2) h 2. 1957) Notch angle θ (deg) Ce Kh (mm) 20 0.1 V-notch sharp-crested weir coefficients (Kindsvater and Carter.5 e 15 .

B ≥ 0. The numerical values used by ARTS for these coefficients are given in Table c2. .60 ≥ h1 ≥ 0.05 m below vertex of V-notch RECTANGULAR SHARP-EDGED WEIR B b h1 p 1 0. .Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES ARTS applies the following design limits in V-notch weir computations: • • • • • • h1/p1 ≤ 1.4.05 m p1 ≥ 0.2 h1/B ≤ 0. c-4 .5 e 3 .10 m 100o ≥ θ ≥ 25o tailwater level ≥ 0. the effective weir width be = b + Kb.001m.05m p2 Figure c.60 m 0. c-6 where the coefficient Ce = K1 + K2(h1/p1). and the effective weir head he = h1 + 0.3 Rectangular notch weir ARTS uses the following head-discharge equation for rectangular sharp-crested weirs: Q = Ce 2 2g b e h1.

075 0.591 0.6 0.03 m • h1/p1 ≤ 2.4 Sutro weir profile The width x of the Sutro weir opening varies with vertical distance z1 as follows: c-5 .0009 0.018 0.599 0.588 0.0058 0.0024 ARTS applies the following design limits in rectangular sharp-crested weir computations: • h1 ≥ 0.589 0.4 0.0027 0.0024 0.0021 -0.0020 -0.8 0.597 0.0018 -0.10 m • b ≥ 0.0037 0.Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES Table c.0023 Kb -0.045 0.0 0.1 0 K1 0.0030 0.593 0. p1 ≥ 0.0041 0.7 0.0025 0.595 0.0024 0.9 0.15 m PROPORTIONAL-FLOW WEIR B x h1 b p2 0.587 K2 0.590 0.5 0.2 Coefficient values for sharp-edged rectangular weirs (Kindsvater and Carter 1957) b/B 1.064 0.030 0.0043 0.011 0.592 0.05 m Weir opening profile z1 a p1 Figure c.3 0.0037 0.602 0.2 0.

61 3 0.00 6 0.Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES z x 2 = 1 − tan −1 1 b a π .07 6 0.60 8 0.005 m b ≥ 0.60 6 0.61 0 0. .60 8 0. c-8 The discharge coefficient Cd is a function of the a and b dimensions.60 9 0.60 8 0.61 8 0.61 0 0.30 0.04 6 0.61 0 0.60 7 0. ARTS uses the Cd values given in Table c. .60 6 0.61 2 0. .60 3 0.60 8 ARTS applies the following design limits in rectangular sharp-crested weir computations: • • • • • • h1 ≥ 2a or ≥ 0.03 0 0.61 3 0.61 2 0.61 7 0.61 9 0. c-7 ARTS uses the following head-discharge equation for proportional flow weirs: 1   Q = Cd b 2ga  h1 − a  3  . Table c.59 7 0.60 3 0.60 1 0.61 7 0.3 Discharge coefficient Cd for Sutro weir a (m) 0.3.09 1 0.60 4 0. .61 4 0.60 6 0.61 7 0. whichever is greater a ≥ 0.61 5 0.03 m.01 5 0.61 1 0.59 9 0.46 0.60 2 b (m) 0.38 0.23 0.15 0.61 2 0.05 m below the weir crest c-6 .60 8 0.60 8 0.06 1 0.15 m b/p1 ≥ 1 B/b ≥ 3 tailwater level ≥ 0.59 8 0.

.Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES CRITICAL DEPTH FLUMES LONG-THROATED FLUMES v1 2g 2 y1 h1 H1 v1 L step height yc H 2 h2 y2 throat length LONGITUDINAL SECTION (trapezoidal flume in trapezoidal channel) Trapezoidal Rectangular THROAT CROSS-SECTIONS (channel cross-sections shown as dotted lines) U-shape Figure c.5 Long-throated flume Long-throated flumes are critical flow measuring devices. through critical flow to supercritical flow on the downstream side. trapezoidal and U-shaped long-throated flumes. c-10 c-7 . across which the flow undergoes a transition from subcritical on the upstream side. ARTS caters for the design of flumes of ARTS caters for the design of rectangular. c-9 . .5 . having a restricted cross-sectional area or throat. . . Head/discharge relationships are computed as follows: Q = gA 3 / Wc c H e = yc + Ac 2Wc Under critical flow conditions: ( ) 0.

The measured upstream head h1 is related to the total upstream head H1 as follows: 2 v1 2g Pc δ L Wc L . W c is the water surface width at the critical section (m) He is the effective total upstream head (m) yc is the critical depth (m) The actual total upstream head H1 is found by adding a boundary layer -related head correction to the effective total upstream head He as follows: H1 = H e + where Pc is the section perimeter length at the critical section δ is the boundary layer displacement thickness L is the throat length δ/L is a function of the throat wall roughness and the throat Reynolds number.Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES where Q is the flume discharge (m3/s) Ac is the critical flow cross-sectional area in the flume throat (m2).005.003 and for well-finished concrete surfaces as 0.80 0.74 c-8 . . The modular limit requirement for the flume is satisfied if the available head difference between the upstream and downstream water levels can accommodate the head losses through the structure. . where vc is the critical velocity in the throat and ν is the kinematic viscosity. A major component of this head loss is due to the flow expansion from the throat crosssection to the downstream channel section. .91 0. For smooth plastic or metallic surfaces δ/L may be is taken equal to 0. c-12 where v1 is the mean velocity in the approach channel at the head-gauging point. The program applies the following modular limit values: Downstream expansion 1:20 1:10 1:6 1:3 Modular limit (H2/H1) 0. . c-11 h1 = H 1 − . the latter being defined as v c L / ν .83 0.

To ensure accurate flow measurement. b ≥ 0.05L. 0.1m 5. h ≤ 2m SHORT-THROATED FLUMES upstream transition downstream transition 0.Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES On the inflow side.5 in approach channel to ≤ 0. a convergence rate not exceeding 1:3 is recommended for the transition from the upstream channel section to the throat section.5 y1 = h1 CriticalDepth H y2 b LONGITUDINAL SECTION B THROAT CROSS-SECTION md 1 b B rs = 4p PLAN Figure c. the program checks that the flume dimensions are compliant with the following recommended design limit values: 1.67 ≥ h1 / L 4. whichever is the greater 2.05m or ≥ 0. h1 ≥ 0. Froude number Fr = v1 / (g A1 / W 1) 3. c-9 . ARTS caters for the design of shortthroated flumes of rectangular throat section and having the geometrical configuration shown in the above diagram.6 Short-throated flume The short-throated flume (also described as throatless flume) is similar to the long-throated flume except that it effectively has a zero throat length and hence does not offer as high a level of accuracy of flow measurement over the design flow range.

06m the upstream Froude number should not exceed 0. Parshall (1922). 1976) : • the radius of the upstream side walls rs lies between 1.20m or less than H1 max.Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES The head-discharge equation for a critical depth flume of rectangular throat section may be written in the form: 2 2  g 3 3    0.5 3/ b h1 2 Q = Cd C v . • the angle of divergence of the side walls lies in the range 1:6 to 1:10. . c12). They were developed in the United States by R. the latter has a value somewhat greater than unity. taking into account the fact that h1 is used in the discharge equation in place of H1 (refer eqn.0 H1 max. The Parshall flume has a rectangular cross-section with a c-10 .5 the throat width b should not be less than 0.6 H1 max and 2. PARSHALL FLUME E h1 1:4 N K LONGITUDINAL SECTION head measurement location a P D b C M B L G PLAN Figure c. For reliable flow measurement the following design limits are also applied: • • • • the modular limit is defined by the correlation the recommended lower limit for h1 is 0. c-13 where Cd is the coefficient of discharge and Cv is the approach velocity coefficient. ARTS applies the following geometric constraints that enable the discharge coefficient Cd to be taken as unity for design purposes (Bos. .7 Parshall flume Parshall flumes are calibrated open channel flow measurement structures.

4 Parshall flume dimensions (mm) b 1" 25.0 6' 1828. The upstream end has a transition reach of length M. Calibration equations have been developed for a standard range of Parshall flumes.6 3' 914.4 9" 228.4.Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES side wall geometry as illustrated on the above plan view.0 a 242 276 311 414 587 914 965 1016 1118 1219 1321 1422 1524 1626 1829 2032 2337 2845 3353 3861 4877 5893 B 356 406 457 610 864 1343 1419 1495 1645 1794 1943 2092 2242 2391 4267 4877 7620 7620 7620 7925 8230 8230 C 93 135 178 394 381 610 762 914 1219 1524 1829 2134 2438 2743 3658 4470 5588 7315 8941 10566 13818 17272 D 167 214 259 397 575 845 1026 1206 1572 1937 2302 2667 3032 3397 4756 5607 7620 9144 10668 12313 15481 18529 E 229 254 457 610 762 914 914 914 914 914 914 914 914 914 1219 1524 1829 2134 2134 2134 2134 2134 L 76 114 152 305 305 610 610 610 610 610 610 610 610 610 914 914 1219 1829 1829 1829 1829 1829 G 203 254 305 610 457 914 914 914 914 914 914 914 914 914 1829 2438 3048 3658 3962 4267 4877 6096 K 19 22 25 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 152 152 229 305 305 305 305 305 M 305 305 381 381 381 381 457 457 457 457 457 N 29 43 57 114 114 229 229 229 229 229 229 229 229 229 343 343 457 686 686 686 686 686 P 902 1080 1492 1676 1854 2222 2711 3080 3442 3810 4172 - c-11 .0 20' 6096. This is followed by a converging section of length B.0 50' 15240. the throat section discharges to a diverging section of length G with an upward sloping floor. having an horizontal floor and leading to a throat section of length L with a downward sloping floor.8 7' 2133. Table c. Dimensional data for the standard range of Parshall flume sizes are given in Table c. discharge equations and modular limit values are given in Table c.2 6" 152.8 3" 76.0 12' 3658. with an upward sloping floor at a gradient of 1:4 as shown on the above longitudinal section.0 40' 12192.6 1' 304.4 2" 50.0 25' 7620.0 15' 4572.8 457.5. Parshall flumes have a defined head measurement location on the flume structure itself as shown on the above plan view.4 4' 1219.4 10' 3048.2 5' 1524. based on head measurement at this point and subject to operation within specified modular limit values. Flow measurement ranges.6 8' 2438.0 30' 9144.2 l'6" 2' 609.

.76 0.80 12.8 44.1771 h1.09 0. Ltd.112 h1.76 0.60 a 10.70 0.578 a 3.732 h1.60 a 35. Casey. D C G (1966) Proportional-flow weirs for automatic sampling or dosing.60 a 21.566 a 2.21 0.2 32.09 0.76 0.96 h1.09 max 0.1 17.595 a 5.80 0.09 0.50 0.58 a 0.09 0.43 h1.70 0.538 a 1.03 0. Landbouwhogeschool. Div. Colorado State University.80 0.80 0. Kindsvater. Parshall.03 0. M G (1976) Discharge Measurement Structures.80 Selected list of references Ackers. 843.80 0. Bull.953 h1. White.522 a 1.09 0.41 h1. 70.6909 h1.03 0. John Wiley & Sons.50 0. J.Appendix OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT STRUCTURES Table c.8 97.0604 h1. R W C (1957) Discharge characteristics of rectangular thin-plate weirs.06 0. Soil Conservation Circular No.70 0.32 4.70 0.18 0.83 1.83 1. C E and Carter.60 0. Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station.03 0.37 1.55 a 0.046 0. The Netherlands. P.312 h1.45 0. Flumes.76 1.015 0. Fort Collins. c-12 . J and Lewis.70 0.60 a 14.607 a 7. Part 4C.076 0.55 a 0.1 85.45 h1.70 0.94 h1.3812 h1.33 0.1 74.015 0. Water and Water Engineering.50 3.550 a 2.67 1.09 0. Department of Agriculture. Perkins.06 0.2 160 190 230 310 380 460 600 750 max 5.184 h1.24 0.S.4 13. Hyd..53 a 0.859 h1. British Standards Institution.5354 h1.6 35.83 1.76 0. Oxford University Press.076 0.1 111 251 457 695 937 1427 1923 2424 2929 3438 3949 8280 14680 25040 37970 47140 56330 74700 93040 Equation Q = K hn a 0.056 h1. 426-A.50 2. R L (1953) Parshall flumes of large size.83 Modular limit 0.70 0. R L (1950) Measuring water in irrigation channels with Parshall flumes and small weirs.60 a 8.76 0. BS 3680 (1981): Methods of measurement of liquid flow in open channels. ASCE.61 0. Parshall. 105-111.44 h1. U. Report No. Singer.60 a 17.5 Parshall flume discharge characteristics Throat width b in ins or ft 1′′ 2′′ 3′′ 6′′ 9′′ 12′′ 18′′ 2′ 3′ 4′ 5′ 6′ 7′ 8′ 10′ 12′ 15′ 20′ 25′ 30′ 40′ 50′ Discharge range m3/s x 103 min 0.80 0.77 1. Colorado.76 0. J A and Harrison.50 0.07 1.60 a Head range in metres min 0.09 0.463 h1. HY 6.70 0. Oxford OX2 6DP.70 0.83 1. 83. Chichester. UK. A J M (1979) Weirs and Flumes for Flow Measurement. Wageningen.80 0.1207 h1.587 a 4.55 a 0.519 h1. T J (1992) Water and Wastewater Engineering Hydraulics. Bos.076 0.601 a 6.428 h1.03 0.09 0. W R.76 0.60 0. 4.046 0.80 0.60 a 28.76 0.

. incorporating rotodynamic pumps with fixed or variable speed. The manometric head H is defined as the step change in total head across the pump: p v2   p v2  H= d + d − s + s   ρg 2g   ρg 2g      . . H is the pump manometric head (m) and Q is the pump discharge (m3/s).5 H 0. which is defined as follows: NQ0.1992) according to their specific speed Ns. d-3 The specific speed ranges for the three main categories of rotodynamic pump type are: Pump type Centrifugal Mixed flow Axial flow Specific speed (Ns) ≤ 80 80 .75 Ns = . . ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS The active element in a rotodynamic pump is the rotating impeller or propeller. that. on deceleration. respectively. which imparts a momentum to the fluid. .Appendix PUMPING INSTALLATIONS d PUMPING INSTALLATIONS INTRODUCTION Pumps transfer energy to the fluid being pumped by effecting a step-increase in head or pressure. Rotodynamic pumps are categorised (Casey. d-1 where N is the pump speed (rpm).150 150 . d-2 where the subscripts s and d relate to the pump suction and delivery sides. P: η= ρgHQ P . to the shaft power.300 d-1 . . Pump efficiency η is defined as the ratio of the hydraulic power transferred to the fluid. ARTS caters for the analysis and design of pump/rising main systems. . is converted to a pressure rise.

as identified in Fig 1. d-4 ρ g ρ g  where ps is the absolute pressure at the suction flange and pv is the prevailing vapour pressure. where H. NPSH and efficiency η. The NPSH for a pump sets the practical limit of suction lift. Ideally. Pump power and pump torque are related as follows: T= 30P πN . the operating point for a rotodynamic pump should be close to its point of maximum pumping efficiency (ηmax). P is the power. and NPSH is the ‘net positive suction head’. CHARACTERISTIC EQUATIONS FOR ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS Rotodynamic pumps are conventionally characterised by the parameters H. . P. which ensures that the risk of cavitation within the pump impeller is avoided. NPSH and Q. . d-5 where T (Nm/s) is the torque and N is the pump speed (rpm). . η is the efficiency d-2 . H H H P η P η Q η H η max P η max η P η max Q Q Figure d. . Q (m3/s). and H (m). Pump characteristics are normally supplied by pump manufacturers in the form of graphical representations of H. η. P. P Q and η are as already defined. as functions of pump discharge Q. A typical sample set of characteristic curves is presented in Fig d1. NPSH is defined as follows: p p  NPSH =  s − v  .1 Rotodynamic pump characteristics H is the manometric head.Appendix PUMPING INSTALLATIONS where the parameter units are: N (rpm).

d-7 where B0 is the pump power draw at zero flow. The P/Q relationship for a rotodynamic pump.Appendix PUMPING INSTALLATIONS The H/Q relationship for a rotodynamic pump. . . d-9 d-3 . the P/Q equation for any speed N may be written as follows:  N   N  = A0   Q N + A 2 Q2  + A1  N  NR   NR  2 HN . . . . may be derived from the rated speed by scaling according to the homologous pump relationships: PN  N  =  PR  N R  3 and QN N = QR N R Thus. . d-8 The P/Q equation for any other speed N. . and B1 and B2 are constants. may be expressed in quadratic equations of the form : H R = A 0 + A1 Q + A 2 Q2 . . may be derived from the rated speed by scaling according to the homologous pump relationships: HN  N  =  HR  NR  2 and QN N = QR N R Thus. driven at its rated speed NR. driven at its rated speed NR. d-6 where A0 is the manometric head at zero flow. the P/Q equation for any speed N may be written as follows:  N   N   N  2 PN = B0   + B1   Q N + B2   QN  NR   NR   NR  3 2 . and A1 and A2 are constants. may be similarly expressed : PR = B0 + B1Q + B2 Q 2 . The H/Q equation for any other speed N.

the flow is from the suction side to the delivery side. d-10 T/Q TD = 2 B0 + 2 B1 Q + 2 B2 Q2 . Pump operation in the energy-dissipating mode The graphical representation of pump characteristics shown in Fig d1 relates to rotodynamic pumps operating in their normal mode. Under certain pump trip-out conditions. ARTS uses the following default relationship. . i. however. while the pressure head at the delivery flange exceeds the pressure head at the suction flange.Appendix PUMPING INSTALLATIONS ARTS sets up the pump characteristic equations in the foregoing quadratic form. d-11 where HD represents the head drop (negative head rise) across the pump when operating in the energy-dissipating mode and TD is the corresponding reactive torque. References Casey. In the absence of specific manufacturer data for this mode of operation.e. . . input by the user. which have been derived from the normal mode correlations for H/Q and T/Q: H/Q H D = 2 A 0 + 2 A1 Q + 2 A 2 Q2 . Under such conditions. Oxford University Press d-4 . . T J (1992) Water and Wastewater Engineering Hydraulics. the delivery flange pressure may temporarily drop below the suction flange pressure (negative H). using the coordinates of 3 points from each characteristic curve. in this normal mode of operation both H and Q are conventionally defined as being positive. The H/Q characteristics for operation in this mode are required in some waterhammer analysis problems. but are not generally available from pump manufacturers. the pump is said to be operating in an energy-dissipating mode. while maintaining forward flow (positive Q).

plus the boundary condition equations for the pipe system.. . which is appropriate for pipes with expansion joints.Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL e WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL INTRODUCTION Waterhammer is the effect created in pressure pipe systems by the rapid acceleration or deceleration of flow. it is liable to collapse in the following pressure upsurge. The ARTS coding solves equations (E1) and (E2). θ is pipe gradient angle D is the pipe diameter The wavespeed α is given by: α= 1 ρ/ K+ρC D/T E . e-1 ∂t ∂x g ∂x ∂H ∂ v ∂ v fv|v| +v + + =0 ∂x ∂x ∂t 2D t denotes time v denotes velocity α is the wavespeed momentum equation where g . The resulting transient pressure changes are transmitted as elastic waves along the pipe and may give rise to unacceptable pressure fluctuation. which are used to characterise unsteady pipe flow. The lower limit to which the pressure can drop is the water vapour pressure at the prevailing temperature. emitting a hammer-like sound and causing pipe vibration. C is an anchorage coefficient. are written as follows: continuity equation α2 ∂ v ∂H ∂H +v − v sinθ + = 0 …. e-3 where K is the bulk modulus for water.. The finite difference form of the e-1 . . x is distance along the pipe. T is the pipe wall thickness. using the method of characteristics (Casey. such as may arise due the operation of flow regulating devices such as pumps or valves. BASIC EQUATIONS The basic continuity and momentum equations. If a vapour pocket is created during the pressure downsurge of the pressure fluctuation. .1992). . . e-2 H is the pressure head. E is the Young’s modulus for the pipe material. . The ARTS analysis suite assumes a unit value for C.

HB and Hp are potential head values relative to a defined datum level. e-9 .Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL characteristic equations are set out with reference to the x-t finite difference grid illustrated in Fig E1. e-5 C.1 The x-t finite difference grid ∆t = ∆x α . . e-4 C+ equation: H p = H A − B Q p − Q A − RQ A |Q A | ( ) . e-8 C equation: e-2 - H pi = H i + 1 + B Q pi − Q i + 1 + RQ i + 1|Q i + 1| . .equation: H p = H B + B Q p − Q B + RQ B |Q B | ( ) . e-6 where B= α gA and R= f ∆x 2gDA 2 . e-7 where the head parameters HA. . t 2 ∆t ∆x ∆x ∆t + C P C 0 1 2 A i-1 B i i+1 N N+1 x-axis grid number x Figure e. . . . . . . Equations (e5) and (e6) can be written in grid reference format as follows: C+ equation: H pi = H i − 1 − B Q pi − Q i − 1 − RQ i − 1|Q i − 1| ( ( ) ) . . . .

B0. . . e-3 . e-12 torque TR = B0 + B1 Q R + B2 Q 2 R . connected to a sump. 5. 4. e-10 Q pi = . A1 and A2 are coefficients which define the hR/QR relationship. can be expressed as function of the rated discharge QR as follows: head hR = A 0 + A1 QR + A 2 Q2 R . . at the upstream end of the rising main non-return valve (NRV) at the upstream end of a rising main air valve at any point on rising main air vessel at the upstream end of the rising main reservoir or free discharge at downstream end of rising main Pump trip-out ARTS deals only with rotodynamic pumps.Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL Solving for Hpi and Qpi: H pi = CP + CM 2 CP − CM 2B . BOUNDARY CONDITION EQUATIONS The ARTS software analyses the waterhammer conditions arising from sudden pump trip-out and can handle the following boundary conditions: 1. The head and torque (or power) characteristics of rotodynamic pumps. pump. . e-13 where A0. e-11 where CP = H i − 1 + BQ i − 1 − RQ i − 1|Q i − 1| and CM = H i + 1 − BQ i + 1 + RQ i + 1|Q i + 1| Thus an computation procedure uses the current values of H and Q at points i-1 and i+1 to compute their values at point I at one time interval ∆t later. . B1 and B2 are a corresponding set of coefficients which define the TR/QR relationship. . at the normal or rated speed NR. . 2. . Usually the starting values are known from an initial steady flow situation. 3.

characteristic pump discharge H p1 = CM + BQ p1 H p1 − H s = h N e-4 . I is the moment of inertia of the rotating elements of the pump set. in time dt. . e-17 where T is the reactive torque of the fluid.Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL The following homologous relationships are assumed to apply when such pumps are operating at speeds other than their rated speeds: hN N2 = . QR N R . hR N2 R TN N2 = 2 TR N R QN N = . e-14 where N is the operating speed. e-18 where dN is the change in rotational speed in r.p. and -dω/dt is the angular deceleration. . Thus. for a pump at the upstream end of a rising main. . . .m. . the inertia of the rotating parts maintains a decreasing pump output in accordance with the deceleration relationship: T = −I dω dt . Application of these homologous relationships to equations (11) and (12) results in the following expressions for pump head and pump torque at any speed N:  N   N  2 hN = A0  + A1   Q + A2 Q  NR   NR  2 . the following set of equations define unsteady flow following pump trip-out: C. . as illustrated in Fig e2. . . . e-16 When a pump motor trips out. e-15  N   N  TN = B0   + B1   Q + B2 Q 2  NR   NR  2 . The pump characteristics at the reduced speed can be determined from the rated values using equations (e15) and (e16). Hence dω = − T dt I dN = − 60 TN dt 2π I or .

t + ∆t C t 1 Hs pump 2 Figure e. They also admit air when the gauge pressure drops below atmospheric pressure and hence can be used to limit the pressure downsurge under waterhammer conditions. as expressed by equation (e15).2 Pump at upstream boundary Non-return valve An NRV at any node i imposes the condition: Qpi ≥ 0. Solution of this pair of simultaneous equations yields the instantaneous values of H and Q at the pump delivery at the time t+∆t. Qav t + ∆t C - C+ t i-1 i i+1 i+1 Figure e. The ARTS coding assumes the inclusion of an NRV on the delivery side of all pumps.Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL where hN is the pump manometric head at pump speed N.3 Air valve boundary condition (under negative pressure conditions) e-5 . Air valve Air valves are installed at high points on rising mains to allow escape of air.

Qav is the air inflow rate. . when the pressure at the air valve location drops below atmospheric pressure: Hpi = Hid Qi + Qav = Qi+1 . . Fig e3 illustrates an air vessel on a rising main located at node i. e-20 where i is the air valve location node.Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL The ARTS coding applies the following air valve boundary condition equations. on the downstream side of the NRV.4 Air vessel boundary The governing equations for an air vessel boundary are: C+ characteristic C. They are typically located close to the pump. Hid is the rising main elevation at node I. .characteristic air volume/head correlation throttle pipe head loss ha/Hpi correlation H pi = CP − BQ pi H p(i+1) = CM + BQ p(i+1) γ h a Va = constant hL = C Q2 a h a = H pi − H id + H atm + h L − Z e-6 . e-19 . . ARTS allows for the location of an air vessel at the upstream end of the rising main. Air vessel Air vessels are frequently used on pump rising mains for the control of transient pressures. air cushion Z t + ∆t + C C Hid t i i+1 i+1 i-1 Figure e.

Oxford OX2 6DP e-7 . . . Reservoir ARTS treats a rising main node connected to a reservoir as a point of fixed head: H i = H res . e-21 where the reservoir is located at node i and Hres is the reservoir water surface elevation. . Hatm is the atmospheric pressure head. Qa is the air vessel flow. T J (1992) Water and Wastewater Engineering Hydraulics. Va is the air cushion volume. . the air expansion exponent γ is taken to have a value of 1. e-22 where H(N+1)d is the rising main elevation at the outlet end. Free discharge ARTS treats a free discharge at the outlet end of a rising main as a point of fixed head: H N +1 = H (N+1)d .Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL Continuity Q pi + Q a = Q p(i+1) where ha is the absolute pressure head. Oxford University Press.35. C is the head loss coefficient for flow between the air vessel and the rising main. Reference Casey.

Appendix WATERHAMMER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL e-8 .

4-19. c-1 I Installation 1-3 J Junctions 4-21 C Channels 4-4 Channel calculator 5-15 Channels in series 5-18 Colour code. 7-6. 5-2 L Laterals 4-16 Line tool 4-26 D Darcy Weisbach equation a-1 Design Screen 2-1 Placing objects on 3-1 Sheet 2-2 Detritior 4-20. e-6 Analysis menu Hydraulic profile command 5-18. junctions 3-8 Compile command 3-8 Continuity check 3-8 Control depth 5-16 K K value 4-2. 5-19 Froude number c-10 .e-5 Air vessel 4-9. 6-11. 5-12 Fluid 2-6 Flumes 4-12. control depth 5-16 GVF tool 5-15 H Help 1-6 Hydraulic profile 6-11 Hydraulic objects 4-1 B Biofilter 4-10 Broad-crested weir 4-22. 4-20 . 4-15.5-8 Unsteady pipe flow command 7-3 Check existing system 6-15 Auto design 6-9 G Gradually varied flow 5-13 GVF. 7-5. 6-5 Add button 4-3 Air valves 4-3. 6-6 Drawing Hydraulic systems 3-5 Tips 3-9 M Manifold 4-15 Menu bar 2-2 N Network 5-5 New sheet 8-1 Nodes Colour-coding 3-8 E Export to other applications 8-3 Extras 4-3 O Objects Copying 3-4 Deleting 3-3 Moving 3-3 Pasting 3-4 Re-sizing 3-3 Selecting 3-2 Open channel Flow 5-13 Flow measurement structures 5-19 Open command 8-1 F File management 8-1 Flow Divider 4-11. 6-6 Measurement structures 5-19 Object 4-15 Sludge in pipes 4-15 Air in pipes 4-15. 6-12 Steady pipe flow command 5-1. 5-5 .Index A Activated sludge 4-7.

5-2 . a-4 Flow 5-1 Manifold 4-15. e-1 S Screen 4-19 Sedimentation tank 4-16 Selecting objects 3-2 Sludge 4-15 Sludge Blanket Clarifier 4-22. c-4 Proportional flow 4-25. c-3 Rectangular sharp edged 4-25. d-3 NPSH –Q 4-7. a-1 Storm overflow weir 4-17 Supply/demand object 4-15 Surface roughness 4-2. 6-6 Rectangle tool 4-25 Remove button 4-3 Reservoirs 4-5 Reynolds number a-1 Y Young’s modulus 4-2. c-1 V notch 4-25. c-6 R Rapidly varied flow 5-13 Rapid Gravity Filter 4-24. d-3 Printing 8-2 Pump/rising main systems 5-7 Plot option 8-2 T Text tool 4-25 Tool palette 2-4 U Unsteady pipe flow 7-1 User interface 2-1 V Valves Air 4-3.e-5 K values a-5 Vapour pressure limit 7-4 W Waterhammer analysis 7-1 Wastewater treatment systems 6-1 Weirs Broad crested 4-25. d-2 P-Q 4-6. 4-15. 6-6 Start Arts 1-5 Menu 1-5 Status property page 4-2 Steady pipe flow 5-1.P Pipe Calculator 5-3 Fittings 4-3. 5-5 – 5-8. a-2 Network 5-5 Objects4-2 Systems 5-5 Property pages Accessing 4-1 Tool 2-4 Pump Object 4-5 H-Q 4-6. 7-6. 5-2.

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