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ˇ ˇ ´ SUNCICA CANIC
This is a joint work with Andro Mikeli´ (University of Lyon 1, France), c Josip Tambaˇa (University of Zagreb, Croatia), Giovanna Guidoboni (Unic versity of Houston, USA), Dr. Craig Hartley (Baylor College of Medicine, USA), Dr. Doreen Rosenstrauch (Texas Heart Institute and The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, USA), and Dr. Z. Krajcer (Texas Heart Institute and St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital, USA). The study of ﬂow of a viscous incompressible ﬂuid through a compliant tube has many applications. One major application is blood ﬂow through human arteries. Understanding wave propagation in arterial walls, local hemodynamics, and temporal wall shear stress gradient is important in understanding the mechanisms leading to various complications in cardiovascular function. Many clinical treatments can be studied in detail only if a reliable model describing the response of arterial walls to the pulsatile blood ﬂow is considered. It has been well accepted that in medium-to-large arteries, blood can be modeled as a viscous, incompressible Newtonian ﬂuid. Although blood is a suspension of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in plasma, its non-Newtonian nature due to the particular rheology is relevant in small arteries (arterioles) and capillaries where the diameter of the arteries becomes comparable to the size of the cells. In medium-to-large arteries, such as the coronary arteries (medium) and the abdominal aorta (large), the NavierStokes equations for an incompressible viscous ﬂuid are considered to be a good model for blood ﬂow. Devising an accurate model for the mechanical behavior of arterial walls is more complicated. Arterial walls are anisotropic and heterogeneous, composed of layers with diﬀerent biomechanical characteristics , , , . A variety of diﬀerent models have been suggested in the literature to model the mechanical behavior of arteries , , , , , , , , . They range from the detailed description of each of the layers to the average description of the total mechanical response of the vessel wall assuming homogeneous, linearly elastic behavior.
One-dimensional models. thereby showing well-posedness of the underlying problem. various simpliﬁcations need to be introduced. a detailed description of the vessel wall biomechanical properties may lead to a mathematical and numerical problem whose complexity is beyond today’s computational capabilities. studied in  and . such as special geometry. and the model equations are quasilinear hyperbolic. . Often times. In particular. suffer from several drawbacks: they are not closed (an ad hoc velocity proﬁle needs to be prescribed to obtain a closed system of equations). To this day there is no analytical result proving well-posedness of the ﬂuid-structure interaction problem without assuming that the structure model includes the higher-order derivative terms capturing some kind . ) or to provide enough regularity in the proof of the existence of a solution (.12 WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS: MAY 18–20. The nonlinearity of the underlying ﬂuid-structure interaction is so severe that even a simpliﬁed description of the vessel wall mechanics assuming homogeneous linearly elastic behavior leads to complicated numerical algorithms with challenging stability and convergence properties. To devise a mathematical model that will lead to a problem which is amenable to numerical methods producing computational solutions in a reasonable time frame. and periodicity. leading to axially symmetric models with a potential of further reduction to 1D models. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional models of ﬂuid-structure interaction between the incompressible viscous ﬂuid ﬂow and the motion of a linearly elastic cylindrical membrane are rather complex. typically producing shock wave solutions . and cylindrical geometry of a section of an artery where no branching is present. symmetry. Further simpliﬁcations include axial symmetry of the loading exerted by the blood ﬂow to the vessel walls in the approximately straight cylindrical sections. . the wall shear stress calculated using one-dimensional models is a consequence of the form of the prescribed velocity proﬁle. A common set of special problem features that leads to simplifying models includes “small” vessel wall thickness. 2006 To study the coupling between the motion of the vessel wall and pulsatile blood ﬂow. not observed in healthy humans. ). allowing a reduction from 3D models to 2D shell models. Neglecting bending rigidity of arteries. although a good ﬁrst approximation to the underlying problem. They can be based on the simplifying model assumptions capturing only the most important physics of the problem and/or on the simpliﬁcations utilizing special problem features. allowing the use of cylindrical shell models. additional ad hoc terms of viscoelastic nature are added to the vessel wall model to provide stability and convergence of the underlying numerical algorithm (. A common set of simplifying assumptions that captures only the most important physics in the description of the mechanical properties of arterial walls includes homogeneity of the material with “small” displacements and “small” deformation gradients leading to the hypothesis of linear elasticity. reduces the shell model to a membrane model.
Ciarlet and Lods showed in  that the Koiter shell model has the same asymptotic behavior as the three-dimensional membrane model. 2. We will be assuming that the vessel walls are homogeneous. Due to variations in approach and rigor. such as the smallness of the data . . to the inﬁnitesimal strains ekl and the time-derivative of the strains ∂t ekl through the following relationship : (1) tkl = (λe + λv ∂t )Ie δkl + 2(µe + µv ∂t )ekl . periodic boundary conditions . In fact. where λe and µe are the Lam´ constants of elasticity. we turn to the theory of elastic/viscoelastic shells to model the mechanical properties of arterial walls. and Ie := . in . the variety of equations occurring in the literature is overwhelming. see  and the references therein. not appropriate for the blood-ﬂow application. allowing us to consider shell theory. k. l = 1. we derived the Koiter shell equations for the cylindrical geometry and extended the linearly elastic Koiter model to include the viscous eﬀects observed in the measurements of the mechanical properties of vessel walls . λv and µv are their e corresponding viscoelastic counterparts. the higher-order regularizing terms in the structure model play a crucial role in providing the stabilizing mechanism. the wellposedness of the ﬂuid-structure interaction problem describing blood ﬂow in compliant (elastic or viscoelastic) arteries remains an open problem. The equations of shell theory have been derived by many authors. the Kelvin-Voigt model relates the total stress tensor. giving rise to a problem which might not have a solution.THE LEGACY OF LADYZHENSKAYA AND OLEINIK 13 of viscoelastic behavior (. However. ). Keeping this in mind. and the generalized membrane model in the respective regimes in which each of them holds. In addition. Among all the equations of shell theory. . . More precisely. . We utilized the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model in which the total stress is linearly proportional to the strain and the time-derivative of strain. . . 3. . they have been mathematically justiﬁed using asymptotic methods to be consistent with three-dimensional elasticity . whose components we denote by tkl . ignoring the terms that account for bending rigidity of the vessel walls and/or viscous dissipation might mean oversimplifying the physics. ). that the thickness of the wall is small in comparison to the vessel radius. Thus. or with the terms describing bending (ﬂexion) rigidity in elastic shells or plates (. Motivated by these remarkable properties of the Koiter shell model. for a three-dimensional isotropic and homogeneous body. and that the state of stress is approximately plane. Thus. current literature on well-posedness of the ﬂuid-structure interaction between a viscous incompressible Newtonian ﬂuid and a viscoelastic structure includes many additional simplifying assumptions. . the bending model. the Koiter shell equations appear to be the simplest consistent ﬁrst approximation in the general theory of thin elastic shells . even in those simplifying problems when the data are inﬁnitesimally small. or ﬂow in a closed cavity . . δkl is the Kronecker delta.
closed ﬂuid-structure interaction model and a fast numerical solver whose solutions capture the viscoelastic properties of major arteries. coupled with the NavierStokes equations for a viscous incompressible ﬂuid. Acknowledgment. captures the experimentally measured viscoelastic properties of arterial walls in the human femoral artery and in the canine aorta. see . the viscoelastic model was compared to the hysteresis measurements of the viscoelastic properties of the human femoral artery and the canine aorta. please see  and .math.uh. (2) Our model shows that the bending rigidity of vessel walls plays a nonnegligible role in the asymptotic behavior of the underlying ﬂuid-structure interaction problem. . Our mathematical results have been successfully applied to the study of the performance of vascular prostheses called stents and stent-grafts used in non-surgical treatment of aortic abdominal aneurysm. assembled at the Research Laboratory at the Texas Heart Institute. Our reduced. eﬀective model reveals several interesting features of the coupled ﬂuid-structure interaction problem: (1) Our model explicitly shows how the leading order viscous ﬂuid dissipation imparts long-term viscoelastic memory eﬀects on the motion of the vessel wall. . WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS: MAY 18–20. Special thanks to the National Science Foundation.14 3 i=1 eii . we show that the ﬂuid-structure interaction algorithm based on the viscoelastic Koiter shell equations. . We show in  and  that our eﬀective model approximates the original three-dimensional axially symmetric problem to the 2 accuracy. and . the reduced elastic model was tested experimentally using a mock circulatory ﬂow loop with latex tubing. the leading-order terms in the coupling of the stresses at the vessel wall include not only the membrane terms but also a correction accounting for the bending rigidity of the wall. Main results presented in this talk may be found in the publications listed at www. . We found that for the parameters describing blood ﬂow through medium-to-large arteries. the viscoelastic hysteresis loop observed in the stress-strain (or the pressurediameter) measurements of the arterial viscoelastic properties. We developed a fast numerical solver based on the 1D ﬁnite element approach and compared the computational solution with the experimental measurements. excellent agreement between the experiment and the numerical solution was obtained. often times neglected in the description of the mechanical properties of vessel walls. we derived an eﬀective. coupled with the asymptotic analysis and homogenization theory as used in . 2006 In . In both cases. For a detailed description.html. Using the a priori estimates based on an energy inequality. where is the aspect ratio of the cylindrical domain (vessel). Then. the National Institutes of Health. We show that this does not inﬂuence.edu/~canic/hemodynamics/publications. and the Texas Heart Institute for their generous support for this research. First. to the leading order.
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