Contents...................................................................................................................... 1 Research Methodology................................................................................................ 4 1.1 Introduction to Social Media:..............................................................................5 1.2 Current Trends in India:......................................................................................7 1.3 Literature Review, Identification of Gap .............................................................9 1.3.1 Identification of Gaps:.................................................................................10 1.4 Objectives of the Research Study:....................................................................10 1.4.1 Research Questions:...................................................................................11 1.5 Need For The Research Study:..........................................................................11 1.6 Scope of the Research Study:...........................................................................11 1.7 Description of Research:...................................................................................13 1.7.1 Type of Research Design:...........................................................................13 1.7.2 Data Collection:..........................................................................................13 1.7.3Sample Design:...........................................................................................14 1.7.4 Data Analysis:............................................................................................15 1.7.5 Chapterisation scheme:..............................................................................16 1.7.6 Limitations of Report:.................................................................................17 An Introduction to the Social......................................................................................18 Media Landscape.......................................................................................................18 2.1 Introduction......................................................................................................19 2.2 Social Media..................................................................................................... 20 2.3 Distinction from Traditional Media....................................................................22 2.4 Forms of Social Media.......................................................................................23 2.4.1 PHOTO SITES..............................................................................................23 2.4.2 BLOG.......................................................................................................... 25 2.4.3 MICROBLOGS..............................................................................................27 2.5 Some of the famous Social Media Networking Sites..........................................30 Twitter..... Introduction to Features and Processes.....................................................35 3.1 Twitter - Introduction........................................................................................35 3.2 Functioning of Twitter.......................................................................................36 3.3 Twitter User......................................................................................................37 3.4 Twitter Popularity.............................................................................................37 Page | 1

3.5 Twitter as a marketing tool...............................................................................38 3.6 Get Started on Twitter......................................................................................39 Twitter- “A powerful social Media Tool”.....................................................................54 4.1 Twitter and Its Successes.................................................................................55 4.2 The Power of Twitter’s Immediate Feedback.....................................................58 4.3 Instant Access ................................................................................................. 60 Brand Building with Twitter........................................................................................62 5.1 Introduction......................................................................................................62 5.2 Create a Story.................................................................................................. 65 5.3 Portraying Brand with Company’s Profile..........................................................67 5.4 Tweet Style - Creating Value.............................................................................70 5.5 Repetition.........................................................................................................80 Third-Party Tools of Twitter........................................................................................82 6.1 Tweet Later...................................................................................................... 83 6.2 Twitterific......................................................................................................... 85 6.3 Twhirl............................................................................................................... 86 6.4 Twitterfeed....................................................................................................... 87 6.5 Twist................................................................................................................. 89 6.6 Twellow............................................................................................................ 90 6.7 TweetBeep.......................................................................................................91 6.8 TwitterCounter.................................................................................................92 6.9 Tweet Deck...................................................................................................... 93 6.10TwitThis........................................................................................................... 94 Indian Companies on Twitter - A Usage Study............................................................97 7.1 Introduction......................................................................................................98 7.2 Social Networking in India – Milestone @2009..................................................98 7.3 Twitter and Indian companies.........................................................................100 7.4 Observation Criterion:.....................................................................................102 7.5 Key Findings:..................................................................................................102 7.6 Twitter Applications .......................................................................................105 7.6.1 Customer service......................................................................................105 7.6.2 News Broadcast .......................................................................................107 7.6.3 Promotion & Buzz.....................................................................................108 Page | 2

7.7 How Indian Companies Use Twitter.................................................................110 7.8 The Road Ahead:............................................................................................112 Questionnaire Analysis............................................................................................113 8.1 ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE........................................................................114 8.2 ANALYSIS OF HYPOTHESES.............................................................................155 8.3 FACTOR ANALYSIS..........................................................................................164 Key findings:............................................................................................................ 171 Recommendations:..................................................................................................175 References:............................................................................................................. 176 Annexure................................................................................................................. 178 Glossary.................................................................................................................. 188

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Chapter 1 Research Methodology Page | 4 .

Word of mouth is increasingly manifesting itself through digital social media. Page | 5 . These websites and alike are summarized under the term social media. service. where it spreads both farther and faster. Social media is an effective guidepost. or service. a conversation built on the thoughts and experiences of the participants. genuine conversation between people about something of mutual interest.3 billion of them — roughly two out of three —make a reference to a brand. It is about sharing and arriving at a collective point. about 2. Social media can be used to gather valuable information about how the product.0. product.1 Introduction to Social Media: Social media involves a natural. distributed and discussed. Social media — in the business context — is based on the degree to which the actual experience matches the expectation set. Social media differ from traditional media (industrial media) like television. YouTube or Slide Share are a few of the most known websites reflecting the typical characteristics of Web 2. audio or text are the formats this content is shared in. and brand are perceived in the marketplace. This use of the Social Web is increasingly important to marketers. videos. Users generate as well as consume content which is shared.: Recent studies of Nielsen have shown that of the estimated 3. newspaper and film by its nature of interactivity.1. Social Media isn’t about the content itself: it is about the way in which consumers of content are connected and about the conversations that result. often for the purpose of making a better or more-informed choice. Flickr. Facebook. Photos.5 billion word-of-mouth conversations that occur around the world each day.

Finally recommendations show best practice to use Twitter. Twitter is a so called micro-blogging service that allows users to exchange short text messages. Page | 6 . This research paper introduces Twitter and investigates its potential for customer service and branding for Indian companies.One of the youngest and currently most referred to social media services is Twitter.

1.2 Current Trends in India:
Corporate social media presence: Many corporate In India now has started up with the social media marketing, In India, Kingfisher was the first airline in India to build a full-fledged formal presence on Twitter and embrace social media. This initiative has added to Kingfisher Airlines’ convenience factor because it allows the airline to send instant updates to its customers. Kingfisher Airlines is also putting the Twitter platform to good use to enhance its service, get feedback and interact with its customers directly without the use of intermediaries.

Emphasis on real-time data: Sites that provide transactional data and news in real time will always be in demand. These include news sites, Google Blog Search for updated blog commentary, for US stocks and (Indian stocks), for the latest news, and Twitter commentary.

Twitter in India: Twitter is witnessing a mind-blowing traffic growth worldwide and India is no exception – the micro blogging site has registered 74% traffic jump (in terms of unique users) in the month of March.(Source:

Infosys team recently closed a deal successfully using Twitter. The prospective buyer posted a query on Twitter, which Infy team tracked (yeah, a lot of B2B companies track keywords on social media sites). Infy’s
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sales team got in touch with the buyer and closed the deal, marking their first successful sale in the twitter world.

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1.3 Literature Review, Identification of Gap
For the purpose of getting more insights about the social media and twitter the researchers have made brief literature review and found out that, Twitter was launched in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noha Glass, Biz Stone and Evan Williams (CEO). Twitters capital consists of founding and venture capital and is valued at around 60 million US dollar (Arrington, 2008). Around 6 million people are signed in to Twitter and 55 million people visit Twitter‘s homepage monthly (Kazeniac, 2009). Twitter is a messaging service that shares a lot of characteristics with communication tools you already use. It has elements that are similar to email, IM, texting, blogging, RSS, social networks and so forth. But a few factors, particularly in combination, make Twitter unique:
• Really easy to write and read. • One can readily meet new people on Twitter. • One gets an opportunity to be interesting for people opting for

his/her Updates
• Fit with nearly anyone’s workflow.

Twitter for Business: Recently, Twitter has been adopted by companies of various professions. In the USA companies have been using Twitter earlier than in India. The American carriers Southwest Airlines or JetBlue, the communications company Comcast or the online shoe retailer Zappos have become well known for their Twitter usage( Twitter becomes better known in India, too, as companies are discovering this service as well. The way companies use Twitter differs highly.
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E. Dell and Vista Print give out discounts exclusively via Twitter and CNN and the New York Times feed short news and links to their articles via Twitter. advertising or marketing . To find Indian companies providing customer service in the proactive and communicative way American companies do is very hard. Thus.1 Identification of Gaps: The researchers has found out how Twitter could be utilized by companies to extend their customer service approach. Twitter has not yet established very well in India and even unknown by most India. in order to give insights to the various companies in India about the various use of twitter in their branding exercise and also about the twitter users’ profiles in India their preference and expectation from the twitter. the researchers had decided to execute the research.3. Thus only few companies can be found on Twitter and those using this service are mostly from the field of media. Some of the companies mentioned above do however communicate actively with their followers and use Twitter to exchange information rather than to solely give out information. some companies start to provide customer service via Twitter (Source: Perez.4 Objectives of the Research Study: • To evaluate Tweeter as a social media and identify its unique propositions. Since Twitter has been launched in mid 2006 companies used it for different purposes. Now. 1. In India however things look differently.g. • To evaluate Tweeter as corporate strategic tool for brand building. 2009).1. Page | 10 .

1. And from various places within Ahmedabad city personal survey has been conducted. • • What value does twitter have for Indian twitters? How Indian companies currently using twitter in respect to their customers? • How ready are Indian twitters for company approaching them via twitter? 1.• To obtain insight in the current twitter behavior of Indian twitters in order to define a set of criterion & rules that gives advice to Indian companies how to use twitter for their customer service approach. Respondents from various cities like Mumbai. Research for the preference for twitter was carried out randomly online.6 Scope of the Research Study: The study of the Twitter users had been done to understand the usage pattern of the users and accordingly suggest Indian corporate to make use of Twitter as a marketing tool. Twitter users who were focused for the survey are a homogeneous mixture of men and women again of different age groups. which includes places around India .1 Research Questions: As a part of to achieve the objectives of the research the researchers has tried to get the answer of the following research questions. this research study was conducted. Masoori.4. Page | 11 . to justify the existence of this gap and to propose better options to Indian corporate for flourishing.5 Need For The Research Study: The researchers wanted initially to find the gap existing in the Indian market wherein extensive use of Twitter as a marketing tool was still not established. Baroda. Bangalore had submitted their responses online. Thus. 1. Delhi.

Educational Background of the target audience would be classified into the following categories. Page | 12 . businessmen.The users comprise of skilled working men and women. students. college goers (youth). housewives. College goers (Graduates and Post Graduates) and School goers.

Some of the key statistics are only derived by the externally published online secondary sources. So the researchers have made secondary data collection. 1.Therefore descriptive research design has been used in this project.2 Data Collection: To achieve the objectives stated.e.1 Type of Research Design: As the researchers wanted to know about a particular group of people. youth and were trying to describe its characteristics for twitter usage. primary as well as secondary data.7.7. it was necessary to collect the primary data. Secondary data collection: The secondary data is necessary to get the information about Twitter. which means that Page | 13 .1. The other reason was that the research was pre planned and structured . its usage all over the world and particularly in India. To analyze it was necessary to collect the data. i. Methods of secondary data collection: Secondary data is mainly collected by the following means: o Internet databases o Industry Publications o Catalogues & brochures o Journals o Research papers Primary data collection: The researchers have found out that in order to gain insights about Twitter user of India. the researcher has collected the data of both the kinds.7 Description of Research: 1.

Methods of primary data collection: The following methods of primary data collection were used: • • Online Survey Tool i. Orkut. About the questionnaire: The questionnaire has been designed to collect the primary data. Sampling Technique The sampling techniques used for the research are Page | 14 . It also includes questions wherein statistical scales like rank order scale. which includes students. www. It includes both open ended and closed ended questions.g. LinkedIn etc.the data obtained for this research only.3Sample Design: Sampling Unit The sample consisted of the internet users. The primary data is mainly quantitative in nature and has been collected through questionnaire.7. so as to get the questionnaire will be submitted by the relevant user only • Personal survey using questionnaire The link of the online questionnaire was published on the various social media platforms e.surveygizmos. Face-book. mainly youth. Sample Size 500 Internet Users as defined in the sampling unit. executives and professionals.e. likert scale etc.

7. Result of the study has been put in tables and graphs for easy understanding of the findings of the research. Page | 15 .• • Non probability sampling Convenience sampling. Also SPSS 17 software has been used for the same.4 Data Analysis: The researchers have used inferential statistics in order to draw conclusion. 1.

1.7.5 Chapterisation scheme: The Chapterisation scheme for the research is shown as follows: Page | 16 .

6 Limitations of Report: • Some of the respondents who have been contacted online have left some of the question unanswered and Reluctance on the part of the respondents to provide exact details when contacted personally.7.1. • Time constraint as stipulated by university norms Page | 17 .

Chapter 2 An Introduction to the Social Media Landscape Page | 18 .

Today. a printing press capable of shooting out a dozen copies a second. But the low cost of publishing online has had another effect: People aren’t being talked to by professional writers and publishers anymore. and all of the millions of dollars required to create the publication disappeared. In that case. who chose the subjects and told them what they thought.” and the Internet has made fantastic use of it. a team of editors and writers.1 Introduction Once upon a time. someone wanted to go into radio or television. If people liked what they were reading. All one needed was several million dollars. It can cost literally nothing to create content and make it available for other people to enjoy. That low cost means that it doesn’t matter if it’s not read by millions. Unless. editors. Page | 19 . and a distribution network that would put the publication in stores across the country. they’re talking to each other. and producers. it’s all so very different. they stopped buying the magazine or they switched channels. One can focus on a small market— even one interested in stamp collecting in Mozambique—and still find enough people to form a community and maybe even make a profit through advertising and product sales. When that happened. of course. People didn’t talk among themselves. anyone could be a media publisher. advertisers turned away. they kept tuning in and the company made money. It’s called the “long tail.2. If people didn’t like it. The result was that information came down. things were just a little harder. they were talked to by writers.

transforming broadcast media monologues (one too many) into social media dialogues (many to many).2 Social Media Social media can be all sorts of different things. 2. or even create videos and put them live. let alone putting together articles—are writing about the topics they love and sharing their views.Average folk like you and me—the kind of people who didn’t study journalism at university. The conversation is flowing in both directions. and it’s a publishing revolution. though. write articles. That’s social media. who never spent years as a cub reporter covering local court cases. created using highly accessible and scalable publishing techniques. and it can be produced in all sorts of different ways. Social media supports the human need for social interaction with technology. affecting both its nature and the direction of the publication. and who were never even very good at Scrabble. And anyone can comment on that content. And they’re hearing back too. is content that has been created by its audience. Businesses also refer to social media as user-generated content (UGC) or consumer-generated media (CGM). Perhaps the best definition of social media. transforming people from content consumers into content producers. Social media is media designed to be disseminated through social interaction. Social media can be said to have 3 components Page | 20 . Anyone now can launch a Web site. It supports the democratization of knowledge and information.

the results can be the sort of brand loyalty and commitment that sales professionals have been dreaming about since the first days of direct marketing. Facebook. and it doesn’t upload films or images for people to view and enjoy. Someone who uses social media successfully doesn’t just create content. Page | 21 . This is the “social” part of social media. Even bloggers. When those connections are formed around businesses. for example. Media (physical. It doesn’t create any of its own content. Concept (art. It doesn’t write articles or posts. You’ll be expecting other group members to add their stories and photographs too. is not a publishing company. expect their readers to join the discussion by leaving comments at the bottom of the post that take the argument in new directions and add new information. or other physical media such as print). Create a group on a site like Face book and users won’t be expected to supply all of the text and all of the images. It allows its users to do all of that on its behalf. Social interface (intimate direct. community engagement. 2. That’s the real beauty of social media. social viral. and it means that publishing is now about participation. or verbal). or meme). 3. And those conversations create communities. electronic broadcast or syndication. electronic. he or she creates conversations.1. when they write a post. information. and while it may or may not be the goal —depending on the site—the result of social media can always be firm connections between the people who participate.

industrial media generally require significant resources to publish information. Some of these properties are: 1. which was launched more than two years after MySpace—a lifetime in Internet terms—isn’t quite in the same numeric league. However it’s defined though.both industrial and social media technologies provide scale and enable anyone to reach a global audience. The top 10 percent of Twitterers have more than 80 followers and follow more than 70 people. Page | 22 . One characteristic shared by both social media and industrial media is the capability to reach small or large audiences. The properties that help describe the differences between social media and industrial media depend on the study. According to the site’s own blog. television. and film. social media has proved incredibly popular. for example. 2. either a blog post or a television show may reach zero people or millions of people. but its growth has still been phenomenal. • • Examples of industrial media issues include a printing press or a government-granted spectrum license. around half of all Twitterers follow and are followed by just 10 people.At its narrowest.3 Distinction from Traditional Media • • Social media are distinct from industrial media. such as newspapers. Reach . While social media are relatively inexpensive and accessible tools that enable anyone (even private individuals) to publish or access information. it describes one way in which publishers and marketers can put their messages in front of thousands of people and encourage them to build strong connections and firm loyalty. Twitter.

Permanence . Regency . once created.4. 5. this feature may well not be distinctive anymore in some time. etc. or in some cases reinvent skills.4 Forms of Social Media 2. Usability .1 PHOTO SITES Ever since cameras went digital. That broad-based content sourcing already makes sites like Flickr—one of the most popular photo-sharing sites.2. As industrial media are currently adopting social media tools. Most social media do not.industrial media production typically requires specialized skills and training. that specialize in photography. They depend entirely on the photos that users upload to bring in other users. personal histories. Both Facebook and MySpace allow their users to upload their images. Accessibility . so anyone can operate the means of production. there’s been a need for a low cost— or even free—way to share those images with anyone who wants to see them online.the means of production for industrial media are typically owned privately or by government. and now Page | 23 .industrial media. 4. 3. group discussions.the time lag between communications produced by industrial media can be long (days. however. social media tools are generally available to anyone at little or no cost. There are sites. weeks. or even months) compared to social media (which can be capable of virtually instantaneous responses. 2. Images are just one form of content that users are free to share on those sites. but neither of them is a dedicated photography site. only the participants determine any delay in response). cannot be altered (once a magazine article is printed and distributed changes cannot be made to that same article) whereas social media can be altered almost instantaneously by comments or editing. together with videos.

Figure . and it’s all based on content created by the site’s users and promoted through careful networking. Flickr also allows its members to mark images as favourites and to place comments beneath them. Every day. That’s classic social media. and even where their visitors came from. images are licensed and prints are sold on Flickr. who pay a subscription fee of $24. Both of those activities can be valuable ways of adding new friends. can even see stats that indicate how many views.Flickr is the big daddy of photo-sharing Web sites. Like Facebook and MySpace.95 per year. and comments each image has produced. Pro members. it’s possible to create long lists of friends. Page | 24 . enter competitions. Owned by Yahoo!—part of the social media phenomenon. but Flickr also has the networking power of those sites. and you can join groups where you can submit images. and join discussions about the best way to light a child’s portrait or which lens to use in which conditions.

• Shortly thereafter. "blog.2 BLOG A blog (a contraction of the term "weblog") is a type of website. is the traditional. such as Twitter. Blogs often become more than a way to just in April or May 1999. Blogging can have a sentimental quality. A site." meaning "to edit one's weblog or to post to one's weblog") and devised the term "blogger" in connection with Pyra Labs' Blogger product. Few personal blogs rise to fame and the mainstream. Personal bloggers usually take pride in their blog posts.2. A type of personal blog is referred to as "micro blogging. even if their blog is never read by anyone but them. HISTORY: • The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger on 17 December 1997. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used "blog" as both a noun and verb ("to blog. TYPES OF BLOG: • Personal blogs The personal blog. an ongoing diary or commentary by an individual. descriptions of events. or other material such as graphics or video. • The short form. usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary. meaning to maintain or add content to a blog." which is extremely detailed blogging as it seeks to capture a moment in time. leading to the popularization of the terms. Page | 25 . who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme. allows bloggers to share thoughts and feelings instantaneously with friends and family and is much faster than e-mailing or writing." was coined by Peter Merholz. most common blog. "Blog" can also be used as a verb.4. they become a way to reflect on life or works of art. but some personal blogs quickly garner an extensive following.

Two common types of genre blogs are art blogs and music blogs. as in most cases. house blogs. branding or public relations purposes are called corporate blogs. • By media type A blog comprising videos is called a vlog. classical music blogs. see typecasting (blogging). project blogs. • Genre Some blogs focus on a particular subject. travel blogs. and pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and Eye Tap device to a web Page | 26 .• Corporate blogs A blog can be private. such as political blogs. Blogs. a site containing a portfolio of sketches is called a sketch blog or one comprising photos is called a photo blog. fashion blogs. Blogs that are written on typewriters and then scanned are called typecast or typecast blogs. quizzing blogs and legal blogs (often referred to as a blawgs) or dreamlogs. one used for the sole purpose of spamming is known as a Splog. an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text. While not a legitimate type of blog. A blog written by a mobile device like a mobile phone or PDA could be called a mob log. One early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam. Blogs with shorter posts and mixed media types are called tumble logs. • By device Blogs can also be defined by which type of device is used to compose it. either used internally to enhance the communication and culture in a corporation or externally for marketing. A blog featuring discussions especially about home and family is not uncommonly called a mom blog. one comprising links is called a link log. or it can be for business purposes. education blogs. video. niche blogs.

it was Williams who first used the term “blogger” to describe people who write Web logs. A note-taking feature on that software went on to become Blogger. a programmer who had joined Blogger after its acquisition by the search engine giant. This practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as surveillance.4. in the case of dating sites. they want their members to offer as much content as possible. and Biz Stone in July 2006. or they may restrict membership to a select few (in the case of my membership site. created Obvious with Biz Stone. According to one theory. to dedicated singles). Jack Dorsey. . Microblog sites place strict limits on the content that can be uploaded . but on the whole. Such journals have been used as evidence in legal matters. and they find that those limits encourage creativity.3 MICROBLOGS Social media sites tend to want their members to contribute as much content as possible. video now as well). They may restrict that content to just photographs (or. on Flickr. two years later. Williams was a serial An Introduction to the Social Media Landscape 19 entrepreneur who had founded a company called Pyra Labs that made project management software. History The service was founded by programmers Evan In 2004. . Williams left Google to form podcasting company Odeo and. the free blogging service later bought by Google. 2. Twitter Twitter—the site that has really set the standard in microblogging. to dedicated Internet marketers. The new company bought Page | 27 .

picked up a South by Southwest Web (SXSW) Award in March 2007. . and you just make it super simple. and you just look at that as a sort of really small version of what people are already doing . but they never seem to have water coolers!) The service launched officially in October 2006. . We used it over the weekend. and by April was a separate entity headed by Dorsey. which it later sold to a company called Sonic Mountain. [W]e kind of went off in a corner and we worked for two weeks and we created a prototype. ‘Here’s what I’m doing.’ . It now focuses on Twitter. The original idea for Twitter came from Dorsey. Twitter was used by the company’s employees as a fun form of internal with Sean Ammirati. initially.” he said. It was really fun. We showed the rest of the team and everyone just sort of giggled. In an interview for ReadWriteTalk. Page | 28 . They all kind of loved it. . Stone described the moment when they first discussed the idea: “A few of us were thinking about what are some interesting ways that maybe we can merge SMS to the web. We found it very compelling and we decided that we would keep working on it.” That was in March 2006. might have lava lamps and space hoppers. “[Dorsey] had come up with this idea where if you just look at only the status field of an instant message application like AIM. it seems.Odeo. . an Odeo employee. (Tech companies. VP of Business Development and Product Management at mSpoke.

the site started to take off. of course). Twitter was reported to have had just 98 percent uptime—a loss of three whole days over the year—and tended to suffer Page | 29 . In 2007. and most importantly making itself attractive with an open platform that let other developers extend the service. Helped by the publicity generated by the SXSW award.Twitter’s iconic “fail whale. That has led to some problems. the beluga whale supported by twittering birds is now a brand in its own right after its frequent appearance on an overstrained Twitter site.” Designed by Yiying Lu. boosted by references on Blogger (where the company had good connections.

The service is designed to help users meet new friends and maintain existing relationships. For Twitter. It takes a special push to get a social media site snowballing to a size big enough for everyone to feel comfortable about climbing on board. too). though. United States had the largest user base. at its core. which had everyone talking about the service as the next big thing. At first year. Although the service now has piles of additional tools and add-ons which extend its use. and they’re what brought Twitter its second characteristic: critical mass. 2004 by Google as independent project of Orkut Büyükkökten. 2. • The community membership was originally by invitation only. There are two things that really distinguish Twitter. a Turkish software engineer. it was the boost it received with its SXSW Award.5 Some of the famous Social Media Networking Sites  ORKUT Orkut is a free-access social networking service owned and operated by Google. As long it has that critical mass—and with more than three million members it certainly has that—Twitter is always going to be the microblogging service to beat. That brevity and simplicity have always been key. The first is its simplicity. HISTORY: • Orkut was launched on January 22. Page | 30 .Particularly badly during major tech conferences (which says something about many of its users. Twitter remains nothing more than a way of describing what you’re doing in no more than 140 characters.

51%. a form of offline and online communication. Users can upload photos into their Orkut profile with a caption. 49. FEATURES: • • • A user first creates a "Profile". • There is an option to integrate GTalk (An instant messenger from Currently gtalk has been integrated in orkut. • • chat from orkut page. as of May 2009.  FACEBOOK Facebook is a social networking website that is operated and privately owned by Facebook. • In fact. Inc. Users can also add videos to their profile from either YouTube or "Professional" and "Personal" details. In December 2007. Users can change their interface from a wide range of colorful theme library.• Although Orkut is less popular in the United States than competitors Facebook and MySpace. Google Video with the additional option of creating either restricted or unrestricted polls for polling a community of users.Themes are currently only available in India and Brazil. in which the user provides "Social". followed by India with 17. it is one of the most visited websites in India and Brazil. Page | 31 . and update their personal profiles to notify friends about themselves. • Themes: The new features in orkut is Themes. the ability to pop up alerts when a scrap is received was added. Users can directly Scrapbook: "Scrapping" is popular among the Orkut community as Google) with Orkut enabling chatting and file sharing.83% of Orkut's users are from Brazil. Users can add friends and send them messages.

which allows users to send a virtual "poke" to each other (a notification that tells a user that they have been poked) • Photos. workplace. where users can upload albums and photos. Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes while he was a student at Harvard University. the Ivy League. users can join networks organized by city. FEATURES: • The media often compares Facebook to MySpace. a space on every user's profile page that Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). Pokes. and region. • • It later expanded further to include any university student. • allows friends to post messages for the user to see. and Status. and. worldwide. which allows users to inform their friends of their whereabouts and actions. to anyone aged 13 and over. but one significant difference between the two websites is the level of customization. then The website currently has more than 250 million active users high school students. while Facebook only allows plain text.Additionally. and Stanford University. but was expanded to other colleges in the Boston area. Page | 32 . HISTORY: • Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook with his roommates and fellow computer science students Eduardo Saverin. • The website's membership was initially limited to Harvard students. finally. school. • MySpace allows users to decorate their profiles using HTML and They include the Wall.

 LINKEDIN LinkedIn (pronounced /ˈlɪŋkt. In July 2007. New York and London. They are funded by Greylock. Greylock Partners. As of 11 February 2010. • On June 17. depending on privacy settings. California. • LinkedIn is headquartered in Mountain View. and other venture capital firms purchased a 5% stake in the company for $53 million. Bessemer Venture Partners and the European Founders Fund. It is mainly used for professional networking. LinkedIn reached profitability in March 2006. Sequoia Capital. HISTORY: • Founder Reid Hoffman.• A user's Wall is visible to anyone who is able to see that user's profile. Facebook began allowing users to post attachments to the Wall. previously CEO of LinkedIn and now executive vice president of PayPal. 2008. FEATURES: Page | 33 .ˈɪn/) is a business-oriented social networking site. whereas the Wall was previously limited to textual content only. giving the company a post-money valuation of approximately $1 billion. with offices in Omaha. spanning more than 200 countries and territories worldwide. Chicago. oversees day-to-day operations and is also Chairman of the Board. Sequoia Capital. LinkedIn had more than 60 million registered users. Founded in December 2002 and launched in May 2003. Dipchand Nishar is Vice President of Products.

The people in the list are called Connections. This list of connections can then be used in a number of ways: • A contact network is built up consisting of their direct connections. • • which of their existing contacts can introduce them. Job seekers can review the profile of hiring managers and discover recommended by someone in one's contact network. • It can then be used to find jobs. the connections of each of their connections (termed second-degree connections) and also the connections of second-degree connections (termed third-degree connections).• The purpose of the site is to allow registered users to maintain a list of contact details of people they know and trust in business. Chapter 3 Page | 34 . trusted contact. people and business opportunities Employers can list jobs and search for potential candidates. This can be used to gain an introduction to someone a person wishes to know through a mutual.

Twitter. At first glance.1 Twitter . user only gets to use 140 characters for each post. but in a super-compact way.. someone may think 140 characters can't possibly give him Page | 35 . with Twitter. affectionately known as a tweet... views. Introduction to Features and Processes 3.meaning user can state his thoughts. In fact..Introduction Twitter is a micro-blogging site . opinions and links.

but once he jumps into the flow. As user’s followers start to get to know him. This “tell two friends who tell two friends who Page | 36 . they will look to him to promote other people on Twitter and when they find people they relate to.2 Functioning of Twitter Twitter works as a real-time social media platform for users to update their followers with tidbits of information. The profile page also includes a button people can click on to begin "following" him . they will begin following them as well. chitchat. a photo and a link to the site of his choice. he'll be amazed at the way Twitter can change his social media marketing world. they have the opportunity to follow him back. who then connects them to their own group of followers and on and on it grows. When the user create his user account and choose some people to follow. The more followers user acquire the stronger his networking capabilities become on Twitter. tips and tricks and other short messages that are broadcast to a group of users who have chosen to stay updated to your messages. While there are over 6 million users on Twitter.enough room to say anything of value. according to the latest statistics.which means they will have access to all of the updates from that user. individuals choose who they want to interact with by "following" them. Every user gets a profile page. 3. with room for a short bio. Twitter functions as an ever increasing network as each person interacts with their following.

for anyone who is looking for a platform where they can reach out to a wide network of people at one time. Twitter is being used by folks from every walk of life you can imagine to connect with others and market their businesses. realtors. it won't be long before the answer to this question is EVERYONE! Twitter is growing at a pace of over 7500 users every day. In fact. coaches. CNN and Fox News both discuss Twitter and use it as a way for viewers to offer input on various stories. small business owners. web designers. so many people are using Twitter that it is rapidly becoming THE place to connect on the web. both in business and personally.tell two friends" networking will expand the user’s network faster than he can possibly imagine. and politicians . In the recent Presidential election of USA. entrepreneurs. Internet marketers.4 Twitter Popularity One of the reasons Twitter is so popular is that Twitter is so popular! In other words.with obvious success! Page | 37 . 3. 3. with a total right now of over six million users! Twitter is a great place to connect. writers. infamous people. unknown people .the truth is. Twitter is popular with many different kinds of people. mainstream media has started using Twitterand talking about it.3 Twitter User At the rate Twitter is growing. bloggers. In business. large corporations.even the President of the United States! Users'll find famous people. the users will find lawyers. President Obama's campaign used Twitter as part of their massive campaign efforts .

is Twitter is different from a lot of marketing techniques. but it's true. Twitter is a great marketing tool because the marketers can find a targeted audience who CHOOSE to follow them and read their messages and they'd be right. He/she takes the time to make sure every word counts. Human beings are social animals who thrive on relationships and interaction with each waiting for return emails or finding people on various Instant Messengers. bring people to the user’s website or break through a struggle. It could come down to the fact that Twitter is downright fun . and most important one. Often.5 Twitter as a marketing tool Twitter works for marketers for a couple of reasons. It's also quite addictive! Many people who questioned whether Twitter was worth the effort find they love the fast-paced interaction of the site. The users can jump on Twitter any time. It could be because when someone has to focus on the word choice. just taking five or ten minutes to tweet with others is all it really takes to build the list followers. day or night. Yes. some folks will tell that. Page | 38 . It really is all about making connections and creating relationships. 3. with only 140 characters.and addictive! Of course. Twitter is all about immediate connections and real-time relationship building. The first. and connect with someone immediately. Twitter provides immediate contact with others. it sounds impossible to believe that communicating in short little bursts can actually foster real relationships.Twitter's popularity comes from its ease of use. Perhaps it's because of the realtime interaction.

com and click on the “Get Started . 3.The truth is Twitter works for a variety of different reasons.6 Get Started on Twitter The easiest way to get a real understanding of the power of Twitter is to create an account and get started. Page | 39 . there is something about the way people get real on Twitter that someone just don't see in many other platforms. that lets him get to know people's real personalities.twitter.Join” link. The good news is. those reasons all add up to the reality that Twitter DOES WORK! Even though it is a serious marketing tool. Setting up an Account Go to http://www. Let's look a bit closer about how to get started on Twitter. It only takes a few minutes to set up the account. so anyone can begin using this amazing networking tool in his business today. That is what inspires trust and creates bonds that lead to sales.

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(Easy so far. right?) Then follow the steps to create the username. The username is the name everyone will know him by.The interested person will be taken to a form to create his account that looks like this. so give some thought to the name before choosing it. where he’ll enter his first and last name in the Full Name box. Page | 41 .

so users definitely don't want to choose a username made of random numbers and letters. Twitter lets user to use up to 15 characters (with no spaces) for the username. so use them wisely. Twitter will not send spam email. so you want to choose a username that lets people relate to you as a person. The next step is to enter the email address. if he loses or forget his username or password. Something a little more personal is more effective. he will be taken to a screen where he can check to see if anyone he knows is already using twitter based on various email address. This is where user starts personalizing the profile. Next is a screen with some suggested followers. but very often. Keep in mind. known as a tweet. that if you choose a random username made up of assorted letters and numbers. Once user creates the account. Now the user reached the area that will help him market himself and his business. The users can use his business name. Remember the key to social media is the social part. He will also be notified. If he chooses not to use his actual name. on Twitter. via email.Every time user posts a message. Page | 42 . also. User can scan through if he’d like or he can choose to skip this step as well. people may think user is a spammer and block him. if the user chooses to be alerted later in his profile. but they will use the email address to alert to new followers and direct messages. Make sure to enter an actual email address that is being used on a regular basis. try to create a name that tells people what he/she is doing. user’s name and profile picture will be displayed.

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In the upper right hand corner is the navigation panel. Click on “Settings” to continue personalizing theTwitter account. with links to move around the backend of the Twitter account. Page | 45 .

He’ll need to re-enter the password if he does. there are two important fields he needs to fill in so that people can find him and his business. The other field user needs to fill in is the "One Line Bio" field. The settings page also allows user to add the time zone and the location. The first is the "More Info URL. Here he has one line (160 characters) to share some more information about himself. If user wants to change them feel free to do so now. Make this as interesting as one can in the space allotted.Once user reaches the settings page. This bio will be one of the ways people decide if they will follow the user or not. The name of him. blog. 2. people will only be able to see his/her updates if they have special permission. so tell them who you are and what you do. 1. If user checks this box. Unless he plans to use the Twitter account to communicate only with a select Page | 46 . on the bottom of the page is a box user can check if he wants to protect the updates. he’ll notice some things are already filled in for him. Facebook page or any other significant link user has that gives people an opportunity to find out more about user and/or user’s business." Use this to add a link to the website. This option is not recommended – especially when user is trying to build a network of followers. After user gets those items the way he wants them. Finally. So be sure to complete those too. Username (this is what makes up the URL to the profile page) and the email address.

” If user wants to send and receive the Twitter messages from the mobile phone or an instant messenger. if he uses his cell phone to communicate on Twitter. he can add that information here. Use of Twitter with the Cell Phone On the right hand side of the home page. be sure to click on “Save” at the bottom of the page. you should leave this box empty. user will see section towards the bottom labelled Device Updates with a link “Set up SMS Device. he may be charged standard text messaging rates for your tweets. When user is finished filling in the of people. Page | 47 . Keep in mind however.

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A direct message is a private message sent from one follower to another.Notification Options Click on the “Notices” tab and user will find options for receiving email notifications when people follow him or when he receive a direct message. It's a good idea to select the email option for direct messages (or DM's. he won't know they are accumulating without the email notifications. in Twitter-speak) as user doesn't receive any other notification that he has one. All DM's he receives do show up in a special section on the home page (labelled Direct Messages) but other than checking this area periodically. Page | 49 . without showing up in the general stream of tweets for others to see.

(This is a great opportunity to let them know a bit more about user and his website.) Show them: The next step in preparing the Twitter profile is to upload a picture to be shown with the tweets and on the home page. but don’t make it too sales pitchy.It's also nice to receive an email when user gets a new follower so he has the opportunity to follow them back and/or send them a "welcome" message. Click the “Picture” tab and upload the photo of choice. Page | 50 .

Use a real photo of one’s own self.This isn't the time to be shy. It helps to use the same photo user uses on other social media sites as well as on the own site or blog. User should want the followers to see him as a real person. Give Page Some Personality Page | 51 . so they choose to interact with him and a real photo goes a long way toward helping people connect with him.

It can be helpful to use colours that complement the website or blog colours as part of the branding strategy.Finally. There are a few default design backgrounds user can choose and he can change the colours of the background. user can customize how the homepage looks under by clicking the “Design” tab. This feature allows him a small amount of flexibility in the look of the or TwitDesign. he can design his own in Photoshop. If user is interested in a custom background. hire a designer or use a service like TwitterWebs. Page | 52 . The design feature in Twitter is pretty for a custom Twitter background.

User can post a phone number if he likes or any other information about his business. like Facebook and LinkedIn. It's a great place to share the other social media profile names or links.If user has a custom background made. the background is a place user can at least let people know how they can connect with him. Although these links are not clickable. he can share more links with the people who view it. Chapter 4 Page | 53 .

“A powerful social Media Tool” It’s big. Page | 54 .Twitter. It’s got buzz that other sites just don’t have. and that makes it unique among microblogging services (if not among social media sites).

4.1 Twitter and Its Successes Researcher mentioned that at its simplest. User Twitter experience. So Twitter makes it possible for mobile Page | 55 . and marketers absolutely need to be aware of it. Anyone can see all of the outgoing tweets if they choose to look at users’ profile. Twitter is just a means to send short updates to people who want to receive them. will be made up of sending their own updates and reading tweets from others. But it’s not the only service that allows people to broadcast short messages. One of the inspirations for Twitter was the idea of combining Web-based updates with mobile information. People already seen that there are plenty of other sites that offer the same service in one form or another. Followers can also see a list of tweets from everyone they follow when they log into their Twitter home pages.And it’s growing at the kind of phenomenal rate that’s already forced the social media giants to look over their shoulders and copy it. But Twitter is by far the most powerful microblogging service currently available. then. The most basic way to do that is to log into your Twitter account on the Web and type tweet into the text field. But that’s just the start.

User wouldn’t pay Twitter. low-cost SMS broadcasting station. That’s a service that relies on Twitter’s speed. Twitter will then pass that message on to all of their followers. including by broadcasting further SMS messages to people who have chosen to receive their updates on their mobiles. such as m. and India. Canada. they negotiated agreements with companies in the United or Twitter Berry. for one message. However. Twitter can function as a powerful. Page | 56 . . later. So if user had just agreed a joint venture with a marketing partner while sitting in a bar at a users to send updates from their handsets. user might have to pay for that SMS message. Twitter footed the bill for that service. and mobility. The benefits that can bring can be huge. Initially. Yes. numbers. too.twitter. But user would pay to their mobile phone company . Researcher mentioned that the Red Cross have already spotted Twitter’s potential and use the site to provide updates related to ongoing disasters. and in some places to receive them on their handsets. users in the United Kingdom—where Twitter failed to broker a deal with communication companies—cannot receive updates by SMS and have to use one of the other mobile services. and user wanted to share the news right away. . For the rest of us though. user could just pull out their mobile phone and send a quick message to twitter.

Page | 57 . Red Cross volunteers are able to send an SMS about a new shelter opening or the changing direction of a brushfire and have lots of people read it at the same time.The American Red Cross’s tweets (twitter .com/redcross) provide information and disaster-related updates. But Twitter also brings the benefit of immediate feedback—and that can have tremendous advantages for individuals.

That’s a service that was really meant for fun. and was released the following day. They immediately alerted the U. and was only released after a hunger strike. Tired and not too happy at the thought of spending a night on the airport floor. Service Programming Director at Buckhead Church in Atlanta. Within just two minutes. But that’s not usually where the responses take place. which he announced on Twitter with the word “free. he had received seven e-mails. Pastor Carlos Whittaker (twitter. a journalism student at the University of California at Berkeley. he was able to use his mobile phone to send the one-word message “arrested” to his followers on Twitter.wikipedia. Georgia. for example. beaten and abused. James continued to provide updates about his arrest via Twitter. while photographing an anti-government rally in Egypt. James Buck (twitter. Sitting in the police van.” His interpreter was less lucky: Maree was held for 90 days. (Source: http://en. he sent a tweet about his Page | 58 .org/wiki/Twitter) In April 2008.wikipedia. In June 2008. (Source: http://en. and a huge number of tweets.4. was arrested with his interpreter. found he stuck at the airport in Dallas and was told he would have to wait six hours for the next flight. Mohammed Both of those examples relied on Twitter followers taking action outside Twitter.2 The Power of Twitter’s Immediate Feedback Twitter’s speed means that user can send out an SMS to Twitter from wherever they are and have lots of people read it immediately. embassy and his but it’s proven itself to be hugely valuable as a way of asking for help. three phone calls. which quickly obtained a lawyer for him.

Page | 59 . From an Egyptian jail. and get the expert advice you need.One of the most enjoyable aspects of Twitter isn’t updating friends and family about the small details of your life. James Buck. That’s fun. Twitter is a two-way communication tool—and that’s very important. It means user can ask questions and request help to very specialized problems. but it only works one way. The tweet that freed journalism student.

where they can buy that gizmo or even what they should have for supper. Some. people will be holding that conversation with friends or customers. If you want to know what that is. are very technical. online or offline.4. It’s an incredibly simple tool that has already had a massive impact on people’s lives. though. (Twitter users do seem to think about food a lot!) Some of those questions are a bit silly. it’s become hugely popular with some of the world’s smartest people and highest earners. don’t ask me. it’s important. It’s pulled innocents out of prison and given a lost pastor a place to sleep. you’ll see questions About how to fix this problem. but Twitter can actually answer them. it can also function as an always-open help centre for just about any subject user can imagine. Page | 60 . Look at people’s Twitter pages and user will see this time and time again. But because Twitter has such a well-educated and professional group of followers.3 Instant Access Usually. But user has to know how to use it. and it can generate earnings for any business. Hidden among the announcements about the type of music they’re listening to or the work they’re doing. It’s useful. Growing out of social media sites to focus on just one tiny action. So that’s the history and that’s where Twitter came from. ask someone on Twitter.

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and most importantly. With that kind of targeting and data. Page | 62 . is worth billions of dollars. they can also track what happens after those ads go up. They can measure how many people see the ads.1 Introduction Online advertising has really spoiled everyone. it’s no wonder that Google. with its leading Ad Sense system. how many clicks on them to learn more. Drive down any highway. and you’re still going to see giant billboards drawing your eye and advertising businesses. But the old advertising system didn’t disappear. Not only can advertisers now finely target where their ads appear. you have to keep putting it in front of them.Brand Building with Twitter 5. how many actually buy as a direct result of seeing their commercial. and you have to continue to interact with your buyers. but brand-building is still important. Times Square still has its neon lights. The Internet might have changed some of the ways that advertising works. and even TV hasn’t rid television programs of commercial breaks every 10 minutes. If you want people to know who you are and remember the name of your business. making sure that they’re only shown to people most likely to find them interesting.

over time.That’s what traditional advertising has always aimed to do. Page | 63 . Southwest Airlines is just one company that uses Twitter to talk to customers and build a brand. But he was expecting to see his product’s name recognition increase. they’d trust it and they’d buy it. Customers would become familiar with the product and. An advertiser who bought a radio spot in the 1950s wasn’t expecting to see a spike in sales immediately after his ad was broadcast. as they absorbed the advertising message.

In this chapter. Just some of the companies you can find on Twitter include Carnival Cruise Lines (twitter. and my favorite.000 views rather than for each click that the ad receives. M&Ms (twitter. Forrester (twitter. Twitter has proven a very valuable branding And it can be done now with Twitter. that’s been done with banner ads that keep a product’s name visible at the top of a Web page. Page | 64 . All of these companies (or products) are using Twitter to build a loyal following with their customers and promote their and with campaigns that pay for each Delta Airlines (twitter. Amazon (twitter. I’ll explain some of the most important things to bear in mind when you do the same thing for your Dell (twitter.On the GM ( and twitter. too. JetBlue (twitter. and it hasn’t been lost on many big

It also attaches the product’s name to a story. Do they want their product to look cool and streetwise. he trusts it and associates with it. they first need to think about what they want that brand to say. or luxurious and exclusive? Do they want it be associated with ideas of health and nature. Before user begin using Twitter to brand their company then. so that when the customer sees it.5. In practice. branding can simply mean putting the name of a product or a company where people can see it. of course. That makes the name familiar so that a customer recognizes it on the shelf. It’s that trust and attachment that are key to successful branding and both start with a story. branding does much more than that.2 Create a Story At its most basic. Usually. or would it sell better if customers considered it to be at the peak of technological development? Take a look at how competing products sell themselves and decide how users want their product to appear in the market. rather than trying to Page | 65 .

They will then try to mark themselves out within that niche with a brand that represents their own unique personalities. Page | 66 . Twitter therefore. has a timeline for green M&Ms (twitter. By giving different colored candies different personalities. but many of people like to appear in suits. but it also has another timeline “written” by the red M&M (twitter. the manufacturer. Mars. might be a pretty mixed bunch. for example. One product that does a very careful job of creating the right story for its market—and which also does it through Twitter—is M&Ms. they will be able to create a variation on a general theme used in their industry. they are really traditional business people who broker deals and negotiate partnerships. is able to appeal to different kinds of which associates itself with NASCAR to appeal to men.create a brand from scratch. Internet marketers. That shows that while we might spend our days writing Web content and creating which is targeted towards women.

So how can you use Twitter to put that story across? 5. It’s likely that you already have a good idea of the kind of story you want your brand to portray. The green M&Ms are more popular.M&Ms uses two types of brand images on Twitter. Page | 67 .3 Portraying Brand with Company’s Profile Background of the profile can be a useful way of providing companies followers with more information than one can squeeze into a bio data.

M&M’s old Twitter page used the green candy to push the brand in the run up to Valentine’s Day. That means producing a design that makes company’s brand memorable and that sums up their company. Mars has gone a little further in its branding of M&Ms. for example. Not only did the company create two pages. Note how they matched the color scheme and graphics with the subject of the campaign. though. For Valentine’s Day 2008. When company using Twitter to build a brand. Southwest Airlines. but it also changes the pages’ designs so that the brand’s image suits the current campaign. where they might be able to do a range of different things from clicking your ads to making purchases.By creating a sidebar on the left of the page. company can send followers to their other Web sites. Company just want them to remember brand. uses an image of its planes’ tail as its photo and chose the sky as its background image. for Page | 68 . See immediately whose page they’re reading and they understand what the company does. they don’t need their followers to type a URL into their browser or make a purchase right away. Those are direct results.

The profile used a green background with a picture of Eros as a green M&M. But the profile doesn’t have to be spectacular to convey the story of your brand. and the image alone was enough to help the page to stand out. their background image is going to be important. pure and Unadulterated. and personal appearances.” It was certainly memorable. simply uses a plain green background to match its green image and uses its logo as its picture. and the company’s Web site linked to the Twitter page. be instantly recognizable. not red. the company used Twitter to promote the idea that green. quips. They can choose an image that’s complex and carefully Page | 69 . and stick in the mind. When company are using Twitter for branding. for example. where people could discover “love is the color of love—and that their green candies were symbols of love too. then. Whole Foods Market (twitter. for its Twitter background. Whole Foods Market goes for green. That’s very simple—and still very effective.example.

Firms that get social media wrong look like interlopers.4 Tweet Style . The first thing it needs to do is to be human. It’s run by Frank Page | 70 . Comcast. uninvited guests who have gate crashed the cool people’s party. for example. No one though seems to be complaining about its Twitter-based customer service at twitter. There are a few things that the company needs to do to blend in on Twitter and make sure that the image it’s putting across on the site strikes a chord. there’s a chance that they can do more harm than good. More important is the style company use in their tweets.” That could have as negative an effect on their sales as good tweeting can have a positive effect.Creating Value Clearly.designed—and change it as they change their marketing—or they can opt for something very simple that still does the job. It can also show that the company just doesn’t “get it. takes a huge amount of flack on Twitter. there is a danger for companies using Twitter to communicate with customers and build their brand. When they put themselves in the public arena. That doesn’t just mean that they’re missing out on all of the opportunities that the social media site offers. Twitterers are constantly complaining about the company’s poor phone-based customer service.

Its tweets are written by a named individual who converses with the company’s customers. Eliason. not some company rep. Page | 71 .Comcast shows that it cares by giving its tweets a human face. and broadcasts tweets that look like they’re coming from a Twitterer. includes an e-mail address for people to contact the company. • It’s used the background image to keep pushing that message home. • • And it follows about the same number of people that follow its tweets to show that it’s listening as well as talking. the “Director of Digital Care for Comcast.” who puts his own picture rather than the company logo on the bio. Note how the company puts together a whole bunch of different strategies here: • It’s chosen a name that doesn’t just reflect the company but that refutes a common criticism made of the corporation on Twitter. and doesn’t just broadcast messages to them.

“Gina” looks like she’s been locked in a hotel room with a laptop. Twitter. and approachable in his image. . and only has 26 followers. but it has no updates. helpful company that wants to improve its customers’ experience. The overall impression isn’t that this is a friendly. but that this is a company that just doesn’t care. While Frank Eliason looks community) also uses a real person rather than a logo to front its corporate Twitter page. First. BestBuy (twitter. so that URL should be available to BestBuy if they wanted it. and failing. It’s possible that there is a good reason that the company doesn’t want to use twitter. BestBuy makes all sorts of mistakes that serve up a valuable lesson for any business thinking of using Twitter for branding. these are characteristics that appear in the timelines of many other successful companies on Twitter. Unless it’s so that no one actually sees the profile picture. . is following no one. Like .com/bestbuy has been taken. Unlike Comcast though. Worst of all. Page | 72 . Twitter doesn’t allow cyber squatting and has been known to take away accounts from individuals who tried to use a company name. the name is wrong. the tweets themselves consist of little more than cut-and-pasted statements made in response to alerts of the company name. friendly.As we’ll see. They’re also characteristics that are missing from companies that are really trying to make the most of Twitter .

for example. friendly manner. But it will always involve tweeting in an informal. Starbucks’ (twitter. It uses a logo instead of a personal image. but the Page | 73 . after all. BestBuy gets it all wrong with a poor image and creepy tweets. is a very personal place. It’s a site that asks a personal question and lets people share their random thoughts with the world at large. The company appears to be using the site as an extension of its customer service—one very simple corporate use for Twitter. Twitter. Having a human—rather than a corporate—presence on Twitter might involve actually showing a human face in the way that Comcast does. Businesses that tweet like a corporate executive addressing a board meeting will stand out on the site and scream that they have no idea what they’re doing—or who they’re talking to. consists mostly of a customer representative answering timeline.How not to build a brand on Twitter.

employee responsible for managing the account isn’t afraid to talk about his own personal experiences. They discuss the branches they have worked at and, of course, their own favourite drinks. Although it’s clear that this a corporate Twitter account, the tweets are written in a friendly, laid-back manner that creates the impression that the followers are chatting with the barista exactly as

Starbucks shows that it’s a relaxed place to hang out with friendly, easygoing tweets. They might do at the café itself—and that the café itself is a friendly, relaxed place to be. That’s good branding. So company’s tweets should be friendly. They have to sound like they’re coming from a real person, another member of the Twitter community, not from some creepy company that’s listening out for a mention of their name. But what should those tweets say to build a brand image that’s positive and memorable? In practice, corporate tweets that try to build brands tend to fall into four broad categories:
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• • • •

Company news Customer support Feedback Special offers

Including some carefully chosen news posts can have a positive branding effect. They reward the follower with useful information and they also show that the company is enthusiastic about what it’s doing. That enthusiasm can be infectious. Clearly, company have to be careful to make sure that they are broadcasting the right kind of news and that they are doing it in the right way. People wouldn’t care unless that information actually affected them. If the clinic had changed its phone number or fired their doctor, then they had wanted to know. If it’s changed its design, you probably wouldn’t want to know. On Twitter, that rule still holds to some degree. News announcements that affect the reader are always going to be the most interesting. But even an announcement that a company has changed its blog design or squished another bug in its program can be interesting if it looks like gossipy fun.

The best way to handle news for branding, then, is to mix it in with other kinds of content and to add a personal comment so that it sounds like it’s coming from a real person, not from a company.
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Customer support on Twitter is often seen by companies as the only reason to use the site. Once they have someone twittering away and answering questions, they feel that they’ve done their job and that there’s nothing else to do. That’s a big mistake.

It’s not just a mistake because doing it badly—like Best Buy—can actually put people off. It’s a mistake because good customer service itself can be good branding. It shows that the company is available to anyone who needs their help and that it listens too.

Figure: Sarah from The Home Depot’s corporate
communications department shows off the company’s customer service.
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Their tweets offer short seasonal tips to keep people reading but their real strength is the quality of its customer support. press the pound key. friendly. But not all customer service comments are sent as direct messages or even as replies to tweets on the company’s own timeline. and keen to lend a hand. Even though one Twitter account can only address a fraction of the questions the company’s customers are going to have. That’s exactly what branding should do: make potential customers feel that the real thing is even better. The company gets to help one customer and show lots of other customers that it’s helpful.The Home Depot (twitter. but with an important difference. Page | 77 . a customer can send a quick direct message to a company rep on Twitter and receive a response. Include great customer service tweets in your timeline—tweets that address problems and tell people exactly where they can find solutions—and you’ll add one important characteristic to your branding story. Customer service tweets are likely to be initiated by the does this very. The customer gets the answer he or she needs almost right away. FEEDBACK Feedback tweets are similar to customer service tweets. the impression it creates is that followers will find even better help at the store itself. Instead of sitting on a phone line for half an hour wondering whether they should press 1. or hurl the phone at the wall. very well.

Often they’re just comments—usually rant—on their own timeline. That can be an important part of a brand image too. A company looking to use Twitter for branding can spot those tweets through alerts and react to them in the hope that it can stop negative publicity from spreading. though. but it does show that the company cares and that even if it’s not perfect. Page | 78 . Starbucks has a second Twitter account (twitter. That’s not always possible. isn’t just about listening to what people are saying about your company. It can also mean inviting people to say something about your that supports its My Starbucks Idea Web site MyStarbucksIdea gives customers feedback and shows that the coffee chain is listening. it is trying to improve. Feedback.

It Page | 79 . While discounts can be a very powerful way to drive customers to take immediate action.force. SPECIAL OFFERS Special offers are standard marketing practice and they could well generate some useful commissions. Include either their affiliate link in the code or link back to your Web page. Even an online publisher could do this by mentioning a great deal being offered by one of its affiliates. branding doesn’t demand action. The Twitter timeline allows the company to thank the customers for their ideas and explain what’s happening to them. direct sales. It’s a great way for the company to show that it sees itself as just one part of the Starbucks community—even if it doesn’t produce immediate. have to be a little careful with the way they use special offers. The site lets customers send in their proposals to improve the company and see how they’re implemented. and you’ll give them an incentive to keep reading.(mystarbucksidea. Reward followers for reading your tweets by giving those exclusive deals that they feel they can’t get anywhere else. can work on Twitter as well as anywhere else. Companies using Twitter for branding. though.

They just have to keep sending out tweets.5 Repetition To keep tweets on message. company will have to repeat them. direct sales through Twitter. That’s why even companies like Coca-Cola have to keep spending millions of dollars every year to keep their products in the public eye. It all depends on what else company saying and who’s following that company. If company want to make immediate.simply requires the follower to keep reading and to think about the company in a certain way. There’s no golden rule about how many promotions is too many. If they want to use the site to build a brand and create a community around their firm. If company make lots of special offers. Page | 80 . their customers won’t be thinking about the company as a trusted friend that always delivers quality goods and services—they’ll see it as a corporation keen to push its products. they don’t have to spend millions of dollars to keep their market’s attention. One of the challenges of any branding campaign is that the effect is never long-lasting. 5. then regular special offers could be very effective. When company using Twitter for branding. Those special offers start to look like a hard sale. and hard selling doesn’t work on Twitter. then special offers should be scattered throughout their timeline just to reward their followers and keep them interested. though.

they need to be tweeting at least once a day. and ideally far more often than that. they are not bothering anyone. so few followers will block company tweets. That doesn’t have to be as hard as it sounds.There are companies that make the mistake of starting a Twitter campaign to promote a particular product. But company will lose momentum and their community can disappear. Chapter 6 Page | 81 . When company using Twitter as a branding tool. It’s a strategy that can work—if they are not sending out tweets. drop Twitter when the campaign ends and then try to pick it up again months later.

Twitter allows programmers to write applications that anyone can use and that extend the power of the service.Third-Party Tools of Twitter One of the things that really makes Twitter fun is that it comes with lots of optional add-ons. For example. Some of them are a little odd. But some of them are extremely helpful. Page | 82 . there are all sorts of applications that let user send and follow tweets without opening the browser.

That can be a pretty neat trick but it’s not the service’s main function. Page | 83 .1 Tweet Later Follow someone on Twitter and there’s a good chance that they’ll follow user back in return.6. he can’t possibly follow everyone on a long list closely—but many people do it anyway. user will automatically follow them in return. TweetLater (www. If someone’s following any user. That really can be valuable. It’s not guaranteed. that might not be the smartest move—it can make user look like a spammer. And one reason they do it is that it’s easy. The biggest reason for using TweetLater is that it lets user to set up tweets in advance—a bit like an auto responder. The reason it happens a lot is that reciprocal following looks like good manners. but it does happen a lot and it’s why one strategy to pick up followers is to do a lot of following. Whenever someone follows lets user set up auto follows. then it only seems right he should follow them back.tweetlater. and TweetLater lets you schedule your tweets in advance. As the researcher’s seen.

he can use TweetLater to prepare a series of tweets that lead up to a link he wants his followers to click through. but someone might also want to check out Twittertise (www. but also lets user sees the number of click through on links that you insert into the tweet.It means that user can keep the timeline ticking over even while he is sleeping. working his day job. Best of The user wouldn’t want to create a false impression on the timeline by preparing tweets that say he is hard at work on a blog post while in fact he is relaxing at a spa.twittertise. This does almost exactly the same thing. but he can prepare some random thoughts and other tweets to keep him timeline active.tweetlater. Page | 84 . or spending the weekend with the TweetLater is free and available atwww.

It even comes with a mini browser so that user doesn’t lose his timeline every time he clicks a link. developers have come up with some pretty cool alternatives. Twitterific is a Twitter client that sits on a Mac’s desktop.6. and it lets followers see where user is. Twitterific is also available for the iPhone. Twitterific Best of all. but it was never very mobile-friendly. The interface is attractive and fun. and the program means user doesn’t have to work with his Twitter page open in his browser.2 Twitterific Twitter might have been designed with mobiles in mind. It shows tweets from user’s followers and lets user tweet back in return. Fortunately. Page | 85 .

and Twitter Berry (www. Like Twitterific. Many of them look to Seesmic’s Twhirl. Owners of other types of mobile phones can try TwitterMail (www. Twhirl frees Twitterers from Twitter’s Web page. Twitterific is available for download from Icon Factory at http://iconfactory. PC users have to look elsewhere for a Twitter client.orangatame. letting them send and receive tweets from an attractive. Twitterific is also limited: it only works on the Mac. but user can get an ad-free version for $14. 6.3 Twhirl Twitterific is very cool and a neat solution for iPhone users (and Tweetie.It’s a very neat solution for Twitterers on the for e-mail–enabled phones. It’s packed with all sorts of other useful Page | 86 . available from the iPhone app store. The free version is funded by for Java-enabled for BlackBerry is great too). instant message-style client. For desktop Twitterers. Cellity (www.

but both are free and available from www. so user’ll have to download that first.twhirl. It’s built on Adobe and image posting to TwitPic. 6. search.4 Twitterfeed Page | 87 .Twhirl goodies too. such as automatic short URLs.

Page | 88 . But do bear in mind that the price user is paying for the ease of providing blog updates through Twitter is a loss of the personal touch. Twitterfeed can be very useful. though.Twitterfeed As a way of adding one particular type of content to timeline of user. For most people. If user’s blog is hugely popular. user can get away with a Twitterfeed timeline dedicated solely to informing followers of him latest posts. Twitterfeed’s updates become just one kind of tweet —but one that they can set up and leave.

and even see samples of the tweets he is examining. but someone like the graphs on Twist.flaptor. It is accurate and detailed. Page | 89 . And it looks very neat too.5 Twist Twist There are a number of different services that allow Twitterers to keep track of the popularity of various topics and keywords on Some use a frequently updated tag cloud to show relative popularity. Use it at twist.6. user can make comparisons between different terms. It can be a very useful way to make sure that user is targeting the most popular terms and look for other people Twittering about user’s topic.

for Twitterers who want to be followed.6. Page | 90 . Click one of those categories and user will be able to see a list of suitable Twitterers. bio. but it operates more like a Twitter Yahoo! The site tracks conversations on Twitter and places the Twitterers behind them into various categories. but Twellow makes it all much. Twellow Complete with sample tweet. image. And clearly. For Twitterers looking for interesting and useful people to follow. but if he can’t find his name on the site. it’s supposed to be a kind of Yellow Pages of social media. and the number of their followers. it’s hugely valuable too. Run by WebProNews. he should find that he is been added automatically. it’s a fantastic resource. much easier. he can add it himself. Once user starts sending tweets.6 Twellow Twist can help in finding people with similar interests to user’s own.

com.7 TweetBeep Twellow tells you who tends to talk about which as we’ve seen sends out regular alerts whenever a keyword is used on Twitter. You can set up your alerts at tweetbeep.In any case. If you see someone has mentioned you. it’s often a good idea to follow them before replying. is really a must for anyone thinking about marketing through microblogging. Page | 91 .twellow. Keep Twellow close by at www. it’s certainly worth checking the categories that user has been listed under and self-editing them if necessary. but you’ll also want to know who’s talking about your topics now. Remember that tracking your username or your company name and diving right into a conversation can look a little creepy. TweetBeep TweetBeep. 6.

Just toss a name into the site and he will receive a graph showing how the follower numbers have risen and fallen over the last week. but when user looks at someone else’s profile. When user is tracking his own tweets and their results.6.8 TwitterCounter There’s one more useful matrix user might want to know when he is looking for people to follow—and when he wants to know how he is doing. TwitterCounter lets user to see anyone’s follower numbers over time. there’s no way of knowing whether they picked up all of their followers a year ago or whether their tweets are still generating interest. TwitterCounter Page | 92 . too—and that’s the rate of follower growth. he should have those figures handy.

and quick conversations make for a service that’s simple to use. As one tweet comes in. short replies. Short posts. User will be holding multiple chats with multiple followers TweetDeck all at the same time and often on different topics.6. Nor does Twitter allow user to group tweets and followers according to subject. TweetDeck lets user to do that. making it difficult to follow the course of an exchange.9 Tweet Deck Twitter’s strength is its simplicity. User can create multiple columns and group them according to topics. This service really is a must-have for anyone with a large list of followers. Page | 93 . the last one will be pushed down the list. But it’s also very limited. for example. It’s the closest user is likely to get to Face book’s groups. It’s not easy to keep track of conversations.

You can have hours of fun downloading them and trying them out until you create the toolkit that works best for you. more features. and new ones are coming out every day with better interfaces. It’s a simple and effective way to help user’s blog or Web site make the most of Twitter’s viral power. Because many of them are fairly similar. Page | 94 . All of us probably seen all the buttons at the bottom of blog posts urging people to Digg the article or send it to Stumble Upon. These are just 10 of the most useful tools that I’ve found for Twitter. much comes down to personal taste. user can also ask them send a URL of the page together with a brief description to their Twitter followers. but it’s certainly useful nonetheless and should be a basic tool for any Twitter-based marketer.10TwitThis TwitThis isn’t exactly a Twitter application. TwitThis With TwitThis.6. There are plenty of others. and neater designs.

In addition. the toolkit should contain applications that let user find people to follow. you’ll probably be better off putting user’s own links on the background. Twitterers who use Magpie have no control over the ads that appear. Magpie ( some companies have begun experimenting with using Twitter as an advertising channel.500 followers.twittad.On the whole though. and Twittad ( allows Twitterers to turn their background images into advertising billboards onto which companies can place their own ads. both have problems. and it’s not yet clear whether followers will accept ads in inserts targeted ads into the timeline. Those are the basics. organize the followers. and tweet and reply easily. track keywords. While both of these programs look interesting. Page | 95 . and with prices that range from $20 a week for a timeline with 259 followers to $45 for a timeline with more than 7. Twittad means losing what could be the most important branding tool.

but rather by the influence the account holder has over the followers.000 followers and 50 people follow a link he or she If user pastes a long URL into a tweet. Not only are all clicks through your TwitPwr URLs not only shortens One Twitterer may have 10.6. Which is the more powerful Twitterer? Page | 96 . But another may have 1. The premise is that true Twitter power is not to be judged by the number of followers. there are many other sites that one can use to shorten his own URLS. but also provides a unique Twitter tool that has viral appeal. TwitPwr. Twitter will automatically create a Tiny URL to shorten it.000 followers and 75 people follow a tweeted link. However. but accounts are ranked to show their power. TwitPwr.

com adds a unique twist to creating and tracking URLs that is sure to bring out competitive behaviour in more than just a few Twitter users.A Usage Study Page | 97 .TwitPwr. Chapter 7 Indian Companies on Twitter .

Page | 98 . Facebook and Twitter as new-age internet heroes. and internet users now have social media stalwarts like YouTube.1 Introduction Social Media is the latest buzz word in the internet world. Expectedly. By-and-large most of us would agree with that Social media is still in a nascent stage in the Indian context and there is a lot that remains to be explored in the Social media space. Everything around us over internet is turning social. 2009 is a milestone for social networking. While everywhere social media is being touted as next stage of evolution over internet. Having said that the ripples in the social media wave created by many Indians involved are ensuring that Social Media is taken to the next level. especially for Internetdevoid-and-chatty citizens of India. Orkut / Facebook ruled the charts (the gap).7. Most of homegrown social networks took the back seat and the ones to survive are driven by media companies. but Twitter is the one who will potentially disrupt the social networking game in India.2 Social Networking in India – Milestone @2009 By all means. 7.

Most importantly. Page | 99 . bollywood celebrities) are using the new channel to share their candid opinion bypassing the BS surrounding journalism (and the need to stay neutral).g. Airtel twitter partnership) is where user will see Twitter beating the heck out of Orkut. and they couldn’t afford to miss the micro blogging one. what’s really happening in the entire process is that Twitter is getting all sorts of media attention (news channels keep promoting their twitter channel) and is being introduced to layman (at least there is curiosity about the tool). when it comes to engagement and attention.Graph 1 : social networking sites in India . the always-on-access via sms (e. (Source: Comscore Twitter’s explosive growth in 2009 is being reinforced by the tool being embraced by Indian media. what’s really happening is that media celebrities (and of course. Apart from integrating their news rss feed with Twitter.2009 traffic Inc). Nevertheless. Indian media missed the blogging bus.

Twitter usage picked up slowly. ranging from the common man to celebrities has become an integral user. Page | 100 . Such has been the impact of ‘Twitter’ that everybody in Indian environment. In India. but today India ranks in the list of top 10 countries in terms of twitter users.3 Twitter and Indian companies What seemed like chirps from birds some years back has now become an integral part of the daily lives.7.

This study presents a brief summary about the ‘Indian businesses’ that have established presence on ‘Twitter’ & also underlines the purpose/s for which they are using it. taking their feedback etc. Page | 101 . The study was conducted with a reason to demonstrate the value aspect of twitter as a micro-blogging tool when used by a brand. To conduct this study the researchers have selected few brands from different industry verticals. Whether it is B2B or B2C.Source – http://www. marketing. staying connected with customers. there are many companies out there which are using twitter for reasons like (Fig 1: % usage of twitter in different country) The growth of Twitter has spurred beyond leisure usage and now everyone is witnessing brands embracing the medium and engaging in meaningful business-specific conversations through this channel.sysomos.

of lists • No.7. of Retweets and reply via @ Qualitative • Conversation type (one-way. two-way) • Tweet type (Informational. Conversational@) The cut-off criterion for selection was Brands with • Minimum 100 followers • Activity period spanning for minimum 1 month • At least 50 tweets 7.4 Observation Criterion: The respective Twitter account profiles and the tweets were observed on the following parameters – Quantitative • Joining date (date on which account was created) • Number of tweets (volume) • Last tweet date • No. Retweets. of followers / No.5 Key Findings: Page | 102 . of following/ No.

by Jack Dorsey. the assumption was that the bulk of brands would be using twitter as a broadcasting platform. envisioning an SMS-based social network Before starting this report. it Page | 103 . circa 2006. From the nature of the tweets.A blueprint sketch.

560 followers Most conversational brand – ICICI Bank Most Re-tweeted brand – Tata docomo Oldest brand – Bookmyshow.becomes evident that several brands are focused towards the ‘conversational’ aspects with emphasis towards customer-service. MSN India with almost (Present since October 2007) Top Inactive Brands – Acer India (Inactive since November) & Apollo hospitals The most tweets are made by a news brand. In fact.000 tweets. The other prominent profile is that of Page | 104 . One classic example of that is Acer India’s twitter account which has been inactive since November 2009. MSN India’s twitter account is setup using twitter-feed which automates the tweets from the news site every time it is published. The leader-board is as follows: How did they fare? Most active account – MSN India with 38. ICICI Bank is the most conversational brand on twitter and is primarily using it for responding to queries from both current & prospect customers. They maintain complete transparency for their customers and their profile also shows the employees who are managing the twitter account. it won’t be surprising to see other banks joining twitter to engage with their not all the brands have been able to use the medium in the right way. Top Inactive Brands However. showcasing its popularity amongst the youth and also the fact that India’s twitter audience comprises of youngsters.857 tweets Most followed brand– MTV India 60. One classic example of how banks can use twitter is through Bank of America’s twitter account http://twitter. MTV India is the most followed brand.

7. Despite the research. the real reasons for the deletion of the account are not known. Airtel Broadband’s case Airtel Broadband had marked its presence on twitter with its account impatient ones.6 Twitter Applications 7. after some initial tweets the account was inactivate. However.Apollo Hospitals who haven’t posted a single tweet since July 2009.6. starting from period of June 2009 and at the beginning of this year the account was surprisingly deleted.1 Customer service Page | 105 .

Dell India has a twitter account to handle customer queries related to showroom provides replies to customers. personal computer details. Dell has a dedicated section of its website. There are customers who are frustrated with the bank’s service and haven’t Page | 106 .com/twitter that provides details of the name and purpose of its more than 30 different feeds.Twitter is a fantastic tool for resolution of customer problems. Through Twitter when the company staff. Dell’s India account is in-line with the computer manufacturer’s global initiatives. it creates a positive image for the entire brand. www. (Fig 2: Dell India twitter page) ICICI Bank offers support through twitter to their banking customers. computer shipment and payment details info. not only is it fast but it also provides cost advantages for businesses when compared with other methods like phone etc.

ICICI bank twitter page) 7.received support through conventional methods. transaction charges. ICICI Bank is constantly monitoring tweets to address concerns with Net Banking.6. (Fig 3 . problems with debit card. For such cases.2 News Broadcast Page | 107 .

In India.6.3 Promotion & Buzz Page | 108 . (Fig 4. Kotak cards twitter page) 7. the use of twitter as a news streaming source was widely realized during the Mumbai terrorist attacks in 2008 Companies like Kotak cards are posting updates of the company and industry news to discuss it and with their twitter followers.

discounts & contests etc. Nokia & Colours twitter page) Page | 109 . (Fig5. promote product launches. They regularly conduct twitter contests to drive user participation. The twitter account of Colours TV channel is synched with Facebook and their tweets are about promotion of new shows & user-reactions to reality show eliminations. Nokia Music India uses twitter to promote album & latest mobile phone launches in the Nokia music store. There are specific campaigns around twitter where users win free prizes for using the company’s name in tweet hash tags.Organizations have started adapting twitter to showcase their latest offerings.

7.7 How Indian Companies Use Twitter Illustrations Customer Service (Tata Photon) Consumer Recommendations (SuKam) Community Feedback (Cafe Coffee Day) Page | 110 .

Company/Industry Updates (Infosys) Product Promotion (Samsung Mobiles) Page | 111 .

8 The Road Ahead: Twitter’s penetration in organizations will continue to increase on both sides of the spectrum. Conversations between users and brands which are managed by humans with an emotional quotient would continue to thrive. listening to users and keeping a track on the competition. More companies will start using twitter for conducting market research. It also implies that the focus would lessen on one-way broadcasts where twitter accounts simply translate into monotonous RSS feeds.7. Chapter 8 Page | 112 .

Questionnaire Analysis Page | 113 .

1 Social Networking A/C] [Graph Social Media A/c] Interpretation: From the above given pie-chart the researchers can say that the 98% of the respondents are having their account opened in to any of the social Page | 114 .0 100.0 2.0 [Table 8.1 ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE 1) Do you have account in any social media networking sites? Particula rs yes no Total Frequency Percent 490 10 500 98.

The higher interests of the internet users towards the social networking sites have created the new avenues for the marketers to enhance their brand image and equity. The concept of the affiliate marketing has emerged out of increased popularity of social media networking sites. Only 2% of the respondents are not having their account opened up in the social networking sites. The increasing interests towards the social networking sites have been verified with this statistics. Page | 115 .networking sites.

Page | 116 .

who are having face book account are 445 out of 500. Page | 117 . The 2nd position of Orkut shows the increasing popularity of face-book among the Indian social networking site users.2 No of users] Interpretation: This question was only to those that had answered yes on the question – “Do you have account in any social media networking sites?” From the bar-graph given above it is clear that the face-book has the highest no of users from the respondents. The Orkut stood second in terms of the no of respondents having their account on it. The no of respondents are 435.2) Which are those sites of social networking? [Graph 8. The no of respondents.

0 1.0 Valid Percent 6. That clearly shows twitter is witnessing a mind-blowing traffic growth world-wide and India is no exception. which is equally popular but amongst executives and professionals.0 Cumulative Percent 6.0 Particulars all of above ticked & messenger All of them Page | 118 . So if you are a social media marketer “You just can’t ignore the twitter any more”.0 8. The linked in has 270 no of respondents. 3) Which social media do you use the most? Frequen cy 30 5 5 Percen t 6.The twitter comes third by no of accounts which is 285 out of 500.0 1.0 7.0 1. followed by buzz which has 105 no of respondents.and started gaining popularity during last 2 years.Twitter was launched in 2006 .0 1.

0 100. Page | 119 .0 100.0 1.0 63.twit ter Facebook/Twitter gmail Internet internet sites/orkut Linkedin None in particular orkut orkut & linkedin orkut.0 69.0 1. face book twitter Total 5 15 225 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 5 10 5 95 5 5 45 500 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.orkut.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 67.0 90.0 9.0 1.0 [Table 8.0 19.0 12.0 1.0 9.0 64.0 62.0 59.0 1.1.0 89. From the above given table it is clear that Face book is the most likable social media networking site among the users.0 1.0 60.0 57.0 2. various interesting tests etc.All which i have accounts in Face book facebook Facebook and Twitter facebook n twitter facebook.0 19.0 1.0 100.0 45.0 61. games.0 1.2 Most Social Media Usage] Interpretation: Our main purpose behind asking this question was to know about the likability amongst the no of accounts respondent hold.0 1.0 3.0 91.0 1.0 66.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.orkut facebook.0 45.0 2.0 2.0 58.0 70.0 9.0 1.0 1. The reasons behind this might be the no of applications.0 2.0 1. buzz facebook.

4 68 13.0 490 98.0 <1 hour 1-3 hour 3-5 hour 5-7 hour >7 hour Total 50 152 30.1.0 [Table 8.3 Social Media Frequency] [Graph 8.6 65 13.3 Social Media Frequency] Page | 120 .0 155 31.4) How much time in a week are you spending on social media networking? Time Frequency Percen t 10.

other smart phones from which the internet was accessible and 46% of the respondents are not having this kind of internet enabled hand-held device.Interpretation: The amount of time spent on social media sites by the Indian users is critical aspect of our study. That clearly suggest the amount of time users spend communicating online has risen significantly. [Graph 8. PDA. 31% of the total no of respondents are spending more than 7 hours a week on social networking. This directly leads towards to the behavior of users on social networking.4 Hand-held device] Page | 121 . Social networking has become such an essential part of people’s lives nowadays. From this it is evident that the users are roughly spending an hour on daily basis for doing social networking. 5) Do you own a hand-held device from which internet is accessible? Out of the 500 respondents 54% are having handheld device eg. i-phone.

While. rest 18% of the internet enabled handheld device holder are not utilizing the internet facility from their device.6) If yes.5 Internet access] Page | 122 . do you access internet from that device? Out of 270 respondents who are having internet enabled handheld device 82% are actually accessing internet. [Graph 8. That shows substantial no of users are utilizing the facility of Internet from their device.

Almost 80 respondents are carrying their e-commerce transaction in form of online banking and shopping through their handheld device. The second most activity done by the user are for the checking various information. 180 respondents have checked this option. Page | 123 .7) For what purpose do you access the internet from that device? [Graph 8.6 Purpose of internet from hand-held device] Interpretation: Here the researchers have found out interesting result out of the 222 users who are accessing the internet through their handheld device 220 users are using it for checking E-mails. The surfing through the handheld device stood third by 175 respondents agreed to it. Only 65 out of the 222 respondents are using micro blogging services from their handheld device.

there is a huge potential lies for the telecom service operators to provide this kind of service by coming up with a lucrative plans. 8) Do you use twitter? Twitter user Frequenc y 285 215 500 yes no Total [Table 8.1. So.The proportion of respondents who are updating and following micro blogs and downloading music are very low in comparison of others. They are only 65.7 usage] Twitter Interpretation: Page | 124 .4 Twitter Users] [Graph 8.

The results show that the lack of proper awareness of twitter to the youth. the twitter in recent times has started to grow. Surely the twitter is now in the main stream of all social media networking sites.C. The recent results of twitter are showing that it has grown to a level of 1444% (source: A. while 43% are not having their account opened up with the twitter. Though the 43% of user are not having their account with the twitter.Out of the 500 respondents 57% are having their account opened up in twitter. Nielsen) over last year. Page | 125 .

1.1 43.8 140 49.0 Catego ry Male Female Total Frequen cy 160 125 285 Percent 56.1.6 GENDER] Page | 126 .5 Education] Total 285 100.9 100.0 [Table 8.1 [Table 8.0 36.Twitter user profile: Catego ry UG Gradua te Post gradua te Frequen cy 40 105 Percen t 14.

1 8.7 OCCUPATION] Catego ry 18-24 25-35 Above 35 Frequen cy 130 105 50 Percen t 45.0 110 60 25 38.6 21.0 [TABLE 8.1.5 40 14. Age and Occupation wise.Category Frequen cy 50 Percent Full-time profession al Business man Student Service Unemploy ed Total 17.5 [Table 8.1.8 17. Gender. Page | 127 .6 36.7 AGE] The profile the twitter users among the respondents are as shown in the table sequentially Education.8 285 100.

The various hypotheses related to the usage of twitter and its related demographics have been stated in the chapter of analysis of hypotheses.

Page | 128

9) How often do you log on to a twitter in a day?

No of login Once Twice Thrice More than four times Total

Frequen cy 170 30 25 60 285

[Table 8.1.9 LOGIN FREQUECY]

[Graph 8.8 login frequency]

Interpretation: Answer to this question suggest the usage pattern of the twitter user .Out of 285 only 60% of the respondents are logging in only once, 10% are logging in twice 10% are logging in twice,9% are logging in thrice, 21% are logging more than four times. The twitter has been designed to be in real-time touch with the world. According to the Numbers
Page | 129

obtained, yet the usage pattern of twitter is not happening what was planned when it was launched or the kind application happening in other countries. 10) Do you use twitter as an alternative mode of communication technology (e.g. sms, chat etc.)?

Out of the entire twitter user only 37% of the user uses twitter as an alternative mode of communication. The rest of the users think that it cannot be replaced by the sms messaging software. They are using twitter as other social media networking sites.
[Graph 8.9 Alternative mode of communication]

existing and other

mode Instant

communications, which are

11) Are you ready to spend extra money for getting the twitter service on your mobile phone?

To gain the insights about whether twitter users are ready to spend extra amount for getting the benefits of the twitter service as a whole. The kind of response , 88% said

Page | 130

which is evident from the 175 respondents out of 285 have selected this option.wherein the Internet access suffice the purpose. Connecting with friends is also important motivation behind twitting. It is clear from the statistics that 190 out of 285 users are sharing new information with each other using the twitter. Page | 131 .shows that they are considering twitter along with the other social media .10 ready to spend extra money] 12) What is the purpose of twitting? [Graph and only 12% said yes . [Graph 8.11Purpose of tweeting] Interpretation: To find out the basic motivation behind doing twitting the researchers have asked this question.

but results of twitting purposes are showing that the trend is moving towards more serious talk like sharing new information . As. they can share real time problems and get the solution related tweets in the following table and bar graph.1. 95 out of 285 users are twitting for the work related matters.For killing the time there are 125 respondents who are twitting. [Table 8. twitter is an excellent platform to be remain connected with world .10 Cross-tab of Occupation v/s Information] Sharing new information Total Unchecked Full-time professional Business man Student Service Unemployed Total 15 15 25 25 15 95 Checked 35 25 85 35 10 190 50 40 110 60 25 285 Page | 132 . Now if we look at the occupation and sharing new information cross. Initially the social media was considered as an entertainment platform.

Out of the service class respondents of twitter user 62% are sharing new information with each other. new development. Out of the full time professional who are twitter user 70% are sharing new information regarding their fields. Page | 133 .12 cross-tab of occupation v/s information sharing] Interpretation: The results show that 77% of the students are sharing information with each-other and that is how they are keeping themselves updated. new opportunities etc.[Graph 8.

35 2.19 2.13) What do you tweet about? Very often Private Stuff (What I am doing?)/ Status Thoughts & Feelings I am undergoing Links of various websites / resources Work related tweets Comments /@ tweets News/Updates Photos 25 25 50 35 45 60 0 Often Neutr al 65 45 60 65 60 65 65 Less Very Less 60 55 50 70 35 30 115 WAM 105 105 90 50 120 85 40 30 55 35 65 25 45 65 3.1.54 3.13 tweeting subject] Page | 134 .4 3.7 3.86 3.11 Tweeting Subject] [Graph 8.1 [Table 8.

country . It is evident from this figures that those who are using twitter regularly are using it as News channel or service.Most of the celebrities e. The second no of twitting is about the Thoughts and feelings I am undergoing having WAM 3. political party . To every option weights has been assigned in the descending order starting from 5 to 1 and then weighted average mean has been calculated.4 and 3.54 Most of the users are many times writing about their own feeling and thoughts of particular organization. Chetan Bhagat . Twitter is still being experimented for different reasons. Page | 135 .Interpretation: To get the information about what user are generally twitting the researchers has asked this question. The comments /@ tweets and News /Updates are almost on the same position having their WAM 3. According to WAM the most frequent twitting is about the private stuff (What I am doing?) like activities of routine life .35 respectively. friends etc. The last frequent activity done by users are sharing their photographs with the friends. the application twitpic is interesting but might be due to the constraints of internet speed on mobile and lack awareness about this preventing many users to explore this application.Shashi Tharur are sharing their routine life on twitter starting from good morning to good night .g. It’s interesting to note that the results aren’t skewed towards any specific usage area.86 . And that means. The WAM assigned to this is 3.

1.14 Person’s Tweet to be followed] Interpretation: Page | 136 .9 100.7 Cumulative Percent 42.0 [Table 8.9 26.5 61.0 11.5 18.9 26.4 88.12 Person’s Tweet] [Graph 8.0 100.9 100.14) I would like to follow tweets of … Particulars Frequen cy Perce nt 42.7 Valid Percent 42.1 Celebrities Politicians Business persons others Total 121 54 76 34 285 11.5 18.

famous politicians and other field experts are having their account on the twitter. Around 19% of the user are also wanted to follow Politicians . business tycoons. The second largest no of response is obtained by the business persons which is 26. which create opportunity for the marketers to promote their services and products. the application of twitter like @exectweet allows the interested user to follow the CEOs .The reason behind this in recent times the politicians like shashi tharoor has huge fan followers . MDs. business persons and politicians have major influenced on the people. one of the main reasons behind that is various renowned celebrities. In general.5% . chairman of the various organization .Recently in India twitter is gaining its popularity. Celebrities as expected by the researcher has got the largest amount of response. Page | 137 . entrepreneurs.voters of their constituency . which is 42. celebrity.The tweeter also allows the politicians to stay connected with the people .7% .

82% of the respondents have replied affirmative while 18% of the respondents have replied negatively.Respons e yes no Frequency 15) Would you like to follow tweets of any company / organization? 235 50 [Table 8.13 Company Follower] [Graph 8.1.15 Organization’s tweets] Interpretation: The purpose of the researchers behind asking this question is to gauge interests of the users for the various organizations. Page | 138 .

16 Type of organization’s tweets] Interpretation: The IT companies are having maximum no response. This is the main reason why many of the famous brands are having their account opened up in the twitter. which is 160 users want to follow the tweets of IT company. Page | 139 . 16) What kind of companies` tweet would you like to follow on twitter? [Graph 8. The large-scale Indian tech companies are driven by processes and proven methodologies.The twitter user who has showing the readiness to follow the organization on twitter are amongst the right group of people towards which the company has to direct its marketing efforts. They use open conversation social media platforms like Twitter are certainly very interesting.

The second maximum no of response are for Electronic companies.E.1 Cross. offerings by the company and the product reviews about the various electronic gadgets. which indeed due to the fact that respondents want to know about the various tips. Every third tweet that Microsoft India sends is conversational & is marked with ‘@’ of Occupation v/s IT What is your occupation status * IT Cross tabulation IT Unchecked Checked Total What is your occupation status Full-time professional 20 30 50 Business man 15 25 40 Student 45 65 110 Service 30 30 60 Unemployed 15 10 25 Total 125 160 285 Page | 140 .1. The third maximum no of responses are for the stock-broking companies. 8. A key reason is that their official twitter account isn’t automated and is managed by a team of real people.15. portfolio management services etc. as the respondents are interested in knowing the new developments in this particular fields. call.

For the service class people it is 50-50 kind of situation. The third highest no.5% The second highest no percentage wise is of full-time of Occupation v/s Electronics: What is your occupation status * Electronics Cross tabulation Page | 141 . percentage wise is of the students which are almost equal to 59% of all the student categories. The no. Half of them would like to follow but half of them would not like it at all. which is equal to 60% which shows their inclination towards to the IT company.• • The Highest percentage of the business man would like to follow the IT companies on the twitter. • • 8.1. which is 62.2 Cross.15. of students is highest in the absolute terms.

Electronics Unchecked What is your occupation status Business man Student Service Unemployed Total 25 75 20 10 150 15 35 40 15 135 40 110 60 25 285 Full-time professional 20 Checked 30 Total 50 Thus by looking at the table and bar-graph the researcher can infer that the service-class people would most like to follow the Electronics organization. which is evident from the statistics of 66% of all the service persons do like to follow tweets of this kind of organization. Page | 142 .

in terms of the percentage is full time professionals. Page | 143 . who would like to follow the service organization. This might be due to the fact they want to keep updating themselves with the development of this particular kind of industry.The second highest no. The no of students are 35 out of 110 would like to follow tweets of the electronic company. This might be due to the fact that students don’t want to get news related updates but they are more oriented towards the socializing instead of getting this kind of news and other thing.

1.17 Future Mode of Customer service] Interpretation: • 33% think it is very likely that the customer service will not contact them but Page | 144 .14 Future Mode of Customer service] [Graph 8.17) In future which mode of communication would you prefer from the company whose products / service you are availing? Particulars Very likely 95 190 135 140 110 Eventually Unlikel y 70 10 60 50 90 Store-manager E-mail Call Twitter Blog 120 85 90 95 85 [Table 8.

Thus from the results the researcher can say that in future people are receptive Page | 145 . 32% think they eventually might call them up and 21% find this unlikely to happen. • 47% think it is very likely that the customer service contacts them via the telephone.the Store manager will handle the complaint. • 49% think it is very likely that the customer service contacts them via Twitter. 30% say they eventually contact them via e-mail and 4%think it is unlikely that they receive an e-mail by the customer service. 33% think this eventually might happen and 18% find it unlikely that the customer service contacts them via Twitter. 29% think the customer service eventually might contact them via their blog and 32% think this is unlikely to happen. • 39% find a comment on their blog or an e-mail via their blog very likely. 42% think the store manager would handle the complaint and the customer service eventually contacts them and slightly more than 25 % think it is unlikely that the store manager would handle the complaint and the customer service would rather not contact them. • to the E-mail customer service and twitter in the future. • 66% find it very likely that the customer service will contact them via e-mail.

15 Response Table of more often usage] Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 WAM 2.11 5.16 3.049 5.43 Particulars I would have a mobile unlimited plan.87 2.8 3. I‘m using it quite extensively [Table 8.1.16 4.18) I would use Twitter more often when…… (Rank 1 is your most likely option and rank 7 is your most unlikely option) Ranks Weights Interesting Spare time Mobile Unlimited Plan More Followers Mobile Internet More Often thinking Not at all 1 1 54 23 74 68 39 27 25 2 2 96 26 93 25 24 13 8 3 3 38 82 24 73 30 24 14 4 4 34 53 43 65 34 29 27 5 5 35 46 25 30 115 7 27 6 6 4 43 12 13 35 112 66 7 7 24 12 14 11 8 73 118 3.8 3. I would know something interesting to twit about. I would have more followers.11 5.87 4.43 WAM [Table 8. I would have spare time I would have mobile Internet I would think of it more often I wouldn‘t.028 3.028 3.1.049 5.16 Rank Table of more often usage] Interpretation: Page | 146 .

Something interesting to tweet about” .43 is the respondents are not ready to use twitter anymore because they are using twitter quite extensively. The 6th rank according to WAM of 5. Second rank . And the last rank according to WAM of 5.This clearly indicates that increasing in no of followers would directly lead to increasing the usage frequency because the respondents wanted to share more .This question is applicable to the twitter user.That means if the users are having an interesting information about something or someone. The first rank according to WAM of 2.16 . Here the researchers has got interesting finding about the reason when the respondents use twitter more often. “I would have more followers” stood third having WAM of 3.87 is if the respondents are having spare time. the purpose behind asking this question is to find out the motivation behind using it more often. Page | 147 .049 is if they are having access to the mobile internet. researchers have found from the results is “.8 is “mobile unlimited plan” .11 is if the respondents are thinking about the twitter more often.. The 4th rank according to WAM of 3. The 5th rank according to WAM of 4. as twitter is compatible with any of the mobile phones and its due to its 140 characters limits the respondents want to have unlimited plan so that they can twit more frequent. they would like to share it with others using twitter.

19) Why do not you use twitter? Particulars I am already registered with a social networking site I don’t know what to tweet.1 14.0 2.0 7.17 Reason for not using twitter] [Graph 8. SMS and E-mail is enough. Total Frequency 125 30 15 35 10 215 Percent 25.0 6. “Do you use twitter?” Page | 148 .0 16.0 Valid Percent 58. I think it is a waste of time. I don’t see any use of twitter.0 43.7 100.0 3.18 Reason for not using twitter] Interpretation: This question is only applicable to those who has answered no in the Q-8 .3 4.0 [Table 8.1.0 7.

4.1% of the respondents said that they are already registered with the other social networking site. they are aware about the twitter but due to lack of knowledge about what to tweet they are not using twitter.e. i. 14% of the nonusers don’t know what to tweet. This clearly shows the lack of interests towards the twitter. Try new Social Community.This shows twitter has not created a different space in their minds apart from the SMS and E-mails.7% of the nonusers don’t see the use of twitter that is why they have not opened up their account in the twitter. 16. Most interesting and important answers the researchers have got are as below: Page | 149 .3 % of the nonusers are satisfied with the use of SMS and E-mail services . • • 21) I will use twitter more if … In this open ended question the researcher wanted to know about the source of motivation that makes the user to use twitter. It is a new and interesting way to express oneself. Most interesting and important answers the researchers have got are as below: • • • It helps me in keeping pace with new technology. I like to update myself regarding the news about the celebrities and new product launches especially. 20) I will create my account in twitter because… In this open ended question the researcher wanted to know about the drive behind using the twitter. 58.Out of 43% who are not the user of the twitter but already associated with any other social media. It is something different from routine social sites. which is actually not true because twitter is much beyond the SMS and E-mail. 7% of the non users think that twitter is a waste of time.

It adds more application for entertainment. • • • Page | 150 . If it offers features which are genuinely new or something which has not already been covered by others.• There is something really important to know. I am getting more information on businesses and stock markets.

18 gender] [Graph 8.1.Demographics: 1) GENDER: Catego ry Male Female Total Frequency 285 215 500 [Table 8.19 Genders] Page | 151 .

GROUP: Categor y Under 18 18-24 25-29 30-34 40-44 Total Frequency 30 230 160 65 15 500 [Table 8.19 AGE] [Graph 8.20 Age] Page | 152 .1.2) AGE.

20 Education] Page | 153 .3) EDUCATION: Category High school Diploma Bachelors degree Masters degree Doctorate degree Law degree Total Frequency 25 20 195 250 5 5 500 [Table 8.1.

1.21 Educations] 4) OCCUPATION: Category Full-time profession al Business man Student Service Unemploy ed Total Frequency 85 70 190 110 45 500 [Table 8.21 Occupation] Page | 154 .[Graph 8.

[Graph 8. Sig.655 Page | 155 . (2-sided) .2.22 Occupations] 8.200a df 1 Asymp.1 Do you use twitter If no go to question no 23 Yes Gender Male Female Total 160 125 285 No 125 90 215 Total 285 215 500 Value Pearson Chi-Square . Crosstab Table 8. H1: There is an association between gender and usage of twitter.2 ANALYSIS OF HYPOTHESES H0: There is no association between gender and usage of twitter.

05 then it signifies that there is a significant relationship between the selected variables.200 1 1 Asymp.square test for a 95% confidence interval if the significance level is greater than or equal to 0.05. Sig. we should accept the null hypothesis that.Value Continuity Correction Likelihood Ratio Fisher's Exact Test Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases . H0: There is no association between age and usage of twitter.655 1 . Page | 156 .square test read a significance level of 0.655 at 95% confidence level.722 . There is no significant relationship between gender and usage of twitter.05 it signifies that there is no association between two variables in the cross tabulation and if the significance level is less than 0. (2-sided) . RESULT of Chi.127 . As it is greater than 0.655 Decision Rule: In a chi.square test: From the output tables the chi.199 500 b df . H1: There is an association between age and usage of twitter.

square test read a significance level of 0.square test: From the output tables the chi.2 Do you use twitter ? Yes age group Under 18 18-24 25-35 above 35 Total 20 110 105 50 285 No 10 120 55 30 215 Total 30 230 160 80 500 Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 14.944 4.002 .002 .623 500 df 3 3 1 Asymp.002 at 95% confidence level.885 14. Hence. the null hypothesis gets rejected.05. Sig. Page | 157 . there is an association between age and usage of twitter.2.032 RESULT of Chi. As it is less than 0. (2-sided) .Crosstab Table 8.

square test: From the output tables the chi.001 . Sig. Page | 158 .3 Do you use twitter If no go to question no 23 yes education high school Diploma Bachelors degree Masters degree Total 20 25 105 135 285 No 5 5 90 115 215 Total 25 30 195 250 500 Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 15.001 at 95% confidence level. As it is less than 0.05.593a 17. Hence.117 13.H0: There is no association between education and usage of twitter.001 . (2-sided) .2. H1: There is an association between education and usage of twitter. Crosstab Table 8.104 500 df 3 3 1 Asymp. there is an association between Education and usage of twitter.000 RESULT of Chi.square test read a significance level of 0. the null hypothesis gets rejected.

975 at 95% confidence level.05.square test read a significance level of 0. H1: There is a significant relationship between occupation and usage of twitter. Sig.H0: There is no significant relationship between occupation and usage of twitter.303 500 df 4 4 1 Asymp.487a . (2-sided) .975 .582 RESULT of Chi. there is no significant relationship between occupation and usage of twitter.486 . As it is greater than 0. Page | 159 . occupation * Do you use twitter Cross tabulation Table 8.4 Do you use twitter If no go to question no 23 yes occupation Full-time professional Business man Student Service Unemployed Total 50 40 110 60 25 285 No 35 30 80 50 20 215 Total 85 70 190 110 45 500 Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases .square test: From the output tables the chi. we should accept the null hypothesis that.975 .2.

H1: There is an association between occupation and log on frequency on twitter.753 6.946 285 df 12 12 1 Asymp.000 .293a 37.5 If yes how often do you log on to a twitter in a day More than Once Twice 15 15 Thrice 5 four times 15 Total 50 What is your occupation status Full-time professional Business man Student Service Unemployed 15 58 40 9 137 6 7 10 5 43 6 19 5 6 41 13 26 5 5 64 40 110 60 25 285 Total Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 36. What is your occupation status * how often do you log on to a twitter in a day Cross tabulation Table 8.2.000 . (2-sided) . Sig.square test: Page | 160 .H0: There is no association between occupation and log on frequency on twitter.008 RESULT of Chi.

380 67. Sig.079 285 df 6 6 1 Asymp.216 31.05.000 . As it is less than 0. What is your age group * Tweets Cross tabulation Table 8.square test read a significance level of 0. the null hypothesis gets Page | 161 . As it is less than 0. H0: There is no association between age and the kind of personality’s tweet one would like to follow on twitter. (2-sided) .2.000 .000 RESULT of Chi.square test read a significance level of 0.000 at 95% confidence level. the null hypothesis gets rejected.000 at 95% confidence level.05. there is an association between occupation and log on frequency on twitter. H1: There is an association between age and the kind of personality’s tweet one would like to follow on twitter.6 Tweets Business Celebrities What is your age group 18-24 25-35 Above 35 Total 84 30 7 121 Politicians 15 15 19 49 persons 20 50 15 85 others 11 10 9 30 Total 130 105 50 285 Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 68.From the output tables the chi. Hence.square test: From the output tables the chi.

rejected. there is an association between age and the kind of personality’s tweet one would like to follow on twitter. Hence. Page | 162 .

What is your occupation status * Tweets Crosstabulation Table 8. the null hypothesis gets rejected.276 RESULT of Chi. H1: There is an association between occupation and the kind of personality’s tweet one would like to follow on twitter.459a 26.987 1.H0: There is no association between occupation and the kind of personality’s tweet one would like to follow on twitter.185 285 df 12 12 1 Asymp.008 .009 at 95% confidence level.square test read a significance level of 0.05.2. As it is less than 0.square test: From the output tables the chi.009 . (2-sided) .7 Tweets Business Celebrities Politicians What is your occupation status Full-time professional Business man Student Service Unemployed Total 22 59 18 5 121 7 19 13 5 54 5 23 24 10 76 6 9 5 5 34 40 110 60 25 285 17 10 persons 14 others 9 Total 50 Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 26. Sig. Page | 163 .

The twitter could be utilized by the company for their customer service approach. the factors which are correlated internally after conducting the factor analysis the no. I like to know about what Sampling Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure ofmy friends are doing . The list of factors has been shown below. Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Twitter is not a place to broadcast messages of company but building relationship with customers. 1140. I would like to know about the New product launches. Chi-Square Df Sig. The tweets are too small to express my feelings. The short messages of tweets are more sensible to me than long paragraphs of blogs /Orkut/face book. The tweets are entertaining.621 using twitter. Table 8. Offers from the company.000 Conducting Factor Analysis: Page | 164 .3. Adequacy.462 78 . I like to share photos from my mobile on twitter. I would like to give suggestion about the Product/Service difficulties. I would like to get announcements of Sale.1 List of Factors The tweets are Informative.3 FACTOR ANALYSIS The factor analysis has been done in order to reduce the no of factors. 8. of factors can be reduced to a manageable level so the researchers have conducted factor analysis. I like to share with my friends about what I am KMO and Bartlett's Test doing using tweets. there is an association between occupation and the kind of personality’s tweet one would like to follow on twitter.Hence.

The standard practice normally used is that all the factors with an Eigen value of 1 or more should be extracted. Page | 165 .000) and KaiserMeyer-Olkin (KMO) value (0. degree of freedom is 78. ChiSquare is 1140.462.Measure of sample adequacy such as Bartlett's Test of sphericity (Approx.621) showed that data were fit for factor analysis. significance is 0. Principal component analysis was used for extracting factors and four factors were retained and depending upon Eigen values and variance explained. Hence from the table given below four factors will be retained. Eigen value represents the total variance explained by each factor as shown in the figure.

801 13.689 16.972 76.727 1.734 52.044 11.461 62.640 .973 14.464 69.294 96.727 10.003 7.424 81.973 35.167 13.842 1.525 1.464 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.209 Varianc Cumulati e 24.758 Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings % of Varianc Cumulati e 20.2 Total Variance Explained Extraction Sums of Initial Eigenvalues % of Compone nt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Total 3.456 98.508 6.839 .794 1.210 2.976 .939 1.394 .086 1.734 52.396 100.086 1.452 5.941 62.210 2.308 4.300 .727 10.252 .689 40.300 Squared Loadings % of Varianc Cumulati e 24.3.733 86.609 3.525 1.162 1.689 16.689 40.604 ve % 24.599 .522 ve % 20.464 Total 2.003 ve % 24.044 11.923 4.140 48.656 91.265 94.000 Total 3. Eigen Page | 166 .281 .Table 8. Principal component analysis was used for extracting factors and four factors were retained and depending upon Eigen values and variance explained.461 62.690 .029 2.

Page | 167 . .value represents the total variance explained by each factor as shown in the figure.

207 .114 .003 .881 .041 . Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.007 .160 -.440 -.030 .3.139 .184 .072 3 -.011 . Page | 168 .606 .059 .831 .173 .679 -.011 .126 -.082 .580 .153 .193 .028 .3 Rotated Component Matrix a Component 1 I would like to know about the New product launches I would like to get announcements of Sale Offers from the company I would like to give suggestion about the Product Service difficulties The twitter could be utilized by the company for their customer service approach I like to know about what my friends are doing using twitter I like to share with my friends about what I am doing using tweets I like to share photos from my mobile on twitter tweets helps my buying decision The tweets are too small to express my feelings Twitter is not a place to broadcast messages of company but building relationship with customers The tweets are entertaining The short messages of tweets are more sensible to me than long paragraphs of blogs orkut face book The tweets are Informative .279 .178 -.700 -.687 .134 -.511 .810 .108 .336 .Table 8.003 .221 .034 4 .071 .516 .144 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.924 .845 2 .108 .077 -.747 -.020 .210 .034 -.266 .491 .051 .239 -.

The tweets are entertaining.679 0.687 0.881 F2 Getting Connected with friends I like to know about what my friends are doing using twitter I like to share with my friends about what I am doing using tweets I like to share photos from my mobile on twitter tweets helps my buying decision The tweets are too small to express my feelings Twitter is not a place to broadcast messages of company F3 Tweeter as an Influencer 0. face book The tweets are Informative 0.700 0.4 Facto r No. I would like to give suggestion about the Product Service difficulties The twitter could be utilized by the company for their customer service approach 0. The short messages of tweets are more sensible to me than long paragraphs of blogs .747 F4 Infotainment but building relationship with customers.511 0.810 0.From this rotated component matrix the following table has been derived about the various factors.3.845 0. Table 8.580 0.606 F1: Commercial Usage of twitter: Page | 169 .831 0.924 0.516 0. Orkut. F1 Name of Factors Variables Factor Loadings Commercial Usage of twitter I would like to know about the New product launches I would like to get announcements of Sale Offers from the company.

Page | 170 . which has the variance of 16. From the responses and factor analysis the researcher has reached to the consensus that from the perspective of the organization it is the most vital factor.This is the most important of all the factor with highest variance of 24. The researchers have found out that the respondents also perceive that the tweeter can be added tool to shape the purchase decision and the can be used by the organization to build up the loyalty towards the organization. F4: Infotainment: This the last important factor to be considered which is made up of the 10% variance .i.This factor has made up of all the commercial use organization can make up from the twitter. as it creates the whole relationship between the organization and consumer. F2: Getting connected with friends: This factor is next important.727% of the variance.The researchers have also found that the respondents also believe that tweeter is also useful tool in getting the information as well as entertainment simultaneously. they would like to stay connected with the friends and also would like to share what they are doing with their friends.e. F3: Tweeter as an Influencer: This is the third important factor which is made up 11.689% .044% .The researchers have found out that this factor is positively perceived by the respondents .

Key findings & Conclusion Key findings: • 98% of the respondents are having their account in social media networking site. keeping aside the gender difference respondents are using twitter. There is association between the age and usage of twitter. are spending more than 7 hours in a week on social media. • • 57 % of the respondents are having their twitter account. 190 out of 285 are using twitter to share new information.5 % of the twitter users would like to follow tweets of celebrities. • • 42. So. Amongst the students the ratio is the highest with 77% of the students are using for this purpose. • 31% of the respondents. • • There is no association between the occupation and usage of the twitter. • There is no association between the gender and usage. • 49% of the users would very much likely to get their future customer service using twitter. 160 out of 285 twitter users would like to follow tweets of an IT company. Page | 171 . • Status messages and News/updates are the most common purpose of twitting. who are having their account with the social media.

o Students are more logging on to the twitter than business-man and professionals. • There is an association between the Education and usage of the twitter. who are above the age 35. Page | 172 . o Graduates and post graduates are making more use of twitter. o Out of the respondents. who are Students are often logging in once in a day on to the twitter. • There is an association between the occupation and the log on frequency of the twitter.o Respondents who are falling in the age –group of 18-24 and 25 -35 are more making use of twitter than the respondents.

would like to follow celebrities than any other.g. Page | 173 . • There are main four factors which have been derived from the list of 13 factors. • There is an association between the occupation and the kind of persons’ tweet the respondents would like to follow. when they have unlimited sms or internet plan. o Service class people would like to follow tweets of Business persons. Managers.O. o Respondents. o Commercial use o Connectivity with friends o Infotainment o Influencer • The respondents start using twitter more often.• There is an association between the occupation and the kind of person’s tweet respondents would like to follow. o Respondents. o Full-time professionals would like to follow tweets of Politicians. who are falling in the age-group of above 35.E. would like to follow tweets of politicians. would like to follow tweets of Business-persons e. C. o Students would like to follow tweets of celebrities. who are falling in the age group of 18-24. o Respondents who are falling in the age-group of 25-35.

its simplicity. at its core. There is one thing that really distinguishes Twitter i. Conclusion: After analyzing the research outcomes. Twitter remains nothing more than a way of describing what you’re doing in no more than 140 characters. Although the service now has piles of additional tools and add-ons which extend its use. this chapter concludes with the research results.e.• The main reason for not having account opened up in the twitter is that they are having registration with other social media. Page | 174 .

Page | 175 . They value the tweets and are interested in the businesses. This topic informs about the way Twitter should be used and how customer service via Twitter should be carried out. This is what Twitter is all about. Be personal.In practice. Reflect the core values and mission statement of the business. Try to implement the whole business in your tweets. Most of them will like it that the business or brand they like is interested in what they say. Indian corporate are using one of the following four kind of tweets for building the brand o Company News o Customer Support o Feedback o Special Offers This survey shows that Indian tweeters are ready for companies approaching them via Twitter. they would value such an approach as impressive customer service. Engage in dialogue and conversations. Further. This is another great chance for Indian companies to get in contact with their customers and engage in dialogue via Twitter. Follow customers. Show that behind the business there are people. Advice for Business – Customer Conversations Be authentic. Recommendations: After concluding the research several advices can be extracted from the outcomes. The online survey showed that many tweeters follow twittering companies and brands.

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). Retrieved march wholefoods. (n. 2010.d. B. 2010. D.TwitPwr.d. 2010. (n. Retrieved march 4. (2010. (n.). 2010.d.Reynolds.). (2009) social media. Retrieved march 2.MarketingTweet.d. (n. (n.). from www.twitter. Retrieved january 12.). Inc. Retrieved march 4. CA: O’Reilly Media. from www. from news: www.d. Retrieved march 4. 2010.d. Sebastopol. 2010. from www. 2010. Retrieved February 11. 2010.d. (n. 2010.). from www. (2009.tweetlater. Inc. marketing tweets. from www.).com thedizzispace.d. from www.). from tweetlater. usa: successcurrency. (n. Twitter for Business. (2009). Retrieved march starbucks twitter. The Social Media Marketing Book. M. Retrieved march tweetcounter.TwitterMarketingBook. from www.twitter. 2010. Retrieved February 13. Page | 177 . M.markshaw.twtpwr. january 13).com twitter as a platform. Retrieved february 16. twitter mastery. (n.).wikipedia. UMa.d. (n.d. Twitter: A new breed of social networking. from http://twitterpacks.pbworks. Twitter™ For Dummies. (2010).). (n. 2010. from www. Hoboken. NJ: Wiley Publishing. Retrieved 2 12. 1 24). Retrieved march 10.).nielsenwire. twittertools. from www. 2010. (2009).com/wholefoods Zarrella. DME. K. Using Twitter to Help Build. (n. from www.

Annexure Page | 178 .

SURVEY FORM Dear sir/madam This survey is conducted as a part of the study. Information will be strictly confidential. 1) Do you have account in any social media networking sites? Yes No 2) If yes which are those sites? (you can tick more than one ) Face book Orkut Twitter Others (Please Specify)_______ My space LinkedIn Buzz 3) Which social media do you use the most? __________________________________________________________ 4) How much time in a week are you spending on social media networking? <1 hour 1-3 hour Page | 179 . In advance we sincerely thank you for your time. we are pursuing MBA at NRIBM AHMEDABAD. Details provided by you in the survey will be used for academic purpose only.

how often do you log on to a twitter in a day? Once Twice Page | 180 .3-5 hour 5-7 hour >7 hour 5) Do you own a hand-held device from which internet is accessible?(If no go to question no-8) Yes 6) If yes. Download 9) If yes. Shopping etc. do you access internet from that device? Yes No No 7) If yes.23 ) Yes No Surfing Online banking. for what purpose do you access the internet from that device? E-mail music Follow or update micro blogs Check information Other please specify _________ 8) Do you use twitter? (If no go to question no.


More than four times

10)How long have you been a twitter user? < 1 year 1-2 years 2-3 years >3 years

11)How many followers do you have? __________________________

12)To how many are you following? ____________________________

13)Do you use twitter as an alternative mode of communication technology (e.g. sms, chat etc.) If yes which forms? Yes No

If yes ________________________________

14)Are you ready to spend extra money for getting the twitter service on your mobile phone? Yes No

15)What is the purpose of twitting? (you can tick more than one ) Connected with friends new information Sharing

Page | 181

Work related tweets Passing time ___ _______


16)What do you tweet about? Very often Private Stuff (What I am doing?)/ Status Thoughts & Feelings I am undergoing Links of various websites / resources Work related tweets Comments /@ tweets News/Updates Photos 17)I would like to follow tweets of ………… Celebrities Business persons (CEO, Chairman etc.) Politicians Others please specify_______ Often Neutra l Less Very Less

18)Would you like to follow tweets of any company / organization? Yes No

19)If yes, what kind of companies` tweet would you like to follow on twitter? (you can tick more than one ) FMCG Retail Page | 182 Consumer Durables

Electronics NGO

IT Stock- broking companies Hospitals Others (please Specify) _____

Page | 183

I like to share photos from my mobile on twitter. Tweet helps me for my buying decision. I like to know about what my friends are doing using twitter. The short messages of tweets are more sensible to me than long paragraphs of blogs /orkut/face book. Offers from the company. E-mail: E-mail from the customer service department. Mark √ against the option you would like to choose. I would like to get announcements of Sale. . Strong ly Agree The tweets are Informative. The tweets are too small to express my feelings. The twitter could be utilized by the company for their customer service approach. The tweets are entertaining. I like to share with my friends about what I am doing using tweets. I would like to give suggestion about the Product/Service difficulties. Twitter is not a place to broadcast messages of company but building relationship with customers.20)Please respond the following sentence to reflect your opinion as accurately as possible. I would like to know about the New product launches. Strongl y disagre e Agree Neutr al Disagr ee 21) In future which mode of communication would you prefer from the company whose products / service you are availing? Very likely Storemanager E-mail Call Twitter Blog Eventu ally Unlike ly Store: The store manager will handle the complaint. Call: Call from the customer service department.

I don’t know what to tweet.( Rank them according to order of preference . I don’t need any more. Blog: Comment or E-mail via my weblog 22)I would use Twitter more often when……. ______ I would have more followers.. . ______ I would think of it more often. ______ I would have spare time. for example : rank 1 is your most likely option and rank 7 is your most unlikely option) ______ I would know something interesting to twitter about. I‘m using it quite extensively. ______ I wouldn‘t. ______ I would have a mobile unlimited plan. 23)Why do you not use twitter? I am already registered with a social networking site. SMS and E-mail is enough.Twitter: Tweet or direct message from the customer service department. ______ I would have mobile Internet. I think it is a waste of time.

I don’t see any use of twitter. 24)I will create my account in twitter because____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 26) I will use twitter more if ___________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ .

DEMOGRAPHICS: GENDER: AGE: Below 15 15 – 25 EDUCATION: Male Female 26 – 35 Above 35 Under Graduate Graduate Post Graduate Professional Other__________________________ OCCUPATION: Student Professional Businessman Housewife Service Other ____________ .

@Twitter name: See @Reply. blogs or comments and quote each other. Derived from the term Web for Internet and log for journal. Blogs mostly represent a view of one person or small group and subjectively comment on happenings or specific topics.Glossary @Reply: A tweet that is directed to one specific person. The Twitter name of a person behind an @-sign Addresses the tweet to this very person. a chronological online journal often photos or videos are added to the website. The tweet is still visible to others. Blogger: A person writing a blog. Blogging: Writing a weblog entry. C-Level (Tweeter): From CEO tweeter. This creates a certain community feeling. sympathy and scene. Blog: Or weblog. Often bloggers refer to each others articles. yet it is saved to a “Replies” section of the recipient. . Avatar: A graphical representation or artificial person often used in the Internet. Blogging sphere: The weblog writing scene. a tweeting CEO.

Follow.Clients: A software program that connects with other program in order to use a computer service on a web server. Follower: A person who follows the status updates of another person. Direct Message: Or DM. A message send to a person on Twitter that is private and not visible to anybody else than the recipient. . to follow: To subscribe to another person‘s status updates on Twitter. hash-tagging: By writing a hastag # in front of a word (e. Feed: A feed is a continuously updating stream of information of a specific website. The stream can contain text. #christmas) this word is searchable via a website and can be used to connect a message to a certain topic. links and pictures to articles or sections of the website. It is saved to a special Direct Message section on the Twitter profile page.g. This topic can then be searched and all messages containing the word with the hashtag in front of it are displayed. Following: To receive another person‘s status updates. Hashtag.

changed and developed by any person. Open source: The accessibility of a programs code or source available to anybody. a post: An entry on a weblog or in the commentary section of a weblog. Repost or Retweet: To send a tweet a second time by referring to the original author. Retweet or RT. Post. Post. Often used on websites of technical products. to post: To write and publish a piece of text via a service or website. Often marked with the word Repost. Public Timeline: The main timeline of Twitter where every status update of any tweeter is published. Authors often ask their followers to retweet a certain message when they regard it as worth sharing with a large audience. .Knowledge Base: A knowledge database that contains explicit knowledge about specific topics. Lifestreaming: An Internet feed that connects to other online services like Youtube or filckr and makes their functionality useable to the user. Open Source programs are mostly free to download and can be used. Plugin: An additionally piece of software that can be added to a program in order to extend its abilities.

Twitter Client: A software that connects to the Twitter service and let the user write and read tweets. Twitterer: Another term for a person that uses Twitter. See also tweeter. to unfollow: To stop following a person‘s status updates. Tweeting: Writing and publishing status updates or tweets via Twitter.Status update: A message published on social networks or services like Twitter. Templates: In this case: A predefined message that can be partly edited or adapted or a specific purpose. . Unfollow. Tweeter: A person using Twitter. Tweet: A message of a maximum of 140 characters published via Twitter. Twittering: Another term for writing and publishing status updates or tweets via Twitter. The extent of the software is different among the various clients.

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