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Uniclass L322 CI/SfB (2-) 2003

EPIC F611 Ff5

DC3 Dimensional Co-ordination

Design Considerations

The size of a block sets the scale and pattern of coursing on a wall which is bold and dominant - but which will show up any mismatches between coursing and openings. A window or door opening which does not relate to blockwork dimensions looks very unsightly, wastes time and money on site, and may even be impossible to build. The Block Module
Where possible, a wall and all its openings should be designed to accommodate complete blocks, both vertically and horizontally. Table 1 (see overleaf) is designed to simplify calculations of blockwork dimensions for openings and corners. It gives the number of whole and half blocks (taking mortar joints into account) for a given length of wall, or number of blocks high for a given height of wall. The table is useful in planning horizontal and vertical dimensions, overall or between openings, to suit and acknowledge the block module. Cutting blocks may also change their appearance. We strongly recommend that blocks are factory cut.

Corners
Corners are especially noticeable locations and also places where cut blocks happen without preplanning. Quoin (L-shaped) blocks are recommended to maintain strength and bonding around the corner, and readily available as a standard size. Alternatively, cut blocks can be used as indicated. Small, quarter length, cut blocks, often seen at corners as an unplanned and cheap solution, are to be avoided especially in Facing Masonry applications.

Quoin block

Horizontal runs of blockwork


Where using only whole block modules is difficult, cut blocks are used to adjust dimensions to suit particular requirements. Their position needs to be carefully planned, kept to a minimum and positioned so as to be visually acceptable. Small bond Zipper joints with a small bond overlap should be avoided.

Corner using cut blocks

Standard reveal blocks are also available to close the cavity at jambs and at cavity wall ends. The relationship between both leaves, the cavity and the reveal should be pre-planned to avoid unnecessary cutting.

Wall Heights
Overall wall heights can be adjusted by using half-height blocks at foot (starter blocks) or head, string courses, or by using plinth or eaves blocks. Various designs are available in the Lignacite Ltd range or can be made to suit design requirements.

Half bond joint using cut blocks

Keep cutting to a minimum and ensure cut units are fully dry before incorporating into the work. Cut blocks can effloresce due to the addition of water in the cutting process.
Quarter blocks to be avoided

High Street, Brandon, Suffolk IP27 0AX - Tel: 01842 810678 - Fax: 01842 814602 - E-mail: info@lignacite.co.uk - Website: www.li gnacite.co.uk Meadgate Works, Nazeing, Waltham Abbey, Essex EN9 2PD - Tel: 01992 464441 - Fax: 01992 445713

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Design Considerations
Table 1 - Co-ordinating Dimensions
Assuming full blocks laid in stretcher bond. Co-ordinating Dimension M = actual blocks size + 10mm mortar joints. * movement joint recommended at 6m centres and horizontal dimension should accordingly be adjusted to suit movement joint detail. Horizontal number of blocks
1

Dimensional Co-ordination
Co-ordinating dimension M 440x215 390x190 blocks blocks (mm) (mm) 225 450 675 900 1125 1350 1575 1800 2025 2250 2475 2700 2925 3150 3375 3600 3825 4050 4275 4500 4725 4950 5175 5400 5625 5850 6075 6300 6525 6750 6975 7200 7425 7650 7875 8100 8325 8550 8775 9000 9225 9450 9675 9900 10125 10350 10575 10800 11025 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 3800 4000 4200 4400 4600 4800 5000 5200 5400 5600 5800 6000 6200 6400 6600 6800 7000 7200 7400 7600 7800 8000 8200 8400 8600 8800 9000 9200 9400 9600 9800 Vertical number of courses 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

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1- Running Facework
Dimension between joint centres = M

2- Junction to External Corner


Dimension = M

3- External Corner to External Corner


Dimension = M - 10mm

4- Junction to Junction
Dimension = M + 10mm

5- Vertical Wall between Junctions


Dimension = M + 10mm

6- Freestanding Vertical Wall


From foot to top of wall = M

Table 2 - Block Module Tolerances


Lignacites manufacturing tolerance are significantly better than those required to satisfy BS 6073: Part 1: 1981. BS 6073 (mm) Thickness Height Length +2 -2 +3 -5 +3 -5 Lignacite (average) (mm) +1 -2 +1 -2 +1 -2

1 11/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 41/2 5 51/2 6 61/2 7 71/2 8 81/2 9 91/2 10 101/2 11 111/2 12 121/2 13* 131/2* 14* 141/2* 15* 151/2* 16* 161/2* 17* 171/2* 18* 181/2* 19* 191/2* 20* 201/2* 21* 211/2* 22* 221/2* 23* 231/2* 24* 241/2*

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Uniclass L322 CI/SfB (2-) 2003

EPIC F611 Ff5

DC3 Dimensional Co-ordination

Design Considerations
Accommodating Services
The positioning of cable runs, switches and socket outlets needs careful planning. Wherever possible, it is desirable to conceal services in order to avoid unsightly surfacemounted conduit.

Standard joinery Products


In many instances architects will plan openings to suit block dimensions and then specify purpose-made windows and doors to suit. However, more straightforward projects may dictate the use of standard joinery items. These do not acknowledge block dimensions and can have unfortunate visual and constructional implications. With careful planning and the use of sensibly sized cut blocks, sub-cills and/or stooled lintels, even standard joinery items can be incorporated in a visually intended manner. The following tables provide information regarding typical joinery item heights and widths and blockwork details to suit.

Standard Joinery - Width


Typical Width of item (nominal) (mm) 410 450 488 600 630 635 650 750 780 856 860 900 915 932 1085 1200 1232 1275 1342 1350 1425 1500 1532 1638 1650 1699 1770 1800 1832 1863 1950 2100 2132 2250 2400 W W W W W W W W D D W DW W D W DW D D W D D D D W D W W DW D W D DW D DW DW Length L of cut blocks over to maintain bond (mm) 415 435 302 336 347 448 350 386 340 422 423 438 440 383 371 400 408 418 436 440 363 378 384 400 408 417 432 440 369 374 388 413 418 440 396

This can be achieved by routing conduit within hollow blockwork, but requires a high degree of coordination between blocklayer and electrician. Trunking within skirtings, dados and architraves is another way of concealing service runs. Switches and plug sockets will always look better if they are flush fitted.

Standard Joinery - Heights


Typical Height of item (nominal) (mm) 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1600 1650 2087* 2100 2110* 2137* Lintel rebate R (mm) 65 ++ 140 65 ++ 140 15 65 52 65 75 102 Sub-cill height H (mm) 150 ++ 75 150 ++ 75 200 150 163 150 140 113

Services can be concealed in trunking systems integrated within door assemblies. This is a way of concentrating services such as light, power, communications, alarms, etc, in a system that includes accessories such as flush faceplates.

W W W W W W W W W W W W

W = Window, D = Door set or Door+sidelight ++900mm and 135 mm high windows are 100mm shorter than the equivalent blockwork module opening - * : Imperial

W = Window, D = Door set or Door+sidelight

High Street, Brandon, Suffolk IP27 0AX - Tel: 01842 810678 - Fax: 01842 814602 - E-mail: info@lignacite.co.uk - Website: www.lignacite.co.uk Meadgate Works, Nazeing, Waltham Abbey, Essex EN9 2PD - Tel: 01992 464441 - Fax: 01992 445713

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Design Considerations
Openings
Openings in walls, which do not conform to the block module, can be unsightly, producing a plethora of oddly cut blocks, which may be impossible to construct. Using small slips and cut blocks to bring block courses into line, whether horizontally or vertically, is bad practice and introduces weak points. To break out of course, use precast jambs or blocks to maintain module (especially around windows). The minimum bondable length of block is 215mm. Examples of properly co-ordinated openings are shown opposite. The poor example illustrates typically misaligned and unco-ordinated exposed concrete lintels. Lignacite produces a range of beam and trough block lintels which fit properly and look correct - see PD9. Many standard components - doors and windows - do not recognise the block module, so openings to suit them need to be considered in advance. Cut blocks may be needed horizontally or vertically above these openings. Door frames may need a fanlight or panel over to bring the overall component height to a block module dimension. Alternatively, stooled lintels can be used to reconcile block coursing to internal opening sizes. The best solution to these problems is to use windows and doors in storey-height groups, leaving intact rectangular blockwork panels between. It is easier to co-ordinate the dimensions of a single large panel than those of several smaller units. Provided the panels are less than 6m in length, their edges make convenient and discreet positions for movement joints. The length should also not exceed twice the panel height.

Dimensional Co-ordination
Internal Door Openings
As noted elsewhere, most standard door sets do not conform to block modularity. Since many internal walls (between floor planes) will not be significantly higher than a door, it makes sense to insert a fanlight or panel over the door, making the assembly full-height and avoiding a lintel. This not only looks neater, but it is also faster and easier to build; the block wall has simple edges and the door assembly can be made and installed in one piece (after wet trades have finished). The panel over the door can also be used for borrowed light or for signage.

Internal Blockwork
In addition to the guidance contained elsewhere in this publication, there are some specific aspects which relate to fair face blockwork, particularly where Facing Masonry is used, but also where blockwork is to be painted. Even where blockwork is to be plastered (or rendered externally) recognising and complying with the block module discipline is important for speed on site and constructional integrity. A shadow gap detail can be used between frame and blockwork, or a shaped jamb block used.

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