Enhanced Real-Time Seismic Monitoring in Hawai‘i

Summary
Damaging earthquakes, active volcanoes, and locally generated tsunamis are hazards that demand real-time seismic monitoring in Hawai‘i. The USGS’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), National Strong Motion Project (NSMP), and NOAA’s Paci c Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) operate seismic stations across the State to serve their respective missions. Signi cant upgrades following recent earthquakes have modernized both eld and operations center systems, resulting in improvements to and some convergence of performance capabilities. Data and information products are also shared among the operators and made available to the broader scienti c community via the IRIS Data Management Center. Following the 2004 Sumatra earthquake, PTWC installed a number of broadband and low-gain seismic sensors across the State of Hawai‘i to improve issuing of warnings for potentially tsunamigenic local earthquakes. After the 2006 Kīholo Bay and Māhukona earthquakes, the USGS upgraded its NSMP network with digital instruments and begun real-time data transmission from selected stations. Subsequent to this upgrade, HVO upgraded its entire seismic network to digital telemetry, expanded its broadband and low-gain monitoring across the island of Hawai‘i, and migrated its acquisition and analysis operations to the ANSS Quake Management System (AQMS). These respective upgrades speak to the possibilities of improved coordination of network operations to monitor seismicity in Hawai‘i and meet increasing expectations of rapid and reliable earthquake reporting and production of earthquake information products. Formative discussions of the Hawaiian Integrated Seismic Network (HISN) have mentioned adoption of common software methodologies, backup functions, and an integrated earthquake reporting strategy that ensures maximum bene t to all stakeholders in the earthquake, volcano, and tsunami monitoring communities.
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Brian Shiro , Paul Okubo , Kanoa Koyanagi , Weston Thelen , Roger Gernold
1. NOAA Paci c Tsunami Warning Center; 91-270 Fort Weaver Rd; ‘Ewa Beach; HI 96706 USA; email: brian.shiro@noaa.gov, kanoa.koyanagi@noaa.gov 2. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory; PO Box 51; Hawai`i National Park; HI 96718 USA; email: pokubo@usgs.gov, wthelen@usgs.gov

SSA Meeting 2012

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Network Overview
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Capabilities
Enhanced statewide coordination of seismic network operations has led to high delity recording of earthquake ground motions, improving the accuracy and timeliness of earthquake reporting. Realtime waveform data is freely exchanged among HISN members and is archived by the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC). This easily accessible archive of Hawai`i seismic data promotes new derived products for engineering and geophysical applications, as well as research. Ready access to the HISN data encourages collaborative studies that lead to a better understanding of Hawai`i's earthquake, volcanic, and tsunami hazards.

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HVO operates approximately 56 stations across the island of Hawaii. The HVO network is transitioning to exclusively digital telemetry by July 2012. Digitizers are Reftek RT-130 and Reftek RT-130SM. Short-period sensors are mostly Sercel L4Cs. Broadband sensors are Guralp 40T and Trillium 120. HVO uses the ANSS Quake Management System (AQMS) for earthquake detection, triggering and processing. Continuous data is stored on-site in a Winston database, and o site at the IRIS DMC.
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Operational Bene ts: • Improved detection, location, and characterization of tectonic and volcanic
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seismicity, especially outside of the Big Island • Tsunami warnings issued in 1-2 minutes from earthquake origin time • Utilization of newer and more robust magnitude estimation methodologies • Rapid source modeling from broadband and strong motion data • ShakeMaps from continuous strong-motion data augmented by dial-up data

Power Spectrum (above) and exterior site photo (right) of station KEKH located near Kekaha, Kauai. The STS-2 broadband station occupies an old munitions bunker embedded within the hillside. Station operated by PTWC.

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Hawai`i Seismic Stations
NOAA-PTWC broadband (12) NOAA-PTWC accelerometer (15) NOAA-PTWC short period (4) USGS-HVO broadband (25) USGS-HVO accelerometer (18) USGS-HVO short period (30) USGS-NSMP accelerometer (32) IRIS broadband (2) open: temporary or proposed

PTWC operates 18 stations across the State of Hawaii using exclusive digital telemetry. Digitizers are Quanterra Q330 and Kinemetrics Basalt. Broadband sensors are STS-2, accompanied by Episensor accelerometers. A few stations operate with NetDAS digitizers and Metrozet accelerometers that will be phased out by 2013. Short-period sensors are Geotech S-13s. PTWC ingests data via both Antelope and Earthworm systems, the latter of which automatically associates and estimates magnitudes for most events in less than 30 s from origin time.

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Power Spectrum (above) and site photo (right) of station MOKD located on the summit of Mauna Loa volcano. The upgraded Trillium 120 broadband station is part of HVO’s recent digital upgrades. Station operated by HVO.

Research Bene ts: • Better characterization of velocity structure and attenuation models • Waveform inversion and moment tensor studies of earthquakes • Studies of volcanic tremor using broadband data • Passive seismic tomography with ambient noise • Analysis of strong motion data to improve earthquake engineering practices • Characterization of ocean-generated microseisms • Long-term study of Hawaiian plume, lower mantle, and core-mantle boundary

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Next Steps
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Multi-hazards
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Network Performance for Selected Earthquakes
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Near-Term Plans: • HVO will complete its digital upgrades in 2012. • HVO will install 15 Netquakes instruments, mostly near Pahoa and on Maui.
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NI`IHAU
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Lihue

Nu’uanu landslide

O`AHU
35 Honolulu
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Wailau landslide

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MAUI LĀNA`I
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Haleakalā

Seismicity of Hawai`i: 1861-2012 (M ≥4.0)
Earthquake Magnitude 8.0 6.0 4.0 Volcano (active or dormant) Tsunami Travel Time (minutes) Major City
50 100 km

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KAHO`OLAWE
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HAWAI`I
Kohala

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Signi cant Earthquakes and Tsunamis 1 1868/03/28 7.0 Ka`u 2 1868/04/02 7.9 Ka`u (tsunami - 46 dead) 3 1871/02/19 6.8 Lana`I 4 1895/12/08 5.8 O`ahu 5 1929/09/25 6.2 Hualalai 6 1938/01/22 6.8 Maui 7 1948/06/28 5.2 Honolulu 8 1951/08/21 6.9 Kona 9 1973/04/26 6.2 Honomu 10 1975/11/29 7.6 Kalapana (tsunami - 2 dead) 11 1983/11/16 6.7 Kao`iki 12 2006/10/15 6.7 Kīholo Bay Notes: The catalog is complete from about 1960 onwards. The epicentral locations for events before 1950 are only approximate. A few late 19th Century events have not been plotted because of great uncertainties in their locations. Locations, magnitudes, and depths of some older events have been adjusted to match contemporary descriptions of shaking.

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Mauna Kea

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Alika 1 & 2 landslides

Kona 5 Hualālai
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Hilo
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Mauna Loa
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Kīlauea
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Sources: • Advanced National Seismic System catalog, quake.geo.berkeley.edu, 2005. • Cox, D.C., Earthquakes felt on Oahu, Hawai`i, and their intensities, Environmental Center, University of Hawai`i, 1986. • Klein, F. and T.L. Wright, Catalog of Hawaiian earthquakes, 1823-1959, USGS Prof. Paper 1623, 2000. • Nettles, M. and G. Elström, Long-period source characteristics of the 1975 Kalapana earthquake, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 94, 422-429, 2004. • Wyss, M. and R.Y. Koyanagi, Seismic gaps in Hawai`i. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 82, 1373-1387, 1992. Bathymetry and topography complied by Nathan Becker from NGDC, USGS, and University of Hawai`i sources. Earthquake catalog compiled by Gerard Fryer.

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Automatic location and magnitude calculation performance depend on station coverage. Several Earthworm-based systems continually produce phase picks using a con gured pick algorithm (pick_ew), followed by association via an L1-norm locator (binder_ew), optional veri cation and coda processing, and re ned locations produced by the L2-norm Hypoinverse program. Automatic local magnitudes are produced from the rst few cycles of the P- wavetrain (PMAG) and synthetic Wood-Anderson seismograms (ML via localmag) based on L2-norm hypocenters.

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Up the Chain

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Within the Core Network

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Edge of Hawai`i Island

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They also plan to install 4-element infrasound arrays at three sites in 2012. • HVO is working towards building an o site backup system located on Oahu, possibly at PTWC or University of Hawaii at Manoa. • PTWC will continue replacing NetDAS+Metrozet hardware with Basalt+Episensor strong motion systems. • PTWC plans to install broadband stations in west Maui, Molokai, and upper Puna. • PTWC will send its strong motion data to the IRIS DMC for archiving. • HVO and PTWC will continue to coordinate with NSMP to upgrade select dial-up sites to real time telemetry to ll coverage gaps in the existing network. • New station corrections and magnitude calibrations will be completed for the entirety of the real-time network.

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Future Directions: • Formalize the Hawai`i Integrated Seismic Network (HISN) by integrating the
separate seismic monitoring networks to serve as a single regional earthquake reporting entity. • Function as the Hawai`i regional presence in the USGS Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS).

Above: M4.8 Kaho`olawe earthquake of 2010/11/24. Shown here is the nal automatic hypocenter (red star) with stations (blue squares) used in the solution. The inset time plot illustrates how the RMS and gap vary as number of picks increase with time. By 30 seconds after origin time, the solution has already stabilized. (USGS Solution: 04:34:11.42, 20.3240, -156.4690, 12.90 km, 4.80 Mb, nsta 69, 1.07 RMS)

Above: M4.3 Kilauea earthquake of 2012/02/24. Shown here is the nal automatic hypocenter (red star) with stations (blue squares) used in the solution. The inset time plot illustrates how the RMS and gap vary as number of picks increase with time. By 30 seconds after origin time, the solution has already stabilized. (USGS Solution: 13:52:45.1 19.4347, -155.3115, 6.36 km, 4.31 ML, nsta 62, 0.11 RMS)

Above: M4.9 Honomu earthquake of 2012/03/24. Shown here is the nal automatic hypocenter (red star) with stations (blue squares) used in the solution. The inset time plot illustrates how the RMS and gap vary as number of picks increase with time. By 30 seconds after origin time, the solution has nearly stabilized. (USGS Solution: 20:47:15.29 19.8630, -155.1330, 43.17 km, 4.88 ML, nsta 62, 0.10 RMS)

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