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Stephanie Miller

Chapter 5 Developing Through the Life Span
Conception -Women are born with all the immature eggs she will ever have - 1 in 5000 will never be released Men begins producing sperm cells at puberty for the rest of his life, 24 hours a day, he will be a nonstop sperm factory. Rate of production does change with age. Prenatal Development • Zygotes are fertilized eggs • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is usually seen with children born with mental as well as physical deformities. Over 1/750 kids are born with FAS • FAS is the leading cause of mental retardation • Pregnant women who have been stressed during their pregnancy have children who are less competent in motor skills, emotional as well as learning deficiency. Increased proclivity of depression Embryo: From about two weeks after conception to three months after conception Fetus:Three months after conception to birth Placenta: Connects fetus to mother;Brings oxygen and nutrients;Takes away wastes Critical period: Time when influences have major effect Teratogens: Substances that can damage an embryo or fetus Fetal alcohol syndrome-- FAS Occurs in children of women who consume large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy Symptoms include facial deformities, heart defects, stunted growth, and cognitive impairments The Competent Newborn Habituation: Decreasing responsiveness with a repeated stimulation. Rooting: Baby turns its head toward something that brushes its cheek and gropes around with mouth Sucking: Newborn’s tendency to suck on objects placed in the mouth Swallowing: Enables newborn babies to swallow liquids without choking Grasping: Close fist around anything placed in their hand Stepping:Stepping motions made by an infant when held upright Infancy and Childhood • Children grow about 10 inches and gain about 15 pounds in first year • Growth occurs in spurts, as much as 1 inch overnight • Growth slows during second year

we adjust our present schemas to fit the particulars of new experiences. the brain’s neural system starts to grow in the frontal lobes. thus enabling toddlers to increase their long-term storage When the conscious mind does not know and cannot express in words. • • • • Over 23 billion neurons were produced in the child by birth From age 3-6. • There are two ways which we could adjust our schemas . While genetic growth tendencies are inborn Motor Development Developmental norms: Ages by which an average child achieves various developmental milestones • • • • • The order in which physical coordination occurs like crawling before walking is due to the maturing of the nervous system and has nothing to do with imitation Individual differences in timing occur Genes play a role in the timing of each coordination.Brain Development Maturation:Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior.5 years of age Starting at 4 years old. . It is the genetically designed biological growth process. a child can start to remember their experiences From age 3-4 . . we interpret them into our current schemas .assimilate new schemas. You refine the category.Identical twins would be able to walk more or less on the same day Biological maturation includes the rapid development of the cerebellum at the back of the brain Experiences will not have a major effect on the child’s physical skills until after age 1 Maturation and Infant Memory • • • • The average age of earliest conscious memory was 3. enabling rational planning Maturation sets the basic course of development. the brain cortex matures . • Piaget revealed that schemas develop when the brain builds concepts. The schemas are mental molds into which we pour our experiences. relatively influenced by experience.accommodate our schemas. the nervous system may remember through increased physiological responses like through skin perspiration Cognitive Development • Jean Piaget’s works revolved around the errors give by children by each age.

Imprinting Tendency to follow the first moving thing seen. Concrete Operations (7-11 years) that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape. remembering. (Like when closed beakers seem to hold more volume as another open beaker with the same volume. • Securely attached children play and explore comfortably when a mother is present and then becomes distressed when she leaves. Stranger Anxiety-fear of strangers.) Formal Operations (12-Adulthood years) when reasoning expands from concrete experiences to abstract thinking. Schemas Concept and framework that organized and interprets information Assimilate:Interpreting out new experience in terms of our existing schemas Accommodate: the stage from birth to about 2 years of age during the infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities. Occurs in many species of animals Attachment: Humans form a bond with those who care for them in infancy. • Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory • Many question assumption that there are distinct stages in cognitive development • Criticism of notion that infants do not understand world • Piaget may have underestimated influence of social interaction in cognitive development Social Development • The intense mutual infant-parent bond develops by 12 months. They have schemas for similar faces. Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking • Sensory-Motor Stage (birth to 2 years) This is when the babies will take in the world through their sensory and motor interactions interacting with objects • • Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. and communication. knowing. starting at around 8 months. Children start to solve hypothetical propositions and deduct consequences starting from adolescence.Based upon interaction with caregiver Autonomy: Sense of independence Socialization: Process by which children learn appropriate attitudes and behaviors Attachment Differences • Mary Ainsworth studied attachment differences by observing mother infant pairs at home during their first six months. .Piaget studies led him to believe that child’s mind develops through of series of stages Cognitive Refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking.

but do not set limits on behavior Children tend to be immature. • Sensitive responsive parents tend to have securely attached children • Genetically influenced temperament may evoke responsive parenting. but are not overly controlling Parents listen to their children’s opinions and explain their decisions. cry loudly when she leaves and remain upset until she returns.Insecurely attached children meanwhile explore less in the mother’s presence and may cling to her. children start to touch there noses when they see a red spot in the mirror • When they start school. • This effect can be minimal before 16 months of age. bur are still clearly in charge • .an understanding and assessment of who they are. • Extensive time spent in day care is linked to increased aggression and defiance Self-Concept • Self concept is the sense of their own identity and personal worth. withdrawn. and distrustful Permissive-indifferent: Parents have too little control and often are indifferent and neglectful Children tend to become overly dependent and lack social skills and self-control Permissive-indulgent: Parents are very attentive and supportive. disrespectful. psychological as well as social problems. and out of control Authoritative :Parents provide firm structure. independent and optimistic self-concept. it may alter the brain’s production of serotonin. • Erick Erickson’s idea prompted that basic trust is formed in infancy through our experiences with responsive caregivers. but parental sensitivity has been taught and does increase infant attachment security. basic trust: a sense that the world is predictable and reliable. Children who form a positive self concept are more confident. who are moody. impulsive. around 12 months • At 15-18 months. Parenting Styles Authoritarian: Tightly control children’s behavior and insist on obedience Can produce children who have poor communication skills. said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experience with responsive caregivers Deprivation of Attachment • Children become withdrawn and frightened when they are deprived of attachment and may not be able to develop speech properly • Childhood abuse can lead to physical. by age 2 problems start to develop if abuse persists. they can describe many of their own traits • By age 10. their self conception is rigid and stable • The children’s views of themselves affect their actions.

and disruptive behaviors Cognitive Development • Adolescents are more likely to worry about what others think about themselves.Children tend to become self-reliant and socially responsible Adolescence and Physical Development • Growth spurt begins about age 10½ in girls and about 12½ in Puberty: Onset of sexual maturation Menarche-First menstrual period for girls. Early and late developers Adolescent sexual activity: Approximately ¾ of males and ½ of females between 15 and 19 have had intercourse • Average age for first intercourse is 16 for boys and 17 for girls • Rate of teen pregnancy has fallen in the last 50 years • Highest in U. each with a psychosocial task. • During the early teenage years. They think that others can not understand their unique experiences • Formal operations is the shift from preadolescents thinking concretely to adolescents becoming more capable of abstract logic. . drug abuse. They feel that their private experiences are unique. Late Adulthood: the issue becomes integrity vs. despair. but has leveled off in ’90s Suicide often related to depression.S. of all industrialized nation. Some problems of Adolescence that have been recognized are as follows: Declines in self-esteem Related to appearance Satisfaction in appearance is related to higher self-esteem Depression and suicide Rate of suicide among adolescents has increased 600% since 1950. stagnation. reasoning is often self-focused. Infancy: the issue was that of trust and mistrust Toddler: it becomes autonomy vs. This is Piaget’s theory • The teenager’s ability to reason hypothetically and deduce consequences allows them to detect inconsistencies in other’s reasoning and to spot hypocrisy Social Development • • • • • • • • • Erik Erikson exclaimed that individuals go through eight stages in life. shame and doubt Preschool: the issue is initiative and guilt Elementary School: the child is given the issues of inferiority and competence Adolescences:it becomes about finding one’s identity Young Adults: the issue is between intimacy and isolation Middle adulthood: it becomes generativity vs.

Forming Identity Identity: Our sense of ourselves Social Identity: The “we” aspect of our self concept. The majority felt at the prime of their lives. • If they live to be 90 or older. Testosterone levels. • Older teenagers were also more likely to have intimacy. career. marriage has been delayed by several years. • Daniel Hart discovered that younger teenagers were more likely to reflect the values of a certain group while older teenagers were more likely to reflect their own personal values. the part of our answers to “who am I?” that comes from out group membership • Erikson revealed that some teenagers take their parents values and expectations and use it as their identity. it has more to do with a person’s health and exercise habits. erection and ejaculation are also at a declining rate. Bernice Neugarten went around and asked women who had their menopause how they felt. Menopause is the ending of the menstrual cycle beginning around when a woman hits her 50th birthday. college and thinking values. Men experience a more gradual decline of sperm production over age. Forming partnerships: First major event of adulthood is forming and maintaining close relationships Physical Changes in Middle Adulthood • • • • • Physical vigor has less to do with age. Estrogen is reduced during this period. . Physical Changes in Later Life A person’s response to these changes is important • Older people become more susceptible to short-term illnesses. the ability to form emotionally close relationships. most people eventually become senile. • During old age many of the brain’s neurons die. Menopause usually does not create psychological problems for women. This is after these individuals get a better sense of who they are Parent and Peer Influence • • • Positive relations with parents support positive peer relations Teenage years is a time of decreasing parental connection and a more peer connection Parents have a bigger influence on religious faith. Most teenagers share their parents political views Emerging Adulthood • • • Emerging adulthood are people who are no longer teenagers but are not ready to take on adulthood responsibilities. Due to this emerging adulthood.

Erikson’s and Kohlberg’s ideas have shown us the ways people differ at various points in the life span. Cognitive Development • Research has demonstrated that those who continue to “exercise” their mental abilities can delay mental decline • Alzheimer’s disease afflicts approximately 10% of people over 65 and perhaps as many as 50% of those over 85 • Aging and Intelligence Well Being Across the Life Span • • • • A person’s feeling of satisfaction and well being are stable through out one’s lifespan Older adults may experience a higher rate of satisfactions since they had satisfied the tasks of early adulthood. Death and Dying • • • • Death of spouse is the hardest for a person When death comes at an expected time. The amygalda show decreased activity in response to negative events while maintain its responsiveness to positive events. Researchers who stress slow continuous development stress experience and learning. They are filled with a strong sense of satisfaction and identity Older adults are less sensitive to negative facts. Life satisfaction peaks in the fifties and then gradually declines after the age 65. grieving may be short lived. . we may change our earlier personalities but sustaining characteristic traits in comparison to our age mates. When we age. Lifelong development also shows stability and change Personality gradually stabilizes throughout age.the ability to identify things previously experienceddeclines with age. Mihalay Csikszentmihalyi and Reed Larson revealed that teenagers got over an emotion within an hour while older people endured their emotions longer. When death comes earlier. grief is more severe Erikson believed that older people where filled with a sense of meaning and identity when thinking about death Continuity and Stages • • • • • • Researchers who stress biological maturation see development as a series of genetically predisposed steps.• • Recognition memory. Piagets’s.