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Nama NIM Mata Kuliah Jurusan

: Rahmat Haryama : 0901120263 : Komunikasi Internasional : Ilmu Hubungan Internasional

North Korean Leadership Change May Not Help Economy

Tulisan ini akan memaparkan kerangka kerja teori (theorical framework) studi tentang liputan politik di Korea Utara pasca meninggalnya pimpinan Korea Utara Kim Jong Il dan suksesi kepemimpinan kepada Kim Jong Un, dan hubungan pergantian pimpinan politik dengan keadaan ekonomi. HONG KONG - The death of North Korean dictator Kim Jong Il raises fears that one of the world's most closed societies will back further away from economic and political reforms as it tries to unite behind a new leader. Kim Jong Il named his youngest son, Kim Jong Un, as his successor in September 2010 and appointed him to high-level posts within the government. Yet the relative inexperience of Un and his young age he is believed to be 27 or 28 - could test his ability to unite the military and lead the country, analysts say. If a power struggle ensues between different factions within the military of North Korea, it may also delay the appointment of a leader and fan tensions in the region.South Korea has put its military on high alert and Japan is monitoring the situation.

As North Korea focuses on establishing a new regime, the country is likely to maintain its hard-line stance over the next few years on issues from nuclear disarmament to its reluctance to open its economy to foreign investment, says Bahng Tae-Seop, a senior fellow at the Samsung Economic Research Institute in Seoul. "(North Korea) will be an even more closed society," Bahng says. "Regime survival is the first priority, not economic reform." China, North Korea's closest ally, also "worries about the transfer of power," says Jian Cai, a deputy director of the Center for Korean Studies at Fudan University in Shanghai. While China supports the handover to Jong Un, it understands the transition may not be a smooth one given the short time he's had to prepare for the role, adds Jian. Jong Il received 20 years of grooming before taking the reins from his father and North Korea's founder Kim Il Sung. Jong Un has had only one year since he has been named as the successor. For North Korea, the risk is that changing direction on political or economic issues will open the reclusive country to outside influence at a precarious time. In past crises, North Korea has hardened its position against other countries to show solidarity internally, according to Michael Nacht, who stepped down in mid-2010 as assistant U.S. secretary of Defense for global strategic affairs. "The top military party that enjoyed the fruits of society will want to continue to enjoy those fruits, and they won't risk very much," says Nacht, now a professor of public policy at the University of California at Berkeley. North Korea's testing of nuclear devices, which led to sanctions by the United Nations Security Council, along with its withdrawal in 2009 from six-party disarmament negotiations and resumption of its nuclear enrichment program have fanned global tensions. Nearly a decade ago, North Korea tested some market reforms by establishing the Gaeseong Industrial Region, north of the Korean Demilitarized Zone. More than 100South Korean companies have set up in the region since then to take advantage of

the cheap labor in North Korea. But South Korean companies periodically face threats by North Korea to shut the zone. North Korea is one of the poorest countries in the world, with per-capita gross domestic product of $1,200 and a population of 29 million, according to IHS Global Insight. South Korea, by comparison, has a population of 48 million and per-capita GDP of $23,000. Over the long term, a stable succession could boost the chances of gradual liberalization of the North Korean economy, which would mean more investment into, and trade between North Korea and other countries, says Rajiv Biswas, Asia-Pacific chief economist for IHS Global Insight. If Kim Jong Un succeeds his father, the "ray of hope" for economic reform is that Kim Jong Un studied in the West, Nacht says "The hope is that he's a man of the modern world and he's more inclined to reach out (to other countries). I think it's probably unlikely though in the short term."

Peristiwa Politik: Pergantian pimpinan politik di Korea Utara

Dinamika Internal (keadaan Korea Utara yang mengalami pergantian politik) dan Eksternal Media (Tekanan dunia internasional kepada pimpinan baru korea utara untuk perbaikan ekonomi)

Sistem Operasi Media Massa : Sistem operasi media dibentuk melalui tulisan dengan data pendukung dari hasil liputan langsung di lapangan

Strategi Media Mengkonstruksi Realitas : menggunkan metode tulisan dengan mengangkat permasalahan pergantian pimpinan dan hubungannya terhadap ekonomi

Faktor Internal: suksesi kepemimpinan Faktor Eksternal: Keadaan ekonomi sebelum pergantian kepemimpinan

Proses Konstruksi Realistas Oleh Media : Dibentuk sesuai dengan kenyataan yang terjadi di realita atau lapangan

Fungsi Bahasa : Bahasa yang Digunakan cenderung deskriptif Strategi Framing : Pesan dikemas dalam bentuk pendapat penulis Agenda Setting : Setting Media terbit dalam bentuk artikel

Teks Berita Politik

Makna dan Citra Aktor Politik, Opini Publik yang Terbentuk dan Perilaku Politik Khalayak Motivasi dan Tujuan Si Pembuat Teks : Mendeskripsikan keadaan politik Korea Utara pasca terjadinya suksesi kepemimpinan politik dan mencoba memberikan gambaran kepada dunia internasional mengenai harapan keadaan ekonomi pasca pergantian kepemimpinan politik ini.

Berita di atas menjabarkan tentang peristiwa politik di Korea Utara, khususnya menceritakan tentang suksesi kepemimpinan dari Kim Jong Il kepada Kim Jong un. Berita ini mencoba menjabarkan tentang situasi ekonomi yang ada dan harapan perbaikan keadaan ekonomi kedepannya. Dinamika Internal dalam berita ini menceritakan pergantian kepemimpinan Korea Utara yang mendadak membuat beberapa pihak khawatir Sedangkan dinamika eksternalnya adalah adanya harapan yang muncul dari dunia internasional terhadap pimpinan baru ini untuk dapat melakukan perbaikan ekonomi di Korea Utara, karena adanya sedikit perbedaan latar belakang antara kedua pimpinan politik ini. Sistem operasi dan strategi media dalam mengkonstruksi realitas nampak dilihat dari penggunaan fungsi bahasa, strategi framing, serta agenda setting yang digunakan. Fungsi bahasa yang digunakan dalam berita ini lebih menekankan pada bahasa dan penjabaran situasi politik di Korea Utara serta menggunakan strategi framing dalam bentuk tulisan (artikel) yang di setting kan ke dalam situs berita internasional US TODAY News. Proses konstruksi Realitas yang berhubungan dengan faktor internal dan eksternal serta fungsi bahasa, strateging framing, dan agenda setting telah menunjukkan suatu proses konstruksi yang menghasilkan teks berita politik dengan mengandung unsur muatan politik, ekonomi dan opini yang dapat ditelaah oleh khalayak masyarakat. Muatan politik dan opini itu dapat berupa anggapan dan tujuan dari seorang penulis berita yang menunjukkan bahwa Korea Utara dengan pimpinan barunya ini diharapkan mampu melakukan perbaikan ekonomi dan juga lebih kooporatif dalam isu-isu keamanan.

Referensi Cangara, Hafied. 2009. Komunikasi Politik. Jakarta: PT. Rajawali Press. Mulyana, Deddy. 2000. Ilmu Komunikasi Suatu Pengantar. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya. Nimmo, Dan. 2005. Political Communication and Public Opinion and America. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.