17 04 2012


Fault Zones - Segmentation

Normal faults can be segmented in either cross-section or in map view, or both. Here are schematic illustrations of two end-member models for the formation of segmented fault arrays in plan view; the same basic geometries could apply to their generation in cross-sectional view (Walsh et al. in press). The block diagrams (a, c and d) each show three stages in the growth of a segmented fault array (i - iii). The displacement-distance plots (b and e) are for the fault traces on the upper surfaces of the block diagrams (bold lines). The bold dashed lines in (c) indicate branch-lines. The coherent fault model is illustrated for segmented fault traces that are (c) hard-linked and formed by fault surface bifurcation and (d) softlinked and formed by 3-D segmentation. The shaded areas in (b) indicate deficits in displacement between the adjacent fault segments which are not due to continuous deformation within relay zones (see text). The aggregate displacement profiles (not shown) for the two models differ in that the points of maximum displacement are preserved where the faults were initially isolated (b - iii) but a simple aggregate profile occurs at all stages of development in the coherent fault model.



The offsets of the fault traces are exclusively extensional and occur where the massive chalk beds are separated by thin marl units. one with a contractional jog (offset) and the other with dilational jogs.ie/gallery/segmentation.ucd.K. Segmented normal fault in an interbedded chalk-marl sequence at Danes Dyke. Two fault arrays are seen. The displacement on the array is ca 10cm. in an interbedded chalk.ie/gallery/segmentation. www. U.marl sequence at Danes Dyke.htm 2/3 .fault-analysis-group.K. Flamborough head. Flamborough head. Segmented normal faults in an interbedded chalk-marl sequence at Danes Dyke. The fault on the left has an average displacement of 15cm and that on the right has displacements of 1-2cm. U. U.htm Normal faults can be segmented in either cross-section or in map view.K. Two fault segments are separated by a dilational jog within which the sequence shows a fold that accommodates displacement transfer between segments.ucd.fault-analysis-group. Two normal fault traces as seen on cross-sections parallel to the fault slip directions. The overall dip of both faults is 75 degrees.17 04 2012 www. Flamborough head.

ie/gallery/segmentation.fault-analysis-group. with intervening relay zones.ie/gallery/segmentation.htm Segmented strike-slip fault arrays.ucd. Catalonia (see Walsh et al.the views provided are therefore equivalent to a map view of normal faults. from the Carboniferous sandstone and shales of the Morpeth opencast site Northumberland. www. 1999). University of Liverpool). The segments are developed in a sandstone unit contained within an otherwise shale dominated sequence they are interpreted to be an early localisation array that is subsequently by-passed by a throughgoing hangingwall fault seen on the far working face. (b) Small-scale relay zone on 25cm displacement fault from Collado de Fumanyo. showing intervening relays one of which is strongly fractured and near breaching (Photograph from Graham Potts.fault-analysis-group. (a) Array of faults with maximum displacement of ca 25cm from Jaca. intersecting steeply dipping beds in the Pyrenees.htm 3/3 . Spain . Normal fault segments associated with a fault zone with ca 10m displacement. UK.ucd.17 04 2012 www.

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