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Andrew Gardner 09.2011 Abbreviations Commerce - VAT, PLC/plc, Ltd, Co., PR, asap Documents - c, cc, bc, l, ll, p, pp, enc, pto, RSVP, dob, d., e.g., i.e. Education - BA, BSc, MA, MSc, PhD, MD, Cert., Dip., M.I.E.E., FRS Organisations - BBC, EU/EC, NATO, UN, WHO, OPEC; CIA, FBI, MI5; CEO, MP, MEP, PM, MoD Roads - M1, A53, B1405, St (street, saint), TL, TR, SO Misc - SOS, PIN, AD, BC, OAP, Ms, N/A Accidents Types - blast, blaze, collapse, collision, crash, derailment, drowning, pile-up; to capsize/sink/run aground Causes - brake failure, carelessness, communication breakdown, driver error, drunkenness, icy roads, ignoring safety procedures, misunderstanding, negligence, poor visibility, runaway train, speeding, tiredness Results - carnage, death toll; chaos, post mortem, court of inquiry, coroner, inquest; black box Accommodation Types - flat, cottage, terraced house, semi-detached house, detached house, villa, bungalow, mansion, palace, castle, fort, chalet Verbs - hire, rent, let, buy, sell; alter, redesign, extend, renovate, repair, rebuild, refurbish Nouns - attic, loft, cellar, basement flat, gutter, drainpipe, hedge, fence, drive, ceiling, study, radiator, central heating, double glazing, tiles, pond; sofa, settee, mat Animals Types - amphibian, insect, mammal, reptile; groups - herd, flock Verbs - bark, bite, buzz, growl, kick, lick, roar, scratch, sniff, sting, mate; breed, migrate, nest Body - fur, skin, beak, claw, feather, fin, horn, hoof, tail, trunk, tusk, wing Human activities - domesticate, tame, train, hunt, poach, pat, stroke; guide dog Wider use - be an ass/chimp/cow/pig/rat/swine, bear/bull market, the black sheep, bull (red rag, take by horns), a catfight, cats eyes, to chicken out, culture vulture, dogged, eagle-eyed, fishy, to fish for, hen/stag party, to hound, lions share, loan shark, to monkey around, parrot-fashion, a ponytail, a poodle, sheepish, a snake, a snails pace, waspish, zebra crossing Arts People - author, writer, playwright, dramatist, novelist; composer, conductor, musician, pianist; sculptor, artist, painter, photographer (free-lance); editor, critic, journalist, reporter; producer, director, cameraman, stage manager, star, co-star, extra Works - biography (auto), fable, fairy tale, legend, myth, novel, poem (poetry), play; rhyme, fiction, non-fiction; painting, sculpture, exhibition (exhibit), opera, musical Body Parts - ankle, beard, chest, chin, elbow, eyebrow/lash, gums, hip, joint, kidney, knee, liver, lip, lung, moustache, muscle, nails, neck, shoulder, throat, thumb, toe, tongue, waist, wrist Problems - ache, bruise, cut, fracture, frostbite, graze, heart attack, indigestion, pull a muscle, sprain, sunburn, sunstroke, twist; blind, deaf, disabled, bald Aids - bandage, contact lens, crutch, filling, plaster, stretcher, treatment, vaccine, wheelchair Cars Parts - ABS, accelerator, airbag, battery (flat), bonnet, boot, brake, bumper, central locking, engine, fuel gauge, headlights, gear lever, horn, jack, oil, seat belt, speedometer, steering wheel, spare tyre, windscreen, wiper; manual/automatic Verbs - change gear, crash, do a U-turn, overtake, reverse, skid, speed up, slow down, swerve, turn Adjectives - comfortable, luxury, economical, high-performance, second-hand, used Roads - avenue, lane, square, cul-de-sac; main road, dual carriageway, motorway, bypass, lay-by, roundabout, flyover, underpass, toll; road works, pile up, hold up, traffic jam/congestion, rush/peak hour, diversion Clothing Adjectives - elegant, fashionable, matching, loose, tight, comfortable; protective, waterproof Verbs - clash, go with, suit, shorten, shrink, discolour, drip dry, dry clean Materials - cotton, linen, nylon, silk, wool, synthetic Nouns - button, collar, cuffs, hood, pocket, zip Shapes - circular, round, oval, square, rectangular, triangular, spherical; artificial, imitation Materials - bronze, silver, gold, brick, cardboard, concrete, (fibre) glass, iron, metal, plastic, rubber, steel, wood

Crime People - arsonist, assassin, blackmailer, burglar, conman, drugs dealer, hacker, hijacker, kidnapper (hostage, ransom), killer, mugger, murderer, pick-pocket, rapist, rioter, robber, sniper, suicide bomber, terrorist, thief, thug, traitor, vandal Punishment ASBO, fine, community service, detention, suspended sentence, imprisonment, exile, execution also - compensation, disturbance, riot, rehabilitation Verbs - breach, break in, break out of, bribe, burgle, counterfeit, forge, kidnap, rob, stab, steal, threaten Economy Banks - deposit, withdraw, pay in, take out, credit, debit, loan, mortgage, fund, account (a/c), balance, interest rate, statement, overdrawn, credit card, coin, banknote, cash machine; inflation; estate; franchise; assets Paying - exorbitant, overpriced, dear, costly, value for money, bargain, cheap, worthless; discount, reduction, instalment, deposit; customs, duty, tax, VAT; bill, receipt, invoice, voucher; merge, take over, buy out, bid Adjectives - well-off, hard-up, wealthy, broke, bankrupt, bust, in administration/receivership Organisations - building society, ECB, Bank of England, insurance company, stock exchange, shareholder Data - sharp rise, steady increase, gradual decline, drastic reduction; pick up, fall off; level, rate; trend, forecast, prediction, indicator; lowest, highest; short term; ease, leap, plummet, rally, hike; quid (slang) People - almost all of us, the majority/minority, over half, hardly anybody, one in ten, per cent Education Exams - take/do, pass, fail, grade, resit, retake; assess, mark Levels - nursery, primary, secondary, sixth form, college, polytechnic, university, academy, institute People - instructor, counsellor, mentor, lecturer, tutor, professor, head teacher, principal; trainee, student, apprentice, under-graduate, post-graduate Subjects - astronomy, economics, computing, computer science/studies, IT, statistics Food Cooking - bake, boil, cook, fry, grill, toast; microwave, frying pan, saucepan, tray; raw; blender Taste - hot, spicy, sour, sweet, sharp, fruity, rich, creamy; greasy; seasoning Problems - allergy, diabetes/diabetic, overeat, malnutrition, food poisoning Health - balanced diet, proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, preservatives, greasy/convenience/junk food Games Types - game, match, contest, competition, championship, tournament, race, cup, league Verbs - win, beat, take part in, enter, withdraw, disqualify, come first/second, knocked out, fight back, draw, replay, postpone, put off, cancel, boycott, award, appeal People - winner, runner-up, loser, finalist, opponent, competitor, champion, record holder, gold/silver/bronze medallist, referee, umpire, panel of judges, organiser, team captain, vice-captain Health Medical - illness, disease, contagious, incurable, symptoms, diagnose, prescription, ointment, lotion, dose, pill/tablet, check up, X-ray, scan, examination, transfusion, operate on, vaccination Hospital - anaesthetic, operating theatre, ward, sister, nurse, consultant, convalescence, in/out-patient General - GP, health centre, primary care trust, surgery, appointment, NHS, General Medical Council Holidays Travel - crossing, cruise, drive, excursion, expedition, flight, outing, ride, safari, trip, voyage; travel agency, book, reserve; business/economy class, package tour, charter flight, hold, excess baggage, flight number, brochure, itinerary; resort, souvenir Accommodation - B & B, half board, full board, guest house, self-catering Transport - barge, canoe, double-decker, glider, jeep, (jumbo) jet, liner, moped, yacht Law Courts - magistrates court, county/crown court, High/Appeal/Supreme Court, civil/criminal law; guilty, not guilty, innocent, judge, jury, liable, trial; bail, custody; barrister, solicitor, defence, prosecution; overrule, overturn Other - case/statute law; pass, repeal, ban; Bill, Act; Law Society; arbitration, plea bargaining, settle, tribunal Media Newspapers - advertisements (classified), article, caption, cartoon, column, contents, editorial, entertainment, headline, horoscope; (Sunday)Times, Guardian, Independent, Daily Telegraph, Daily Mail, Sun, Mirror; tabloid, gutter (press); reporter, journalist, correspondent, critic, editor; freelance Verbs - announce, broadcast, censor, edit, highlight, replay, print, publish, televise, transmit Vocabulary - affair, allege, bandwagon, entitled, target, claimant, cover-up, damning, disclose, drag, emerge, far-reaching, flee, full-scale, fury, gang, grip, handful, label, leak, packed, praise, quango, ram, robust, rocket, scope, scrap, slam, slash, soar, spark, spiral, string of, surge, undermine, wield, wipe out/off, yield

Nature Disasters - avalanche, earthquake, flood, hurricane, landslide, plague, tornado, tsunami, typhoon; drought, famine, epidemic, outbreak Reaction - emergency services, insurance claim, rescue/salvage operation Features - desert, estuary, forest, volcano, waterfall, glacier, tide (high/low), tropics, North/South Pole People Descriptions - good-looking, well-built, left-handed, well-behaved, short-tempered, over-indulgent, easy-going, narrow-minded, self-centred; frail, handsome, skinny, shortish, neat, plain, scruffy, smart Feelings - annoyed, anxious, ashamed, betrayed, confused, desperate, embarrassed, envious, excited, excluded, foolish, furious, grateful, guilty, humiliated, irritated, jealous, lonely, miserable, rejected Life - birth, marriage, death; abortion, civil wedding, divorce, euthanasia; widow/widower, in-laws Wider use - to elbow, to foot the bill, fingerprints, a footpath, footsteps, hair-raising, a handful, to hand over, handy, a header, a loudmouth, nail-biting, nosy, to raise your eyebrows, to stomach something, two-faced Technology Convenience - air conditioning, humidifier, central heating, hair dryer, toaster, microwave, spin/tumble dryer, fan, answering machine, shredder, double glazing, vacuum cleaner/hoover; hose; remote control Tools - chisel, drill, file, hammer, nail, pliers, sandpaper, saw, screwdriver, spanner, tape measure, vice; weld Electricity - switch, plug, socket, fuse, cable, wire, mains; transformer Weather - breeze, blustery, gale, storm; mist, fog; drizzle, shower, downpour, torrential rain, sleet, hail stones, thunder, lightning; heatwave, cold spell, blizzard; overcast, dull, bright; cloudy, icy, rainy, sunny, windy Work Verbs - appoint, engage, employ, promote, interview, suspend, fire, sack, dismiss, make redundant, lay off, transfer; also - appraisal interview Nouns - job, occupation, profession, career, employment; task, labour, business, trade, commerce; People - supervisor, manager, director, boss, secretary, technician, chief executive, chairman, senior, principal, assistant, owner; disciplinary/grievance procedure Pay - wages, salary, increase, incentive scheme, bonus, productivity, commission WORDS THAT ARE USUALLY SINGULAR Accommodation, advice, baggage, equipment, evidence, furniture, information, help, knowledge, luggage, machinery, money, news, proof, shopping, technology, work CHARACTER & PERSONALITY Character: absent-minded, aggressive, argumentative, arrogant, brave, callous, careful, cheeky, compassionate, conceited, conscientious, considerate, cooperative, courageous, cowardly, deceitful, decent, dependable, determined, devious, disciplined, disorganised, envious, forgetful, forgiving, gentle, generous, greedy, gullible, honest, impetuous, kind, lazy, likeable, manipulative, mean, modest, moody, nave, obstinate, overbearing, patient, peaceful, quarrelsome, queer, rebellious, reckless, reliable, rude, self-centred, self-controlled, selfish, sensible, sensitive, sincere, stingy, stubborn, temperamental, thoughtless, trustworthy, vain, warm-hearted. Personality: active, adventurous, bold, boring, calm, cautious, cheerful, conservative, defeatist, devoted, dull, easy-going, emotional, energetic, excitable, extrovert, fascinating, friendly, inquisitive, insecure, inventive, mild, obliging, optimistic, outgoing, passive, persuasive, pessimistic, pleasant, proud, reserved, secretive, selfconfident, self-conscious, sentimental, shy, talkative, uncompromising, unconventional, unimaginative, unpopular, unsympathetic, zealous. SIGNPOSTS These introduce sentences by telling the listener/reader what to expect next. They help efficient communication and prevent misunderstandings. Examples: additionally, all in all, alternatively, anyway, as a result, as well as that, at the same time, besides, by the way, clearly, equally, for all that, for this reason, furthermore, however, incidentally, in complete contrast, in conclusion, initially, moreover, naturally, on balance, on the other hand, subsequently, surprisingly. HOMONYMS These words have different meanings [n=noun, v=verb, a=adjective]: tank (n,n), party (n,n), ball (n,n), hamper (n,v), grave (a,n), discount (n,v), mean (a,v), conduct (n,v), sink (n,v), catch (n,v), current (a,n), round (a,n), tip (n,n,n), complex (a,n,n), contract (n,v), club (n,n), gear (n,n), sound (a,n,v), execute (v,v), nail (n,n), trust (n,n), coat (n,v), deposit (v,n,n), exhaust (n,v), race (n,n), stick (n,v), study (n,v), mine (n,n), bridge (n,n), fan (n,n), tap (n,n), plug (n,n), plain (a,n), plaster (n,v), class (n,n,), stall (n,v), bow (n,n,n), turn (n,v), row (n,n,v), leave (n,v), beat (v,v), horn (n,n), trial (n,n), even (a,adverb), court (n,n), stone (n,n), wind (n,v), pound (n,n), found (v,v), cut (n,n,v), matter (n,v), lighter (a,n), match (n,n,v), tie (v,v), lie (v,v), fine (a,n), will (n,n), fair (a,a,n), lead (n,v), refuse (n,v), chair (n,v), fire (n,v), sack (n,v), wound (v,v), late (a,a), bar (n,n,v), hang (v,v), coach (n,n), recover (v,v), ditch (n,v), suit (n,v), fly

(n,v), train (n,v), house (n,v), let (v,v). HOMOPHONES These pairs sound the same but have different meanings: hall-haul, queue-cue, saw-sore, dual-duel, floor-flaw, site-cite, tire-tyre, due-dew, dam-damn, heard-herd, seas-seize, tail-tale, seam-seem, scent-sent, die-dye, role-roll, fate-fete, sole-soul, anyone-any one, everyday-every day, cheap-cheep, genes-jeans, morning-mourning, lead-led, dependant-dependent, seek-Sikh, air-heir, groan-grown, aloud-allowed, moan-mown, toe-tow, sale-sail, waistwaste, sort-sought, wait-weight, feat-feet, pray-prey, profit-prophet, made-maid, band-banned, sauce-source, vainvein, board-bored, straight-strait, key-quay, councillor-counsellor, pole-poll, higher-hire, leak-leek, heal-heel, stationary-stationery, lightning-lightening, sweet-suite, fair-fare, fined-find, break-brake, bare-bear. SPELLING Correct these mistakes: overpayed, wheather, iresponsable, hight, strenghten, ilegaly, voleyball, diferently, dissapearance, passangers, apointement, imaturity, lugage, unbelivable, enviroment, arhitect, mayer, noisest, qualificated, forgoten, proffession, historicly, foriegn, misterious, tempory, receit, eventualy, bussinesmen, releaved, ocupation, mispelt, personnal, determinated, displaid, dispair, thiefs, recommandation, committments, imigration, unexplicable, councilor, improuvement, sistematicly, truethfull, unecesary, unemploiable, stresful, atractive, achivement, understuffed, weeknesses, priveliges, resorcefull, aplication, oportunities, noticably, lenghtened, unhappyness, marrige, arguement, ilogicly, negociator, unmanagable, paniced, succesfuly, destroied, refference, defense, yourselfs, developement, suvenir, unrelyable, dissapointment, entusiasm, canceled, discription, exausted, volcanos, seperate, occassionally, independant, electricien, advertisment, inpossibility, machinary, anouncement, american, ensurance, beggining, broshure, collegue, confortable, couragous, greatfuly, incidently, jurnalist, mecanic, brakedown, faitfully, sincerly. COMMUNICATING VERBS Add, admit, advise, answer, apologise, appeal, claim, comment, complain, confirm, deny, doubt, enquire, mention, object, offer, order, promise, propose, protest, question, refuse, remark, reply, report, request, respond, state, suggest, threaten, warn, wonder.