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Government and Politics AP Midterm Review

Chapter 1: The Study of American Government Democracy: o A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives. Government by the people, either directly or indirectly Direct/participatory democracy: o A system of government where citizens rule themselves instead of electing representatives to govern on their behalf Indirect/representative democracy: (elitist theory of democracy) o A system of government where citizens elect representatives to govern on their behalf Elite: o A group of people considered to be the best in a particular society or category, esp. because of their power, talent, or wealth o Theories that purport to describe actions of political Elites. Marxist (whoever controls economy, controls government), Bureaucrats, and Pluralists

Chapter 2: The Constitution Declaration of Independence: o Drafted in 1776 by T. Jefferson declaring America's separation from Great Britain (3 parts-New theory of government, reasons for separation, formal declaration of war and independence) Articles of Confederation: o The first governing document of the confederated states, drafted in 1777, ratified in 1781, and replaced by the present Constitution in 1789. It created a league of friendship that could not levy taxes or regulate commerce. Each state retained sovereignty and independence. 9 out of 13 votes needed to make a change Constitution: o Document written by Thomas Jefferson that would serve as the rules, regulations, and laws of how to run and operate the United States Great Compromise: o Also known as Connecticut Compromise was agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators o Enabled us to have a constitution Virginia Plan: o Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states. Two features: National legislature with supreme powers (on matters which the separate states were not competent to act, as well as power to veto any state laws) and one house elected directly by the people New Jersey Plan: o Sought to amend rather than replace the Articles. Proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by William Paterson of New Jersey for a central government

with a single-house legislature in which each state would be represented equally. Good for small states. Other compromises: o Three fifths - Compromise agreement between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives o Free Slave led to their abolishment in 1808 o Electoral college solved o Bill of Rights was agreed upon Limited Government: o A form of government where minimal government intervention takes place in both private affairs, public affairs, as well as the economy, it limits the Governments power Federalism: o Constitutional arrangement in which power is distributed between a central government and subdivisional governments, called states in the United States. The national and the subdivisional governments both exercise direct authority over individuals Judicial Review: o The power of a court to refuse to enforce a law or a government regulation that in the opinion of the judges conflicts with the U.S. Constitution or, in a state court, the state constitution Separation of Powers: o Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law Checks and Balances: o Constitutional grant of powers that enables each of the three branches of government to check some acts of the others and therefore ensure that no branch can dominate. Some examples of checks are: the President's veto power, which is a check on Congress; Congress' power to override a veto; which is a check on the President's power and the Supreme Court's right of judicial review, which is a check on Congress Majority rule/minority rights: o Whoever is in the majority can rule, but they need to respect the minorities rights Bill of Rights: o Another name for the first ten amendments to the US Constitution. These ten amendments protect the fundamental freedoms of Americans from any infringement by the government Writ of habeas corpus: o A court order requiring explanation to a judge why a prisoner is being held in custody Ex post facto law: o A law intended to apply to crimes or events that took place before its passage. The United States Constitution forbids the passage of ex post facto criminal laws, on the principle that it is wrong to punish an act which was not illegal when committed Federalist papers:

A collection of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison. The purpose was to persuade people to ratify the Constitution adopted in Philadelphia Amendment process: o Most are passed with a 2/3 vote in congress, than or the states ratify o OR 2/3 of the state legislatures vote, and then of the states can ratify Confederation: o Constitutional arrangement in which sovereign nations or states, by compact, create a central government but carefully limit its power and do not give it direct authority over individuals

Chapter 3: Federalism Devolution: o The current effort to scale back the size and activities of the national government and to shift responsibility for a wide range of domestic programs from Washington DC to the states. In recent years these areas have included welfare, health care, and jo Unitary System: o Constitutional arrangement that concentrates power in a central government Confederate System: o A system of Government in which loosely based states or countries join together, with each state retaining its own distinct powers Federal System: o A system of government in which the powers are separated between federal, state, and local governments Mandates: o Conditions of aid tells state government what it should do. Most mandates concern civil rights and environmental protection. Elastic clause: o The necessary & proper clause/implied powers clause - that allows Congress to pass laws to carry out its powers John Marshall: o Chief Justice of the United States and increaser of the Federal Governments Power. For example was the first justice to enact and start the policy of Judicial Review Dual federalism: o Views the Constitution as giving a limited list of powersprimarily foreign policy and national defenseto the national government, leaving the rest to the sovereign states. Each level of government is dominant within its own sphere. The Supreme Court serves as the umpire between the national government and the states in disputes over which level of government has responsibility for a particular activity Nullification: o A theory first advanced by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson that the states had the right to declare a federal law null and void o The theory was revived by John C. Calhoun of South Carolina in opposition to federal efforts to restrict slavery Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: o These resolutions were written by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts

These resolutions were the first attempts by states rights advocates to impose the rule of nullification In their version, they argued that since the government was created as a compact of the states, they had the right to nullify laws that they felt exceeded the granted power of the Federal government. In some way led to civil war o Written in the 1790s under president Adams States should be given more power, like the ability to nullify Sovereignty: o Supreme and independent power in matters of political or governmental affairs Grants in aid: o Federal funds provided to states and localities o These are typically provided for airports, highways, education, and major welfare services Intergovermental lobby: o A bunch of state and local officials who came together to represent their sanction trying to lobby for more money Block grants: o These are broad state grants to states for prescribed activitieswelfare, child care, education, social services, preventive health care, and health serviceswith only a few strings attached o States have greater flexibility in deciding how to spend block grant dollars, but when the federal funds for any fiscal year are gone, there are no more matching federal dollars Categorical grants: o Grants for specific purposes often require local matching funds Delegated powers: o Powers specifically granted to the national government by the Constitution o Powers given to Congress, like the ability to declare war, set up an army Concurrent powers: o Powers shared by the federal and state governments. Some of the concurrent powers enjoyed by both the federal and state governments are: the power to tax, make roads, protect the environment, create lower courts and borrow money Reserved powers: o A political power reserved by a constitution to the exclusive jurisdiction of a specified political authority o Opposite of concurrent Prohibited powers: o Powers denied to both national and state governments Commerce clause: o Is a Law that allows congress to regulate the commerce between the U.S. and foreign nations, between states, and between Native American tribes o Before the constitution there was no commerce laws in the Articles

Chapter 4: The Sources of Political Culture Political culture: o The widely shared beliefs, values, and norms about how citizens relate to governments and to one another o The patterned way of thinking Political ideology:

o A consistent pattern of beliefs about political values and the role of government o The principles and the beliefs Sources of political culture: o Education, religion, region, parents Culture wars: o Progressive v. Orthodox o Debating what type of country we should live in Political efficacy: o It indicates citizens' faith and trust in government and his/her own belief that he/she can understand and influence political affairs. Internal - the belief that one can understand politics and therefore participate in politics External - the belief that one is effective when participating in politics, for example that the government will respond to one's demands Mistrust of government: o Having a mistrust in government and their powers

Chapter 5: Public Opinion Gender gap: o The difference between the political opinions or political behavior of men and of women Silent majority: o Any group of people who are not outspoken and who are considered to constitute a majority o People who uphold traditional values Cleavages in political opinions: o Democrats, Republicans, Liberals, Democrats, in general critical divisions in opinions, beliefs, interests, etc. Libertarian: o An ideology that cherishes individual liberty and insists on minimal government, promoting a free market economy, a noninterventionist foreign policy, and an absence of regulation in moral, economic, and social life Populist: o An ideology that is conservative socially and liberal economically o Opposite of Libertarian Pure Liberal: o A person who wants more government involvement in business, social welfare, minority rights, & increased government spending Pure conservative: o Someone of the extreme right wing that supports strong policies off a hands off approach of the economy. Free-market economy, usually deeply religious, etc., etc. Political elite: o Someone who holds power or authority in a governmental party

Chapter 6: Political Participation Suffrage: o The right to vote o Suffrage movements made by blacks and by women Registration:

o You can register to vote at the age of 18 if you are a legal US citizen Motor Voter Law: o A law that allows drivers to register to vote when they go to the DMV for their license Literacy Test: o A test made for black people to take to see if they were capable of voting o Completely ridiculous, and made to fail Poll Tax: o A tax that requires that you must pay to take part in voting White Primary: o White only primaries held in southern states that did not allow blacks or other minorities to take part in the voting process Grandfather Clause: o Laws in southern state legislature that only allowed those people to vote whose grandfathers had voted

Chapter 7: Political Parties Political Party: o A party or organization based on people who have similar beliefs, philosophies, etc. Two-Party System: o System of government in which two parties dominate and are largely in control of the political system Example: United States Critical Elections: o An election in which a radical realignment occurs within the political system Realignment: o Realigning of the political spectrum Dealignment: o A trend where a large portion of the voter population changes its affiliation Straight Ticket: o All candidates are of the same party Split Ticket: o There can be a vote for candidates of a different party Grass Roots of Political Parties: o Support among the general masses for political parties How are parties organized? o Parties usually have a central leadership that is then divided into smaller sections of control that eventually lead to the general masses. Minor Parties: o Parties of one-issue, economic, or ideological that cannot win large portions of the electorate college o Kinds of Minor Parties: Communist Party, Socialist Party, Libertarian Party, Green Party Plurality: o The excess votes received by a candidate in which there are three major candidates Winner-Take-All o An election in those who gets the most votes wins the elections

Chapter 8: Campaigns and Elections

Primary Elections: o An election in which party members select a candidate Caucus: o A meeting of supporters of a political party General Election: o Elections in which the president is elected Natural Convention: o A convention held by the major political parties in which they elect a candidate Delegate: o A deputy or representative Party Platform: o The beliefs or manifesto of the party upon which they appeal to the masses Money: o An economic form of currency usually with people buy and trade things Soft Money: o Money that has no caps on it Hard Money: o Money that is regulated and has caps on it FEC: o Is the Federal Election Commission that oversees elections. Buckley v. Valeo: o A federal ruling that set limits on how much money someone can give to a political candidate, but also states that an individual can independently spend as much as they want to support a candidate

Chapter 18: Politics, Culture, and Civil Liberties Civil Liberties: o rights guaranteed by the federal government o set of principles that protect our liberty o Bill of Rights protects them Specific dos and donts Guarantees our liberties along with the Constitution Rights in conflict: Bill of Rights contains competing rights o Things are different in times of war o Freedom of Expression, Religion, and speech: Freedom of Expression: The constitutional rights of Americans to freedom of speech, or the press, or the right of people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances as outlined in the First Amendment to the Constitution. Freedom of Religion: The religious rights of Americans outlined in the First Amendment of the Constitution. The amendment states that Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion; or abridging the free exercise thereof. Incorporation: o The act of forming a legal corporation. Free Speech: o Free speech v. public order o Some forms of speech arent protected:

Libel: A written statement that falsely injures the reputation of another person. Obscenity: blatantly offensive, and spoken Symbolic Speech: An act that conveys a political message, such as burning a draft card to protest the draft False Advertisement First Amendment: o Prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances o Clauses: Free-Exercise Clause: A clause in the First Amendment to the Constitution stating that Congress shall make no law prohibiting the fee exercise of religion. Establishment Clause: A clause in the First Amendment to the Constitution stating that Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion. Search and Seizure: o When can "reasonable" searches of individuals be made? With a properly obtained search warrant with probable cause Incident to an arrest o What can police search incident to an arrest? The individual being arrested Things in plain view Things under the immediate control of the individual o What of an arrest while driving? Answer changes almost yearly Court attempts to protect a "reasonable expectation of privacy" Privacy in body and home but not from government supervisor o Testing for drugs and AIDS Mandatory AIDS testing called for, not yet in place Government drug testing now in courts but private testing OK Supreme Court: some testing is permissible Law enforcement and railroad employees Random sobriety checks on drivers Key: concern for public safety or national security High school athletes Exclusionary Rule: o A rule that holds that evidence gathered in violation of the Constitution cannot be used in a trial. The rule has been used to implement two provisions of the Bill of Rightsthe right to be free from unreasonable searches or seizures (Fourth Amendment) and the right not to be compelled to give evidence against oneself (Fifth Amendment) o Relaxing the exclusionary rule Positions taken on the rule Any evidence should be admissible Rule had become too technical to work Rule a vital safeguard

Supreme Court moves to adopt second position Symbolic Speech: o An act that conveys a political message, such as burning a draft card to protest the draft Miranda Warnings: o Miranda v. Arizona When you arrest someone you need to tell them their 5th amendment rights You may remain silent. Anything you do or say can be used against you in a court of law. Privacy: o USA Patriot Act Telephone and internet taps, voice mail seizure Grand jury information exchange Detainment of non-citizens and deportation of aliens Money laundering Crime and punishments

Chapter 19: Politics, Culture, and Civil Liberties Fourteenth Amendment: o Broad interpretation: Constitution color-blind o Narrow interpretation: equal legal rights o Supreme court adopted narrow view in Plessy case o Clauses: the citizen clause, equal protection clause, etc. Civil Rights: o They are different from civil liberties because they are not written in the Constitution because they came after the founders o The rights of citizens to vote, receive equal treatment before the law, and to share equally with other citizens the benefits of public facilities Affirmative Action v. Reverse Discrimination: o Affirmative Action: The requirement. Imposed by law or administrative regulation, that an organization take positive steps to increase the number or proportion of women, African Americans, or other minorities in it membership. o Reverse Discrimination: Using race or sex to give preferential treatment to some people. Segregation: o De Jure Segregation: Racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies. When state laws, for example, required blacks and whites to attend separate schools or sit in separate sections of a bus, de jure segregation resulted. o De Facto Segregation: Racial segregation in schools that occurs not because of laws or administrative decisions, but as a result of patterns of residential settlement. To the extent that blacks and whites live in separate neighborhoods, neighborhood schools will often be segregated de facto. Strict Scrutiny: o Equal Rights - Somewhere between reasonableness and strict-scrutiny standard o Supreme Court ruled that racial classifications subject to strict scrutiny Suspect Classes:

o Minorities o States that the law cannot discriminate against suspects based on race, religion, etc.