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Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annotated Bibliography: Undergraduate Research and Learning Communities Sally Blechschmidt, Jess Haley, Lynette Henderson, and Jimmy McLeod Loyola University Chicago

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2012

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Table of Contents Introduction Undergraduate Research: STEM Case Study Ethics International Research Case Study Mentoring Program Design Program Evaluation Promotion and Tenure Retention Student Outcomes/Benefits of Undergraduate Research Teaching/Science Education Underrepresented Students Women in the Sciences Undergraduate Research: Non-STEM Case Study Program Design Tools Faculty Tools Ethics Benefits Faculty Mentoring Publishing University Administration Assessment Learning Communities Philosophical Foundations Historical Perspectives Topical Research Best Practices 4 5 6 15 16 18 21 26 29 30 31 38 42 46 48 49 59 63 71 73 78 79 81 83 85 86 95 99 124

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Introduction

This comprehensive annotated bibliography for Undergraduate Research and Learning Communities draws from a multitude of peer-reviewed resources for faculty use at Marquette University. Given the extensive literature on undergraduate research in STEM fields, we have divided our findings into STEM and non-STEM categories. Nevertheless, faculty may find useful articles in both sections of the undergraduate research annotated bibliography. Nearly all abstracts and descriptions were obtained from databases, journal websites, or undergraduate research organizations. The resources available on the topic of Learning Communities are extensive and each of the resources can be categorized within more than one section. Information for this portion of the annotated bibliography was in part, obtained from published learning community bibliographies available online. Partial credit should be given to Akers and Dunn (2002) Living/Learning Communities: An Annotated Bibliography, as well as a bibliography published on Temple Universitys website, National Learning Communities Project. The Journal of Learning Communities Research is a wealth of information maintained by Kennesaw State University, but unfortunately none of the resources are able to be obtained online. This peer-reviewed journal encourages interdisciplinary dialogue on topics related to learning communities and welcomes submissions of original research articles. Lastly, the written abstracts in this entire annotated bibliography were obtained from a number of sources.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Undergraduate Research: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Medicine (STEM)

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Case Study Kauffman, L. R., & Stocks, J. E. (2004). Reinvigorating the undergraduate experience: successful models supported by NSF's AIRE/RAIRE program. Washington, DC: Council on Undergraduate Research. (Must be purchased). This document is a collection of case studies highlighting twenty institutions that have successfully transformed the undergraduate experience through an integration of research and education.

Pu, Rongsun. (2010). Independent research projects using protein extraction: Affordable ways to inquire, discover and publish for undergraduate students. The American Biology Teacher, 72(1), 37-39. Category: Biology This article describes how to use protein extraction, quantification, and analysis in the undergraduate teaching laboratory to engage students in inquiry-based, discovery-driven learning. Detailed instructions for obtaining proteins from animal tissues, using BCA assay to quantify the proteins, and data analysis are provided. The experimental procedure requires laboratory equipment and supplies that can be found in most biology teaching labs. Suggestions for successful implementation that can lead to original research published in peer-reviewed journals are outlined.

Willhite, D. G., Bunde, T. A., & Wright, S. E. (2007). A model for creating and sustaining an undergraduate research community at primarily undergraduate institutions. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(2), 35-39. Category: Biology The article reports on the evolution and the impact of undergraduate research collaborative project to the undergraduates and faculty. It notes that the project began through the approval of an NIH AREA grant showing an impressive result during the regular presentations at a scientific meetings on the part of undergraduates and faculty. The project provides the participating faculty with time and resources to focus exclusively on the project during the summer as well as offers opportunities to attend and interact with colleagues at larger research institutions. Moreover, it ensures that participants are involved in the development and direction of the research as well as maintain a level of excitement within the departments involved.

Eckdahl, T. T., Poet, J. L., Campbell, A. M., & Heyer, L. J. (2009). Synthetic biology as a new opportunity for multidisciplinary undergraduate research. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(2), 39-44.

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Category: Biology Interdisciplinary The article describes the possibilities of synthetic biology research to creatively engineer living cells as part of the international Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM) competition in the U.S. The authors have brought together undergraduates from biology, chemistry, and mathematics to engage in multidisciplinary synthetic biology research. It discusses the role of synthetic biology as an emerging multidisciplinary field. It stresses that the iGEM competition holds tremendous promise for the future of synthetic biology and for all scientific research.

Erbes, S. (2008). Interdisciplinary efforts used to assess research experiences for undergraduates. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(2), 34-42. Category: Biology Interdisciplinary The article discusses the interdisciplinary efforts of faculty members from education and the sciences at Pepperdine University in Malibu, California to assess their Summer Undergraduate Research in Biology (SURB). SURB is an undergraduate-research program that facilitates the maturation of undergraduates as biological scientists by immersing them in 11 weeks of original research. According to the article, the research project provided an opportunity for three undergraduate researchers to work alongside the faculty mentor from the department of Teacher Education. Suggestions given after reviewing the steps taken to launch the formal program assessment are provided. Also offered are suggestions regarding data analysis.

D'Souza, M., Dwyer, P., Allison, B., Miller, J., & Drohan, J. (2011). Wesley College ignites potential with undergraduate research program. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 32(2), 41-45. Category: Biomedical The article focuses on the effort of Wesley College in igniting a potential research collaboration with the undergraduate research program in Dover, Delaware. It discusses two long-term grants that come from federal research and infrastructure-building programs which help mold a sustainable campus-wide culture of undergraduate research. These programs have been instrumental in the expansion for undergraduate research capacity in science at Wesley College giving students research opportunities.

Bennett, G. D. (2008). Green chemistry in undergraduate research. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(4), 40-42. Category: Chemistry

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY The article focuses on the significance of green chemistry for the fulfillment of undergraduate research at Millikin University in Decatur, Illinois. It mentions that the chemistry department of the school requires students to take a course called "Introduction to Research," which is to be taken during the first semester of the third year. It notes that the students are required to explain the importance of their projects when they write their proposals in the subject. Moreover, it says that green chemistry affords an alternative that might be more applicable for the talents and interests of some of the students.

Martin, J. D. (1998). Beyond the textbook A first-year introduction to research at a research I university. Journal of Chemical Education, 75(3), 325-327. Category: Chemistry Presents information relating to the `Beyond the Textbook', a scientific research project for firstyear chemistry. Goals of the project; Insight on the project's methods; Evaluation of the project; What grading for the project was based on.

Malachowski, M. R., & Dwyer, T. J. (2011). Requiring research for all students in a major: Opportunities and challenges. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 32(1), 23-28. Category: Chemistry/Biochemistry The article presents a study on the model requiring biochemistry and chemistry major students at the University of San Diego (USD) Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry to undergo undergraduate thesis. It states that the department have added staff and teachers for the students which are enrolled on Chemistry 396 research methods course. It adds that research students have earned national awards while faculty has received National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation grants.

Kats, L. B., Rollert, S. Thurling, T., Johnson, R., Cho, D., Landis, S., Van Dragt, R., & Van Dragt, G. (2008). Undergraduate research: Communicating ecological field studies to local school children through outreach and curriculum. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(1), 58-62. Category: Ecology The article discusses grant proposals required by the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the communication of ecological field studies to local school children. It is said that NSF requires scientists to explain their research and how it promotes teaching, training and learning. The grant proposals aim to contribute in the growth of undergraduates and their participation in the scientific process. The article also provides information on the design and implementation of educational-outreach program for local school children.

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Schroeder, M. J. (2008). The scholar team initiative: A framework to enhance undergraduate research, product-development, and project-management skills. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(4), 25-30. Category: Engineering The article offers information on the Scholar Team (ST) initiative of the North Dakota State University electrical and computer engineering (ECE) department, which aims to enhance the scholarly attitude of students to prepare them to meet industry demands through greater exposure to research and product management, and to increase faculty productivity through ST output. It mentions that the ST initiative is a concept that provides product development, project management and research related experiences to any interested ECE students. Moreover, it says that ST exposes the students to many proven pedagogical practices such as inquiry, discovery and projects.

Alexander, D., Wasowski, R., & Kolmes, S. (2009). Salmon, water and humans: Science and public policy when the river running through it is contaminated. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(4), 23-26. Category: Environmental Science The article focuses on the environmental aspect of water contamination, which might cause problems among human beings and a monitoring results based on observation of streams characteristics in the U.S. Research has shown that salmon are an icon of the Northwest though are struggling for survival as a result of loosing habitat. Based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data, recreational contact with water that contain higher bacterial concentrations can cause health problems to human beings.

Nyhus, P. J., Cole, F. R., & Firmage, D. H (2007). Tigers, wolves, and moose, oh my: Challenges and opportunities for promoting undergraduate research in environmental studies with GIS. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 27(3), 97-102. Category: Environmental Science The article focuses on the curricular changes and the major laboratory investments made by the Colby College in Waterville, Maine to incorporate the geographic information system (GIS) in its undergraduate research. It also illustrates how students in its Environmental Studies (ES) Program used the GIS to demonstrate the opportunities brought by the engagement of students to technology. Moreover, it discusses the challenges encountered in developing the program and the lessons learned in overcoming those challenges.

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Polsky, C, Rogan, J., Pontius Jr., R. G., & Turner II, B. L. (2007). Undergraduate GIScience research at Clark University: The HERO program. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 27(3), 124-130. Category: Environmental Science The article focuses on the success and challenges experienced by the Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts during the seven years of its formal undergraduate research program called Human-Environment Regional Observatory (HERO) which uses Geographic Information Science (GISci) to examine human-environment interactions. It outlines the university's objectives, undergraduate pedagogical goals of the program and its success. It concludes that the HERO reinforced the faculty that a sustained monitoring/data collection and analysis effort is required in advancing the university's frontiers and engaging undergraduate students in the initiative that can be productive.

Perramond, E., Jackson, C., & Roberts, W. T. (2007). Lesson, outreach, and research: Three models of undergraduate GIS research at a liberal arts college. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 27(3), 113-118. Category: Environmental Science and Geography The article focuses on the models of undergraduate geographic information system (GIS) research at Colorado College, a liberal arts college with a strong commitment to the environment and issues of geographic space, in Colorado Springs, Colorado. These models which represent the ways in which GIS has been incorporated to the curriculum and research of undergraduate students are lessons, outreach and research. It mentions that these models serve as the basis for expanding opportunities for undergraduate research, service and learning through the support of the key institutional resources.

Shields, G. C. (2010). Creating a comprehensive summer undergraduate research program despite fiscal challenges. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(4), 18-21. Category: Funding The article offers information on the comprehensive summer undergraduate research program by the Armstrong Atlantic State University (AASCU) despite the fiscal challenges. It comments that the AASCU managed to create a comprehensive research program using faculty buy-out money from research grants and funds from the National Science Foundation to support faculty members and students interested in collaborative summer research projects. It highlights the three main obstacles of the AASCU in developing a comprehensive summer undergraduate research program including the lack of an institutional culture experience, the statewide policy payment, and the resources to support the research program.

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Leipnik, M. R. (2007). The role of research in the education of geo-spatial technology professionals: 10 Years of experiences and evolution at Sam Houston State University. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 27(3), 103-106. Category: Geography The article focuses on the role of research in the education of geographic-spatial technology professionals, based on the 10-year experience and evolution at Sam Houston State University (SHSU) in Houston, Texas. It mentions that the geographic spatial programs in SHSU has been in the process of transformation from a descriptive non-quantitative and non-technical social science to a more quantitative and heavily technological field with emphasis on practical applications. These programs have helped the school to establish and retain programs in geography for decades. Moreover, it has been successful in encouraging students to pursue opportunities for internships and employment in governments and private companies.

Hernandez, M., & Armstrong, J. (2007). Development of the interdisciplinary GIS program at Weber State University: Its growing impact on undergraduate research. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 27(3), 107-112. Category: Geoscience Interdisciplinary The article discusses the impact of the development of interdisciplinary geographic information systems (GIS) program on the undergraduate research at Weber State University (WSU) in Ogden, Utah. It addresses how the Department of Geoscience is working with other colleges in WSU including the Colleges of Science and Social and Behavioral Sciences, Stewart Library and Information Technology Division to ensure that the GIS program will increase the university GIS-related education and research needs. It also examines the challenges and opportunities encountered and offered by the GIS program to the institution.

Ditty, J., Kelley, D., Lorah, P., Steyermark, A., Werner, R., & Zimmer, K. (2007). Cross departmental implementation of GIS at a mid-sized undergraduate university. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 27(3), 120-123. Category: Interdisciplinary The article discusses the cross-departmental implementation of geographic information system (GIS) at the University of St. Thomas (UST), a middle sized university in Saint Paul, Minnesota which prioritized undergraduate education. It mentions that the GIS has effectively facilitated the interaction across disciplines by providing effective means of integrating unique perspectives and applying them to the same landscape. Moreover, it encourages interdisciplinary collaboration, improves research quality, and solves a wide variety of problems in retail and service location, and optimal routing and property valuation.

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Randall, D. C., Wilbur, F. H., & Burkholder, T. J. (2004). Two models for an effective undergraduate research experience in physiology and other natural sciences. Advances in Physiology Education, 28(1-4), 68-72. Category: Interdisciplinary A realistic research experience is beneficial to undergraduate students, but it is often difficult for liberal arts colleges to offer this opportunity. We describe two approaches for developing and maintaining an interdisciplinary research program at small colleges. An active and continuing involvement of an individual with extensive research experience is an essential element in both. One model was developed by the faculty of Taylor University, Upland, IN and a research scientist who had retired from a major university to join the Taylor faculty as their first Research Professor. The schools Science Research Training Program was initially funded by a modest endowment provided by interested alumni and by extramural grants awarded to the Research Professor and to the institution; the program now enjoys significant funding from diverse sources. Taylor is not located near any large research university and consequently supplies all resources required for the experiments and stipends for students pursuing projects full-time during the summer. The second model was developed by the faculty at Asbury College in Wilmore, KY, working with a scientist having a full-time appointment at the University of Kentucky and a part-time appointment at the college. In this approach, Asbury faculty may place their students for a period of training, often during the summer, in a laboratory of a cooperating host faculty at the University of Kentucky or other institution. The host faculty funds the research and pays a stipend to those students who work full-time during the summer. Relationships established between faculty at the College and at the University of Kentucky have been mutually beneficial. The success of both programs is evidenced by the students presenting their data at state and national scientific meetings, by their publishing their results in national journals, and by the undergraduate school faculty developing independent research programs.

Shors, T., & McFadden, S. H. (2009). Facilitated learning through interdisciplinary undergraduate research involving retrospective epidemiological studies and memories of older adults. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(2), 3438. Category: Interdisciplinary The article illustrates how the 1918 influenza and U.S. polio epidemics of 1940s and 1950s can be investigated by undergraduates in multi disciplines. It stresses that undergraduate researchers utilized retrospective epidemiology studies and memories of older adults in gathering data in the investigation of 1918 influenza and U.S. polio epidemics of 1940s and 1950s. It emphasizes the shifting of undergraduate education from individual subject areas to academic boundary crossing which is the interdisciplinary learning. The overview of "Flu Project" that was joined by three different classes of University of Wisconsin at Oshkosh (UW-Oshkosh) including virology, psychology, and anthropology is presented.

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Bendel, C. P. (2008). Computational mathematics: An opportunity for undergraduate research. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(1), 48-51. Category: Mathematics The article discusses the research on computational mathematics for undergraduate students. It is said that Christopher P. Bendel from the University of Wisconsin-Stout has received a research grant from the National Science Foundation. Bendel has involved students in his study, having them make mathematical computations through the use of computer. It is cited that computational tools were developed by people who have programming skills and a graduatelevel mathematical knowledge to understand mathematical ideas.

Gordon, G. (2007). Lafayette College's REU. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(1), 6-11. Category: Mathematics The article focuses on the programs for undergraduate research in mathematics in Lafayette College in Easton, Pennsylvania. It notes on the different programs offered in the college's mathematics Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) which is a liberal arts school that offers strong engineering program consisting of almost 2,300 undergraduates and 188 full-time faculty teaching in 45 major programs, including four Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) accredited engineering programs. It provides some of the specifics for their programs which concentrate on mentors' way of choosing qualified participants.

McDaniel, M. (2011). Beyond mainstreaming. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(3), 38-40. Category: Mathematics Students with Disabilities The article describes a research in mathematics with Jane, a student at Aquinas College in Grand Rapids, Michigan who is confined to a wheelchair because of a degenerative disease. The research found that the skills of Jane constantly adapt to find new ways to do things, when applied to mathematics research, proved highly useful. It encourages others to consider working with students who need special education.

Schammel, C. M., Schisler, N., Thompson, L. K., Pollard, A. J., Schammel, D. P., McKinley, B., & Trocha, S. D. (2008). Training undergraduates in clinical research: The Furman Oncology Research Team (FORT). Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(4), 31-38. Category: Medical

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The article focuses on the Furman Oncology Research Team (FORT) established at Furman University in South Carolina with an aim of encouraging students to develop creative means of putting classroom theory into practice and to take a proactive role in their education through internships and research. It mentions that FORT is a cooperative effort between the school and a local regional teaching and research hospital. It notes that the school staff began to develop a clinical research program that focused on student involvement in retrospective clinical research with stimulating observations of medical and surgical procedures. Moreover, it offers information on several steps in establishing a clinical research program at an undergraduate institution.

Wozniak, C. (2011). Freshman fellows: Recruiting and retaining great students through research opportunities. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 32(2), 8-15. Category: Recruitment The article presents a study which aims to organize the placement of incoming freshmen at Freshman Fellowship Program at Northern Michigan University (NMU) who are academically talented to faculty members willing to take them on as junior researchers. It mentions on the method of the competition model adopted by the Kapi'olani Community College (KapCC) STEM Program which is one form of undergraduate research. The quantitative study results to the increase in overall visibility of the program.

Merkel, C. A. (2003). Undergraduate research at the research universities. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 93, 39-53. Category: Research Universities Focuses on undergraduate research programs (URP) at various research universities in the U.S. and describes the research culture at these institutes. Objective for the set up of Summer URP at the University of Washington; Features of the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program at Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Details on the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships at California Institute of Technology.

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Ethics Heely, M. E., Grabowski, J. J., Pecora, S. E., Evanseck, J. D., & Kingston, H. M. (2010). The ethics forum: A multi-institution, student-centered program for undergraduate researchers. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(3), 20-26. The article focuses on the collaboration between faculty members and students at the Duquesne University and the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania to participate in intensive summer undergraduate research programs concerning research ethics. Participants of the programs carry out research in various disciplines including chemistry, medicine and engineering. Several session that allow each group of participants are conducted to discuss issues and dilemmas in research. A plenary session wherein an invited speaker discussed his own research or experience is held.

Shachter, A. M. (2003). Integrating ethics in science into a summer undergraduate research program. Journal of Chemical Education, 80(5), 507-512. Presents a Public Health Service (PHS) program as a model for implementing the Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) instructional program. Describes an ethical decision making framework designed to guide a discussion of issues surrounding the responsible conduct of research and facilitates the consideration of ethical choices in the context of scientific practices and concerns. Includes an application of the framework to class.

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International Research Case Study Jakubowski, H., & Jianping, X. (2007). An innovative and reciprocal undergraduate summer science exchange program between the US and China. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(1), 12-17. The article focuses on the innovative and reciprocal science exchange program between the U.S. and China. It notes on the Summer Science Research Exchange Program (SSREP) of College of Saint Benedict and Saint John's University (CSB/SJU) science students with the Southwest University (SWU) in China to conduct science research under the direction of a faculty member from SWU and with the help of its graduate students. The benefit of this program represents new innovative ways to give science majors to study abroad and develop closer relationships among the participating institutions.

McClaugherty, C. A. (2007). Risk management in international undergraduate field classes: A Costa Rican case study. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 27(4), 147-152. Category: Biology The article presents a case study of the classes of Costa Rican students consisting of undergraduate biology majors in which most of them have completed a semester-long course in tropical biology. Their course titled "Tropical Biology Field Experience" has the primary objective to compare tropical ecosystems with an emphasis on community structure and composition. Their course is associated with risk management as they mostly spend their works in the fields in Costa Rica.

Bender, M. V., Kwok, B., & Wroblesky, T. (2009). The disappearing glaciers of Kilimanjaro: Conducting collaborative undergraduate research on Africa's tallest peak. Peer Review, 11(3), 27-30. Category: Environmental Science The author offers his insights and findings on the research program he conducted in Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, exploring the implications of glacial recession in the mountain to its inhabitants. He relates that, along with two undergraduate students, he undertook a five-week research trip to Tanzania to conduct interviews and gather local data on the subject. From the study, he discovered the people's awareness on several environmental issues including the presence of glacial recession, the relevance of deforestation, the threats to public health and local environment and the fear of identity loss. The author indicates his will continue the program to promote interdisciplinary dialogues, bringing awareness on the environmental issue.

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Thomas, I, & Meehan, B. (2010). Student preparation for the international environmental profession. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 34(1), 91-107. Category: Environmental Science Many universities have strategies for exposing students to international experiences, but little is reported on their implementation. One example of an implemented activity is the multidisciplinary research project for undergraduate environment students, at RMIT University, that both prepares students to work in the environment profession and exposes them to working in an international context. Feedback from project participants demonstrates that the project has played an important part in their preparation for professional employment. Responses demonstrated that the project provided a mechanism to prepare them for working in an international context regarding cultural awareness, and especially preparation for the many professional and personal challenges that may be encountered.

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Mentoring Coppola, B. (2001). Full human presence: A guidepost to mentoring undergraduate science students. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 85, 5773. Discusses strategic approaches to mentoring undergraduate students within a holistic framework of personal and professional development. Aspects of professional development in science studies which have been overlooked; Program examples that support mentoring; Faculty responsibility and moral obligations.

Kagan, M. K., Jr., Sharkness, J., Hurtado, S., Mosqueda, C. M., & Chang, M. J. (2011). Engaging undergraduates in science research: Not just about faculty willingness. Research in Higher Education, 52(2), 151-177. Despite the many benefits of involving undergraduates in research and the growing number of undergraduate research programs, few scholars have investigated the factors that affect faculty members decisions to involve undergraduates in their research projects. We investigated the individual factors and institutional contexts that predict faculty members likelihood of engaging undergraduates in their research project(s). Using data from the Higher Education Research Institutes 20072008 Faculty Survey, we employ hierarchical generalized linear modeling to analyze data from 4,832 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) faculty across 194 institutions to examine how organizational citizenship behavior theory and social exchange theory relate to mentoring students in research. Key findings show that faculty who work in the life sciences and those who receive government funding for their research are more likely to involve undergraduates in their research project(s). In addition, faculty at liberal arts or historically Black colleges are significantly more likely to involve undergraduate students in research. Implications for advancing undergraduate research opportunities are discussed.

Lopatto, D. (2003). The essential features of undergraduate research. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 24, 139-142. This article presents results of a faculty and student survey of the essential features and benefits of successful undergraduate research. From the faculty responses, both essential features and benefits are divided into structure and consideration items. Both are found to be important to faculty, but the student responses indicate that the consideration items are more important to them. From this, the hypothesis is drawn that students value consideration more than structure. It is concluded that the broadest level of structure of an undergraduate research program, such as facilities, state-of-the-art equipment, and programmed poster sessions, may fail to yield desired responses from undergraduate researchers without a concomitant attempt to develop the art of considerate mentoring in science faculty.

National Research Council. (1997). Adviser, teacher, role model, friend: On being a mentor

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to students in science and engineering. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. This guide offers helpful advice on how teachers, administrators, and career advisers in science and engineering can become better mentors to their students. It starts with the premise that a successful mentor guides students in a variety of ways: by helping them get the most from their educational experience, by introducing them to and making them comfortable with a specific disciplinary culture, and by offering assistance with the search for suitable employment. Other topics covered in the guide include career planning, time management, writing development, and responsible scientific conduct. Also included is a valuable list of bibliographical and Internet resources on mentoring and related topics.

Pfund, C., Pribbenow, C .M., Branchaw, J., Lauffer, S. M., & Handelsman, J. (2006). The merits of training mentors. Science, 311(5760), 473474. Good mentoring can be learned.

Coker, J. S., & Davies, E. (2006). Ten time-saving tips for undergraduate research mentors. Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education, 35, 110-112. Category: Biology/Life Sciences Undergraduate research experiences can be extremely valuable for students, but can also be very time-consuming for mentors. A series of surveys were administered to plant biologists during the last 4 years to understand the perspectives of mentors on training undergraduate and high school student researchers. The survey responses provided a wealth of ideas about how to save time and increase lab productivity while training student researchers. We have synthesized the practical advice from more than 900 survey responses to suggest the following 10 tips for undergraduate research mentors: design a simple project with clear goals, provide hands-on supervision, ensure good communication and explanations, involve students early, sign a student-mentor contract, maintain well-written protocols, establish student research communities, capitalize on inexperience, create a template file for student posters, and increase retention.

Edgcomb, M. R., Crowe, H. A., Rice, J. D., Morris, S. J., Wolffe, R. J., & McConnaughay, K. D. (2010). Peer and near-peer mentoring: Enhancing learning in summer research programs. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(2), 18-25. Category: Peer Mentoring The article focuses on the enhancement of learning in summer research programs through peer and near-peer mentoring. It discusses several ways to optimize research immersion programs in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) for the improvement of both student participants and the principal investigators (PIs). It also provides information on the summer research programs at Bradley University in Peoria, Illinois.

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Mahlab, M. (2010). Who benefits? Peer mentors at Grinnell College. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(2), 7-10. Category: Peer Mentoring The article focuses on the peer-mentoring program at Grinnell College in Iowa which aids student learning in preliminary science courses. It discusses the benefits of the program to the mentors which are as wide-ranging as the benefits to the students. It also mentions the principal role of mentors in the classrooms which is to create a community within the class.

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Program Design Behar-Horenstein, L. S., & Johnson, M. L. (2010). Enticing students to enter into undergraduate research: The instrumentality of an undergraduate course. Journal of College Science Teaching, 39(3), 62-70. To encourage students to seek research opportunities with campus faculty, one large university in the Southeast created a course entitled Science for All. A major goal of the course was to encourage students to work directly with faculty on research projects of their interest. Overall, the findings show that some of the participants began to engage in research activities while taking this course. However, overall the course lacked engaging pedagogy, student input, and participation. These findings indicate that students may have felt excluded from the research practice community, may not have understood what they were listening to or may have found the process of doing research to be inaccessible. Although these findings are tentative, they represent new knowledge in the field.

Butler, S. (1999). Catalysing student autonomy through action research in a problemcentered learning environment. Research in Science Education, 29(1), 127140. This autobiographical article describes action research, utilising a hermeneutic dialectic methodology, on the efficacy of problem-based learning. In the emergent research design, the research focus for the teacher evolved as: "Can I, as an instructor, teach science in such a way that: the use of science in real life is emphasised; an interdisciplinary approach is utilised; assessment is an integral part of instruction; and learning is student-driven, not teacher directed?" To answer this research question, the article focuses on the emergence of students' critical thinking skills, the relevance of science concepts taught, the interdisciplinary nature of the problems addressed, the use of alternative methods of assessment, and the changing roles of the teacher and the students. One significant finding reported in the article is the development of student autonomy, as the problem-based learning format allowed students freedom to pursue diverse research agendas and to accept increasing responsibility for their own learning.

Caudill L, Hill A, Hoke K, & Lipan, O. (2010). Impact of interdisciplinary undergraduate research in mathematics and biology on the development of a new course integrating five STEM disciplines. CBE Life Science Education, 9(3), 212-216. Funded by innovative programs at the National Science Foundation and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Richmond faculty in biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, and computer science teamed up to offer first- and second-year students the opportunity to contribute to vibrant, interdisciplinary research projects. The result was not only good science but also good science that motivated and informed course development. Here, we describe four recent undergraduate research projects involving students and faculty in biology, physics, mathematics, and computer science and how each contributed in significant ways to the conception and implementation of our new Integrated Quantitative Science course, a course for

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first-year students that integrates the material in the first course of the major in each of biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, and physics.

Karukstis, K. K. (2004). Reinvigorating the undergraduate experience with a researchsupportive curriculum. Journal of Chemical Education, 81(7), 938-939. The programs, publications, meetings, and services of the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) are expressly designed to share successful models and strategies for establishing and institutionalizing undergraduate research programs. A research-supportive curriculum that provides undergraduates with a learning experience rooted in the process of discovery is a critical factor in establishing a strong research culture on campus. The newest publication of CUR, Reinvigorating the Undergraduate Experience: Successful Models Supported by NSF's AIRE/RAIRE Program, is a collection of case studies highlighting twenty institutions that have successfully transformed the undergraduate experience through an integration of research and education.

Karukstis, K. K., & Hensel, N. (2010). Transformative research at predominantly undergraduate institutions. Retrieved from http://www.cur.org/pdf/TRFull.pdf This report is a series of articles that conclude that research being done at PUIs is entirely consonant with the definition of undergraduate research that has been adopted by Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR): Undergraduate research is an inquiry or investigation conducted by an undergraduate that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline. Since the goal of faculty members at PUIs is to conduct high-quality, original research, the outcome of research at a PUI should constitute a contribution to the discipline, ideally in the form of peer-reviewed publications in recognized disciplinary journals. PUIs have substantial barriers that can make it difficult to conduct research, let alone transformative research. First among these barriers is a lack of time brought on by relatively high teaching loads and substantial advising expectations. Time is not only needed to complete research, but to generate high-quality ideas for projects. Many PUIs lack the research infrastructure (e .g., support staff, equipment, laboratory facilities) that is found at doctoral-granting institutions . Faculty members at PUIs work with inexperienced undergraduates as collaborators, often over relatively short periods of time. Transformative research, which is often high-risk in nature, is difficult to conduct in such an environment. Yet there are examples of individuals and PUIs that undertake transformative research and high-quality publishable work. These institutions and individuals demonstrate that it is feasible to undertake transformative research at PUIs.

Kaul, G., & Pratt, C. (2010). Undergraduate research learning communities for first-year and lower-division students. Peer Review, 12(2), 20-21. The article discusses the program of Cleveland State University (CSU) that promotes undergraduate research to be applied for incoming students in as early as their first year on campus. The design process of the undergraduate learning experience program is driven on the

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basis of Kolb's experiential learning theory, which basically lies on drawing conclusions and testing theories derived from one's own observation. It suggests that undergraduate research involvement in actual activities and close relationships with faculty add to student's efficacy and confidence. Several benefits of the undergraduate program including intellectual growth, critical thinking, and confidence building are explored. It also offers an overview of how the program was designed and implemented.

McKay, S. E., & Lashlee III, R. W. (2007). Providing an appropriate research environment for a physical science department. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 27(3), 131-134. The article examines the best model that would create a robust and productive research environment in an undergraduate department within a regional comprehensive university in the U.S. It says that for the research program to become viable, it should have a highly constructive and beneficial influence on science department, which can be found in tradition or by the faculty and administration of the university. It also suggests to employ cautions to ensure that the undergraduate research programs are not degraded during the initiation of graduate programs. Moreover, it states that the difference in goals in undergraduate and graduate research should be understood and appreciated.

Birkhead, W. S., & Stanton, G. E. (2011). Columbus State University's approach to undergraduate research in biology. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 32(1), 20-22. Category: Biology The focuses on Columbus State University's approach to Undergraduate Research in Biology. It says that the University's sophomore biology majors are exposed to research that are designed to familiarize majors with the nature of research and provide students the opportunity to learn software applications. It adds that more students enroll in classes with credit course in research proposal, collecting and analyzing data, and writing up results in research forms.

Dunn, J. G., & Phillips, D. N. (1998). Introducing second-year chemistry students to research work through mini-projects. Journal of Chemical Education, 75(7), 866 869. Category: Chemistry In these so-called "mini-projects" second year students in an Applied Chemistry degree course gain their first insight to studying a chemistry-based problem prior to undertaking a major chemistry project at third year. They cover a range of topics including industrially based problems, improving current experiments in the second year Analytical Chemistry unit, or developing new experiments for future cohorts in Inorganic/Analytical Chemistry units. The

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class is divided into groups of 3 students, with each group being quite deliberately structured to include students of a range of ability. The program consists of one week for literature searching and four weeks of experimental work. Each group is required to submit a joint written report and give an oral presentation to the whole class. The mini-projects provide an alternative experience for students to complement the standard laboratory exercises encountered in other sections of the course. They serve to introduce students on how to work in group situations, while also providing an insight to the type of work they will meet in their future employment. The assessment is based on self and peer assessment within each group, with the contribution of the class supervisor being only one-quarter of the total assessment. Valuable feedback has been obtained from student comments and the vast majority of comments reflect very favorably on the overall concept.

Undergraduate Research Summit. (2003). Enhancing research in the chemical sciences at predominantly undergraduate institutions. Retrieved from http://www.cur.org/pdf/Summit%20Report.pdf Category: Chemistry A report that resulted from the Undergraduate Research Summit meeting held at Bates College in 2003. The report contains sections on the goals of undergraduate research, outcomes of assessment of undergraduate research, diversifying the chemical sciences, developing a researchsupportive curriculum, the value of partnerships and collaborations, and items that individuals, departments, and institutions can do to promote undergraduate research. The report contains many recommendations aimed at enhancing both the quality and quantity of research that occurs at predominantly undergraduate institutions, many of which only involve changes in practices without incurring additional financial costs.

National Academy of Sciences. (2005). Facilitating interdisciplinary research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Category: Interdisciplinary Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research" examines current interdisciplinary research efforts and recommends ways to stimulate and support such research. Advances in science and engineering increasingly require the collaboration of scholars from various fields. This shift is driven by the need to address complex problems that cut across traditional disciplines, and the capacity of new technologies to both transform existing disciplines and generate new ones. At the same time, however, interdisciplinary research can be impeded by policies on hiring, promotion, tenure, proposal review, and resource allocation that favor traditional disciplines. This report identifies steps that researchers, teachers, students, institutions, funding organizations, and disciplinary societies can take to more effectively conduct, facilitate, and evaluate interdisciplinary research programs and projects. Throughout the report key concepts are illustrated with case studies and results of the committee's surveys of individual researchers and university provosts.

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Wedin, R. (2005). Interdisciplinary research: Opportunities, obstacles and options. Retrieved from http://www.rescorp.org/gdresources/uploads/files/publications/annual_rpt05.pdf Category: Interdisciplinary This article discusses interdisciplinary opportunities to forge future research. This article also reviews the barriers with the institution, promotion standards, curriculum design, interdepartment communication, and funding. The author also discusses options to address these barriers.

Miller, J. E., & Walston, T. (2010). Interdisciplinary training in mathematical biology through team-based undergraduate research and courses. CBE - Life Science Education, 9(3), 284-289. Category: Mathematical Biology Interdisciplinary Inspired by BIO2010 and leveraging institutional and external funding, Truman State University built an undergraduate program in mathematical biology with high-quality, faculty-mentored interdisciplinary research experiences at its core. These experiences taught faculty and students to bridge the epistemological gap between the mathematical and life sciences. Together they created the infrastructure that currently supports several interdisciplinary courses, an innovative minor degree, and long-term interdepartmental research collaborations. This article describes how the program was built with support from the National Science Foundation's Interdisciplinary Training for Undergraduates in Biology and Mathematics program, and it shares lessons learned that will help other undergraduate institutions build their own program.

Carroll, S. (2005). Implementation of undergraduate research centers: A report on a national science foundation workshop. Retrieved from http://www.scu.edu/cas/research/upload/URCworkshopfinalreport-3.pdf Category: Research Centers Summary of a workshop devoted to implementation of Undergraduate Research Centers (URCs). Outcomes and plans of action are discussed in some detail.

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Program Evaluation Center for Science, Technology, and Economic Development (CSTED) (2012). Selected Reports. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Retrieved from http://www.sri.com/policy/csted/reports/ CSTED produces many high-quality, in-depth reports for its clients. These reports cover a wide variety of topic areas including: economic development, science and technology policy analysis, and research and training program evaluation. This page includes links to selected reports in these key areas.

Conway, P., Hanson, B., Wages, J., Gonnella, T., Super, H., Sens, D., Doze, V., Cisek, K., & Boeckel, J. (2012). Recruiting students into science: Evaluating the impact of the North Dakota IDeA Network of biomedical research excellence. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 32(3), 34-39. The article presents a study which evaluated the impact of the North Dakota IDeA Network of Biomedical Research Excellence (NDINBRE) program. The study made use of a staggered prospective multiple-cohort design and longitudinal data collection. Result shows a positive impact of the program on the students' academic aspirations and employment, following recommendations for some changes on the program. It adds that the program will be surveyed annually and be recorded.

Deangelo, L., & Hasson, T. (2009). Quantifying success: Using control groups to measure program effectiveness. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(3), 39-45. A description of the course "Program for Excellence in Education and Research in the Sciences (PEERS)" being offered at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in Los Angeles, California, is provided.

Fechheimer, M., Webber, K., & Kleiber, P. B. (2011). How well do undergraduate research programs promote engagement and success of students? CBE - Life Sciences Education, 10, 156-163. Assessment of undergraduate research (UR) programs using participant surveys has produced a wealth of information about design, implementation, and perceived benefits of UR programs. However, measurement of student participation university wide, and the potential contribution of research experience to student success, also require the study of extrinsic measures. In this essay, institutional data on student credit-hour generation and grade point average (GPA) from the University of Georgia are used to approach these questions. Institutional data provide a measure of annual enrollment in UR classes in diverse disciplines. This operational definition allows accurate and retrospective analysis, but does not measure all modes of engagement in UR.

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Cumulative GPA is proposed as a quantitative extrinsic measure of student success. Initial results show that extended participation in research for more than a single semester is correlated with an increase in GPA, even after using SAT to control for the initial ability level of the students. While the authors acknowledge that correlation does not prove causality, continued efforts to measure the impact of UR programs on student outcomes using GPA or an alternate extrinsic measure is needed for development of evidence-based programmatic recommendations.

Fortenberry, N. L. (1990). NSF's research experiences for undergraduates (REU) program: An assessment of the first three years. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, Division of Undergraduate Education. The purpose of the National Science Foundation's Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program is to provide undergraduate students with hands-on research experiences. Two kinds of grants are provided: Sites, in which groups of students participate in various organized activities with several researchers; and Supplements, where one or more undergraduates participate in the ongoing research of investigators with active National Science Foundation awards. This report summarizes an evaluation of the first 3 years of the program, covering program history, student profiles in terms of gender and race/ethnicity, changes in students' educational and career plans, characteristics of site and supplement awards, student characteristics, achievement of awardee, and participant satisfaction. The program evaluation found that the program helped uncertain students to clarify their preferences regarding graduate school attendance, field of specialization, and career path; and the program bolstered the certainty of highly interested students about their initial decisions in these areas. Students' expected graduate school majors differed by gender and race/ethnicity. Graduate school majors did not change appreciably as a result of REU. Suggestions are offered for program improvements, and an appendix outlines the survey and sampling strategy.

Hunter, A-B, Weston, T. J., Laursen, S. L., & Thirya, H. (2009). URSSA: Evaluating student gains from undergraduate research in the sciences. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(3), 15-19. A personal narrative is presented which explores the author's experience in evaluating the undergraduate research in the sciences by using the Undergraduate Research Student SelfAssessment (URSSA).

Wilson, K., Crowe, M., Singh, J., Stamatoplos, E. R., Gosney, J., Dimaculangan, D., Levy, F., Zrull, M., & Pyles, R. (2009). Using electronic portfolios to measure student gains from mentored research. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(3), 26-32. The article offers information on the significance of the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded ePortfolio Project, a partnership among various universities and institutions aimed at developing a more objective, evidence-based approach in the mentored research experience, in

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the U.S. The scheme is developed to evaluate and measure the student's research products before and after a research experience. It is embedded in the learning portfolio of students and mentors that is used to assess the student's intellectual growth.

Wink, D. J., & Weaver, G. C. (n.d.) Evaluation of the Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE) model of undergraduate research. Retrieved from http://www7.nationalacademies.org/bose/Wink_Weaver_CommissionedPaper.pdf The Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE) is an Undergraduate Research Collaborative supported by the NSF Chemistry Division. CASPiE has developed a model to engage first and second year undergraduates in research within traditional lab courses as part of their mainstream curriculum. The approach uses "modules" developed by university research faculty that are tied to and contribute to their research work, with support by advanced instrumentation and undergraduate peer leaders providing workshops on research skills. Information through examination of student reports, surveys, and interviews provides data for evaluation of the model, providing evidence on several dimensions that indicate program success: the nature of research appropriate for such an environment; the actual research products of the students; changes in students' thinking about chemistry, science, and their participation in STEM.

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Promotion and Tenure Rohs, C. R. (2011). Undergraduate research and the tenure and promotion process. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(4), 13-18. The article offers the author's insights on the value of undergraduate research in the process of evaluating the promotion and tenure of faculty members at an academic institution. The author says that undergraduate research had been identified as a qualitative mechanism of faculty members' scholarly work annual evaluation. Moreover, she emphasizes the value of undergraduate research project in scientific research and developing laboratory exercise as well as in her professional development.

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Retention Bender, C., Blockus, L., & Webster, M. (2008). Creating community in your undergraduate research program: It isn't spontaneous! Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(4), 8-12. The article focuses on the influence of undergraduate researchers program in creating a community in the U.S. It mentions that building a community among undergraduate researchers is an evidence that students are persisting in science if they feel that they are part of the group with shared interests. It notes that students who feel secure in a community of scholars are more comfortable talking to the program director on their progress or about problems in their work environment. Moreover, it offers information on the basic tenets in building a community of student researchers and mentors.

Felix, A., & Zovinka, E. P. (2008). One STEP: Enhancing student retention through early introduction of research for STEM majors. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(1), 30-35. The article provides information on the enhancement of student retention through early introduction of research for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors at the Saint Francis University. It discusses the university's program development and its proposal to the National Science Foundation's Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Talent Expansion Program (NSF-STEP) for a project that centers on early introduction to research for biology, chemistry, and computer-science majors.

Egger, A. E., & Klemperer, S. L. (2011). Recruiting undergraduates into the earth sciences through research. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 32(2), 22-31. Category: Earth Sciences The article focuses on the challenges of recruiting and retaining students into the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. It notes on the aim of the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) in recruiting undergraduates into the Earth Sciences through research which they find very challenging to attract students to become majors of the field. It also notes that recruitment is the goal of the undergraduate research program in the School of Earth Sciences (SES).

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Student Outcomes/Benefits of Undergraduate Research Gregerman, S.R. (2008, October). The role of undergraduate research in student retention, academic engagement, and the pursuit of graduate education. Paper presented at the National Research Councils Workshop Linking Evidence to Promising Practices in STEM Undergraduate Education, Washington, DC. Available at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/bose/Gregerman_CommissionedPaper.pdf. The paper discusses one undergraduate research program at the University of Michigan. History of the program is provided as well as details about how the program was developed. The article provides student outcomes related to their participation in the program.

Hoffman, P. W., Fletcher, H. L., & Dwyer, P. M. (2009). Using undergraduate research to connect with external constituencies. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(1), 16-19. The article discusses the relevance of the use of undergraduate research in linking to external constituencies in the U.S. The author states that undergraduate research provides an essential impact in student learning and growth as well as on their perspectives towards science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) careers. It also offers information on the Nancy Kreiter Student Research Day and Sister Alma McNicholas Women Scientist Program conduct by different academic institutions, along with its benefits and advantages. The author notes that undergraduate research requires a lot of support from different agencies to help boost students career, business and community advancement.

Hunter, A-B., Laursen, S.L., & Seymour, E. (2007). Becoming a scientist: The role of undergraduate research in students cognitive, personal, and professional development. Science Education, 91, 36-74. In this ethnographic study of summer undergraduate research (UR) experiences at four liberal arts colleges, where faculty and students work collaboratively on a project of mutual interest in an apprenticeship of authentic science research work, analysis of the accounts of faculty and student participants yields comparative insights into the structural elements of this form of UR program and its benefits for students. Comparison of the perspectives of faculty and their students revealed considerable agreement on the nature, range, and extent of students' UR gains. Specific student gains relating to the process of becoming a scientist were described and illustrated by both groups. Faculty framed these gains as part of professional socialization into the sciences. In contrast, students emphasized their personal and intellectual development, with little awareness of their socialization into professional practice. Viewing study findings through the lens of social constructivist learning theories demonstrates that the characteristics of these UR programs, how faculty practice UR in these colleges, and students' outcomesincluding cognitive and personal growth and the development of a professional identitystrongly

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Jungck, J. R., Harris, M., Mercuri, R., & Tusin, J. (2004). Undergraduates: Do research, publish! Cell Biology Education, 3(1), 2427. Research is not complete until it is published. A science education is not complete until students fully participate in all aspects of professional scientific culture. This means they have to understand the values of the profession that they are joining. Although undergraduates are provided opportunities to recognize the importance of research, too often they fail to appreciate that research is not complete until it is published. Values of researchers necessarily include publishing, peer review, and priority, but these values are not part of textbook information, traditional labs, and mass lectures or accessible through passive learning. Occasionally, students are listed as co-authors of articles in professional journals, but typically they are credited for their work in the acknowledgments. Rarely are students fully involved in both the writing and peer review process. Full engagement and benefit in undergraduate research will not be realized until peer review and publication are standard expectations of these critical experiences.

Kardash, C. A. (2000). Evaluation of an undergraduate research experience: Perceptions of undergraduate interns and their faculty mentors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(1), 191-201. This study evaluated the extent to which 14 research skills were enhanced by science undergraduates' participation in an undergraduate research experience (URE). Fifty-seven undergraduates self-rated their ability to perform the skills at the beginning and end of the URE. Faculty mentors' ratings of their respective interns' skills served as an objective measure of intern skill level. Mentor and intern data revealed that the URE enhanced some skills better than others. At the end of the URE, female interns rated their ability to understand concepts in their field significantly lower than did male interns. Female interns also tended to perceive less of an increase in their ability to formulate research hypotheses than did male interns.

Lopatto, D. (2004). Survey of undergraduate research experiences (SURE): First findings. Cell Biology Education, 3, 270-277. In this study, I examined the hypothesis that undergraduate research enhances the educational experience of science undergraduates, attracts and retains talented students to careers in science, and acts as a pathway for minority students into science careers. Undergraduates from 41 institutions participated in an online survey on the benefits of undergraduate research experiences. Participants indicated gains on 20 potential benefits and reported on career plans. Over 83% of 1,135 participants began or continued to plan for postgraduate education in the sciences. A group of 51 students who discontinued their plans for postgraduate science education reported significantly lower gains than continuing students. Women and men reported similar

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levels of benefits and similar patterns of career plans. Ethnic groups did not significantly differ in reported levels of benefits or plans to continue with postgraduate education.

Lopatto, D. (2007). Undergraduate research experiences support science career decisions and active learning. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 6, 297306. The present study examined the reliability of student evaluations of summer undergraduate research experiences using the SURE (Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences) and a follow-up survey disseminated 9 mo later. The survey further examines the hypothesis that undergraduate research enhances the educational experience of science undergraduates, attracts and retains talented students to careers in science, and acts as a pathway for minority students into science careers. Undergraduates participated in an online survey on the benefits of undergraduate research experiences. Participants indicated gains on 20 potential benefits and reported on career plans. Most of the participants began or continued to plan for postgraduate education in the sciences. A small group of students who discontinued their plans for postgraduate science education reported significantly lower gains than continuing students. Women and men reported similar levels of benefits and similar patterns of career plans. Undergraduate researchers from underrepresented groups reported higher learning gains than comparison students. The results replicated previously reported data from this survey. The follow-up survey indicated that students reported gains in independence, intrinsic motivation to learn, and active participation in courses taken after the summer undergraduate research experience.

Lopatto, D. (2009). Science in solution: The impact of undergraduate research on student learning. Retrieved from http://web.grinnell.edu/sureiii/Science_in_Solution_Lopatto.pdf Science in Solution shifts the science education focus from alarms about the shortage of STEM workers to the professional and personal benefits of undergraduates engaging in research. The shift suggests that undergraduate research may be a generator of scientists from across diverse groups of students. Personal development is the deep outcome of a research experience from which career choices grow. These undergraduate research experiences benefit students across the science disciplines, having characteristic features that enable success. These features include good mentoring, student input, working in teams, optimal structuring and opportunities for communication. Research presented in the book documents the connection of these features to the benefits of undergraduate research.

Lopatto, D. (2010). Undergraduate research as a high-impact student experience. Peer Review, 12(2), 27-30. The article discusses the effects of undergraduate research experience on student learning, attitude, and career choice. Educators claim that the documented undergraduate research proved to be a high-impact educational practice in liberal education. To gain better perspective on the

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subject, an online survey focusing on the student's experience in undergraduate research has been conducted, centralizing on communication, data analysis, and other components. It presents the process, analysis, and findings of the survey, as well as the benefits of the undergraduate and interdisciplinary research experiences.

Russell, S.H., Hancock, M.P., & McCullough, J. (2007). Benefits of undergraduate research experiences. Science, 316(5824), 548-549. Surveys indicate that undergraduate research opportunities help clarify students' interest in research and encourage students who hadn't anticipated graduate studies to alter direction toward a Ph.D.

Sadler, T. D., & McKinney, L. (2010). Scientific research for undergraduate students: A review of the literature. Journal of College Science Teaching, 39(5), 43-49. Engaging students in authentic scientific research has become an important component of undergraduate science education at many institutions. The purpose of this paper is to explore authentic research experiences as contexts for learning. The authors review empirical studies of undergraduate research experiences in order to critically evaluate the outcomes of these efforts. The review is organized around learning outcomes including career aspirations, confidence, nature of science, intellectual development, content knowledge, and skills. The research indicates that undergraduates tend to demonstrate gains in these areas, but the extent to which these gains match expected and possible gains varies across outcomes. This analysis suggests that program coordinators and research mentors should consider length of experiences, engagement of students in epistemically demanding practices, and incorporation of explicit instructional supports.

Seymour, E., Hunter, A-B., Laursen, S., & DeAntoni, T. (2004). Establishing the benefits of research experiences for undergraduates in the sciences: First findings from a threeyear study. Science Education, 88(4), 493-534. Descriptions of student-identified benefits of undergraduate research experiences are drawn from analysis of 76 first-round student interviews gathered at the end of summer 2000 at four participating liberal arts colleges (Grinnell, Harvey Mudd, Hope, and Wellesley). As part of the interview protocol, students commented on a checklist of possible benefits derived from the literature. They also added gains that were not on this list. Students were overwhelmingly positive: 91% of all statements referenced gains from their experiences. Few negative, ambivalent, or qualified assessments of their research experiences were offered. The benefits described were of seven different kinds. Expressed as percentages of all reported gains, they were personal/professional gains (28%); "thinking and working like a scientist" (28%); gains in various skills (19%); clarification/confirmation of career plans (including graduate school) (12%); enhanced career/graduate school preparation (9%); shifts in attitudes to learning and working as a researcher (4%); and other benefits (1%).

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Taraban, R., & Blanton, R. L. (2008). Creating effective undergraduate research programs in science: The transformation from student to scientist. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. (Must be purchased). This is the first comprehensive, data-based study of the benefits to students who actively participate in authentic science research programs. The book features contributors from a variety of institutions who bring together studies of undergraduate research programs. They focus on identifying the successful elements of each program, and then draw valuable conclusions on the effects those programs have on the students. Providing much-needed information about the organization and administration of programs and the challenges to creating and sustaining viable research opportunities, this essential resource features a variety of perspectives, including those of external evaluators, longtime program directors, participants, and administrators, identifies the characteristics of effective programs and the kinds of gains that faculty and administrators can expect from them, examines the barriers to research opportunities, including lack of departmental and institutional resources and inadequate faculty compensation, and can be used as a primer for creating programs and for determining their effectiveness.

Thiry, H., Laursen, S. L., & Hunter, A-B. (2011). What experiences help students become scientists? A comparative study of research and other sources of personal and professional gains for STEM undergraduates. Journal of Higher Education, 82(4), 357-388. In this study of curricular and co-curricular learning in STEM disciplines at four liberal arts colleges, comparative analysis of 62 interviews with graduating seniors demonstrates that out-ofclass experiences fostered many intellectual, personal, and professional gains. Undergraduate research, in particular, helped to shape science identities and socialize students into the scientific profession. The findings suggest that participation in authentic, independent work with adequate guidance is critical to student learning and development in experiential contexts.

Webb, S. (2007). The importance of undergraduate research. Retrieved from http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/career_development/previous_issues/articles/2 007_07_06/caredit_a0700095 Research experience gives undergraduate scientists a chance to learn what its like to do real science. And its practically required these days at top-tier graduate schools.

Hammond, D. M., & Lalor, M. M. (2009). Promoting STEM careers among undergraduates through interdisciplinary engineering research. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(2), 26-33. Category: Engineering

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The article discusses research on the promotion of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) careers among undergraduates through interdisciplinary engineering research in the U.S. It focuses on 43 undergraduate students, representing 23 colleges and universities, who participated in the program from 2003 through 2006. It stresses that a survey questionnaire was utilized to evaluate participants regarding the program's outcomes and benefits. It concludes that findings from the study show that undergraduate research programs provide a positive environment for students to explore research opportunities, interact with faculty members, and develop professional skills in STEM fields.

Sabatini, D. A. (1997). Teaching and research synergism: The undergraduate research experience. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 123, 98-102. Category: Engineering Presents the benefits of the undergraduate research experience as identified by current and former students in the United States. Incorporation of undergraduates into the research program; Assessment of the benefits gained by the students.

Zydney, A, L., Bennett, J. S., Shahid, A., & Bauer, K. W. (2002a). Impact of undergraduate research experience in engineering. Journal of Engineering Education, 91(2), 151 157. Category: Engineering A survey of alumni from the College of Engineering at the University of Delaware was conducted to assess the impact of the undergraduate research experience. Students who had participated in undergraduate research were matched with a comparable group of alumni who had no research experience. Alumni were unaware that their responses would be used to assess the impact of undergraduate research. Respondents who had participated in research indicated that this experience was very or extremely important, with a greater perceived benefit for students who had participated in research for a longer time. Alumni with research experience were more likely to pursue graduate degrees, and they reported greater enhancement of important cognitive and personal skills. In addition, respondents who had been involved in research were much more likely to have reported that they had a faculty member play an important role in their career choice.

Zydney, A. L., Bennett, J. S., Shahid, A., & Bauer, K. W. (2002b). Faculty perspectives regarding the undergraduate research experience in science and engineering. Journal of Engineering Education, 91(3), 291297. Category: Engineering

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This study examined the perceptions of 155 science and engineering faculty at a mid-size university with a very extensive undergraduate research program. The faculty thought the undergraduate research experience provided important educational benefits to the students, in good agreement with results from a recent alumni survey. The faculty who supervised undergraduates for a longer period of time and who modified their research program to accommodate undergraduates perceived a greater enhancement of important cognitive and personal skills. Undergraduate research was also believed to provide important mentoring and teaching experience for graduate students who worked with undergraduate research assistants.

Mervis, J. (2001). Student research: What is it good for? Science, 293(5535), 1614-1615. Category: Medical Focuses on the importance of medical undergraduate research conducted in the field. Investigation of educators on the importance of the research; Relation of the benefits of undergraduate research to a university's commitment; Popularity of undergraduate research among the major research universities.

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Teaching/Science Education DeHaan, R. L. (2009). Teaching creativity and inventive problem solving in science. CBE Life Sciences Education, 8(3), 172-181. Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidencebased reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property. The creative process can be explained by reference to increasingly well-understood cognitive skills such as cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control that are widely distributed in the population. I explore the relationship between creativity and the higherorder cognitive skills, review assessment methods, and describe several instructional strategies for enhancing creative problem solving in the college classroom. Evidence suggests that instruction to support the development of creativity requires inquiry-based teaching that includes explicit strategies to promote cognitive flexibility. Students need to be repeatedly reminded and shown how to be creative, to integrate material across subject areas, to question their own assumptions, and to imagine other viewpoints and possibilities. Further research is required to determine whether college students' learning will be enhanced by these measures.

Halstead, J.A. (1997). Council on undergraduate research: A resource (and a community) for science educators. Journal of Chemical Education, 74(2), 148-149. The Council on Undergraduate Research is dedicated to strengthening science and undergraduate science education. Central to Council-sponsored activities and programs is the recognition that the investigative process, especially undergraduate student research, plays a key role in undergraduate science education. Council publications, conferences, and other activities have facilitated the establishment and maintenance of a network of undergraduate teacher-researchers.

Karukstis, K. K., & Elgren, T. E. (2007). Developing and sustaining a research-supportive curriculum: A compendium of successful practices. Retrieved from http://www.cur.org/publications/compendium.html (Must be purchased). The Council on Undergraduate Research is please to announce a new publication designed to share successful practices that enable faculty and institutions to design, implement, and sustain a research-supportive curriculum. The volume focuses on three broad areas: curricular elements and teaching and learning strategies that develop critical research skills, curricular infrastructure that enhances a research-supportive curriculum, and administrative contributions that initiate and sustain a research-supportive curriculum. Authors across disciplines and from a variety of types of institutions have contributed over 30 chapters and 50 "highlights" describing curricular approaches, methods and techniques developed for their courses and programs of study to enhance the research experience of stude3nts and the research culture of their institutions.

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Topics include curricular a approaches to build research skills such as inquiry-based laboratories and interdisciplinary courses and programs. institutional infrastructure and assessment practices that promote a research-supportive curriculum, and the role of the faculty and the administration in nurturing a curriculum to support a research culture. Specific examples of known practices at particular institutions are included in each chapter. This compendium of successful curricular and institutional practices to develop critical research skills emphasized the importance of the collective efforts of the undergraduate community to integrate research and education. By collecting and disseminating a variety of mechanisms that are effective means of creating a research-supportive undergraduate curriculum, the Council on Undergraduate Research aims to encourage faculty and institutions to continue to seek creative, useful, and significant ways to promote "learning through research".

Kinkead, J. (2003). Learning through inquiry: An overview of undergraduate research. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 93, 5-17. Focuses on various aspects of undergraduate research programs launched by the U.S. government aimed at increasing the status of undergraduate programs in the nation. Efforts of students and academic institutions to improve scientific literacy in the nation; Reason for the development of Project kaleidoscope by the National Science Foundation; Sources that contribute funds for the programs; Target candidates for the programs.

National Research Council. (2003). Bio 2010, Transforming Undergraduate Biology Education for Future Research Biologists. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. The report discusses incorporating more math, physics, chemistry, engineering and computer science into classes and laboratory work and emphasizing independent research will help undergraduate education reflect real-world science. Schools, professional societies and funding agencies should develop new teaching materials and facilitate faculty collaboration.

Reynolds, J., Smith, R., Moskovitz, C., & Sayle, A. (2009). BioTAP: A systematic approach to teaching scientific writing and evaluating undergraduate theses. BioScience, 59(10), 896-903. Undergraduate theses and other capstone research projects are standard features of many science curricula, but participation has typically been limited to only the most advanced and highly motivated students. With the recent push to engage more undergraduates in research, some faculty are finding that their typical approach to working with thesis writers is less effective, given the wider diversity of students, or is inefficient, given the higher participation rates. In these situations, a more formal process may be needed to ensure that all students are adequately supported and to establish consistency in how student writers are mentored and assessed. To address this need, we created BioTAP, the Biology Thesis Assessment Protocol, a teaching and

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assessment tool. BioTAP includes a rubric that articulates departmental expectations for the thesis and a guide to the drafting-feedback-revision process that is modeled after the structure of professional scientific peer review. In this article we (a) describe BioTAP's parts and the rationale behind them, (b) present the results of a study of the rubric's interrater reliability, (c) describe how the development of BioTAP helped us create a faculty learning community, and (d) suggest how other departments and institutions can adapt BioTAP to suit their needs.

Wieman, C. (2007). Why not try a scientific approach to science education? Change, 39(5), 9-15. The purpose of science education is no longer simply to train that tiny fraction of the population who will become the next generation of scientists. A more scientifically literate populace is needed to address the global challenges that humanity now faces and that only science can explain and possibly mitigate, for example, global warming and genetic modification. In addition, the modern economy is largely based on science and technology, and for that economy to thrive and for individuals within it to be successful, technically literate citizens with complex problem-solving skills are needed. In short, states this author, educators now need to make science education more effective and relevant for a large and necessarily more diverse fraction of the population. He suggests that this can be accomplished by applying to science teaching the practices that are essential components of scientific research: (1) Practices and conclusions based on objective data rather than anecdote or tradition; (2) Disseminating results in a scholarly manner and copying and building upon what works; and (3) Fully utilizing modern technology to advance scientific research. These three essential components of all experimental scientific research can be equally valuable in science education. Applied to the teaching of science, they have the capability to dramatically improve both the effectiveness and the efficiency of the educational system.

Jones, J. I. T., & Bolyard, M. (2009). Integrating research into a large teaching laboratory. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(1), 39-43. Category: Biology The article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of integrating research in laboratory teaching in the U.S. The author stresses that the integration of research in laboratory teaching has posed a lot of drawbacks because of the limitations it imposed in active learning and some of the teaching styles depend on the subject matter. It also offers information on the research-based approach carried out by Southern Illinois University Edwardsville's Biology 319 that uses the concept, along with the feedback and acceptance of students regarding the program. The author notes that research and laboratory teaching should be planned to sustain and leverage student's learning development and community advancement.

Spronken-Smith, R., & Kingham, S. (2009). Strengthening teaching and research links: The case of a pollution exposure inquiry project. Journal of Geography in Higher

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Education, 33(2), 241-253. Category: Geography

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In recent years there has been a move towards the strengthening of teaching and research links in the undergraduate curriculum. Inquiry-based learning offers an opportunity for students to engage in research tasks and consequently students can develop valuable research skills, as well as working on projects aligned to staff research interests. This paper describes a third-year undergraduate geography inquiry project exploring the factors that impact on personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Students were required to wear passive pollution samplers over a two-week period, and to collect information about their daily regimes. The project involved analysing the air pollution exposure and relating the exposure to factors such as time spent in various environments, and meteorological influences. Standard course evaluations and focus-group data provided a means to evaluate the success of the project. Course evaluations have improved since the introduction of the project and students value the project because of the greater understanding that comes from being a research subject, learning about the research process and the development of analytical skills. However, students had not fully realized the range of research skills they had acquired through the project. In the future, the aims and outcomes of the project will be made more explicit and the reflective element will be expanded to ensure students reflect on their learning in the course. The teaching team must be cognizant of the fact that inquiry exercises can take geography students outside their comfort zone in terms of learning styles, and thus provide appropriate support.

Smolinski, T. G. (2010). Computer literacy for life sciences: Helping the digital-era biology undergraduates face todays research. CBE Life Sciences Education, 9, 357363. Category: Technology Computer literacy plays a critical role in today's life sciences research. Without the ability to use computers to efficiently manipulate and analyze large amounts of data resulting from biological experiments and simulations, many of the pressing questions in the life sciences could not be answered. Today's undergraduates, despite the ubiquity of computers in their lives, seem to be largely unfamiliar with how computers are being used to pursue and answer such questions. This article describes an innovative undergraduate-level course, titled Computer Literacy for Life Sciences, that aims to teach students the basics of a computerized scientific research pursuit. The purpose of the course is for students to develop a hands-on working experience in using standard computer software tools as well as computer techniques and methodologies used in life sciences research. This paper provides a detailed description of the didactical tools and assessment methods used in and outside of the classroom as well as a discussion of the lessons learned during the first installment of the course taught at Emory University in fall semester 2009.

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Underrepresented Students Alexander, B. B., Foertsch. J. A., & Daffinrud, S. (1998). The spend the summer with a scientist program: An evaluation of program outcomes and the essential elements of success. University of Wisconsin-Madison: LEAD Center Publications. A third-party evaluation of the Spend a Summer with a Scientist (SaS) program at Rice University established the effectiveness of this summer research and professional development program with respect to the recruitment of minority undergraduates into graduate school and the retention of minority graduate students at Rice University. Tracking of student academic outcomes, and interviews and surveys with student participants demonstrated not only that SaS participants are enrolling in graduate school and obtaining graduate degrees at an unusually high rate, but that most of these participants feel the program had a powerful impact on their decisions about and success in pursuing advanced degrees. A number of them asserted that they would not have completed their degreesor thought to enroll in graduate school at allhad it not been for their participation in the Summer with a Scientist program. For undergraduate participants who have since graduated, 63% went on to enroll in graduate school, while 33% gained employment in mathematics, computational science, or engineering. For graduate student participants, the rate of retention so far is 97%, with just one student having left graduate school without a degree. A total of 57% of these participants are still in graduate school making steady progress toward their degrees, and of those who have already graduated with advanced degrees, two-thirds have received Ph.D.s. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of survey and interview data were used to identify the essential elements that were critical in bringing about the success of the SaS program. To facilitate the replication of this program at other institutions, this report delineates what characteristics of the program director, the student community, and the research project would likely have to be present in order to bring about similar outcomes in other institutional and departmental contexts.

Beninson, L. A., Koski, J., Villa, E., Faram, R., & O'Connor, S. E. (2011). Evaluation of the research experiences for undergraduates (REU) sites program. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 32(1), 43-48. The article offers information on the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Sites program by the National Science Foundation (NSF). It mentions that REU Sites was established by the NSF to enlarge the interests of the students in science and to their participation in research career. An electronic survey is conducted to principal investigators who are conducting REU Sites to identify the profile of the participating groups including Hispanic, African American, and Asian students.

Carter, F. D., Mandell, M., & Maton, K. I. (2009). The influence of on-campus, academic year undergraduate research on STEM Ph.D. outcomes: Evidence from the Meyerhoff Scholarship Program. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 31(4), 441-462.

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The Meyerhoff Scholarship Program, which celebrated its 20th year in 2008, is considered a successful intervention program for increasing the number of underrepresented minorities who earn Ph.D.s or M.D./Ph.D.s and pursue research careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This article examines the relationship between participation in one specific component of the Meyerhoff Scholarship Programon-campus, academic year researchand the pursuit of a STEM Ph.D. by 13 cohorts of program participants. The results indicate that participation in on-campus, academic year research is associated with a substantial increase in the probability of pursuing a STEM Ph.D. They further suggest that the structure and intensity of the on-campus, academic year research experience matter.

Committee on Institutional Cooperation. (2012). Summer research opportunities program. Retrieved from http://www.cic.net/Home/Students/SROP/Home.aspx The Summer Research Opportunities Program (SROP) is a gateway to graduate education at CIC universities. The goal of the program is to increase the number of underrepresented students who pursue graduate study and research careers. SROP helps prepare undergraduates for graduate study through intensive research experiences with faculty mentors and enrichment activities.

Karukstis, K. K. (2008). Broadening participation in undergraduate research. Journal of Chemical Education, 85(11), 1474-1476. Numerous reports and initiatives are focused on the need to prepare a diverse workforce for the 21st Century. Organizations such as the National Academies, the Committee on Equal Opportunities in Science and Engineering, the Association of American Colleges and Universities, and Building Engineering and Science Talent (BEST) are calling for collective action at departmental, institutional, and national levels. Responding to that challenge, the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) and its members have undertaken a variety of initiatives to extend research opportunities to undergraduate students who have not traditionally participated. These activities are part of continuous and collective efforts to help students, faculty, institutions, and the research community tap into the benefits of a vibrant and inclusive undergraduate research program.

Kendricks, K., & Arment, A. (2011). Adopting a K-12 family model with undergraduate research to enhance STEM persistence and achievement in underrepresented minority students. Journal of College Science Teaching, 41(2), 22-27. K-12 education has identified an important need for culturally relevant practices among underrepresented minority students in the classroom. Research has shown that minority students perform better in multicultural learning environments that place an emphasis on addressing both the student's social and academic needs. Accordingly, Central State University, a Historically Black University, has adopted a K-12 family model for its Scholars Program (SP). The program

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consists of six activities for students majoring in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. SP scholars participate in (1) an academic learning community; (2) a living, learning community; (3) mandatory mentoring; (4) the campus honor's program; (5) professional development workshops and graduate school visits; and (6) STEM research on and off campus. Of the above activities, participating students ranked undergraduate research/ internships as having the largest impact on professional preparedness for a STEM career and/or graduate studies. This paper discusses how the family model was implemented in a college environment and its impact.

Strayhorn, T. L. (2010). Undergraduate research participation and STEM graduate degree aspirations among students of color. New Directions for Institutional Research, 148, 85-93. The importance of undergraduate research experiences and the extent to which engagement in such activities influences underrepresented minority students' graduate degree aspirations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields is the focus of this chapter.

Barlow, A., & Villarejo, M. (2004). Making a difference for minorities: Evaluation of an educational enrichment program. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(9), 861881. Category: Biology A comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of an educational intervention program designed to reduce the attrition of minorities from the biological sciences was undertaken to ascertain whether such efforts adequately address the problem. Program participants had greater odds of persisting in basic math and science courses, and of graduating in biology, than did a comparison group, controlling for demographics and academic preparation. Undergraduate research greatly increased the odds of positive graduation outcomes. Program participants were also more likely to pursue graduate study than were university graduates overall. This evaluation demonstrates the value of such programs in increasing the representation of minorities in science.

Jones, M. T., Barlow, A. E., & Villarejo, M. (2010). Importance of undergraduate research for minority in persistence and achievement in biology. Journal of Higher Education, 81(1), 82-115. Category: Biology This study examines the statistical association between timing and duration of undergraduate research participation and college retention and performance in the biological sciences at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis). Using longitudinal data from this large research university, the authors make a substantial contribution to the literature on college retention and persistence in science education. They also explore the relationship of undergraduate research

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participation with high academic achievement in biology, which is necessary to pursue graduate education and become future scientists, science workers, and health care professionals. They detail existing research on this subject and their specific contributions to this body of literature. They conclude by suggesting that greater availability of undergraduate research experiences might counter some of the high attrition rates from science majors and contribute to attracting a diverse workforce to science careers. In particular, they find that introducing students to undergraduate research early on and for an extended period of time are beneficial for the retention and performance of all students, but that underrepresented minorities may have the most to gain from such strategies.

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Women in the Sciences Campbell, A., & Skoog, G. (2004). Preparing undergraduate women for science careers. Journal of College Science Teaching, 33(5), 24-26. Retrieved from http://www.nsta.org/publications/news/story.aspx?id=49129 Women may be underrepresented in the sciences because they have fewer opportunities or because they encounter obstacles. Texas Techs HHMI program began in 1992 and its purpose was to increase the number of women and minorities who had research experiences. The authors sent surveys to the 57 participants and interviewed seven past participants who were currently enrolled in STEM-related Ph.D. programs. Seventy-five percent of the participants responded to their survey. Their responses indicated that an increase in skills, confidence, and motivation were a result of the research experiences, mentors, external presentations, and the students interactions with others in the program. The article also quotes some of the women about what they gained from the experience and from their mentors. The study involved no control group.

Everett, H. L., Nairn, K., & Stoch, C. A. (2011). Putting undergraduate research on the map for women. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly on the Web, 32(2) 29. This article discusses how the MapCores cohort program at College of Saint Benedict was developed to promote womens involvement in undergraduate research. The authors discuss how the participants are recruited and how mentoring and support assist with retention of women in STEM fields. Finally, the article discusses evaluation and recommendations for future research.

Karukstis, K. K. (2010). A horizontal mentoring initiative for senior women scientists at liberal arts colleges. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(2), 33-39. The article focuses on the importance of teaching senior women chemists at liberal arts colleges in the U.S. It discusses several approaches at addressing issues about time, intellectual development, and professional growth among faculty members at various stages of their careers. It also mentions that peer mentoring is effective since it encourages the sharing of ideas, experiences and expertise.

Vieyra, M., Gilmore, J., & Timmerman, B. (2011). Requiring research may improve retention in STEM fields for underrepresented women. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 32(1), 13-19. The article presents a study regarding the necessity of undergraduate research to improve retention of students in science field. A survey was conducted to new biology graduates with regards to mandatory research project. A chi-square test was utilized to determine their voluntary

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY engagement in research project. It mentions that mandatory research is an effective tool for the future career students to become scientists.

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Undergraduate Research: Non-STEM

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Case Study Best, A. A., DeJongh, M., Barton, A. J., Brown, J. R., & Barney, C. C. (2007). Models of interdisciplinary research and service learning at Hope College. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(2), 18-23. Category: Interdisciplinary The article explores the interdisciplinary research and service learning model at Hope College in Holland, Michigan. The author relates that Hope College has developed courses for non-science majors offering disciplines such as chemistry and geological sciences. It notes that the Undergraduate Science Education Program grant from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) has supported the development of these courses and development of some interdisciplinary research teams. Furthermore, HHMI has supported interdisciplinary research teams in the area of microbial genomics and bioinformatics and the engineering and nursing international development project.

Bettison-Varga, L. (2006). Creative activity and undergraduate research across the disciplines. Peer Review, 8(1), 19-21. Category: Independent Studies The article focuses on independent studies carried out by graduate students of the College of Wooster in Ohio. In the college, all students are required to undertake an independent research and/or creative project--the independent study. Former Wooster President Howard Lowry initiated the independent study program. He firmly believed that all students should be challenged to come to their very best work in order to achieve creative and independent thought. The program lays the foundation for lifelong creativity, learning, and reflection. The article also presents the sampling of some independent study titles from the class of 2005, the studies of which are wide and varied. Wooster's curriculum is designed in such a way that students gradually progress toward the independent study experience. The need for financial support for student independent study projects is taken care of by an endowment which is being set up for independent study in the honor of Henry J. Copeland, Wooster's ninth president.

Bierzychudek, P. (2009). Publishing with undergraduate coauthors. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(1), 44-46. Category: Student-Faculty Co-authorship A personal narrative is presented which discusses the author's experience in co-authoring research manuscripts.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Blackmer, J. (2008). The gesture of thinking: Collaborative models for undergraduate research in the arts and humanities - Plenary presentation at the 2008 CUR National Conference. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(2), 8-12. Category: Interdisciplinary

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The article focuses on the integration of arts, humanities, and science in the play "The Human Faustus Project," about the ethics of genetic engineering. The play was presented at the Virginia B. Ball Center for Creative Inquiry during spring semester 2006. It is said to be an example of productive undergraduate research and illustrates aspects of the creative process that can be employed in any research project. According to the author, aspects to the creative process that can serve as important tools for research include collaboration, interdisciplinarity and rebellion. She concludes that the performing arts and the creative people offer new models of research and learning to any field.

Brush, E., Cox, M., Harris, A., &Torda, L. (2010). Undergraduate research as faculty development. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(1), 11-16. Category: Institutional Change The article focuses on the creation of the Adrian Tinsley Program for Undergraduate Research (ATP) at the Bridgewater State University (BSU) in Massachusetts. It states that the intention is to take the undergraduate research movement from a program focusing on summer research grants to one that leverages institutional change through collaboration with other departments. It notes that the undergraduate research has become part of the cultural fabric of BSU.

Chapdelaine, A., & Chapman, B. L. (1999). Using community-based research projects to teach research methods. Teaching of Psychology, 26(2), 101-105. Category: Community-based Research Describes a community-based research project that collaborated with the police department to survey female residents' attitudes toward the role of the police in handling domestic violence cases.Explains that this project provided students with the opportunity to directly experience the research process early in their undergraduate psychology curriculum.

Colbeck, C. L. (1998). Merging in a seamless blend: How faculty integrate teaching and research. The Journal of Higher Education, 69(6), 647-671. Category: Integration of Teaching and Research Using direct observation and detailed activity accounts, this study documented how faculty in two disciplines at two universities simultaneously accomplished teaching and research.

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Individual faculty integrated teaching and research between 8 and 34 percent of their work time. English faculty integrated research more with classroom teaching; physicists integrated research more with training students to conduct inquiry.

Coombs, V. (2006). Research, scholarly, and creative activity at the University of WisconsinRiver Falls. Peer Review, 8(1), 8-11. Category: Student-Faculty Collaboration The article focuses on Research, Scholarly and Creative Activities (RSCA) at the University of Wisconsin at River Falls, Wisconsin. The University started the program in 1999, after a group of faculty members and the dean of the College of Arts and Sciences attended a council on Undergraduate Research Institute on institutionalizing undergraduate research. Students at the undergraduate level conduct projects in an upper-division course or work with faculty. Members of the faculty have also shown great enthusiasm by constantly including student research as a component of their proposals seeking extramural grants. The article also discusses SURSCA, the Society for Undergraduate Research, Scholarly and Creative Activity. This is a student organization which has been created in order to receive more visibility across campus about the activities of RSCA. Students were encouraged to present RSCA findings in different conferences. Many grant and fund are also being provided to encourage students and teachers for conducting research.

Crawford, I., Garg, S., & Neuhoff, J. (2008). Undergraduate research as faculty development: The College of Wooster experience. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(3), 14-17. Category: Interdisciplinary The article offers information on the undergraduate research program at the College of Wooster in Ohio. It notes that the said program is intended to treat students as co-discoverers and teach them to become independent in their reasoning in the process of research. The program also requires college students to demonstrate their capacity for critical inquiry, their skills in sharing their learning experiences to the community and their ability to discover new knowledge in a disciplinary context. The school professors in the College of Wooster concluded that their research program develops the intellectual lives of their students especially in molding them to be a rich source for their own professional development and success.

Curtis, S., & Blair, A. (2010). Experiencing politics in action: Widening participation in placement learning and politics as a vocation. Journal of Political Science Education, 6(4), 369-390. Category: Politics

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Inspired by the work of Ernest Boyer and the Boyer Commission, the Scholarship of Engagement for Politics project was an attempt to adapt their demands for research-based undergraduate learning opportunities to the British context through the pedagogy of placement learning. This article explores the project's attempts to make placement learning more socially inclusive through the development of short, research-based and predominantly local placements that are open to all students, including those with family commitments and part-time jobs, and that are fully embedded in the political science curriculum. The project found that such placements enriched students' understanding of politics and both complemented and reinforced their studies on campus. There were also unexpected benefits in terms of enhancing their appreciation of political actors and processes along with their sense of personal efficacy and interest in a range of possible careers in politics. A number of students used their first experiences of politics as stepping stones to further internships and ultimately employment in politics and government. And most students reported that their placement experiences had given them a renewed respect for political activity by opening their eyes to politics at the local level and the nonpartisan work of great value that political actors engage in on a day-to-day basis.

Gabbert, L. (2010). Exploring local communities: Conducting undergraduate research in Folklore Studies. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(4), 37-42. Category: Folklore Studies The article focuses on research projects in the author's undergraduate Introduction to Folklore class at Utah State University. It states that students are required to get out into the community to record folklore using anthropological fieldwork techniques and analyze findings of the project. It notes that many models for undergraduate research reserve the activity only for students who are outstanding. Furthermore, the early folklore scholarship came from antiquarian and philological interests, which put folklore as an object that could be gathered.

Gary, T., de la Rubia, L. A., Brinkley, M., & Thompson, M. (2010). The scholar in U experience at Tennessee State University. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(1), 6-10. Category: Interdisciplinary Program Development The article focuses on the development of a novel model program to increase recruitment, retention and graduation rates at the Tennessee State University in Nashville. It states that the model encourages undergraduates to engage in scholarly research and other enhanced activities like student-leadership and travel-abroad programs. The Scholar in U Experience model is an interdisciplinary program immersing undergraduates in enhanced learning activities contributing to their intellectual growth.

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Gesink, I. F. (2010). Speaking stones: The cemetery as a laboratory for undergraduate research in the humanities. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(4), 913. Category: Humanities The article offers information on an undergraduate research project in the humanities. It focuses on the cemetery documentation project of the Baldwin-Wallace College in Berea, Ohio that engages students in archival and interdisciplinary research that has resulted in professional-level outcomes at minimal expense. The goal of the project was to locate the veterans' graves in the Adams Street Cemetery with incomplete records of the burials. With the help of a local geologist Terence Hamill of GeoSearches Inc., who did a ground-penetrating radar scan, the project succeeded in discovering the veterans' graves and locating their gravestones.

Grabowski, J. J., Heely, M. E., & Brindley, J. A. (2008). Scaffolding faculty-mentored authentic research experiences for first-year students. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(1), 41-47. Category: Faculty Mentoring The article provides information on the faculty-mentored genuine research experiences for freshmen at the University of Pittsburgh. The undergraduate research experiences are explored to add details. The establishment of the Office of Experiential Learning (OEL) which supports faculty undertaking is tackled. Student retention efforts that are in line with the OEL program are discussed. It is stated that the OEL is a program considered as a non-departmental First Experiences in Research (FE-R) course aiming at strengthening students' involvement in research.

Fritzman, J. M., & Gibson, M. (2008). Collaborative faculty/student research at Lewis & Clark College. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(2), 18-21. Category: Student-Faculty Research The article provides information on the Collaborative Faculty/Student Summer Research Program at Lewis & Clark College in Portland, Oregon. The program aims to encourage and facilitate collaborative research by faculty members and students, promote the integration of research and teaching, and advance the college's culture of scholarship. An overview of the research projects is provided. According to the article, the program provides benefits to faculty members, students, and their academic institutions and the experience of students help them to become well-practiced scholars in the activities of their respective disciplines.

Hitchcock, B. W., & Murphy, E. (1999). A triad of research roles: Experiential learning in an undergraduate research course. Journal of Nursing Education, 38(3), 120-127.

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Category: Nursing This article describes an innovative approach to teaching undergraduate research content directly involving students in a faculty research study, and a student research project undertaken in a nursing research course. Junior-level students participated as research subjects in a faculty study focusing on the health perceptions of baccalaureate nursing students, became data collectors in a related student project on the health perceptions of lay people, and became consumers of the research by analyzing the findings and clinical relevance of these studies. This strategy for teaching research assisted students to master undergraduate research content by participatory involvement in several distinct phases of the research process. The project generated considerable interest and served to foster positive attitudes toward nursing research while concurrently increasing students' comfort level with the total process.

Kenty, J. R. (2001). Weaving undergraduate research into practice-based experiences. Nurse Educator, 26(4), 182-186. Category: Nursing Most nursing education programs fail to link research to practice based courses, thus contributing to the research-to-practice-gap.To better prepare graduates for evidence-based practice, a project that linked research to practice-based learning was developed. The author discusses how the Collaborative Learning Project (CLP) was designed and implemented, the learning activities that linked research to practice-based experiences in an adult health course, and the outcomes of the strategy.

Kitchens, M. B., Dolan, C. J., Hinshaw, J. H., & Johnson, D. E. (2010). Building a model for interdisciplinary research at a small college. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(1), 17-20. Category: Interdisciplinary The article focuses on a model built for interdisciplinary research at a small college. It highlights the beneficial impact that undergraduate research has on faculty and students and describes the outcome of the project, which includes a regional interdisciplinary undergraduate conference. It finds that the interdisciplinary program was beneficial in developing students and faculty and provide learning opportunities, sustainable programs and a broader understanding of research.

LaPlant, J.T. (2011). Undergraduate research and the tenure and promotion process. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(4), 5-6. Category: Tenure and Promotion

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An introduction is presented in which the editor discusses various reports within the issue on topics including the undergraduate research culture in three academic colleges of Weber State University, the importance of undergraduate research to the tenure and promotion evaluation of a faculty member, and how undergraduate research can be addressed in the promotion and tenure process.

Levenson, C. W. (2010). Enhancing undergraduate research in the arts and the humanities. Peer Review, 12(2), 13-15. Category: Strategies in Arts and Humanities The article discusses the specific strategies used by the Office of Undergraduate Research and Creative Endeavors (URACE) at the Florida State University (FSU) to enhance undergraduate research in the aspects of Arts and Humanities. FSU created URACE which worked in two principal guidelines. First, the program encouraged the faculty in Arts and Humanities to apply the science model of undergraduate research. Second, students must be exposed to the research process early in their academic life. Discussed are the various strategies applied by the URACE to increase participation from the students which include workshops and funding mechanisms.

Louis, R. (2008). Collaboration at the crossroads: A community-based arts research initiative. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(2), 22-25. Category: Arts and Humanities An essay illustrating a model for undergraduate research in the arts and humanities at Xavier University of Louisiana that is responsive to student, university, and community needs is presented. It states the mission of the university which includes undergraduate research as an educational means of promoting a more just humane society. The research focused on the work of the Crossroads Project, a community-arts organization that worked with teenagers in public schools and community centers before Hurricane Katrina. Lessons from the project are cited.

Matand, K., Wu, N., & Rollins, N. L. (2011). Developing a better way to improve the research skills of underrepresented students. Council on Undergraduate Research 31(3), 1-9. Category: Interdisciplinary - Underrepresented Students Langston University--improvement of undergraduate research skills.

Orr, A. J. (2011). The benefits and challenges of interdisciplinary undergraduate research abroad. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(4), 42-46.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Category: Research Abroad A description of the course "How Children Learn: Scandinavian Schools, Society and Culture" being offered at Linfield College in McMinnville, Oregon is provided.

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Osgood, D., Morris, L., & Rice, K. (2009). How can an interdisciplinary research program be managed effectively? Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(2), 16-20. Category: Interdisciplinary The article discusses the Albright Creative Research Experience (ACRE), an undergraduate research program of Albright College that aims to foster interdisciplinarity of research, as well as on how to effectively manage an interdisciplinary research program. It outlines the rigors of running an interdisciplinary research program. It notes how fairness and balance must be achieved in the proposal selection and resource allocation of projects. It also points out the importance of maintaining disciplinary integrity in the realization of scholarly depth and coherence of the research. Moreover, it also discusses the elements of the assessment of the interdisciplinary nature of the ACRE Program.

Rosenthal, C. S. (1999). One experience is worth a thousand words: Engaging undergraduates in field research on gender. PS: Political Science and Politics, 32(1), 63-68. Category: Interdisciplinary Describes an experiential learning strategy and field research project that was used as a means of transforming undergraduate students' gender understandings by engaging them in the research process from the development of hypotheses through the interpretation of data collected in field interviews. Discusses student reactions.

Schaffer, M. A., & Peterson, S. (1998). Service learning as a strategy for teaching undergraduate research. Journal of Experiential Education, 21(3), 154-161. Category: Nursing Community-Based Research Teaching the research process through service-learning projects increased student interest in research at Bethel College (Minnesota). Examples of eight such research projects in nursing education are discussed, including their impact on community partners and students. Guidelines for academic-community research partnerships cover building partnerships, involving students, ensuring quality research, and structuring student reflection on learning.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Schilt, P., & Gilbert, L. A. (2008). Undergraduate research in the humanities: Transforming expectations at a research university. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(4), 51-55. Category: Humanities

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The article discusses the significance of the Enhancing Undergraduate Research Experience, Knowledge and Access (EUREKA) for undergraduate research in the humanities at the University of Texas-Austin. It mentions that the EUREKA database provides direct benefits to the faculty of the school. It also notes that the database helps researchers find collaborators from other disciplines for grant proposals. Moreover, the model is being implemented at Santa Clara University, where student involvement in research with faculty is the central to the university's philosophy of integrated learning.

Schultheis, A. S., Farrell, T. M., & Paul, E. L. (2011). Promoting undergraduate research through revising tenure and promotion policy. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(4), 25-31. Category: Tenure and Promotion The article offers information on the revision of promotion and tenure policy among the college faculty members of Stetson University (SU) in Deland, Florida. It discusses the strategies for tenure and opportunity for promotion in order to improve the culture of undergraduate research through standards of excellence in teaching and adopting discipline in every academic engagement. It also explains categories of faculty activities such as teaching, scholarship and creative activity, and service.

Seeborg, M. C. (2008). Achieving proficiencies in economics capstone courses. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 5(2), 61-74. Category: Capstone Research This paper argues that capstone courses in economics should be integrative experiences that require students to demonstrate six core proficiencies. The capstone economics senior seminar at Illinois Wesleyan University is used as an example of how a capstone course that requires completion of an original research paper might achieve these proficiencies. Also, carefully designed co-curricular activities, such as student-edited undergraduate journals, and participation in undergraduate research conferences are recommended as complements to capstone research courses.

Snow, A. A., de Cosmo, J., & Shokair, S. M. (2010). Low-cost strategies for promoting undergraduate research at research universities. Peer Review, 12(2), 16-19.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Category: Cost Reduction Strategies

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The article discusses the approaches and low-cost strategies created for the promotion of undergraduate research at research universities in the U.S. Due to the increasing awareness in undergraduate research, several universities have built centralized programs that align and support research activities in all disciplines. The Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) at the University of California, Irvine, utilizes a Web database application used for data storage and program information for the students' researchers. The Ohio State University created a Summer Undergraduate Research Institute and Fall Undergraduate Research Forum. Changes following the cost reduction decision at the annual undergraduate research symposium are also identified.

Vaughan, M. (2011). Differing college-level tenure models and the culture of undergraduate research. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(4), 19-24. Category: Research Supervision as Teaching Tenure The article offers information on the differing culture of undergraduate research in the three colleges of Weber State University (WSU) in Ogden, Utah. It says that the College of Science views undergraduate research supervision as a type of traditional faculty research while the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences sees it as a form of teaching. It adds that the College of Arts and Humanities' tenure process determines individual mentoring as a teaching form.

Young, G. (2008). Interdisciplinary research seminars in the arts and humanities at Montana State University. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(2), 3033. Category: Interdisciplinary Research Seminar The article describes interdisciplinary research seminars in the arts and humanities at Montana State University that combine music with humanities or other art forms. It discusses the context for undergraduate research at the university, as well as course guidelines and learning outcomes. According to the article, the seminars give undergraduates opportunities to conduct original research on academic pathways and provide professors an opportunity to collaborate with colleagues in other disciplines. Topics of the seminars include music and economics, music and literature, and music and sculpture.

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Program Design Tools Bartkus, K. R. (2007). Fostering student/faculty collaborations through the "Research Group" model: An application to colleges and schools of business. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(2), 6-10. Category: Research Group Model The article offers information on the research group model as an innovative means of developing an undergraduate research program in schools and colleges of business consulting group. It relates that the research group approach redefines mentoring in which outcomes from mentoring become more significant and apparent to the wider range of stakeholders in the educational process. The model aims to prepare students in their chosen career and for their success in graduate school. The establishment, administration and guidelines for implementing a successful research program are also presented.

Boyer Commission. (1998). Reinventing undergraduate education: A blueprint for America's research universities. Princeton, NJ: The Carnegie Foundation. Category: Recommendations This report presents ten recommendations for the radical reconstruction of undergraduate education at research universities in the United States offered by a national commission. Background information is provided in the first three chapters. An overview notes that undergraduates at research universities too often have been shortchanged and that a new model of undergraduate education is needed. Discussion of the university as ecosystem stresses the importance of a shared mission and a synergistic system in which faculty and students are both learners and researchers. An academic bill of rights for students is offered. The main body of the report presents and explains the commission's ten recommendations, which are: (1) make research-based learning the standard; (2) construct an inquiry-based freshman year; (3) build on the freshman foundation; (4) remove barriers to interdisciplinary education; (5) link communication skills and course work; (6) use information technology creatively; (7) culminate with a capstone experience; (8) educate graduate students as apprentice teachers; (9) change faculty reward systems; and (10) cultivate a sense of community. Appendices provide lists of Carnegie classified research universities and the members of the Boyer Commission.

Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University. (2002). Reinventing undergraduate education: Three years after the Boyer Report. S. S. Kenny (chair). State University of New York - Stony Brook. Retreived from http://dspace.sunyconnect.suny.edu/bitstream/handle/1951/26013/Reinventing%20U ndergraduate%20Education%20%28Boyer%20Report%20II%29.pdf?sequence=1 Category: Progress of Undergraduate Research in Americas Research Universities

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This survey was initiated for the Boyer Commission to examine the development of undergraduate programs in the years since Reinventing Undergraduate Education: A Blueprint for Americas Research Universities was published in 1998. Because the Commission felt the information would be of value to other educators, we decided to share the results. The Boyer Report turned out to be of interest and use beyond research universities to all categories of American institutions and to large numbers of institutions worldwide. However, the current study surveyed only the American research universities that were the focus of the original report.

Cooke, D., & Thorme, T. (2011). A practical handbook for supporting community-based research with undergraduate students. Retrieved from http://www.cur.org/publications/community-based.html (Must be purchased). Category: Community-Based Research A Practical Handbook for Supporting Community-Based Research with Undergraduate Students will help colleges and universities initiate and support community-based research (CBR). This volume addresses the special rewards and challenges in connecting undergraduate students with change oriented community-based projects and provides a roadmap for implementing CBR with undergraduates. It lays out a process for conducting CBR with students, dealing with issues such as developing and maintaining partnerships, developing research questions, collecting and analyzing data, and reporting findings. Guiding questions and practical tips are featured throughout. The final section describes how to develop and put in place the human and financial resources needed to implement CBR across the campus.

Council on Undergraduate Research & National Conference on Undergraduate Research. (2005). CUR/NCUR joint statement. Retrieved from http://www.cur.org/SummitPosition.html Category: Definition of Undergraduate Research Joint statement of principles in support of undergraduate research, scholarship, and creative activities.

Kephart, K., Villa, E., Gates, A. Q., & Roach, S. (2008). The affinity research group model: Creating and maintaining dynamic, productive, and inclusive research groups. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(4), 13-24. Category: Affinity research group model The article discusses the undergraduate research model Affinity Research Group (ARG) for creating and maintaining dynamic, productive and inclusive research groups. It mentions that ARG is a team effort which enhances the abilities of students, as well as mentors, in

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environmental activities. It notes that ARG integrates optimal practices from different kinds of sources in industry, research and education. Moreover, the model has demonstrated success in increasing both the quality of undergraduate students' learning experiences and their participation in advanced studies.

Klos, N. Y., Shanahan, J. O., & Young, G. (2011). Creative inquiry in the arts and humanities: Models of undergraduate research. Retrieved from http://www.cur.org/publications/artshumanities.html (Must be purchased). Category: Models Arts and Humanities Creative Inquiry in the Arts & Humanities: Models of Undergraduate Research aims to assist faculty and administrators of any academic discipline who are creating undergraduate research opportunities that move beyond the natural and social sciences, as well as those working to sustain well-established, multidisciplinary programs. It offers examples of successful programs, assignments, curricula, journals, and conferences that support the research, scholarship, and creative activity of students in arts and humanities disciplines. Those examples cover a diversity of students scholarly and creative work, including individual and collaborative writing, oral presentations, works of visual art, scholarly compilations, exhibits, musical compositions, plays, performances, public scholarship, and publications in many different forms. Those who mentor undergraduate research in the arts and humanities know the challenges of working with student researchers in disciplines in which solitary scholarship and individual creative processes are the norm. This work simply cannot, and should not, replicate a scientific model that utilizes teams of researchers, pooled data, and calibrated methods. Student research in the arts and humanities must reflect the kinds of work that scholars do in those fields. But which skills and bases of knowledge can mentors impart to students who do not have access to archives and special collections, who do not read classical languages, or who are just beginning to learn techniques that scholars in the field have mastered? How can faculty find the time to mentor individual student researchers when they are responsible for teaching hundreds of students every semester? Is it wise for faculty to invest that time in their undergraduate students research when they need to publish their own work for tenure and promotion? Creative Inquiry in the Arts & Humanities: Models of Undergraduate Research is a collection of replicable examples and expert advice from scholars who are fully aware of these questions and difficulties and committed to addressing them with practical ideas and successful models.

Stocks, J. (2011). Undergraduate research for all? Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 32(1), 6-7. Category: Research Model Development An introduction to the journal is presented in which the editor discusses ways for developing college undergraduate research models for all disciplines.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Willison, J. (2009). Multiple contexts, multiple outcomes: One conceptual framework for research skill development in the undergraduate curriculum. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(3), 10-14. Category: Research Skill Development Framework

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The article features the significance of the conceptual framework for research which is integrated in the curricula of various universities in the U.S. The scheme is aimed at allowing comparative analysis of the value of undergraduate research and enables students to develop interest in or possibly pursue graduate research. The Research Skill Development (RSD) framework is the platform used by various institutions from freshmen to senior years, which incorporates six facets of research skills into the student's research methods. The six aspects of research include embarking on inquiry and determining a need for knowledge, finding the needed data using the appropriate methodology and organizing information collected or generated.

Willison, J.W., & ORegan, K. (2007). Commonly known, commonly not known, totally unknown: A framework for students becoming researchers. Higher Education Research and Development, 26, 393-409. Category: Results of Research Skill Development Framework Providing undergraduate students with research experience has been asserted as a way of reinventing university education. This assertion lacks both substantial empirical evidence and a coherent theoretical framework. In this paper, the authors consider both research and theory relating to undergraduate research and present the Research Skill Development framework, which can be used to both chart and monitor students' research skill development. An example is given of the practical application of this framework, together with associated preliminary research findings. Further related research directions are also suggested. I am neither especially clever nor especially gifted. I am only very, very curious. - Albert Einstein.

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Faculty Tools Behling, L. L. (2009). Reading, writing, and research: Undergraduate students as scholars in literary studies. Retrieved from http://www.cur.org/publications/litstudies.html (Must be purchased). Category: Literary Studies Teaching Methodology For the past several decades, we have been calling for more critical and creative thinking in all our courses. We need all our students to do more, as Laura Behling says in her introduction to the book, prying and poking. In other words, all our students need to become engaged in the kinds of real research that goes on in all our fields. More than anything, we need to think of research, particularly undergraduate research commencing with first-year courses, as the primary teaching methodology for undergraduate education. This book documents multiple methods and procedures that could be adapted for all students to become engaged in the essential questions of our fields. Reading, Writing, and Research: Undergraduate Students as Scholars in Literary Studies is essential reading for beginning campus discussions for bringing a research-based teaching methodology to all our undergraduate courses in community colleges, liberal arts colleges, and undergraduate programs in research universities. Paul Bodmer Senior Program Officer Higher Education (retired) National Council of Teachers of English

Brew, A. (2010). Imperatives and challenges in integrating teaching and research. Higher Education Research and Development, 29(2), 139-150. Category: Integration of Research and Teaching This paper explores why it is important for universities to integrate research and teaching at the present time and considers how it can be achieved. Political, institutional and disciplinary factors affect the relationship, whether the aim is to integrate teaching with research or to integrate research with teaching. So the article explores factors that facilitate and factors that discourage integration. By way of providing an example of implementation, imperatives and challenges in developing this relationship at a large research-intensive Australian university are outlined. Finally, the paper draws some general implications from this discussion to suggest where moves by disciplinary communities to integrate research and teaching might be heading.

Council on Undergraduate Research. (2000). How to develop and administer institutional undergraduate research programs. Retrieved from http://cur.networkats.com/members_online/members/viewitem.asp?item=9&catalog =PUBS&pn=1&af=CUR (Must be purchased).

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Category: Research Development and Campus Initiative How-to Guide A step-by-step approach to developing and managing a campus-wide undergraduate research initiative. Commentaries on undergraduate research issues relating to faculty, students and curricula. Practices and surveys, and useful vignettes.

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Council on Undergraduate Research. (2001). How to get a tenure-track position at a predominantly undergraduate institution. Retrieved from http://cur.networkats.com/members_online/members/viewitem.asp?item=10&catalo g=PUBS&pn=2&af=CUR (Must be purchased). Category: Tenure How To Get A Tenure-Track Position at a Predominantly Undergraduate Institution outlines the process of landing a tenure track position at a predominantly undergraduate institution (PUI). Applying for a tenure track position at a PUI is a fundamentally different process than applying for a tenure track position at a research institution with a large graduate enrollment. Graduate thesis advisors and postdoctoral advisors are sometimes unaware of the culture at undergraduate institutions. This booklet will bridge the information gap between PUIs and research institutions and give you some practical advice that will make your application stand out from the rest. Topics covered include a description of what a job at a PUI is like, how to prepare yourself for such a position during graduate school and in your postdoctoral years, preparing the application itself, details of the interview process, and negotiating the contract. This booklet is aimed primarily at current graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty in temporary positions. Those who counsel graduate students as they seek jobs will want to offer this booklet as a handy guide. Faculty members and deans who are hiring will also find useful insights into the process that will improve the hiring process.

Dotterer, R. L. (2002). Student-faculty collaborations, undergraduate research, and collaboration as an administrative model. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 90, 81-90. Category: Inquiry Based Education and Collaborative Administration Models Provides information on collaborative inquiry-based education and collaborative administrative models in undergraduate research. Role of the models in the practice of scholarship in an academy; Contributions of the National Conference on Undergraduate Research in fostering undergraduate research, scholarship and accomplishments in all academic disciplines; Details on the attributes of outstanding undergraduate education, according to the Education Commission for the States.

Elgren, T., & Hensel, N. (2006). Undergraduate research experiences: Synergies between scholarship and teaching. Peer Review, 8(1), 4-7.

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Category: Student-Faculty Collaboration The article focuses on undergraduate student-faculty collaborative research opportunities. Collaborative research fulfills some of the most fundamental educational objectives like personalized education, engaged pedagogy, promoting students' intellectual independence and maturation. Undergraduate research experiences is one of the ways through which students build personal connections with faculty mentors. These relationships between students and faculty are very important because this is the time when undergraduates are seemingly mere disengaged in their education and rarely interact with faculty members outside of the classroom. The efforts have been made to design curricula that incorporate discovery-based and active learning which are a must for the independence required for a successful research experience. Many institutes, after recognizing the impact of undergraduate research on student learning, student and faculty retention and institutional reputation, have shown tremendous faith in it.

Grobman, L. (2007). Affirming the independent researcher model: Undergraduate research in the humanities. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(1), 2328. Category: Research Models -- Humanities The article focuses on the models used for undergraduate research in humanities. It discusses the nature of undergraduate research work in humanities which requires student-faculty collaborations to offer new kinds of research and pedagogical opportunities for faculty and students, as well as to produce scholar work with faculty as mentors and guides, but not as coresearchers. Furthermore, it explores the curricular innovations and changes that are provided to students to attain scholarly opportunities through the program under the humanities subject.

Haase, S. J., & Fisk, G. D. (2008). Research collaboration as an effective avenue to promotion and tenure. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(3), 6-8. Category: Promotion and Tenure The article offers information on research collaborations which provide a helpful way to transition from large, research-focused universities to smaller, teaching-focused institutions that typically have limited resources. Research collaborations increased over the years for a number of reasons which include granting agency requests for collaborative projects and increased efficiency of research teams over an individual. It also notes that research collaboration enables researchers to become more prepared for doing research in graduate school. Moreover, researchers found out that research collaboration is a very effective means in maintaining active research programs, which contributed to the strength of individual's promotion applications.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Harton, H. C. (2008). Doing it all: How to teach rigorous courses, advance research knowledge, and be an indispensable university citizen (without losing your mind). Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 28(3), 18-22. Category: Balancing Teaching, Research, and Service

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The article offers suggestions for finding balance in the academic career. It notes that factors involving professional development include finding a mentor, teaching, research, and service. It suggests that as an advanced faculty member, it is necessary to be concerned about how it feels being evaluated. However, it notes that it is advisable to work with undergraduate co-authors to broaden research programs and to find service that is enjoyable to do if an individual uses his teaching time to get the maximum benefit of his effort.

Jarvis, L. H., Shaughnessy, J., Chase, L., & Barney, C. (2011). Integrating undergraduate research into faculty responsibilities: The impact on tenure and promotion decisions. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(4), 7-9. Category: Tenure and Promotion The article discusses the impact of undergraduate research (UR) to the tenure and promotion of involved faculty members. It tackles the challenges faced by faculty members in UR, such as time constraint for their own research, which pose the need to consider UR in their tenure and promotion. It adds that institutions should require research program development in hiring faculty members, encourage competitive grant application, and conduct performance reviews which will determine tenure gains. International perspective

Jenkins, A., & Healey, M. (2010). Undergraduate research and international initiatives to link teaching and research. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(3), 3642. Category: Best Practices The article focuses on undergraduate research and international initiatives in connection to teaching and research. It mentions that much of the international research literature on teaching and discipline-based research relationships centered around statistical analysis of measures of student satisfaction and faculty research productivity. An indication of worldwide interest on undergraduate research is manifested in the publication of the book "Developing Undergraduate Research and Inquiry," by the Great Britain Higher Education Academy.

Levy, P. (2011). Embedding inquiry and research into mainstream higher education: A UK perspective. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 32(1), 36-42.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Category: Inquiry-Based Learning Experiences of First Year Undergraduates

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The article focuses on the key findings of a study which explores the research experiences of first year undergraduate students on inquiry-based learning (IBL) and research in various courses. It mentions the difficulties and benefits in engaging with inquiry for learning and inquiry for knowledge-building reflected by the study. It states that the study suggests the engagement with inquiry-based research among the students for educational benefits and personal development at an early stage.

Lupton, N. A. (2010). Using "business intelligence" to support undergraduate research. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(4), 14-17. Category: Resource Allocation The article offers information related to the use of business intelligence (BI) to support undergraduate research. It suggests on using entrepreneurial strategies in order to serve our constituents using fewer resources, in today's economic times. It comments that undergraduateresearch administrators need data and data-analysis techniques to help reach the best possible decisions on allocation of resources. It highlights a case study that explores the implementation of the BI process to maximize the resources available for undergraduate research at Central Washington University (CWU).

May, S. R., Cook, D. L., & Panu, A. M. (2012). A quantitative model for predicting which features of undergraduate research aid acceptance into graduate education. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 32(3), 18-22. Category: Interdisciplinary Features of Undergraduate Research that Aid Acceptance into Graduate Education The article offers the author's insights on the use of logistic regression, a quantitative model that can predict the features of undergraduate research (UR) aid acceptance into graduate education. He mentions that logistic model can produce a probability estimation on a particular combination of UR experience that will result in admission to a graduate education program. He says that the model may settle issue of the importance of UR experience and may put limitations on higher education.

Malachowski, M. (2006). Undergraduate research as the next great faculty divide. Peer Review, 8(1), 26-27. Category: Best Practices The article discusses the new line of demarcation between college faculty who engage students in their research and those who do not. The article also presents two approaches toward research.

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The first is a result-oriented approach and the second is a process-oriented approach, with both methods including an expectation of publishable results. It is being emphasized that student learning is negatively affected by faculty who take research-oriented approach to their professional lives rather than a student-oriented one. It is also being stated that the extent to which faculty are student-oriented has tremendous impact on student satisfaction, learning outcomes and affective development. If the faculty are primarily research-oriented, student outcomes are not that positive. A great divide has been created between teaching and research at PhD-granting institutions that has led the faculty to substantially distance themselves from undergraduates and undergraduate education. According to the author this is not a very healthy sign as it can be detrimental to student learning.

Malachowski, M. R. (2003). A research across-the-curriculum movement. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 93, 55-68. Category: Student Involvement Discusses prospects of the involvement of students in faculty research projects at the predominantly undergraduate institutions (PUI). Nature of research at the PUI; Details on different categories of scholarship; Comparison of the impact of a student-oriented faculty and research-oriented faculty on the development of the student; Factors responsible for the attitude and behavior of the faculty.

Miller, R. (2009). Connecting beliefs with research on effective undergraduate education. Peer Review, 11(2), 4-8. Category: Effects of Faculty Buy-in The article reports on the initiatives established by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) that focus on improving undergraduate student learning in the U.S. It states that the Greater Expectations initiative and the Liberal Education and America's Promise (LEAP) campaign encourage higher education to strive for higher levels of learning for all students. It suggests the importance for both students and teachers to believe that all students can learn at high levels. It is significant to have a convincing evidence that the chosen actions have the possibility to succeed to achieve the goals.

Roach-Duncan, J. (2010). Mixing business communication and business statistics with experiential learning: Student and instructor reflections on work-related undergraduate business research projects. Journal of Applied Research for Business Instruction, 8(3), 1-6. Category: Interdisciplinary and Business

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In recent times experiential learning attempted to assist student development in almost every field. More specifically regarding business studies, instructors have used experiential learning projects in a variety of ways, depending upon the business function. The described learning project progression holds the potential to be useful to instructors looking to expose undergraduate students to a simulated consulting-related environment where communication, technical, and problem-solving skills are used. Projects may assist a variety of offices and businesses in the area where the undergraduate students themselves are employed. Even though the example herein includes a research methods class, such problems can be used in marketing, management, or business statistics courses in many different levels of the business classroom. Further, the statistical application may be reduced to fit any level of classroom.

Ronnenberg, S. C., & Sadowski, J. (2011). Recognizing undergraduate research in criteria for faculty promotion and tenure. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(4), 10-12. Category: Promotion and Tenure The article offers the authors' insights on the importance for faculty members to recognize undergraduate research as a scholarly work which can be viewed as a basis for their tenure and promotion. The authors argue that faculty members should be encouraged to include their undergraduate research tasks under the three review categories such as scholarship, teaching, and service. They suggest that faculty can adopt Boyer's integration of scholarship to assess their professional development.

Schantz, M. S. (2008). Undergraduate research in the humanities: Challenges and prospects. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(2), 26-29. Category: Research Issues The article discusses the highlights of the conference titled "Undergraduate Research in the Humanities: Challenges and Prospects," in September 2007. The conference was participated by students from ten institutions belonging to the Associated Colleges of the South (ACS). John Churchill, Secretary of Phi Beta Kappa, offered the keynote address that launched deliberations on issues regarding undergraduate research in the humanities. Ways to compensate for the problem of the relative expertise of students and faculty members are discussed.

Teagle Working Group on the Teacher-Scholar (2007). Student learning and faculty research: Connecting teaching and scholarship. New York, NY: American Council of Learned Societies. Retrieved from http://www.teaglefoundation.org/learning/pdf/2006_acls_whitepaper.pdf Category: Student Learning

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This paper, produced under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies with funding from the Teagle Foundation, draws on NSSE and FSSE data to demonstrate that the teacher-scholar model enriches the learning of students who conduct research with faculty as well as the larger learning environment. Because scholarship and teaching as are mutually sustaining endeavors, all institutions, not just universities with graduate-level programs, should promote and strongly support the scholarly engagement of their faculties in order to ensure the best quality educational experience for undergraduates. The NSSE-FSSE analysis found positive relationships between faculty time on researchparticularly research with undergraduatesand an emphasis on deep approaches to learning in their courses benefit students in several desirable ways. A major implication of this study is that an important ingredient for cultivating a campus culture marked by intellectual vitality and enriched student learning and personal development is to recruit, support, and reward faculty members who are actively engaged in research, who value undergraduate participation in research, who are responsive to educational research, and who use effective educational practices in their classrooms. At institutions where these conditions are present, students are more likely to conduct research with a faculty member, faculty members are more likely to emphasize deep-learning activities in their courses, and students tend to report greater gains in general knowledge and skills

Volkwein, J. F., & Carbone, D. A. (1994). The impact of departmental research and teaching climates on undergraduate growth and satisfaction. Journal of Higher Education, 65(2), 147-167. Category: Departmental Climate The article examines the association between the differences in departmental teaching and research climates and student academic outcomes. Student and departmental measures at a research university; Measures of departmental climate; Value of balanced orientation towards research and teaching and its favorable impact on students.

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Ethics Dehn, P. F. (2010). Responsible conduct of research: Administrative issues concerning research integrity and compliance. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(3), 27-34. Category: Administrative Issues The article discusses issues ethical issues surrounding research integrity and compliance. It mentions the responsible practices involved in the conduct of research including compliance with regulations pertaining to research misconduct and welfare of subjects, avoidance of conflicts of interests and the use of commonly accepted practices for handling data. It also cites the requirement of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for undergraduate, graduate students or postdoctoral researchers participating in funded research to engage in training for responsible conduct of research.

Kallgren, C. A. (1996). Undergraduate research and the institutional review board: A mismatch or happy marriage? Teaching of Psychology, 23(1), 20-25. Category: Institutional Review Board Examines undergraduate psychological research with human subjects in the United States.Reasons for the need of an evaluation of undergraduate research by an Institutional Review Board (IRB); Results of a survey on undergraduate researchers who underwent the URB process for their research.

Karkowski, A. M. (2010). Activities to help students appreciate committees that protect research participants. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(3), 11-14. Category: Ethics Education The article offers information on activities designed to aid students in appreciating committees that protect research participants such as institutional review boards (IRBs) and institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) in the U.S. It provides a description of specific activities, as well as their learning goals and assessment methods. One of these activities is the simulation wherein students review mock research proposals written by the instructor containing issues that arise in IRB or IACUC settings.

Lopatto, D., & Ellis, A. (2010). The top 10 ways to persuade an institutional review board to reject your research proposal. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(3), 15-19.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Category: Institutional Review Board

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The article discusses ways by which researchers can convince an institutional review board (IRB) to reject a research proposal. It states that giving the IRB no time to review the proposal by submitting it a day before the research project begins is a ground for rejection. It also mentions that an unformed, poorly written proposal gives the IRB enough reason to disapprove a research proposal. Moreover, it says that manipulation of the concept of minimal risk is a basis for research proposal rejection.

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Benefits Boyd, M. K., & Wesemann, J. L. (2009). Broadening participation in undergraduate research: Fostering excellence and enhancing the impact. Retrieved from http://www.cur.org/publications/broadening.html (Must be purchased). Category: Inclusion Engaging undergraduate students in research, scholarship, and creative activity is a proven and powerful practice for enhancing educational outcomes and expanding frontiers of knowledge. This book is a rich collection featuring institutions that are maximizing the impact of this practice by including: underrepresented ethnic and racial minorities, students with disabilities, females, students of lower socioeconomic status, first- and second-year students, and others not traditionally involved in the development of new knowledge. Examples of high-quality, inclusive programs from community colleges, primarily undergraduate institutions, minority-serving institutions, comprehensive universities, and research universities will help faculty, staff, and administrators enhance: the lives of their students, the direction of their scholarship, and the impact of their disciplines and institutions.

Carboni, L. W., Wynn, S. R., & McGuire, C. M. (2007). Action research with undergraduate preservice teachers: Emerging/merging voices. Action in Teacher Education, 29(3), 50-59. Category: Preservice Teachers This inquiry investigates action research as a tool to facilitate reflective practice in undergraduate preservice teachers. Typically utilized in graduate programs, action research is a viable tool for increasing preservice teachers' systematic classroom-based inquiry. This process is examined through a theoretical framework of narrative inquiry, and it utilizes a participatory design as the basis of inquiry. In this design, instructor and student are inquirers empowered to share their interpretations of the process of action research. The findings stem from a merging of the experiences of instructor and student and include recommendations for using action research with undergraduate preservice teachers, as well as suggestions for further consideration of the process.

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Chapman, D. W. (2003, September 12). Undergraduate research: Showcasing young scholars. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 50(3), B5. Category: Research Presentations for Undergraduates Provides information on the value of undergraduate research on various topics ranging from history to politics to economics. Popularity of undergraduate-research presentations in the U.S; Interest of colleges and universities in undergraduate research; Purpose and meaning of undergraduate research

Committee on Institutional Cooperation. (2012). Summer research opportunities. Retrieved from http://www.cic.net/Home/Students/SROP/Home.aspx Category: Underrepresented Student Research Program The Summer Research Opportunities Program (SROP) is a gateway to graduate education at CIC universities. The goal of the program is to increase the number of underrepresented students who pursue graduate study and research careers. SROP helps prepare undergraduates for graduate study through intensive research experiences with faculty mentors and enrichment activities.

Craney, C., McKay, T., Mazzeo, A., Prigodich, C., de Groot, R., & Morris, J. (2011). Crossdiscipline perceptions of the undergraduate research experience. Journal of Higher
Education, 82(1), 92-113.

Category: Interdisciplinary The interest in undergraduate research as a "touchstone" for the integration of research and education (Bauer & Bennett, 2003, p. 212) has led to a large number of programs and models supported by a variety of public and private sources (Seymour, Hunter, Laursen, &DeAntoni, 2004). Assessments have examined students' progress toward advanced degrees, clarification of career path decisions, understanding of research-associated skills or attitudes, and access to research (Denofrio, Russell, Lopato, & Lu, 2007; Frantz, De Haan, Demetrikopoulos, &Carruth, 2006; Hunter, Laursen, & Seymour, 2006; Hurtado, Eagan, Cabrera, Lin, Park, & Lopez, 2008; Ishiyama, 2002; Lopatto, 2004; Russell, Hancock, & McCullough, 2007; Seymour et al., 2004). This study examines the benefits, outcomes, and goals for undergraduate research across disciplinary area, academic class standing, gender, ethnicity, and previous research experience

Hathaway, R. S., Nagda, B. A., & Gregerman, S. R. (2002). The relationship of undergraduate research participation to graduate and professional education pursuit: An empirical study. Journal of College Student Development, 43, 614-631.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Category: Persistence to Graduate Study

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In this study we investigate the relationship of undergraduate research participation to pursuit of graduate education and other activities. Data come from 291 survey respondents who provided information about their post-undergraduate education pursuits and activities. The findings indicate that undergraduate research participants were significantly more likely to pursue graduate education and additional research activity.

Ishiyama, J. (2002). Does early participation in undergraduate research benefit social science and humanities students? College Student Journal, 36(3), 380386. Category: Interdisciplinary Presents a study that examined the relationship between early student participation in collaborative research projects with faculty and the development of social science and humanities students.Analysis of the benefit of participation in undergraduate research for students; Investigation of the degree to which students recognize personal gains; Assessment of differences in the Student Independent Analytical Development Scores.

Kremer, J. F., & Bringle, R. G. (1990). The effects of an intensive research experience on the careers of talented undergraduates. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 24, 1-5. (Do not have access to pdf/link). Category: Interdisciplinary In a follow-up survey, talented undergraduate psychology majors (N=22) who participated in an intensive research program reported a greater change in research skills, greater research productivity, and stronger interest in research as a career choice than did the control group (N=21).

Leeman, J., Goeppinger, J., Funk, S., & Roland, S. J. (2003). An enriched research experience for minority undergraduates--a step toward increasing the number of minority nurse researchers. Nursing Outlook, 51(1), 20-24. Category: Underrepresented Students This article describes a partnership between a research-intensive university and a historical minority-serving institution to create a year-long Research Enrichment and Apprenticeship Program for 9 undergraduate minority nursing students. The apprenticeship program provides undergraduate students an opportunity to directly experience nursing research and has the longterm goal of increasing the number of racial and ethnic minority researchers in nursing.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Lopatto, D (2006). Undergraduate Research as a Catalyst for Liberal Learning. Peer Review, 8(1), 22-25. Category: Interdisciplinary

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The article discusses how undergraduate research can act as a catalyst for liberal learning. The experiences of doing original research while being mentored by an experienced researcher enjoys high status in contemporary higher education. Undergraduate research helps in attaining a wide range of educational goals. It may facilitate empowered learning, informed learning, and responsible learning. The survey carried on to establish the benefits from undergraduate research indicated that students involved in research reported gains on a variety of skills, including design and hypothesis formation, data collection and interpretation, information literacy, communication and computer work. These students also gained in terms of professionalism including professional advancement and professional development. The undergraduate research also leads to personal development which includes the growth of self-confidence, independence, tolerance for obstacles, interest in the discipline and sense of accomplishment.

Nagda, B. A., Gregerman, S. R., Jonides, J. W., von Hippel, W., & Lerner, J. S. (1998). Undergraduate student-faculty partnerships affect student retention. The Review of Higher Education, 22, 5572. Category: Retention This article evaluates the impact of a program promoting student-faculty research partnerships on college student retention. The program, built on the premise that successful retention efforts integrate students into the core academic mission of the university, targets first-year and sophomore undergraduates. Findings of a participant-control group design show that the research partnerships are most effective in the retention of students at greater risk for college attrition i.e. African American students and students with low GPAs.

Nnadozie, E., Ishiyama, J. T., & Chon, J. (2001). Undergraduate research internships and graduate school success. Journal of College Student Development, 42(2), 145-156. Category: Success in Graduate School This study sought to determine the relationship between the rigor of the internships and future success of McNair participants in graduate school. Participants included McNair Program directors and former Truman State University McNair participants. Two sets of questionnaires were sent to the two groups of respondents. Results show that both McNair Program directors and McNair alumni consider undergraduate research internships to be the most effective of the three elements in admission of McNair participants into graduate school. Internship rigor is positively related to success in graduate school as measured in terms of placement, secured funding, and completion. Results also show three elementspreparation, presentation, and publicationare the keys to a successful undergraduate research experience.

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Searight, H. R., Ratwik, S., & Smith, T. (2010). "Hey, I Can Do This!" The benefits of conducting undergraduate psychology research for young adult development. InSight: A Journal of Scholarly Teaching, 5, 106-114. Category: Interdisciplinary Many undergraduate programs require students to complete an independent researchproject in their major field prior to graduation. These projects are typically described as opportunities for integration of coursework and a direct application of the methods of inquiry specific to a particular discipline. Evaluations of curricular projects have usually found that they positively impact students' knowledge and skills in that discipline. However, little attention has been devoted to the impact that these projects have on broader aspects of psychosocial development. The current study describes the results of a focus group conducted with students who had recently completed their senior research project in psychology. Results of the focus group interview were transcribed and coded according to grounded theory principles. Five developmentally-specific categories emerged from the analysis. These included a greater sense of competence attributed to completing a large-scale project, an experience of being in a professional role relative to research participants as well as to the audience presented with their study results, and a sense of ownership and pride in completing their project. Universities that either require or are contemplating requiring senior projects should consider these broader benefits to young adult development.

Stocks, J. (2010). Exploring the benefits of undergraduate research for both students and faculty. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 31(1), 5. Category: Institutional Benefit The article explores how institutions benefit from a vital undergraduate research program on their campuses in the U.S. It focuses on a shared data on the impact of undergraduate research on both faculty and students. It explores the variety of positions and on how the development of a comprehensive undergraduate research program leads to deep institutional transformation.

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Faculty Mentoring Jacobi, M. (1991). Mentoring and undergraduate academic success: A literature review. Review of Educational Research, 61(4), 505-532. Category: Interdisciplinary Despite a growing body of research about mentoring, definitional, theoretical, and methodological deficiencies reduce the usefulness of existing research. This article provides a critical review of the literature on mentoring, with an emphasis on the links between mentoring and undergraduate academic success. The first section describes a variety of ways in which mentoring has been defined within higher education, management, and psychology. Issues related to developing a standard operational definition of mentoring within higher education are discussed. The second section provides a critical review of empirical research about mentoring and undergraduate education. The third section describes four different theoretical perspectives that could be used in future research about mentoring. Finally, future directions for research, including methodological issues and substantive concerns are readdressed.

Temple, L., Sibley, T. Q., & Orr, A. J. (2010). How to mentor undergraduate researchers. Retrieved from http://cur.networkats.com/members_online/members/viewitem.asp?item=40&catalo g=PUBS&pn=1&af=CUR (Must be purchased). Category: Mentorship Handbook How to Mentor Undergraduate Researchers is written for faculty members and other researchers who mentor undergraduates. It provides a concise description of the mentoring process, including the opportunities and rewards that a mentoring experience provides to both students and mentors. This updated How to Mentor handbook reflects many changes over the last decade in the scope and extent of research opportunities for undergraduates in the United States. It draws on the timeless advice and wisdom present in the first edition, 2002, which was edited by Carolyn Ash Merkel and Shenda M. Baker. Reflecting the current expansion of CUR into all undergraduate disciplines, in this edition experts in a variety of different fields were called upon to expand the handbooks usefulness across all areas of undergraduate research endeavors. In particular, the Social Sciences section reflects not only doing research in the social sciences, but also on the fact that mentoring is a social process. (A larger treatise on this subject can be found here: www.cur.org/socializing.html). Advice is valid for both on- and off-campus research experiences and most academic disciplines.

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Publishing Council on Undergraduate Research. (2012). Undergraduate journals and publications. Retrieved from http://www.cur.org/ugjournal.html Category: Where to publish This page contains links for journals in which undergraduates can publish.

Burks, R. L, & Chumchal, M. M. (2007). To co-author or not to co-author: How to write, publish, and negotiate issues of authorship with undergraduate research students. Retrieved from http://www.niu.edu/engagedlearning/research/pdfs/Burks_Chumchal_CoAuthor_or _not.pdf Category: Value of Student-Faculty Publishing This teaching resource emphasizes the value of publishing with undergraduates and may be particularly helpful to incoming faculty who are new to the process of working with students. Beyond simply extolling the virtues of undergraduate research, we examine how such deep learning experiences for students can translate into unique opportunities for the faculty to demonstrate devotion to both teaching and scholarship. Along with highlighting the reasons faculty should consider publishing with undergraduates, we identify the particular challenges that accompany this suggestion and discuss strategies for overcoming them. Our resource includes two decision trees for helping faculty determine whether publishing with undergraduates represents a reasonable and attainable goal and whether an undergraduate has earned authorship. Based on our experience at primarily undergraduate institutions, we provide a list of strategies that may facilitate writing with undergraduates and lead to certain milestones in the careers of both students and faculty.

Dean, J. M., & Kaiser, M. L. (2010). Faculty-student collaborative research in the humanities. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(3), 43-47. Category: Problems An essay is presented that analyzes faculty-undergraduate collaborative research leading to publication at Research 1 universities. It examines the problems that constitute successful collaborations difficult. The widespread perception that undergraduate education, especially at Research 1 institutions needing reform via teaching innovations that promote constructive learning, sets as background for the study.

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Ferrari, J. R., Weyers, S., & Davis, S. F. (2002). Publish that paper - but where? Faculty knowledge and perceptions of undergraduate publications. College Student Journal, 36(3), 335-344. Category: Where to Publish Presents studies that investigated the knowledge and perception by psychology faculty of undergraduate publications in student-based and general professional journals. Assessment of the effect of publication in several periodicals on the acceptance of undergraduate psychology students in a doctoral graduate program in psychology; Analysis of several student-based journals; Examination of the advantage of research publication for doctoral admission.

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University Administration Brakke, D. F., Crowe, M. L., & Karukstis, K. (2009). Perspective: Reasons deans and provosts (and presidents) should value, support, and encourage undergraduate research. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(1), 10-14. Category: Support of Undergraduate Research In this article the author discusses the need of deans and provosts to support and encourage undergraduate research in the U.S. The author states that undergraduate research provides a lot of benefits and advantages in every educational discipline for the advancement of the field and development of undergraduate students. The author notes that deans and provost should exert a lot of concern to sustain quality research and leverage opportunities for students.

Evans, D. R. (2010). The challenge of undergraduate research. Peer Review, 12(2), 31-31. Category: Challenges The article discusses the challenges that the academic administrators confront with in facultymentored undergraduate researches. It contends that engaging undergraduates in student research is an effective way to enhance skills in intellectual discipline, information gathering and analysis, research methodology and several other areas. Developing such skills require from the faculty members serious commitment of one's time and energy. Student researches, with special emphasis on small colleges, have been established on the principle of close student-faculty relationships that are found to help researches succeed. It also suggests that the positive learning outcomes and faculty support for undergraduate researches must be equated with financial support from the institution.

Hensel, N. (2012). Characteristics of excellence in undergraduate research (COEUR). Retrieved from http://cur-design.americaneagle.com/assets/1/23/COEUR_final.pdf Category: Best Practices Characteristics of Excellence in Undergraduate Research (COEUR) is based on the collective experience, over many years, of CUR members who have engaged undergraduate students in research, developed undergraduate research programs, mentored new faculty to include undergraduate research in their teaching repertoire, and coached universities in the development of undergraduate research programs. The instrument aspires to present the best practices in undergraduate research. It can be used as a guide for institutions that are striving to enhance the learning experiences of students through research program. It can also be used as a beacon for institutions that are in the beginning stages of developing an undergraduate research program.

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Hoffman, J. R. (2009). Applying a cost-benefit analysis to undergraduate research at a small comprehensive university. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 30(1), 20-24. Category: Cost of Research The article discusses the relevance of the application of a cost-benefit analysis to undergraduate research programs of small American comprehensive university. The author states that undergraduate research's operational costs require high budget making it difficult for small comprehensive universities to sustain the program. The author adds that cost-analysis initiatives allow universities to secure the viability and success of the research as well as optimize returns and benefits. The author notes that a well-balanced and strong evidence research helps institutions meet its goals and encourage active participation among students for the advancement of institutional prestige and reputation.

Kinkead, J. (2010). Advancing undergraduate research: Marketing, communications, and fundraising. Retrieved from http://www.cur.org/publications/advancing.html (Must be purchased). Category: Marketing, Communications, and Fundraising Advancing Undergraduate Research is designed to share successful models and strategies for promoting and funding undergraduate research programs. This is the first book to address the growth and improvement of undergraduate research programs through advancement activities marketing, communications and fundraising. As such, it is a critical addition to the library of the advancement professional, the undergraduate research director, and faculty mentorsin fact, anyone who wishes to advocate for the power of research in an undergraduates education. Marketing, communications, and fundraising, referred to collectively as strategic communications are all tools that help deliver the message to campus constituents, as well as to external audiences such as institutional donors, private foundations, government agencies, and state and federal legislatorsthat undergraduate research is a high-impact educational practice that can transform students lives. Each of the three sections of Advancing Undergraduate Research focuses on key principles of advancement philosophy: how to market undergraduate research; how to engage in strategic communications; and how to raise funds and also serve as stewards of those funds for donors. Examples of best practices are included, gleaned from dozens of institutions, to illuminate the concepts and principles introduced in the volume. Advice from savvy undergraduate research directors, as well as professionals in advancement, is incorporated to help readers formulate and customize their own advancement agendas.

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Assessment Chapman, D. W. (2003). Undergraduate research and the mandate for writing assessment. Peer Review, 6(1), 8-11. Category: Writing as an Assessment Tool Discusses the potential of undergraduate research programs to provide evidence of student achievement in writing and to encourage institutional commitment to writing instruction. Importance of making students' oral and written communication highly visible on campus; Benefits of undergraduate research program.

Cole, F. L. (1995). Implementation and evaluation of an undergraduate research practicum. Journal of Professional Nursing, 11(3), 154-160. Category: Student Assessment Although collegiate faculty once believed that lecture and discussion were the best strategies for teaching research to undergraduate students, educators now question using these strategies exclusively. At present, more active involvement is recommended for learning the research process and for changing students' attitudes. The development of a practicum, designed to involve students in a meaningful research experience within a limited time frame, is discussed. An evaluation of the practicum shows its contribution to increasing knowledge in selected areas and changing attitudes in undergraduate students.

Johnson, D. C., & Gould, C. (2009). Special challenges of assessing undergraduate research in the arts and humanities. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(3), 3338. Category: Research Evaluation by Mentors The article offers information on the problems encountered by teachers and students concerning undergraduate research in arts and humanities in the U.S. It mentions that students faced difficulties in undertaking the research because they need to demonstrate cognitive learning to scientific discipline and connect with the unique experiences that the arts and humanities offer. Moreover, teachers also experienced difficulties in assessing their works because they believed that traditional tests are not enough to measure student achievement. Also presented are the tools used by mentors to effectively evaluate undergraduate research in these field of studies.

Wilson, K., Crowe, M., Singh, J., Stamatoplos, A., Rubens, Gosney, J., Dimaculangan, D., Levy, F., Zrull, M., & Pyles, R. (2009). Using electronic portfolios to measure

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY student gains from mentored research. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 29(3), 26-32. Category: ePortfolio Assessment

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The article offers information on the significance of the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded ePortfolio Project, a partnership among various universities and institutions aimed at developing a more objective, evidence-based approach in the mentored research experience, in the U.S. The scheme is developed to evaluate and measure the student's research products before and after a research experience. It is embedded in the learning portfolio of students and mentors that is used to assess the student's intellectual growth.

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Learning Communities

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Philosophical Foundations Categories: Reforming Undergraduate Education, Integrative Learning

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Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) and Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. (2004). Statement on integrative learning. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities. Category: Integrative Learning An emphasis on integrative learning can help undergraduates put the pieces together and develop habits of mind that prepare them to make informed judgments in the conduct of personal, professional, and civic life.

Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U). (2005). Emerging trends and key debates in undergraduate education: Integrative learning. Peer Review, 7(4), 47. Category: Integrative Learning This issue of Peer Review focuses on integrative learning. Integrative abilities are among the most important goals of a twenty-first-century liberal education. Articles in this issue explore how integrative learning fosters connections among disciplines and co-curricular experiences and transcends academic boundaries.

Residential College Task Force. (1998). The residential nexus: A focus on student learning. Columbus, OH: Association of College and University Housing Officers-International.
Paper compiled for ACUHO-I.

Category: Reform Indicates that advocates of recommitment to student learning as the goal of undergraduate education should continue stressing the importance of the residence hall to accomplishing this goal. In this paper, strong arguments are made for partnering residential housing professionals and faculty members in a joint venture to create seamless out-of-classroom learning environments for students. There are many different models for achieving this efficiently: residential colleges; living/learning centers; specialized residential programs connected to academic initiatives; residential academic assistance programs; residential learning centers designed for students who live and attend class together; first-year experience programs that offer unique housing assignments to increase new students awareness of academic resources; and computer labs and in-room computer networks within residence halls. Variables such as architecture and interior design of residence facilities are examined in the context of the learning environment.

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Schroeder, C. C. (1994). The student learning imperative: Implications for student affairs. Journal of College Student Development, 37(2), 118-22. Category: Reform This publication was intended to stimulate discussion and thoughtful debate on how student affairs practitioners can purposefully design environments that increase college students learning and personal development, which are the primary goals of undergraduate education. Student affairs practitioners must begin redefining their role to intentionally promote these goals and orient their divisions around student learning. Characteristics of a learning-oriented student affairs division include a division mission that complements the institutions mission, centered on the goal of student academic and personal development; allocation of resources to support this goal; collaboration between student affair and other departments; staff expertise on students, environments, and teaching and learning processes; and policies and programs based on research on student learning and institution-specific assessment data.

Andreas, R. E., & Schuh, J. H. (1999). The student affairs landscape: Focus on learning. In E. J. Whitt (Ed.), Student learning as student affairs work: Responding to our imperative (pp. 1-9). Washington, DC: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators. Category: Integrative Learning Assessment of primary challenges across post-secondary education and the student affairs field, with suggested methods for meeting those challenges and moving in a positive direction. These challenges include changing student demographics, limited financial resources, and declining public confidence in post-secondary educations willingness and ability to perform its missions efficiently. They encourage administrators to restructure learning environments to support students intellectual and personal development. Citing numerous calls for change within the profession, Andreas and Schuh assert that the purpose of college is not to transfer knowledge, but to create environments and experiences that help students create knowledge and solve problems for themselves. This should happen for all students, whether in the classroom, administration building, library, residence hall, or performing arts center. Successful collaboration of student affairs with other divisions within an institution contributes to a promising learning environment for all students.

Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University. (1998). Reinventing undergraduate education: A blueprint for Americas research universities. Washington, DC: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Category: Reform

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The Boyer Commission report calls for a radical restructuring of undergraduate education and a recommitment to creating a powerful learning environment through ten recommendations: making research-based learning the standard; constructing an inquiry-based freshmen year by providing new stimulation for intellectual growth and a firm foundation in the communication of information and ideas; building on the first-year foundation; removing barriers to interdisciplinary education; linking communication skills and course work; using information technology creatively; culmination with a capstone experience; treating graduate teaching assistants as apprentice teachers; changing faculty reward systems; and cultivating a sense of community, by making the large university smaller, nurturing community spirit within the residence halls, and promoting collaborative study groups and project teams for the benefit of every student.

Chickering, A., & Kytle, J. (1999). The collegiate ideal in the twenty-first century. In J.D. Toma & A.J. Kezar (Eds.), Reconceptualizing the collegiate ideal. New Directions for Post-Secondary Education, 27(1), 109-120. Category: Philosophical foundations/influence On the basis previous research findings and calls for national reform, provides reasons for viewing undergraduate education critically. Chickering and Kytle cite changing student demographics, more complex societal needs, reduced public and federal support, pressures for accountability, a lag in adopting new communication and information technologies, and unclear purposes. They suggest basing reform on the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education, discussed in Chickering and Gamsons Applying the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education (1991), conceptualizing the ideal college of the future as one that establishes a clear purpose, maximizes human interactions, establishes new pedagogies for active learning, recognizes individual differences, integrates academic studies and experiential learning, and sets high expectations. Several of these, such as maximizing human interactions, recognizing individual differences, etc., can be realized in the context of residential colleges and living/learning communities.

Conley, D. (2009). Redefining college readiness. Eugene, OR: Education Policy Improvement Center (EPIC). Category: Philosophical foundations This comprehensive study offers new insights into what it means to be "college ready," not only across all the major disciplines, but across entire campuses and even educational segments. Also, it offers suggestions for teachers and institutions who are interested in using these insights to improve student learning.

Cove, P. G., & Love, A. G. (1995). The links among intellectual, social, and emotional elements of learning: Institutional implications. In Enhancing student learning:

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Intellectual, social, and emotional integration. Washington, DC: ASHE-ERIC Postsecondary education Report No. 4. Category: Philosophical foundations Review of critical research findings, theoretical models of learning, and the interdependent relationships among the components of holistic learning. The authors recommend ways to enhance the integration of learning, including elements of leadership; student involvement in learning; the development of learning communities; enhancing the educational climate in residence halls; and the intentional socialization of faculty and student affairs professionals. They also claim that as a result of the national debate over the declining state of post-secondary education, alternative techniques for enhancing student learning are emerging. By testing new pedagogies, developing learning communities, enhancing the learning that is occurring inside and outside of the classroom, adopting a critical cultural perspective, and expanding the notion of learning, institutions, faculty, and student affairs professionals, working together, are transforming student learning.

Cross, P. K. (1999). Learning is about making connections. Mission Viejo, CA: League for Innovation in the Community College Educational Testing Service. Category: Philosophical foundations This paper discusses what is known about learning to date by emphasizing "connections" as necessary for learning. Knowledge about these connections can be placed into four categories: (1) neurological connections; (2) cognitive connections; (3) social connections; and (4) experiential connections. In terms of neurological connections, sensory input is crucial for newborns, but as long as the brain continues to be stimulated, our brains continue to make connections. Regarding cognitive connections, it has become apparent that people's minds think and understand things in terms of schemata. Therefore, it is easier to learn more complex concepts that fit into existing schemata than it is to learn something completely new. Deeper learning gets placed into schemata with time. Cognitive strategies can be broken down into cognitive learning and metacognitive strategies. These strategies are broken down and detailed in the document. Social connections refer to the interaction between the internal processes of the mind and how the mind grasps the external realities of knowledge. Making social connections between the various players at institutions of higher education may be an innovative strategy used in the near future. The last category is that of experiential connections, or making connections between experience and learning. Contains 28 references.

Dustin, K., & Murchison, C. (1993). You save our academic lives. In T. B. Smith (Ed.), Gateways: Residential colleges and the freshmen year experience (pp. 65-72). Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina. Category: Philosophical foundations

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Discusses the creation and components as well as the needs and challenges of the Residential Learning Program, a program that incorporates academic support and services in residence hall life at the University of California-Berkeley. The report assesses the often overwhelming environment at Berkeley for entering students, leading to the need to combat low retention rates. The goal of the program is to improve rates of student retention and persistence by creating a living/learning environment for first-year students that promotes academic success and social adjustment to college. The program addresses the challenges of the large university by bringing academic support into the residence halls where 90 percent of new students live. The short-term goal of the program is to create an environment where students can become self-directed and successful learners, resulting in enhanced academic and social integration into college life.

Finley, Nancy. (1990). Meeting expectations by making new connections: Curriculum reform at Seattle Central. Educational Record, 71(4), 50-53. Category: Reform Seattle Central Community College has developed a coordinated studies program, a flexible, interdisciplinary curriculum emphasizing cooperative learning, team teaching, experimental instruction, and faculty development. The approach focuses on the active and cooperative process and allows faculty to acknowledge diverse student talents and learning styles.

Huber, M. T., & Hutchings, P. (2005). Integrative learning: Mapping the terrain. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities. Category: Integrative Learning Integrative Learning explores the challenges to integrative learning today as well as its longer tradition and rationale within a vision of liberal education. In outlining promising directions for campus work, the authors draw on AAC&U's landmark report, Greater Expectations, as well as the Carnegie Foundation's long-standing initiative on the scholarship of teaching and learning. Readers will find a map of the terrain of integrative learning on which promising new developments in undergraduate education can be cultivated, learned from, and built upon.

Huber, M. T. (2007). Fostering integrative learning through the curriculum. In: Integrative learning: Opportunities to connect. Stanford, CA: Association of American Colleges and Universities and The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved from: http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/elibrary/integrativelearning. Category: Integrative Learning This essay was prepared for the public report of the Integrative Learning Project, a collaboration of The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and the Association of American Colleges and Universities. Concerns about the fragmented nature of the undergraduate

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experience rightly raise questions about opportunities for synthesis: where and when are students asked to put the pieces together in order to better understand or solve important problems? Where and when are they encouraged to make links between their academic, personal, and community lives?

Hurd N. S. & Stein R. F. (2004). Building and sustaining learning communities. The Syracuse University Experience. Boston, MA: Anker Publishing Company, Inc. Category: Integrative Learning Learning communities are small, defined groups of students who come together with faculty and student affairs professionals to engage in a holistic and intellectually interactive learning experience. Building and Sustaining Learning Communities describes the theory and rationale for learning communities, particularly in a large university; the process for setting them up in various settings; and reflections on these unique environments.

Kanoy, K. W., & Bruhn, J. W. (1996). Effects of a first-year living and learning residence hall on retention and academic performance. Journal of the Freshman Year Experience & Students in Transition, 8(1), 7-23. Category: Philosophical foundations A study found that college freshmen (n=29) housed in a living and learning residence hall had higher grade point averages in all four semesters of their first 2 years of college, compared with those of a matched control group (n=55). The experimental group did not, however, have a higher retention rate. (MSE)

Kinzie, J. (2005). Promoting student success: What faculty members can do. National Survey of Student Engagement. Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research. Category: Integrative Learning Students who participate in collaborative learning activities such as service-learning, coherent first-year programs, peer tutoring and senior capstone projects are more likely to persist and succeed - especially when these programs and practices are well conceived and delivered in an effective, coordinated manner. An essential ingredient is an unwavering, widespread commitment to enhancing student learning on the part of faculty members. The suggestions offered here are based on an in-depth examination of 20 diverse four-year colleges and universities that have higher-than-predicted graduation rates and demonstrated through the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) that they have effective policies and practices for working with students of differing abilities and aspirations. These institutions value high quality undergraduate teaching, diversity and support for all students. They clearly communicate

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and hold students to high standards, provide timely feedback, and encourage students to actively engage with course content, faculty and peers, inside and outside the classroom. When they complement the institution's mission and values, these conditions can create powerful learning environments that lead to desirable learning outcomes that are generally independent of institutional resources or students' background. (Lists 2 sources.)

Klein, T. (2000). From classroom to learning community: One professors reflections. About Campus, 5(3), 12-19. Category: Integrative Learning This article recounts the personal experience of moving from a faculty position to a residential learning community position. Discusses how components of the residential college model of education (community, integration, cooperation) make for a very different student experience. Suggests this model represents a viable educational experiment that prizes citizenship-building and an interconnected foundation of learning. (Author/JDM).

Lardner, E., & Malarich, G. (2008). A new era in learning-community work: Why the pedagogy of intentional integration matters. Change, 40(4), 30-37. Retrieved from: http://www.changemag.org/Archives/Back%20Issues/July-August%202008/fullnew-era.html Category: Integrative Learning Learning-community work done well requires a skillful balancing of two moves: one structural, the other pedagogical and cross-disciplinary. When a campus gets it right, enriched integrative learning is the result. When a campus doesn't, retention data improves, at least in the short run, but the substantive, multi-faceted, and deep learning that learning communities can engender too often remains underdeveloped. In this article, the authors describe a new era in learningcommunity work by taking a close look at the applications campuses have submitted for the National Summer Institute on Learning Communities, looking for changes over time. Their hypothesis was that an analysis of team applications might reveal advances in learningcommunity practice, as well as indicating directions they need to pursue. The authors also examine in more detail several shifts in the way campuses approach learning communities.

Lardner, E., Keast, H., Williamson, B., Hamilton, C., Reis, J.L., van Slyck, P., Pontillo, D. B., & Crain, C. (2005). Diversity, educational equity and learning communities. Olympia, WA: The Washington Center for Quality of Undergraduate Education. Category: Integrative Learning This publication describes the powerful possibilities of intentionally integrating research on learning communities and the rich history of diversity work on campuses. Five campus stories

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illustrate the complexities and the benefits of turning classrooms and campuses into places where under-represented students experience academic success and all students develop the habits of mind necessary to help shape a more democratic society.

Laufebregen, J. L., & Shapiro, N. S. (2004). Sustaining and improving learning communities. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass. Category: Integrative Learning Sustaining and Improving Learning Communities is the long awaited follow-up to the groundbreaking book Creating Learning Communities. The authors continue their exploration of the concept of learning communities as an innovation in undergraduate curricular instruction that allow students to actively participate in their own education, and deepen and diversify their college experience. Jodi Levine Laufgraben and Nancy S. Shapiro address a wide range of topics such as campus culture for sustaining learning communities, learning communities and the curriculum, pedagogies, and faculty development.

Miller, R. (2006). Fostering integrative learning through assessment. Stanford, CA: Association of American Colleges and Universities. Retrieved from: http://gallery.carnegiefoundation.org/ilp/uploads/assessment_copy1.pdf Category: Integrative Learning This essay was prepared for the public report of the Integrative Learning Project, a collaboration of The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and the Association of American Colleges and Universities. With all six regional and four major specialized accreditors calling for some form of integrative learning as an outcome of college (AAC&U, 2005), what has long been an aspiration for undergraduate education is now a common expectation. Campuses are discussing not whether integrative learning will be part of undergraduate learning, but rather how it will be defined, fostered, and assessed. This paper discusses the collection of innovative practices to foster and assess integrative learning from ten campuses.

Newell, W. H. (1999). The promise of integrative learning. About Campus, 4(2), 17-23. Category: Integrative Learning Explanation of integrative learning and its elements, with both historical background and argument why it is needed; discussion of residential learning, service learning, and learning communities and how they contribute to integrative learning. In the context of residential learning, the author suggests that housing staff might help students enrolled in a required general education class in social sciences to use those academic perspectives to bring awareness to the sources of conflicts over loud stereos, hall security, and vandalism. Furthermore, the author states that the examples of residential learning, service learning, and learning communities

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY suggest that educational experiences we normally think of as separate can appropriately and productively be viewed as forms of integrative learning.

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Smith, B. L., MacGregor, J., Matthews, R. S., & Gabelnick, F. (2004). Learning communities: Reforming undergraduate education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ISBN: 978-0-7879-1036-5. Category: Reforming Undergraduate Education The two founders of Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate EducationSmith and McGregor with two other practitioners offer here the history, theory and models of the Learning Communities model. Written by Barbara Leigh Smith, Jean MacGregor, Roberta S. Matthews, and Faith Gabelnick, acclaimed national leaders in the learning communities movement, this important book provides the historical, conceptual, and philosophical context for LCs and clearly demonstrates that they can be a key element in institutional transformation.

Huber, M. T., Hutchings, P., Gale, R., Miller, R., & Breen, M. (2007). Leading initiatives for integrative learning. Liberal Education 93(2), 46-51. Category: Integrative Learning Through initiatives such as the national Integrative Learning Project, the higher education community is gaining significant experience in fostering integrative learning through changes in the curricula, pedagogy, assessment, and faculty development.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Historical Perspectives Centra, J. A. (1968). Student perceptions of residence hall environments: Living learning vs. conventional units. Journal of College Student Personnel, 4, 266-272.

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Living-learning residence halls which include classrooms, recreation facilities, and faculty offices along with the dormitory rooms were compared to the more conventional residence halls. It was expected that the living-learning halls fostered a more intellectual and cohesive atmosphere. Undergraduates in a large university who resided in one of six groups of conventional halls or four living-learning halls were given the college and university environment scales (cues). The questionnaire sought to determine student perceptions of both the residence halls and of the total university environment. In the analysis of the five scales of the cues, the living-learning residence halls rated about in the middle with the conventional halls showing both the highest and lowest levels. This suggests that the living-learning residence units alone do not provide an intellectual atmosphere. The students perceived the total university environment about the same as they perceived their residence hall environment. The report suggests the need for further study on what happens in those residence halls having a more intellectual environment.

DeCoster, D. & Mable, P. (1974). Student development and education in college residence halls. Washington, DC: American College Personnel Association. Discussion of aspects of residence hall environments ranging from promotion of student development within residence halls to residence hall personnel who work with college students. This book is divided into four parts, with the first section devoted to students personal and academic growth. Interpersonal environments and human relationships that develop within residence halls are discussed in the second section of the book, with an emphasis on residential learning opportunities and an analysis of different types of environments. Next, the professional residence hall personnel themselves are discussed in terms of their roles and professional preparation. Roles and education of student staff members is also analyzed in the third section of this book. In the final section, reports on previous studies analyzing the impact of residence halls on students are offered for support and promotion of student development within residence halls. Accountability of residence halls and the politics of post-secondary education are reviewed, and implications for the future regarding residence life and residential education conclude the book.

Gordon, S. S. (1974). Living and learning in a college: cluster, experimental or residential colleges. Journal of General Education, 25, 235-245. Explains the impetus behind the movement of increased living/learning communities and provides examples of various types of living/learning settings across the country. Cluster colleges are described and highlighted with a discussion of the James Madison College at Michigan State University. Interdisciplinary settings such as the Risley Residential College at Cornell are also discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of each type are offered. Kresge College at the University of California at Santa Cruz has developed its own living/learning

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philosophy, in which approximately 25 students are part of an academic group, an advising group led by a faculty member, and a social group brought together to share interpersonal relationships. For a number of reasons, university administrators have become advocates of many successful living/learning initiatives: for example, living/learning programs have led to increased retention at the University of Michigans Residential College and at Centennial College at the University of Nebraska. The article gives insights into the kinds of students who enter these residential programs and examines their motivations to make progress in college.

Hill, Patrick J. (1985). Communities of learners: curriculum as the infrastructure of academic communities. In J.W. Hall & B. L. Kevles (Eds.), In opposition to the core curriculum: Alternative models of undergraduate education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. A chapter available in the book, "In Opposition to the Core Curriculum: Alternative Models of Undergraduate Education." This book is In response to some educators' advocacy of a return to a "core curriculum" (a specific set of courses required by all degree-bound college students) and maintains that the simple acquisition of broad-based knowledge is not the solution to the complex and difficult problems in higher education today. It presents views of the "educated person" and practical alternatives suggested by college presidents, deans, university program directors, faculty members, foundation officers, and other leaders in the educational community. The contributors propose curricular perspectives with which higher educational institutions can utilize or even transcend traditional departmental structures to serve the broader intellectual and social requirements of college students now. The book focuses on the diverse college population of the 1980s--older students, part-time students, and the 18-22-year-olds with new career goals-and their needs for alternative, individualized, reformed, or experimental curricula. The 14 chapters are grouped in the following categories: (1) arguments against core curriculum, (2) alternative curricula, (3) curricula focused on the individual student, (4) the interdisciplinary approach to college curricula, (5) curricula for the disadvantaged, (6) the interconnectedness of the work world and the liberal arts, (7) critical issues of curricular reform, and (8) conclusion-"A Model College Education from an A traditional Viewpoint." (LB).

Jerome, J. (1971). The living-learning community. Change, 3(5), 46-55. Unique personal perspective on learning communities in society, not only on a university campus. He argues that these communities are not solely seen as alternatives within colleges, but they are also seen as alternatives to college. He uses the specific example of a learning community in Portland, Oregon in which unhappy faculty and students from a nearby college moved into a neighborhood and pursued education from a different context. They eliminated the concepts of students, faculty, tuition, and salary, and met in environments that were open to anyone. Participants pursued various educational interests as an alternative to the structured lifestyle of the neighboring college. From the standpoint of living/learning communities within a university setting, the author provides both the positive (academic freedom and community) and negative views (cost and non-credit courses) regarding these communities. The article presents a fairly liberal perspective regarding living/learning communities both on and off campus.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Tensions and challenges that are presented within the article clearly indicate that these perspectives are products of the era of change in which it was published.

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Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (1977). Patterns of student-faculty informal interaction beyond the classroom and voluntary first-year attrition. Journal of Post-Secondary Education, 48, 540-552. Short review of available research on college student attrition, mainly focusing on Tintos work; analysis and interpretation of the relationship of various kinds of informal faculty-student contact to college persistence, versus voluntary attrition, during the first year of college. This study also examined these relationships while controlling for the effects of the following initial student characteristics: gender, academic aptitude, and personality needs. Findings of the study suggest additional evidence to support Tintos theoretical model of attrition, which includes that informal student-faculty contact as a key predictor of college persistence. These findings also suggest that some colleges and universities may be able to prepare themselves and influence the frequency of student-faculty interaction independent of initial student characteristics. Recommendations and further areas for research are discussed in the concluding sections of the article.

Pascarella, E. T. (1980). Student-faculty informal contact and college outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 50(4), 545-595. This is a review of the early research on the associations between student and faculty informal contact and various student outcomes in college. Research findings indicate that with student pre-enrollment traits held constant, many positive relationships exist between the quality and quantity of informal faculty-student contacts and students educational goals and career plans, their attitudes and perceptions toward the college experience, academic achievement, intellectual and personal development, and persistence towards graduation. The author offers a conceptual model for understanding the relationships between faculty and students and to guide future research into the area. Issues and concerns within the body of research that Pascarella highlights include factors influencing faculty-student contact: emphasis on initial student differences, faculty culture and classroom experiences, peer-culture effects, and institution size.

Smith, B. L., & Hunter, R. (1988). Learning communities: A paradigm for educational revitalization. Community College Review, 15(4), 45-51. DOI: 10.1177/009155218801500408. Describes a collaborative program initiated by Evergreen State College and Seattle Central Community College in Washington to promote faculty revitalization, curricular reform, and inter-institutional articulation. Examines the new curriculum of Seattle Central, as an intentionally designed "learning community," structured to sustain academic relationships among students and faculty. (DMM)

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Youtz, B. (1984). The evergreen state college: An experiment maturing. In R.M. Jones & B. L. Smith (Eds.), In against the current (pp. 1-21). Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Publishing. The Evergreen State College is a survivor one of the few major experiments in curricular innovation arising from the decade of the sixties which remains strong and growing at the beginning of the eighties. In the hope that some lessons can be drawn from this educational experience, it will be the intent of this paper to provide a descriptive account of the founding, evolution, and development of the college from the 1970s through the 1980s.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Topical Research Categories: Program Assessment, Large-scale Studies, Community Colleges, First-Year Programs, Residential Learning Communities, HBCUs Altschuler, G. C., & Kramnick, I. (1999). A better idea has replaced in loco parentis. Chronicle of Post-secondary education, 46(11), B8. Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/article/A-Better-Idea-Has-Replaced/34305 Category: Research/assessment Opinion piece on how new living/learning communities, departing from the in loco parentis context, are changing the lives of college students for the better. The environment in living/learning communities is contrasted with controlling style of the in loco parentis mission. Examples include the University of Wisconsin at Madison and the University of Pennsylvania, where students and faculty come together for discussion groups and workshops that promote personal development and multiculturalism, and which subsequently are eliminating the boundaries between the intellectual and social life of students. The creation of Cornell Universitys living/learning community is also examined, where some faculty members are energized by the focus on engaged and integrative learning by the students, while others are reluctant to get involved because they see the foundation being laid for a return to the moral policing and strict supervision imposed by the in loco parentis philosophy.

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Arminio, J. (1994). Living-learning centers: Offering college students an enhanced college experience. Journal of College and University Student Housing, 24(1), 12-17. http://www.acuhoi.org/Resources/JournalofCollegebrUniversityStudentbrHousing/t abid/90/Default.aspx Category: Research/Large Scale Study Assessment study of effect of residing in a living/learning center (L/LC) at a large university on the overall college experience of undergraduate resident students. This study assessed how satisfaction levels of University of Maryland students living in L/LCs compare to those of residents in non-L/LCs in residence halls of similar size. St. Marys Language house, an apartment-style residential facility where students were grouped in clusters and immersed in a particular language and culture. Evaluations revealed differential perspectives between St. Marys Language House residents and residents of other campus residential facilities without an L/LC, as well as differences in satisfaction with community living, physical facilities, safety and security, and residence life staff and services. L/LC residents gave more positive responses on those components than did residents of non-L/LC facilities. Overall, the study revealed that the L/LC residents reported greater college satisfaction than did those who did not have the benefit of an L/LC environment.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Baker, S., & Pomerantz, N. (2000). Impact of learning communities on retention at metropolitan university. Journal of College Student Retention, 2, 115-126. Category: Evaluation

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Evaluated effects on college freshmen attending Northern Kentucky University of a learning community (LC) program which simply clustered three courses without thematic linkage or integration. Comparison with non-LC students found the LC students had higher grade point averages, earned more hours, were more satisfied with their college experiences, and were less likely to be placed on academic probation.

Barnes, T., Dahlberg, T. A., Buch, K., & Bean, K. (2009). The STARS leadership corps: An innovative computer science learning community. Learning Communities Journal, 1(2). Retrieved from: http://celt.muohio.edu/lcj/. Category: Research The authors describe an innovative computer science learning community called the STARS Leadership Corps (SLC). The SLC offers computing students a range of curricular and cocurricular experiences designed to contribute to their academic success and retain them in the discipline. First, we describe the theory and research that contributed to the design of the SLC. We then report the results of a study examining the SLC's impact on students' sense of community and their commitment to computing. Results found that SLC members reported a stronger sense of community and commitment to computing than other computing students who were not SLC members.

Beach, A. L., & Cox, M. D. (2009). The impact of faculty learning communities on teaching and learning. Learning Communities Journal, 1(1), 7-27. Retrieved from: http://celt.muohio.edu/lcj/. Category: Research The authors present the results of a large-scale survey of faculty learning community (FLC) participants regarding the changes in their teaching they experienced and the impact on student learning that they perceived as a result of their FLC participation. Responses from 395 participants at six universities are presented and compared. FLC participants described improvements in student learning as a result of their specific FLC projects (79%) as well as changes in their beliefs and attitudes about teaching (73%). This confirms the importance of FLCs in influencing innovative and attitudinal change.

Berkley, E. F., Cross, P., & Major, C. H. (2004). Collaborative learning techniques: A handbook for college faculty. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Category: Research/Assessment

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Engaging students in active learning is a predominant theme in today's classrooms. To promote active learning, teachers across the disciplines and in all kinds of colleges are incorporating collaborative learning into their teaching. Collaborative Learning Techniques is a scholarly and well-written handbook that guides teachers through all aspects of group work, providing solid information on what to do, how to do it, and why it is important to student learning

Blackburn S. S. & Janosik, S. M. (2009). Learning communities in fraternity/sorority housing. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 4(2), 56-70. Category: Practice The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which members living in fraternity/sorority housing experienced learning outcomes associated with living in a residential learning community. Additionally, the study explored differences in the degree to which selected learning outcomes were achieved by members of fraternities compared to members of sororities. Data were collected by administering the Learning Communities Assessment (Turrentine, 2001) to members living in fraternity and sorority houses at a major research institution in the midAtlantic region of the United States. Respondents characterized their fraternity/sorority living experience as an important living community, but not as a learning community.

Blimling, G. S., & Hample, D. (1979). Structuring the peer environment in residence halls to increase academic performance in average-ability students. Journal of College Student Personnel, 20(4), 310-316. Category: Research/Large Scale Study Two-year longitudinal study of a structured study environment within residence halls with the problem statement, If the peer environment in a residential living unit is designed in such a way as to create common academic goals, can college students of average academic ability from various disciplines benefit by achieving better grades? Fourteen special residential study floors accommodating 40 students each were made available to students who held common interests, and these floors incorporated elements of a collaborative and integrative environment conducive to student learning. In a study of the grade performances of more than 1,200 undergraduate students, grade performance was marginally better for students who resided on the study floors. The results of the study indicate that living on a study floor can improve grade point average by at least 0.05 points to as much as 0.20 points per quarter. These results suggest that restructuring a residence hall environment to favor academic pursuits helps students realize academic success.

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Blimling, G. S., & Schuh, J. H. (1981). Increasing the educational role of residence halls. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Category: Research Guest editors Blimling and Schuh include work by many notable researchers and practitioners with considerable professional interest in living/learning environments and residence halls on college and university campuses. Each journal article provides insight into the heightened response by administrators to reform campus residence halls with the movement to place academics and intellectualism in the forefront of residence life. Topics include community development and perspectives on student development through management of the residence environment; creating effective living/learning centers within residence halls; and selection and training of residence hall staff. The editors close with an overview of the influential factors within residence halls as well as predictions for the future.

Borden, V., & Rooney, P. (1998). Evaluating and assessing learning communities. Metropolitan Universities, 9(1), 73-88. Category: Research Research shows that learning communities are an effective way to improve student performance and persistence, but the success of any particular implementation is not guaranteed. Each program should be evaluated with regard to the likelihood that better-prepared students tend to participate. The protocol used for evaluation at Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, and its results, are described.

Brower, A. & Kurotsuchi Inkelas, K. (2010). Living-learning programs: One high-impact educational practice we now know a lot about. Liberal Education. 96(2), 39. Category: Research The results from the National Study of Living-Learning Programs (LLPs) found that these programs stimulated the types of student engagement with faculty, peers, and the curricula that produces high-impact learning. LLPs are residential housing programs that feature common learning based on an academic theme. The study showed that LLPs were based on many different themes, including civic and social leadership, a particular discipline, fine and creative arts, general academics, honors, culture, political interests, research, foreign languages, and wellness or health. Some LLPs were sophomore only, women only, first-year transition programs, or were created along the lines of a residential college. Compared to similar non-LLP students, the LLP participants applied more critical-thinking skills, took advantage of more opportunities to apply knowledge, displayed a greater commitment to civic engagement, and made a more successful social and academic transition to college. The LLP environmental characteristics that predicted the desired learning outcomes were peer study groups, academic and vocational discussions with peers, social and cultural discussions with peers, course-related

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interaction with the faculty, and an academically and socially supportive residence hall climate. A one-year LLP experience proved to have a lasting effect: three years later after participating in an LLP, the students reported higher levels of academic self-confidence and remained more committed to civic engagement. The three characteristics of a successful LLP were a strong partnership between student affairs and academic affairs, clear learning objectives throughout the program, and using the community setting to create learning opportunities whenever possible. (15 ref)School of Social Work, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Cornwell, G., & Guarasci, R. (1993). Student life as text: Discovering connections, creating community. In T. B. Smith (Ed.), Gateways: Residential colleges and the freshmen year experience. The freshmen year experience (pp. 41-48). Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina. Category: First-Year Program Assesses the value of learning communities and describes St. Lawrence Universitys First-Year Program (FYP). Interwoven in this chapter are problems that post-secondary education faces, with case studies from St. Lawrence that support development of living/learning communities. These case studies, featuring students and faculty collaboration, provide specific examples of how living/learning communities can experiment with ideas and allow students to bridge the gap between what they are studying and how they live their daily lives. Issues that post-secondary education faces include disintegration of knowledge; the rise of postmodernism and the irony of expertise; disengaged learners and the alienation of schooling; and the concept of American pluralism and the ideal of community. At St. Lawrence, every first-year student lives in one of the twelve FYP residential colleges, where students, faculty, resident assistants, and upperdivision academic mentors come together for enhanced educational experiences through interdisciplinary study, creative debate, service activities, and social discussion. By these means, students are given out-of-classroom opportunities for academic enrichment, personal development, and meaningful social interaction.

Demaris, M. C., & Kritsonis, W. A. (2007). Residential learning communities on historically black college and university campuses. Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 1-5. Category: HBCUs Success for minority students in higher education has become a critical issue in higher education academia. Strategies for minority student retention have been developed as a result of the utilization of organizational theories and models, which identify factors that influence student attrition in higher education. In particular, Tinto's attrition models (1975) and (1993) are among those theories that have been used in an attempt to describe and categorize the student attrition process. In an attempt to retain minority students', administrators in higher education must comprehend fully the significance of these models within the organizational culture and the academic environment in relation to student retention and attrition. The purpose of this article is

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY to seek the denotative definition of a learning community and their successes in retaining minority students.

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Engstrom, C., & Tinto, V. (2008). Learning better together: The impact of learning communities on the persistence of low-income students. Opportunity Matters, 1, 5-21. Category: Community Colleges, Large-Scale Studies This article describes the major findings from a longitudinal study of the impact of learning communities on the success of academically under-prepared, low-income students in 13 community colleges across the country. In this study, we employed both quantitative longitudinal survey and qualitative case study and interview methods. We utilized the former in order to ascertain to what degree participation in a learning community enhanced student success and the latter to understand why and how it is that such communities do so. The findings strongly support adapting the learning community model to basic skills instruction to improve learning and persistence for this population.

Gabelnick, F. (1986). Curriculum design: The medium in the message. In P.G. Friedman & R.C. Jenkins-Friedman (Eds.), Fostering academic excellence through honors programs: New directions for teaching and learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Category: Program Assessment Honors programs are reviewed that use diversity in presentation, approach, and educational context to foster intellectual development. They individualize instruction and encourage students both to form partnerships in learning and to develop their own strategies for integrating information. (MSE).

Hart, D., & Smith, T.B. (1993). Residential colleges: Vestige or model for improving college residence halls. In T.B. Smith (Ed.), Gateways: Residential colleges and the freshmen year experience: The freshmen year experience (pp. 24-31). Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina. Category: First-Year Programs Perceptions of the residential college and its effect on both students and faculty. Hart and Smith identify the realities of the residence life environment and offer numerous examples of opportunities for educational and social growth within the residential college. They stress the importance of focusing on academics in the development and implementation of the residential college as well as placing the highest emphasis on first-year students. They address issues such as that students spend little time pursuing academic interests outside the classroom, because they perceive that good grades are sufficient evidence of learning. Concluding the article are suggestions and recommendations, including the need for closer relations between faculty/staff

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and students, an enhanced academic environment on campus, more efficient delivery of services to students, and a creation of seamless learning environments incorporating academic stimulation both in and out of the classroom.

Inkelas, K. K. (2011). Undergraduate livinglearning programs and student outcomes. Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research, 26, 1-55. DOI: 10.1007/97894-007-0702-3_1. Category: Program Assessment In this chapter, we summarize the extant literature on livinglearning programs (LLPs), or residence hall-based undergraduate programs with a particular topical or academic theme. We begin the chapter describing various typologies of livinglearning programs and the broader family of learning communities, as well as the historical roots and philosophical underpinnings of the modern LLP. We then turn to a summary of the LLP best practices literature. We then focus on the empirical literature investigating the relationship between LLPs and a number of student outcomes, including academic performance, persistence, intellectual development, faculty and peer interaction, the transition to college, campus life, satisfaction, academic engagement and co-curricular involvement, attitudes and beliefs, self-efficacy, and psychosocial development. Finally, following a critique of the empirical and practitioner literature, we conclude the chapter with recommendations for future research and practice.

Inkelas, K. K., Soldner, M., Longerbeam, S., & Brown Leonard, J. (2008). Differences in student outcomes by types of living-learning programs: The development of an empirical typology. Research in Higher Education, 49(6), 495-512. Category: Program Assessment This study involved the development of the first empirical typology of livinglearning programs and its use in the assessment of students learning outcomes. Using two-step cluster analysis with data from nearly 300 livinglearning programs at 34 U.S. postsecondary institutions, the authors identified three structural types of programs: (a) small, limited resourced, primarily residential life programs; (b) medium, moderately resourced, student affairs/academic affairs combination programs; and (c) large, comprehensively resourced, student affairs/academic affairs collaboration programs. Multiple regression analyses revealed that students in the large academic affairs/student affairs collaborations and small residential life-based livinglearning program types exhibited stronger self-reported learning outcomes than those in the medium combination programs. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

Inkelas, K. K. (2007). National study of living-learning programs: report of findings. Retrieved from http://www.livelearnstudy.net/images/2007_NSLLP_Final_Report.pdf

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This comprehensive report of findings presents the results from a survey of over 22,000 undergraduates representing over 40 American postsecondary institutions. The study examines the contributions of participation in a living-learning program on undergraduate student outcomes. Results are presented by institutional type, living-learning program type, longitudinal findings, and outcomes for women who are science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors.

Inkelas, K. K. (2011). Living-learning programs for women in STEM. New Directions for Institutional Research. 2737. Category: Residential Learning Programs This chapter provides an overview of the role and functions of living-learning programs on college campuses and summarizes empirical evidence on the effectiveness of living-learning programs in attracting and retaining women in STEM majors.

Inkelas, K. K. (2008). Innovative directions for living-learning program research and practice: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of College and University Student Housing, 35(1), 8-13. Category: Residential Learning Programs Innovative and "Fashionable" programs such as learning communities are not always viewed critically by administrators and may even be considered panaceas for longstanding problems. They may be implemented with the assumption that the benefits will inevitably accrue. Indeed, support for the concept of learning communities may be so strong that there is no evaluative burden of proof at all to show that it has a positive impact.

Inkelas, K. K., & Longerbeam, S. (2008). Working toward a comprehensive typology of living-learning programs. In G. Luna & J. Gahagan (Eds.), Learning initiatives in the residential setting. Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for the First Year Experience and Students in Transition, University of South Carolina. Category: Residential Learning Programs In 2004, "Learning Reconsidered" urged educators to think more holistically about student learning and development. "Learning Initiatives in the Residential Setting" provides a framework for putting this call into action at large universities and small colleges alike. Chapters trace the history of learning in residence halls, discuss academic and student affairs partnerships to support student learning, describe a range of current learning initiatives, offer a typology of living-learning programs and principles for establishing such programs, and discuss the impact

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of architectural design on student learning. A valuable resource for faculty, academic affairs administrators, and housing professionals who seek to maximize the learning potential of campus residence halls.

Inkelas, K. K., & Weisman, J. (2003). Different by design: An examination of student outcomes among participants in three types of living-learning programs. Journal of College Student Development, 44(3), 335-368. Category: Program Assessment This study examines college environments and outcomes among students in three different types of living-learning programs compared with a control sample at one university. Results reveal that living-learning students exhibit higher levels of engagement in college activities with stronger academic outcomes, and experiences that varied by program type. (Contains 39 references, 5 tables, and 3 appendixes.)

Inkelas, K. K., Daver, Z., Vogt, K., & Leonard, B. J. (2007). Living-learning programs and first-generation college students academic and social transition to college. Research in Higher Education, 48(4), 403-434. Category: Program Assessment This study examines the role of living-learning (L/L) programs in facilitating first-generation students' perceived academic and social transition to college. Using a sample of 1,335 firstgeneration students from 33 4-year institutions who participated in the National Study of LivingLearning Programs during Spring 2004, the results of the study show that first-generation students in L/L programs reported a more successful academic and social transition to college than their first-generation counterparts living in a traditional residence hall setting. In addition, interactions with faculty members and using residence hall resources facilitated an easier academic transition for first-generation students in L/L programs, and supportive residence hall climates were related to an easier social transition. A preliminary interpretation of this study's results is that structured activities, such as faculty interaction and residence hall programming, are more influential for this population than informal peer groups.

Inkelas, K. K., Johnson, D., Lee, Z., Daver, Z., Longerbeam, S., Vogt, K., & Leonard, J B. (2006). The role of living-learning programs on students perceptions of intellectual growth at three large universities. NASPA Journal, 43(1), 115-143. Category: Residential Learning Programs The purpose of this study was to investigate how living/learning (L/L) program participation similarly and dissimilarly affects college students intellectual growth at three large public research universities. L/L programs have been introduced at large universities in order to create

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more intimate peer communities that help foster students learning and development, as well as help them to become more involved and integrated in campus life. However, research on L/L programs has been largely limited to single-institution studies with restricted generalizability. This multiple-campus study shows that L/L programs affect students intellectual growth differently at different institutions, and that the impact of L/L programs on students perceptions of their cognitive growth is less influential than on their perceived growth in liberal learning.

Inkelas, K. K., Soldner, M., & Szelnyi, K. (1991). Living-learning programs for first-year students. In M. Dunn & W. Zeller (Eds.), Residence life programs and the first year experience (3rd Ed.). Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for the First Year Experience and Students in Transition, University of South Carolina. Category: First-Year Programs This is a chapter in a book about the following: means of implementing residential programs, services, and facilities that will help to meet the needs of first-year college students. Fourteen papers are presented and are as follows: "Reflections on the First Year Residential Experience" (John N. Gardner); "The Role of Residential Programs in the Recruitment and Orientation of New Students" (Brenda Rust O'Beirne); "Assigning First-Year Students to College Residence Halls" (Roger A. Ballou); "The Role of Residence Life Programs in Easing the Transition for First-Year Students" (Robert E. Mosier); "Encouraging the Retention and Academic Success of First-Year Students" (Derrell Hart); "Paraprofessional Staff and the First-Year Experience" (Lawrence J. Miltenberger); "Residence Life Programming and the First-Year Experience" (Kim Dude and Shawn Shepherd Hayhurst); "Leadership Education and the Residential First Year" (William J. Zeller); "Residence Life Programs and the First-Year Experience: Personal Safety and Security" (John A. Sautter); "Decision Making and Career Planning as College Success Factors in the Residential First Year" (Michael B. Hoctor and Carol Roberts-Corb); "Promoting Diversity Among New Studentsin Predominately White Residence Halls" (Lyn Jackson); "The Joys and Sorrows of Moral and Intellectual Maturation" (John M. Whiteley); and "Assessment and Evaluation" (Carolyn J. Palmer). Summary and conclusions are provided by M. Lee Upcraft. References follow papers.

Inkelas, K. K., Vogt, K., Longerbeam, S., Owen, J., & Johnson, D. (2006). Measuring outcomes of living-learning programs: Examining college environments and student learning and development. Journal of General Education, 55(1), 40-76. Category: Residential Learning Programs The National Study of Living-Learning Programs (NSLLP) survey instrument was designed to assess college environments and student learning and development outcomes associated with participation in living-learning programs. Data from the NSLLP show that students in livinglearning programs demonstrate higher self-reported engagement and outcomes than students in traditional residence hall environments. (Contains 5 tables.)

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Inkelas, K. K., Zeller, W. J., Murphy, R., & Hummel, M. (2006). Learning moves home. About Campus, 10(6), 10-16. Category: Program Assessment The variety of problems identified with undergraduate education at large research universities may best be summed up by a disquieting portrait provided by the Boyer Commission. In its 1998 report, called "Reinventing Undergraduate Education", the commission described thousands of undergraduates receiving instruction from novice teaching assistants or professors working from ancient notes, taking a smattering of courses that do not lead to a cohesive body of knowledge, and graduating without knowing how to "think logically, write clearly, or speak coherently". Yet, as the Boyer Commission acknowledged, research universities possess resources that position them to be excellent educational institutions, including renowned professors, state-of-the-art facilities, and cutting-edge research production. Partially in response to critiques from the Boyer Commission and other reports, research institutions across North America have organized livinglearning programs that allow residential students to enjoy the learning and developmental benefits of living in an intimate academic community within the context of a large university. Living-learning programs are founded on a premise asserted by college impact research that integrating students' in-class and out-of-class experiences can improve their learning. In this article, the authors offer recommendations based on a pilot study that used the larger study's survey instrument at four research universities: University of Illinois, University of Maryland, University of Michigan, and University of Wisconsin. (Contains 5 notes.)

Johnson, J. L., & Romanoff, S. J. (1999). Higher education residential learning communities: What are the implications for student success? College Student Journal, 33, 385399. Category: Assessment The Russell Scholars Program is a residential learning community at the University of Southern Maine designed to serve a population of students who are motivated to learn by collaboration with faculty and other students. This pilot program was evaluated during the inaugural year to determine how the program affected student satisfaction and learning, and what program elements contributed to student success. An experimental design was used to study the program which included a control group. Students in the program were more satisfied with the University and retention was higher for students who were part of this learning community. It appears that learning communities within higher education may be instrumental in enhancing the college experience.

Johnson, W. G., & Cavins, K. M. (1996). Strategies for enhancing student learning in residence halls. In S. C. Ender, F. B. Newton, & R. B. Caple (Eds.), Contributing to learning: The role of student affairs (pp. 69-82). New Directions for Student Services, No. 75. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

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Category: Residential Learning Programs Enhancing the academic environment in residence halls is a central component of the missions of undergraduate education. Critics and national reports have led to public scrutiny and a call for reform and accountability. Residential living has been found to have a positive impact on a college students involvement in cultural, social, and extracurricular involvement in college. The development of community has long been central to the values of many in post-secondary education and society in general. Careful structuring of living/learning centers can provide culturally enriching benefits that will not only benefit those living within, but the institution in general. This article summarizes recent research on campus residence and persistence to graduation; living arrangements and academic achievement; residence hall assignment by academic ability; and first-year residence halls and academic achievement. The authors give 19 examples of different living/learning programs on a number of different campuses, including faculty-involvement programs, first-year experience programs, theme housing programs, residential college programs, and living/learning centers.

Knight, W. E. (2003). Learning communities and firstyear programs: Lessons for planners. Planning for Higher Education, 31(4), 512. Category: Program Assessment Bowling Green State University, Ohio, carried out a study of learning communities and first-year programs to determine their success in facilitating student success, increasing engagement, and promoting connections. Findings from 10 learning communities show the overall success of these programs and provide favorable cost estimates. (SLD)

Lardner, E., & Malarich, G. (2009, Sept/Oct). When faculty assess integrative learning. Change, 41(5), 29-35. Category: Integrative Learning/Assessment The "little blue book"--an affectionate title used by admirers of Student Assessment-as-Learning at Alverno College--is written (rather stunningly) "by the Alverno College Faculty." The story behind this paradigm-shifting work on assessment underscores the vital role faculty inquiry plays in institutional and system-wide educational reform--if this inquiry is organized to think through pressing questions. In this article, the authors examine how a set of questions from a collaborative assessment protocol used by teachers in the Harvard Graduate School of Education's Project Zero--and adapted by Veronica Boix-Mansilla for Washington Center's National Project on Assessing Learning in Learning Communities--led to valuable insights regarding the fourth essential learning outcome associated with college learning for this century: integrative learning. (Contains 15 resources.)

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Lardner, E., & Malarich, G. (2008). Sustaining learning communities: Moving from curricular to educational reform. MASCD, 21-23. Category: Reform

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Much has been written about the quixotic quality of educational innovation here today, gone tomorrow. Seasoned educators recognize the pattern: good ideas followed by cautious optimism, hard work, and promising results. But once funding fizzles, institutional attention moves on. Who wouldnt want to hunker down in the privacy of the classroom? That learning communities explicitly value teaching and learning as the work of educational institutions explains their initial attractiveness to faculty. The classroom focus of learning community work, combined with skillful administrative support, accounts for learning communities staying power on wildly diverse college and university campuses. But, for those engaged in learning com- munities for some time now, a puzzle familiar to other educational innovators emerges: how to move successful pockets of innovation from the margins to the mainstream, from a priority for a dedicated group of individuals to the priority for an entire campus. In our view, making this shift is essential to strengthening and sustaining learning communities.

Levine, J. H., & Shapiro, N. S. (2000). Curricular learning communities. In B. Jacoby (Ed.), Involving commuter students in learning (pp. 13-22). New Directions for Postsecondary education, No. 109. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Category: Assessment Humorous yet serious perspective on the learning community through analysis of the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry featured in J.K. Rowlingss popular Harry Potter book series. The authors suggest that to learn about or even implement a productive learning community, one need look no further than this fictional facility. One element of a successful learning community is the promotion of diversity and the respect for differences among individuals, and anyone who is familiar with the book knows that Hogwarts not only promotes diversity, but also that its physical, social, residential, and educational framework also rival that of many colleges and universities. Learning communities and active learning strategies, exemplified at Hogwarts, are among the innovative strategies of university administrators to dramatically improve undergraduate education and personal development. Another key component of education at Hogwarts is civic responsibility, which is also part of the mission of living/learning programs.

Levine, J. H., & Shapiro, N. S. (2000). Hogwarts: The learning community. About Campus, 5(4), 8-13. Category: Analysis Humorous yet serious perspective on the learning community through analysis of the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry featured in J.K. Rowlingss popular Harry Potter book

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series. The authors suggest that to learn about or even implement a productive learning community, one need look no further than this fictional facility. One element of a successful learning community is the promotion of diversity and the respect for differences among individuals, and anyone who is familiar with the book knows that Hogwarts not only promotes diversity, but also that its physical, social, residential, and educational framework also rival that of many colleges and universities. Learning communities and active learning strategies, exemplified at Hogwarts, are among the innovative strategies of university administrators to dramatically improve undergraduate education and personal development. Another key component of education at Hogwarts is civic responsibility, which is also part of the mission of living/learning programs.

Love A. G., Russo, P., & Tinto, V. (1995). Assessment of collaborative learning programs: The promise of collaborative research. In Assessment in and of Collaborative Learning: A Handbook of Strategies, Washington Center Committee. Olympia, WA: Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education. Category: Assessment Three researchers conducted a two-year study to assess student learning and student persistence in three exemplary learning community programs. Their multi-person, multi-method research design proved rich in both process and results, and the researchers offer some recommendations for replicating such richness.

Macey, T. J. (1993). Meeting the needs of todays students: The revolution of a residential academic program. In T. B. Smith (Ed.), Gateways: Residential colleges and the freshmen year experience. The freshmen year experience (pp. 35-40). Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina. Category: Residential Learning Programs Examines the Sewall Residential Academic Program, a living/learning program at the University of Colorado-Boulder, created in 1970 in response to students demands for a relevant, studentcentered curriculum. The author cites the student unrest and social and political upheaval during the 1960s as the catalyst for the creation of this program. The original goal of the program was to provide a community for first-year students that would integrate academic exploration and personal growth. Students initially were satisfied and the program became very popular for its small classes, faculty interaction, and chance to gain knowledge in a multidisciplinary environment. However, over the years, interest in the program waned and students began to utilize the program only as a means of getting into the smaller, required classes across the university. The newly redesigned program focused on new needs of the students: career preparation, academic tutoring and preparation, and cultural awareness programs. The program also offered its services to a limited number of sophomore-standing students.

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MacGregor, J. Taylor, K., Cook, M. D. (2003). Doing learning community assessment: five campus stories, National Learning Communities Project. Olympia, WA: Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education. Category: Assessment Focuses on five colleges and universities (Temple, Iowa State, South Florida, Skagit Community College, Portland State) and their assessment programs, which offer examples of varying goals, methods, and outcomes.

MacGregor, J., & Smith, B. L. (2005). Where are learning communities now? National leaders take stock. About Campus, 10(2), 2-8. Category: Assessment How might learning communities become more effective and sustainable over time? The perspectives of fifty-six campus leaders inform an article that identifies essential aspects of learning community work, from "vigilance about logistical considerations" to the realization that "the emotional side of change matters."

Minor, F. D. (1997). In practice bringing it home: Integrating classroom and residential experiences. About Campus, 2(1), 21-22. Category: First-year Programs, Living-learning Programs Report on the first-year interest groups (FIGs) in the residence halls at the University of Missouri-Columbia. As the residence life director, Minor discusses why the administration brought the FIGs into the residence halls and what results have been documented. The University of Missouri-Columbia combined an already successful FIG program with academic theme housing. The goals of the FIGs program were twofold and achieved quickly: to demystify and humanize a large campus; and to enhance student learning and academic performance. The successes and challenges of this program are well documented in the literature. The author offers future goals and organization, and concludes by stating that the residential FIGS are very effective in engaging students in educationally purposeful activities both in and out of the classroom.

Pasque, P. A., & Murphy, R. (2005). The intersections of living-learning programs and social identity as factors of academic achievement and intellectual engagement. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 429-441. Category: Residential Learning Communities

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Findings from this study show that living-learning (LL) programs at a research institution in the Midwest have a series of positive outcomes for both academic achievement and intellectual engagement. Controlling for past academic achievement, socioeconomic status, and demographic characteristics, LL programs are predictors, albeit small predictors, of students' academic achievement and intellectual engagement. In addition, specific academic and intellectual benefits of LL program participation for students of color, non-Christian, and gay, lesbian, and bisexual students are found.

Pederson, S. (2003). Learning communities and the academic library. National Learning Communities Project monograph series. Olympia, WA: Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education. Category: Program Assessment Provides a history and analysis of the learning community movement in higher education and examples of academic librarians' involvement in learning communities ranging from structured, credit courses to more informal arrangements within courses. It considers the place of information literacy and interdisciplinary general education by briefly describing and categorizing fourteen learning community programs. Additional information includes the Association of College and Research Libraries' Information Literacy Competency Standards and a selective list of references.

Pike, G., Kuh, G., & McCormick, A. (2008). Learning community participation and educational outcomes: Direct, indirect and contingent relationships. Paper Presentation at Association for the Study of Higher Education Conference, Jacksonville, FL. Category: Large-Scale Studies This study examines the direct, indirect, and contingent relationships between participating in a learning community, student engagement, and selfreported learning outcomes. Using data from the 2004 administration of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), the results indicate that the relationships between a learning community experience and learning outcomes are mediated by students levels of engagement. Learning community participation was not directly related to gains in learning and development, but it was related to student engagement. Student engagement, in turn, was strongly related to gains in learning. In addition, institutional characteristics were related to the strength of the relationships between learning community participation and student engagement.

Pike, R. G., Kuh, G. D., & McCormick, A. (2011). An investigation of the contingent relationships between learning community participation and student engagement. Research in Higher Education, 52(3), 300-322.

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This study examined the contingent relationships between learning community participation and student engagement in educational activities inside and outside the classroom using data from the 2004 administration of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). Results indicated that learning community participation was positively and significantly related to student engagement, both for first-year students and seniors. For some types of engagement, relationships were significantly stronger for seniors than for first-year students. Analyses also revealed there was substantial variability across institutions in the magnitude of the relationships between learning community participation and first-year students levels of engagement. Although institutional characteristics accounted for some of the variability across institutions, a substantial amount of the variability in engagementlearning community relationships remained unexplained.

Price, D. V. (2005). Learning communities and student success in postsecondary education: A background paper. New York, NY: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, 1-24. Category: General Learning communities bring together small groups of college students who take two or more linked courses together--typically as a cohort. During the last few decades, many colleges and universities have started or expanded learning communities as a method to deliver curricula to students and forge closer bonds between students, among students and faculty, and between students and the institution. The learning community "movement" has grown in large part because of the leadership and advocacy of the Washington Center for Undergraduate Education at Evergreen State College. What exactly is a learning community? This document describes learning communities and the potential payoff of learning communities. [In addition to the author, Derek V. Price, research support provided from Malisa Lee.] (Contains 2 tables.)

Reilly, R. C., & Mcbrearty, M. (2007). Well, it's messy sometimes barriers to building a learning community and dynamic assessment as a system intervention. Journal of Learning Communities Research, 2(1), 21-43. Category: Program Assessment This article describes the perceived barriers to building learning communities, and the impact of self-assessment on two cases. One, a graduate cohort used traditional summative methods, employing Senges (1990) characteristics as the self-assessment dimensions. The second, a following cohort, was introduced to dynamic self-assessment early in the program, using the same criteria. Interview data was collected. Barriers to building communities were elaborated, including individual, structural, and systemic processes. Differences were noted concerning community formation, and how participants lived the community experience. The cohort using dynamic self-assessment displayed more systems thinking, an elaborated shared vision and

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conceptualization of team learning; a deeper questioning of mental models; and more personal mastery attributed to being a member of a learning community.

Reumann-Moore, R., El-Haj, A., & Gold, E. (1997). Friends for school purposes: Learning communities and their role in building community at a large urban university. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University by Research for Action. Category: First-Year Programs An analysis of the Learning Communities program at Temple University in Philadelphia, launched in 1993 with funding from the Pew Charitable Trusts. The program was created with the aim of improving the experiences of first-semester freshmen by fostering a sense of community, helping students connect with peers, deepening student-faculty interactions, and creating interdisciplinary links. This report is based on in-depth examination of three Learning Communities in different undergraduate schools. The researchers shadowed students, conducted focus groups, and interviewed faculty and administrators, finding that the program worked towards accomplishing its goals but needed improvement. Discussions of the implications of findings are followed by recommendations including: increasing group work and experimenting further with Freshman Seminars; addressing the needs of commuter students; providing ongoing faculty development; and facilitating ways for professors to network about teaching in Learning Communities.

Rocconi, L. (2011). The impact of learning communities on first year students growth and development in college. Research in Higher Education, 52(2), 178-193. Category: First-Year Programs This study investigated the direct and indirect relationships between participating in a learning community, student engagement, and self-reported learning outcomes. Using a sample of 241 freshmen at a single urban research university who took the College Student Experiences Questionnaire, the results indicate that after controlling for demographic characteristics and entering composite ACT score, the relationship between learning community participation and learning outcomes are mediated by students levels of engagement. Learning community participation was not directly related to educational gains but was indirectly related to educational gains through student engagement. Student engagement in turn was strongly related to educational gains.

Rowan-Kenyon, H., Soldner, M., & Inkelas, K. K. (2007). The contributions of livinglearning programs on developing sense of civic engagement in undergraduate students. NASPA Journal, 44(4), 750-778. Category: Program Assessment

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This study examines the influence of elements of the college experience, specifically participation in a living-learning (L/L) program, on students self-reported sense of civic engagement. The researchers examined a nationally representative sample of students (n = 1,474) including those who participated in civic engagement themed L/L programs, noncivicengagement L/L programs, and students who lived in the traditional residence hall environment. The most significant predictors of sense of civic engagement were not students participation in L/L programs, but their precollege perception of the importance of cocurricular involvement, and students college participation in activities such as community service and student government.

Scrivener, S., Bloom, D., LeBlanc, A., Paxson, C., Rouse, C. E., & Sommo, C. (2008). A good start: Two-year effects of a freshmen learning community program at Kingsborough Community College. New York, NY: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. Category: First-Year Programs, Community Colleges This report details an MDRC research study on learning communities that involved random assignment of 1,534 freshmen. At Kingsborough Community College in Brooklyn, freshmen were placed in groups of up to 25 who took three classes together during their first semester: an English class, usually at the developmental level; an academic course, such as health or psychology; and a one-credit orientation course. The program also provided enhanced counseling and tutoring and a textbook voucher. Kingsborough's program is part of MDRC's Opening Doors demonstration, which is testing interventions at six community colleges designed to help lowincome students stay in school and succeed. Opening Doors is the first large-scale study of community college programs to use a random assignment design of program evaluation. The report concludes that the jury is still out on whether learning communities improve students' persistence in school. The document includes five appendixes: (1) Supplementary Table for Sample Intake and Characteristics and Data Sources; (2) Survey Response Analysis; (3) Description of Scales Presented in Effects on Educational Outcomes; (4) Supplementary Tables for Effects on Educational Outcomes; and (5) Description of Scales Presented in Social, Psychological, and Health Outcomes. (Contains 5 figures and 25 tables. Individual chapters and appendixes contain footnotes.)

Shapiro, N. (2008). Powerful pedagogy: Learning communities at historically black colleges and universities. Journal of Negro Education, 77(3), 280-287. Category: HBCUs A deluge of national studies and reports warns the United States that our future hangs in the balance because our educational system is failing our society. These studies cite projections that American competitiveness is at risk because we have failed to address a growing demographic inevitability--that the segment of the population that is growing the fastest is comprised of those students who are most at risk in our educational system. An expanding body of research

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(including the studies in this journal volume) suggests that learning communities have potential to contribute to closing the achievement gap.

Smith, C., & Bath, D. (2006). The role of learning community in the development of discipline knowledge and generic outcomes. Higher Education, 51, 259-286. Category: Program Assessment In this paper we describe a study of learning outcomes at a research-intensive Australian university. Three graduate outcome variables (discipline knowledge and skills, communication and problem solving, and ethical and social sensitivity) are analyzed separately using OLS regression and comparisons are made of the patterns of unique contributions from four independent variables (the CEQ Good Teaching and Learning Communities Scales, and two new, independent, scales for measuring Teaching and Program Quality). Further comparisons of these patterns are made across the Schools of the university. Results support the view that teaching and program quality are not the only important determinants of students learning outcomes. It is concluded that, whilst it continues to be appropriate for universities to be concerned with the quality of their teaching and programs, the interactive, social and collaborative aspects of students learning experiences, captured in the notion of the Learning Community, are also very important determinants of graduate outcomes, and so should be included in the focus of attempts at enhancing the quality of student learning.

Smith, B. L., & MacGregor, J. (2009). Learning communities and the quest for quality. Quality Assurance in Education, 17(2), 118-139. DOI:10.1108/09684880910951354. Category: Program Assessment In the USA, as elsewhere, there is an ongoing need to improve quality in higher education. Quality improvement models from business have not been widely embraced, and many other approaches to accountability seem to induce minimal compliance. This paper aims to contend that learning communities represent a viable alternative in the quest for quality. By restructuring the curriculum and promoting creative collaboration, learning communities have become a major reform effort in US colleges. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides an overview of learning community theory and core practices and four original case studies of institutions that have made learning communities a long-term focus of their quality improvement efforts. Originality/value: Educators will draw rich lessons from this concise overview of learning community theory and practice and the story of these successful institutions. (Contains 3 figures and 2 notes.)

Soldner, M., & Szelenyi, K. (2008). A national portrait of todays living-learning programs. Journal of College and University Student Housing, 35(1), 14-31. Category: Residential Learning Communities, Large-Scale Studies

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The article describes the development of the National Study of Living Learning Programs (NSLLP). In 2001, K.K. Inkelas and A. Brower started the NSLLP, investigating 34 institutions with randomly selected students in 2004. The authors describe programmatic structural characteristics of modern LL programs, and present a report of the findings of the NSLLP.

Sriram, R. R., & Shushok, F. (2010). Exploring the effect of a residential academic affairsstudent affairs partnership: The first year of an engineering and computer science living-learning center. Journal of College and University Student Housing, 36(2), 6881. Category: First-Year Programs This study explores whether living-learning communities for engineering and computer science students afford opportunities to engage faculty and peers differently than they do engineering and computer science students not participating in the living-learning community at the same institution. The results of this study reinforce the growing body of research indicating that residence hall programs, facilities, and organizations can be rearranged to offer experiences and interactions that have been found to enhance student learning and success. Since faculty-student interaction and peer academic interaction have been found to be especially important to student persistence, efforts such as this living-learning program may have substantial long-term benefits. This study helps to provide further justification for the allocation of institutional resources for living-learning programs, especially those that benefit science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) students.

Stassen, M. L. A. (2003). Student outcomes: The impact of varying living-learning community models. Research in Higher Education, 44(5), 581-613. Category: Residential Learning Communities This study explores the effect of three distinct living-learning community models on a variety of student experience and academic performance outcomes. Central to the analysis is an investigation of whether there are differences in outcomes for learning communities with different missions and structures, all three of which fall into the Linked Course learning community design. Even in the least coordinated, most basic, learning community model, students show more positive outcomes (first semester GPA, retention, first-year experience) than non-learning community students. The fact that simple structures that facilitate student interaction around academic work (even without coordinated faculty involvement) have a positive effect for students of all preparation levels provides encouragement to campus leaders with limited resources who are working to develop methods for improving the undergraduate educational experience on their campuses.

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Taylor, K. (2003). National learning communities project: Learning communities research and assessment: What we know now. Washington, D.C: American Association for Higher Education. Category: Program Assessment Addresses the question "do learning communities really work?" by reviewing previous assessment studies, highlighting some single institution studies and some notable research studies. It suggests areas for further research and assessment. Appendices include annotated bibliographies, a matrix of research studies, and some commercially available assessment instruments.

Tinto, V. & Goodsell, A. (1994). Freshman interest groups and the first year experience: Constructing student communities in a large university. Journal of the Freshman Year Experience, 6(1), 7-28. Category: Program Assessment A qualitative case study of Freshman Interest Groups (FIGs) (in which freshmen enroll in specific thematically linked courses their first semester) was carried out at a large, public, research university. The intent of the study was to understand how participation in a FIG influenced students' learning experiences, and how those experiences fit in with their broader experiences as first year students. The study consisted of three 1-week site visits involving observation in 12 classrooms, 43 interviews with 24 students, and 5 interviews with the FIG coordinator. Study results showed that FIGs allowed students to interact repeatedly with a consistent set of peers across their classes. This, in turn, enabled students to form a social network in which other academic support mechanisms could begin to operate. In addition, Writing Link classes enabled students to balance engagement with course content with the development of social relationships. FIGs are seen as potentially powerful ways of affecting students' first year college experience. Contains 11 references. (GLR)

Tinto, V. (1997). Classrooms as communities: Exploring the educational character of student persistence. Journal of Post-secondary Education, 68(6), 599-622. Category: Community Colleges Examination into the effects of the Coordinated Studies Program (CSP) at Seattle Central Community College, CSP students enroll in several courses that are tied together by a common theme. The research project sought to ask if the CSP made a difference in students learning, and if so, how? Results showed that CSP students reported higher levels of involvement in academic and social activities and greater perceived developmental gains over the course of one year than did students in comparable classes in the regular curriculum. CSP students also reported more positive views of the college, its classes and climate, and their own involvement in the college. Students in the CSP had a higher rate of retention. Building of support groups,

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY shared learning, and gaining a voice on the construction of knowledge were all positive components that influenced students in the program. Tinto builds the case for programs advocating collaborative learning in the classroom. It may be inferred that the addition of a residential living component would benefit students.

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Tinto, V. (1998). Learning communities and the reconstruction of remedial education in higher education. Journal of Higher Education, 68(6), 599-623. Category: Community Colleges Tinto examines the benefits of using LCs to increase the success and persistence of developmental students. This paper considers whether remedial education in higher education should be located in the lower levels of the higher educational system, in particular in the twoyear junior and community colleges of the US that are best situated to serve remedial students.

Tucker, R. (1995). Living-learning community. Final report: Fund for the improvement of postsecondary education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 413 958). Category: Program Assessment, Community Colleges Comprehensive summary of the living/learning community designed and implemented at the Yakima Valley Community College. The author presents historical background and data about the county and its constituents (high percentage of persons of color) as well as the project itself, and addresses specific needs and challenges in the education of a community college student, particularly commuters, in contrast with the education of the students living in residence hall campuses on large comprehensive universities. The learning community was established in 1992 to enhance the student learning experience by providing commuter students with academic and emotional support services. The community paired twenty commuter students with twenty resident students to create a mentor-mentee relationship. Specific institutional purposes and intended outcomes of the community as well as detailed project descriptions, results, and evaluations are addressed in the paper. The author concludes with a brief summary of the project and suggestions for improving the program.

Van Slyck, P. (2006). Learning communities and the future of the humanities. Profession, 163-176. Category: Community Colleges Van Slyck offers insight into the history of Learning Communities in this century and argues for the value of community college based interdisciplinary learning communities in helping to foster much needed growth in the humanities at the four year colleges.

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Visher, M.G., Wathington, H., Richburg-Hayes, L., Schneider, E., Cerna, O., Sansone, C., & Ware, M. (2008). The Learning Communities Demonstration: Rationale, Sites, and Research Design. New York, NY: National Center for Postsecondary Research. Category: Large-Scale Studies, Community Colleges Learning communities are a popular strategy that community colleges nationwide have embraced in support of developmental students. In a learning community, a cohort of students takes two or more courses linked by integrated themes and assignments that are developed through ongoing faculty collaboration. While the number of learning community programs continues to grow, rigorous studies measuring their effectiveness are limited. To address this need for evidence, the Learning Communities demonstration, launched in 2007, uses random assignment to test models of learning communities at six community colleges. The study is designed to determine: (1) how learning communities can be designed to address the needs of academically underprepared students; (2) the effects of learning communities on student achievement, as measured by test scores, credits earned, and grades; (3) the effects of learning communities on students' persistence in higher education; and (4) what learning communities cost and how these costs compare with the costs of standard college programs for students with low basic skills. (Contains 7 tables, 1 figure, and 67 notes.)

Worthy Dawkins, P. (2006). Learning communities growing in historically black colleges and universities. Olympia, WA: Newsletter, Washington Center for the Improvement of Undergraduate Learning. Category: Program Assessment, HBCUs This article documents the efforts of faculty at Historically Black Colleges and Universities, involved in a number of faculty development activities as well as developing learning communities to strengthen student engagement and increase retention.

Yancy, D. C., Sutton-Haywood, M., Hermitte, E., Worthy Dawkins, P., Rainey, K., & Parker, F. E. (2008). The impact of the freshman academy/learning communities on student progression and engagement. The Journal of Negro Education 77(3), 250263. Category: First-Year Programs, HBCUs Learning communities continue to be at the heart of teaching and learning today. The purpose of this study is to examine the extent of the impact of the Freshman Academy/Learning Community program on student progress at a historically Black university. The authors also looked at the extent to which students engaged in their learning as a result of strategies developed and implemented based on the quality enhancement plan of "Strengthening the Quality of the Freshman-Year Experience through Student Engagement and Active Learning." Finally the extent of engagement and satisfaction with the program as reported by students were compared.

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The results showed some interesting differences in these core practices: active learning, integrated assignment, co-curricular and service learning activities. Performance was measured by analyzing student progression at the course, program, and university levels. The results are being used as feedback for program improvement. (Contains 6 tables.)

Zeller, W. J. (2008). Living-learning programs in the digital age. Journal of College & University Student Housing, 35(1), 66-37. Category: Living-Learning Programs This article discusses the presence and effect of technology on the environment of campus living-learning programs. Students reported it to simplify the process of communicating with instructors and to lead to increased collaboration with their classmates. The authors conclude by discussing the effects of technological developments on the future design and function of the campus living-learning programs.

Zhao, C. M., & Kuh, G. (2004). Adding value: Learning communities and student engagement. Research in Higher Education, 45(2), 115-138. Category: Large-Scale Studies This study examines the relationships between participating in learning communities and student engagement in a range of educationally purposeful activities of first-year and senior students from 365 4-year institutions. The findings indicate that participating in a learning community is positively linked to engagement as well as student self-reported outcomes and overall satisfaction with college.

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Best Practices

Categories: Guidelines and Strategies, Examples and Models, Faculty Engagement, Residential Learning Communities, First-Year Programs, Community Colleges, HBCUs.

Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U). (2001). Learning communities: A sustainable innovation? Peer Review. 4(1). Retrieved from: http://www.aacu.org/peerreview/pr-fa01/index.cfm. Category: Practice/Research The title of this issue of Peer Review invokes a slogan around which AAC&U has organized one of its annual summer institutes: sustainable innovation. At the institutes, participants work together to develop a greater understanding of what is needed to create a culture and infrastructure to sustain innovative educational programs and practices. In the context of an upto-date briefing on learning communities, this issue explores many of the challenges facing this successful innovation ultimately to ask whether learning communities are a sustainable innovation.

Ahten, S., Anson, R., Brudenell, I., Goodman, J. A., Orton, E., & Reavy, K. (2010). Influencing metacognition through computer-supported collaborative learning: Lessons learned from a faculty learning community. Learning Communities Journal 2(1), 49-71. Retrieved from: http://celt.muohio.edu/lcj/ Category: Faculty Engagement Over an academic year, five faculty and one staff member from diverse disciplines at Boise State University formed a faculty learning community (FLC). Meeting in-person twice a month, the community members worked to complete scholarly group and individual learning projects. Metacognition emerged as a theme and goal for collaborative computer-supported learning activities. They developed a model that fostered metacognition within the FLC as well as in student-focused learning projects. Overall, the projects illustrate the model and how faculty can influence metacognition though computer-supported collaborative learning. Specific applications and suggestions to promote learning are included.

Armstrong, M. (1999). Models for faculty-student interaction outside of the classroom: The Duke University Faculty Associates Program. College Student Affairs Journal, 19(1), 4-16. Category: Guidelines and Strategies

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The Faculty Associates Program at Duke University is an initiative designed to improve the quality of co-curricular student life by directly involving arts and sciences and professional school faculty members in the residential life experience of students. Faculty members are collaboratively linked with first-year and upper-division residential units to promote academic enrichment outside the classroom. It was the intent of the developers of the program that the faculty would provide bridges to many elements of the university educational experience, including academics, social issues, culture and the arts, and positive role modeling for good character and moral behavior. Goals of the program include positively impacting the campus climate through attentiveness to diversity and multiculturalism; providing opportunities for shared intellectual interests between faculty members and undergraduate students; and building quality interaction between faculty members and undergraduates. An organizational hierarchy and historical overview of the program is given, and organizational considerations, models and strategies of the program are discussed together with ways in which the program can improve and reach beyond its present goals.

Arndt, F. (1993). Making connections: The mission of UNCGs residential college. In T. B. Smith (Ed.), Gateways: Residential colleges and the freshmen year experience. The freshmen year experience (pp. 49-54). Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina. Category: Residential Learning Communities This monograph contains 14 papers on residential colleges and their role in successful freshman year experiences. Residential colleges are defined as colleges in which the faculty live among the students. The papers are as follows: (1) "Introduction: Why a Monograph about First-Year Residential Colleges?" by Terry B. Smith; (2) "Residential Colleges: An Historical Context" by Mark B. Ryan; (3) "Us and Them" by Jim Hohenbary and others; (4) "Residential Colleges: Vestige or Model for Improving College Residence Halls?" by Derrell Hart and Terry B. Smith; (5) "Meeting the Needs of Today's Students: The Evolution of A Residential Academic Program" by Terri J. Macey; (6) "Student Life as Text: Discovering Connections, Creating Community" by Grant Cornwell and Richard Guarasci; (7)"Making Connections: The Mission of UNCG's (University of North Carolina Greensboro) Residential College" by Frances Arndt; (8) "Putting the College Back in the University" by Jerry A. Stark; (9) "Outgrow the Place... but Not the Faculty: Introducing Freshmen to Resident Faculty Communities" by Kristine E. Dillon; (10) "'You Save Our Academic Lives'" by Katie Dustin and Chris M. Murchison; (11) "Time Travel in British Higher Education: The Rediscovery of Colleges" by Frank Burnet; (12) "How To Know When It's Working" by Kristie DiGregorio and others; (13) "Amy's College" by Martin Nemko; (14 "Afterword: Three Quotes" by Terry B. Smith. Papers include references. (JB)

Bowling Green State University. (2012). The residential learning communities international registry. Retrieved from: http://pcc.bgsu.edu/rlcch/submissions/index.html. Category: Best Practices

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More than 180 residential learning communities have already submitted this information to The Residential Learning Community International Registry.

Brazzell, J. C., & Reisser, L. (1999). Creating inclusive communities. In G. S. Blimling & E. J. Whitt (Eds.), Good Practice in Student Affairs: Principles that foster student learning (pp. 157-177). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Category: Practice Specific examples of universities attempts to create inclusive communities. With the rise in popularity of the concept of living-learning communities, understanding the essential elements of supportive, inclusive communities is key to success in planning and development. These include valuing diversity; promoting social responsibility; encouraging thoughtful discussion and debate on various topics; recognizing individual and community accomplishments; and fostering a sense of belonging among the community members. The authors discuss the impact of learning communities embodying these characteristics on student development, student retention and success, and community in a multicultural society, together with the impact of technology on community. They conclude their chapter by recommending strategies for creating supportive learning communities: encourage regular interactions among students and provide a foundation for ongoing relationships, and offer opportunities for collaborative learning and the sharing of interests.

Brudzinski, M., & Sikorski, J. (in press). Impact of the COPEL - Community of practice on engaged learning on active-learning revisions to an introductory geology course: focus on student Development, Learning Communities Journal. Category: Faculty Engagement In the autumn of 2008 the authors applied to and were accepted into the Community of Practice on Engaged Learning (COPEL) at Miami University. We were interested in participating in this group because our initial vision for course redesign of our large-enrollment (90-200 students) introductory course "The Dynamic Earth" (GLG 111) involved incorporating more in- class, student-centered activities, which we saw as a form of engaged learning. Unsatisfactory experiences from our trial semester of this revised course also motivated us to seek additional guidance and inspiration. Over the next two years, our participation in the COPEL transformed our beliefs about ourselves as instructors, about our students, and about the process of learning.

Carey, C. & Carpenter, R. (2011). General education/residence life partnership: Impact on student success. Portland, OR: Portland State University. Retrieved from: http://leap.aacu.org/toolkit/wp-content/files_mf/psu_making_excellence_inclusive.pdf. Category: Residential Learning Communities

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This case study narrative is part of a How-To guide to help campuses use data to work toward inclusive excellence. Portland State University, Oregons largest and most diverse university, has placed an increasing emphasis on student services and programs that support student success and retention over the last several years. Historically, one of the challenges that PSU has faced is low retention rates for first-year students. To address these concerns, University Studies, Portland States general education program, partnered with Residence Life to offer first-year living learning communities, an approach combining the high-impact practices of learning communities and first-year seminars. University Studies has an established set of data collection and assessment practices that provided the basis for Portland States participation in the AAC&U Give Students a Compass project. As part of this project, we collaborated with Residence Life colleagues to study academic performance and persistence for 1) Students in living-learning communities; 2) Students in residence halls but not living-learning communities; 3) Students living with their parents; and 4) Students living in other off-campus housing. This research and collaboration with Residence Life contributed to the success of first-year students living on campus with specific attention on students participating in the living learning communities.

Dodge, L., & Kendall, M.E., (2004). Learning communities. College Teaching, 52(4), 150155. Category: Guidelines and Strategies Although the term "learning communities" may be familiar to some faculty, this article describes several types of learning communities and explains the benefits to both students and faculty. fostering workforce skills, encouraging problem-solving skills, and increasing retention and success are some of the benefits for students and faculty. In addition, faculty members gain new teaching skills and energize their teaching and learning. Teachers should follow the guidelines provided in this article to implement new learning communities and strengthen existing ones.

Duncan, B., & Barber-Freeman, T. (2008). A model for establishing learning communities at a HBCU in graduate classes. The Journal of Negro Education, 77(3), 241-249. Category: Examples and Models, HBCUs Because of the positive effects of learning communities with undergraduates, these researchers proposed the Collaborative Learning Initiatives that Motivate Bi-cultural experiences model (CLIMB) to implement learning communities within graduate counseling and educational administration courses. This article examines the concept of learning communities and its applicability to counseling and educational leadership courses at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) using CLIMB. (Contains 1 figure.)

Duke, A. (1996). Importing oxbridge: English residential colleges and American universities. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

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Since the late nineteenth century, a number of American universities -- Harvard, Yale, Princeton, the University of Chicago, the Claremont Colleges, and the University of California at Santa Cruz -- have attempted to organize students and faculty into small undergraduate residential colleges similar to those at Oxford and Cambridge. Proponents of these projects believed that the residential college system would foster academic and intellectual values while countering what they saw as the deleterious effects on undergraduate education of the expansion of the university and the increasing research orientation of its faculty. This book tells the story of these efforts -some successful and some not -- adding a new chapter to the history of higher education in America.

Engstrom, C. M. (2008). Curricular learning communities and unprepared students: How faculty can provide a foundation for success. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 115, 5-19. Category: Faculty Engagement The pedagogical assumptions and teaching practices of learning community models reflect exemplary conditions for learning, so using these models with unprepared students seems desirable and worthy of investigation. This chapter describes the key role of faculty in creating active, integrative learning experiences for students in basic skills learning communities, providing forums for students to extend time on task, and validating that students both belong and will be successful in college. Information for this chapter came primarily from analyzing over 300 interviews conducted one or two times a year with students enrolled at one of three community colleges--Cerritos College (Los Angeles, California), DeAnza College (northern California), or Cerritos College (Los Angeles)--or at one four-year institution--California State University-East Bay. Students in the study had enrolled in a curricular learning community course that included one or more noncredit-bearing basic skills courses (for example, math, reading, writing, English as a Second Language) linked to another basic skills course or a general education course, or both. Whether students were participating in a learning community that linked ESL writing and a credit-bearing history course, a reading/writing-linked course, a house that linked a basic skills math, writing, and counseling and advising seminar, a business academy, or a quarter-long cluster, the findings of this study argue that faculty teaching practices created trusting, safe learning environments that promoted student persistence and success.

Fritz, J., & Commander, N. E. (2004). The first-year seminar: The cornerstone of an interdisciplinary learning community program. In J. M. Henscheid (Ed.), Integrating the first-year experience: The role of first-year seminars in learning communities. University of South Carolina: National Resource Center for the FirstYear Experience & Students in Transition. Category: First-Year Programs

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Integrating the First-Year Experience presents 14 case studies from institutions that have successfully combined first-year seminar and learning community initiatives. Each case provides an overview of program history, structure, and administration and includes a discussion of outcomes assessments related to the programs described. The monograph offers a variety of strategies for linking seminars to learning communities and for involving faculty, peer leaders, and other offices in the implementation of such efforts.

Gabelnick, F., MacGregor, J., Matthews, R., & Smith, B. L. (1990). Learning communities: Creating connections among disciplines, students and faculty. New Directions in Teaching and Learning, 41. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Category: Residental Learning Community/ Faculty Engagement Learning communities are curricular structures that link different disciplines around a common theme or question. They give greater coherence to the curriculum and provide students and faculty with a vital sense of shared inquiry. This volume examines the concept of learning communities within the framework of twentieth-century educational theory and reform. The authors provide comprehensive, detailed descriptions of how to design, maintain, and evaluate learning communities and include firsthand accounts from students and faculty in learning communities across the nation. At a time when higher education seeks a sense of shared purpose, learning communities offer an approach that balances the demands of individualism with those of contributing to the common good. Solutions to the problems we confront require multiple points of view, a variety of competencies, and an acknowledgment of interdependence and mutual respect. Learning communities are one way we may build the commonalities and connections so essential to our education and our society. This is the 41st issue of the quarterly journal New Directions for Teaching and Learning.

Golde, C. M., & Pribbenow, D. A. (2000). Understanding faculty involvement in residential learning communities. Journal of College Student Development, 41(1), 27-40. Category: Faculty Engagement Analysis of learning communities by faculty participants in a study involving residential learning communities at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The authors recount in detail the experiences and motivations of fifteen faculty members who maintained their involvement with two residential learning communities on the Madison campus. The authors call for a more intensive collaboration between academic affairs and student affairs, with specific attention to student learning. They also point out interesting contrasts and comparisons with respect to the faculty members perspectives on their place in the residential education context. Many found their experiences to be the most rewarding aspect of their day, while others, who found them to be far from educational, subsequently left the program. This article addresses the challenges of recruiting and retaining faculty members in a program such as this one in light of the expectations that academicians, student affairs professionals, and students have of each other.

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Goodsell, A., & Tinto, V. (1994) Freshman interest groups and the first year experience: constructing student communities in a large university. Journal of the Freshman Year Experience 6(1), 7-28. Category: First-year Programs A study investigated effects of participation in freshman interest groups (FIGs) on students' learning experiences. Data were drawn from observation in 12 classes and 43 interviews with 24 students. Results showed FIGs allowed repeated interaction with a consistent set of peers, formation of a social network, and fostered engagement with course content in the context of social interactions. (MSE)

Goodsell, A., Maher, M. & Tinto, V. (1992). Collaborative learning: A sourcebook for higher education. National Center on Post-Secondary Teaching, Learning and Assessment, Pennsylvania state University. Category: Guidelines This sourcebook contains nine papers on various aspects of collaborative learning for students with emphasis on college level instruction (though some material relevant to secondary elementary education is also included). Contributors address what collaborative learning is, how is it implemented, how to assess it, and where it is used. Each section of the sourcebook contains an annotated bibliography, as well as a general bibliography containing the references cited in the articles reprinted in that section. Articles and their authors are as follows: "What Is Collaborative Learning?" (Barbara Leigh Smith, Jean T. MacGregor); "Collaborative Learning and the 'Conversation of Mankind'" (Kenneth A. Bruffee); "Collaborative Learning and Positive Change in Higher Education" (Karl A. Smith, David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson); "Collaborative Learning: Reframing the Classroom" (Jean T. MacGregor); "Teachers and Learning Groups: Dissolution of the Atlas Complex" (Donald L. Finkel, G. Stephen Monk); "Why Some Groups Fail: A Survey of Students' Experiences with Learning Groups" (Susan Brown Fiechtner, Elaine Actis Davis); "Student Involvement in Learning: Cooperative Learning and College Instruction" (Jim Cooper, Randal Mueck); "Collaborative Learning in the Classroom: A Guide to Evaluation" (Harvey S. Wiener); and "Research on Cooperative Learning: Consensus and Controversy" (Robert E. Slavin). The final section provides: (1) a listing of 50 colleges and universities implementing collaborative learning (with a program description and contact information); and (2) a listing of 5 collaborative learning networks (with descriptions and contact information). (GLR)

Koolsbergen, W. (2001). Approaching diversity: Some classroom strategies for learning communities. Peer Review, 3-4(4-1), 25-27. Category: Strategies

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Using the example of LaGuardia Community College in Long Island, New York, discusses how to use learning communities to promote inclusion and reflective examination on a range of diversity issues. Offers ground rules for class discussion of diversity and other classroom activities for fostering meaningful dialogue.

Leigh Smith, B. (2001). The challenge of learning communities as a growing national movement. Prepared for the Association of American Colleges and Universities Conference on Learning Communities, Providence, Rhode Island. Category: Strategies As a result of the expansion of learning communities, says Smith, the movement faces several new challenges ahead. Among them are the continued emphasis on incorporating best teaching practices, accommodating and fostering growing diversity, promoting institutional changes, and focusing clear goals for the future.

Lenning, O. T., & Ebbers, L. H. (1999). The powerful potential of learning communities: Improving education for the future. Washington, DC: The George Washington University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development. Category: Learning Communities Comprehensive perspective on learning communities; defines what learning communities are and why institutions need to consider implementing them. The basis for this is students need for a sense of community within the academic setting. The authors introduce and define different types of learning communities: curricular learning communities, classroom learning communities, residential learning communities, and student-category learning communities. Together with the benefits for both students and faculty, they describe results of previous studies of collaborative and cooperative learning. Lenning and Ebbers also lay out diverse strategies for creating and implementing the most efficient and successful college student learning communities, placing significant emphasis placed on the concepts underlying active learning. A case study involving learning communities at Iowa State University references specific problems and solutions. The authors conclude by offering the reader a glimpse of future student and other types of learning communities, including faculty and virtual learning communities.

Levine J. H. (Ed.) (1990). Learning communities: New structures, new partnerships for learning. Monograph No. 26. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for the First- Year Experience and Students in Transition. Category: Examples and Models This monograph on learning communities and the first-year college experience presents 12 chapters which combine theory with examples of good practice and recommendations for

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building and sustaining effective learning communities. Following an introduction by the editor, the included chapters are: (1) "What Are Learning Communities?" (Anne Goodsell Love); (2) "Learning Community Models" (Anne Goodsell Love and Kenneth A. Tokuno); (3) "Garnering the Fundamental Resources for Learning Communities" (Jeanine L. Elliott and Emily Decker); (4) "Planning the Production: Scheduling, Recruiting, and Registering Students in Learning Communities" (Michaelann M. Jundt, Kenneth K. Etzkorn, and Jason N. Johnson); (5) "Teaching and Learning in a Learning Community" (Diane W. Strommer); (6)"Faculty Development in Learning Communities: The Role of Reflection and Reframing" (Scott E. Evenbeck, Barbara Jackson, and John McGrew); (7) "Learning Communities: Partnerships between Academic and Student Affairs" (Charles C. Schroeder, Frankie D. Minor, and Theodore A. Tarkow); (8) "Learning Communities, Academic Advising, and Other Support Programs" (Jack W. Bennett); (9) "A Natural Linkage--The First-Year Seminar and the Learning Community" (Betsy O. Barefoot, Dorothy S. Fidler, John N. Gardner, Philip S. Moore, and Melissa R. Roberts); (10) "Learning Communities in the Community College" (Valerie A. Bystrom); (11) "Evaluating and Assessing Learning Communities" (Kathi A. Ketcheson and Jodi H. Levine); and (12) "Trends and Future Directions" (John N. Gardner and Jodi H. Levine). (Individual chapters contain references.) (DB)

MacGregor, J., & Smith, B. Designing a learning community in an hour. Retrieved from Washington Center Resources Web site: http://www.evergreen.edu/washcenter/resources/LChour/lchour.htm Category: Guidelines and Strategies, Faculty Engagement Developed by Jean MacGregor and Barbara Smith when they directed the Washington Center, the exercise, or heuristic, has been widely used at conferences and workshops across the country. The purpose of the heuristic is to help teams imaginatively design the beginnings of what could become a team-taught Coordinated Studies Program.

Malnarich, G., & Decker-Lardner, E. (2003). Designing integrated learning for students: A heuristic for teaching, assessment, and curriculum design. Olympia, WA: Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education: Occasional Paper. Category: Guidelines and Strategies What we have learned from working with faculty at a number of institutions is that while learning communities (LCs) create a space for learning, the substance of what happens within that space is what matters most for students, regardless of how that space is configured. What students learn is shaped by the assignments or assessments they are invited to do. The focus of this heuristic, which can be adapted for use in many kinds of institutional settings, is on designing compelling, substantive and integrative experiences of learning for students.

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Malnarich, G., Dusenberry, P., Sloan, B., Swinton, J., & Van Slyck, P. (2003). The pedagogy of possibilities: Developmental education, college-level studies, and learning communities. NLCP Monograph Series. Olympia, WA: The Evergreen State College. Category: Examples and Models This article invites developmental educators and learning community practitioners to create challenging and supportive learning environments for academically underprepared students. Research-based best practices in developmental education provide a rationale for adopting an approach to learning communities for developmental students that intentionally targets high-risk curriculum. Nine case studies and numerous examples illustrate this approach. Websites and additional resources for developmental education and learning communities are also included.

McDonald, W. M., Brown, C. E., & Littlejohn, R. A. (1999). The Ernest L. Boyer laboratory for learning: A model of effective faculty involvement in residential programming. College Student Affairs Journal, 19(1), 35-43. Category: Examples and Models Describes implementation of a living/learning program that maximizes the out-of-class academic experiences for students attending small institutions. Beginning with a discussion of financing and goals of the program, the authors provide an in-depth description of this living/learning community at Carson-Newman College. Residential teams of faculty members, students, and staff in each of the colleges five residence halls developed educational activities designed to focus students attention on issues related to college life and academics. Among the intended outcomes is that students and faculty/staff members will engage in co-curricular activities that bring academic subjects to life. Another outcome of this program is that students benefit by being involved with faculty and administrators in educational experiences outside the classroom. A definition of integrated co-curricular education and an argument for the promotion of this type of education are presented. Specific concerns about integrating curricular and co-curricular educational activities are also addressed, and examples of the programs activities and initiatives are identified near the conclusion along with suggestions for positive growth of the program in future years.

Miser, K. M. (1996). Bringing academics to the residence halls: A future perspective. Talking stick, 13(7), 14. Retrieved from http://www.acuhoi.org/Resources/TalkingStick/tabid/89/Default.aspx Category: Residential Learning Communities At the heart of the mission of college student affairs is fostering students personal development, building campus communities, advancing diversity, and creating and implementing meaningful educational experiences outside the classroom; this requires that student affairs and other divisions across institutions eliminate antagonistic views and negotiate differences to create

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effective learning environments focusing on total student learning. The discussion centers on the role of residence halls in reinforcing student learning. Miser recommends incorporating four practices involving residential life and student learning: provide a quality residential environment; build and renovate for high technology interaction by, among other things, making every room equipped for direct access to the campus computer network; involve faculty in residential learning; and support diverse residential communities.

Oates, K., & Leavitt, L. (2003). Service-Learning and learning communities: Tools for integration and assessment. Association of American Colleges and Universities. Category: Residential Learning Communities This publication attempts to provide fundamental theory about service-learning and learning communities, along with descriptions of best practices, lessons learned, and assessment strategies. The text is designed to provide resources to help readers offer service-learning experiences for their students. Learning communities are now commonly structured into colleges and universities across the United States, and research suggests that they increase student engagement and persistence. Coupling learning communities and service-learning provides contexts for learning and deepens students' learning experiences, but it requires adjustments to the organization, management, and planning of activities for the course. An appendix contains seven sample forms that can be used in the learning community and service-learning process.

Ortquist-Ahrens, L., & Torosyan, R. (2009). The role of the facilitator in faculty learning communities: Paving the way for growth, productivity, and collegiality. Learning Communities Journal, 1(1), 1-34. Category: Guidelines and Strategies Effective facilitation is essential to creating and sustaining an environment in which faculty learning communities can thrive. Just as faculty learning communities differ qualitatively from other familiar work groups in higher education, the role of the facilitator differs from what are perhaps more familiar roles of content expert, lecturer, chairperson, or traditional leader. The authors explore the nature of facilitation; outline important facilitative attitudes, skills, and tasks; and consider a number of key concepts about adult learners and collaborative learning as well as group development and dynamics that can shed light on the experience from the point of view of a facilitator.

Pettit, M., & Muga, D. (2009). Templates and rubrics: Connecting outcomes, assignments, and assessment in interdisciplinary learning communities. Journal of Learning Communities Research, 3(3), 109-125. Category: Examples and Models

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At a college where integrative learning is a campus-wide student learning outcome, a template designed for learning community course development also helps students see connections between their assignments, expected learning outcomes, assessment tools, and general education outcomes.

Schroeder, C. C., & Mable, P. (1994). Realizing the educational potential of residence halls. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Category: Residential Learning Communities Addresses need for integration of college undergraduates formal academic experiences with their informal out-of-the-classroom experiences in the residence halls. The book is divided into three sections; the first is an overview of the historical and current roles of residence halls and research on the impact of residence halls on college students, including the effect they have on achieving curricular objectives. The second part covers student learning in residence halls; discussions revolve around learning communities, appreciation of diversity in the residence halls, the promotion of student learning, the integration of living and learning, and students civic involvement. The concluding section of the book deals with ways in which administrators, educators, and students can strengthen the educational impacts of residence life on the student body and campus academic culture.

Schroeder, C. C. (1994). Developing learning communities. In C. Schroeder & P. Mable (Eds.), Realizing the Educational Potential of Residence Halls, 165-189. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Category: Residential Learning Communities Book chapter with particular significance to the student affairs practitioner committed to developing inclusive living/learning communities in the residence halls of her or his institution. The author gives a working definition of learning communities, and cites as the impetus behind the movement enhancing the student academic experience by maximizing peer-group influences through learning communities. Schroeder discusses strategies for implementing effective learning communities, and describes the four essential elements of effective learning communities: involvement, investment, influence, and identity. Highlighted features of learning communities include common curricular experiences, promotion of multiculturalism and service learning, addressing the needs of students who are undecided on a particular major, and finally, the first-year experience. Concluding the article is a review of the needs for new roles given the current criticisms of post-secondary education. Three particular elements -- total quality management, establishing a sense of community, and the continued promotion of student learning -- are examined in relation to the development of campus learning communities.

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Shapiro, N. S., & Levine, J. H. (1999). Creating learning communities: A practical guide to winning support, organizing for change, and implementing programs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Category: Examples and Models Comprehensive guidebook for professional educators interested in developing a learning community on college and university campuses, as well as for administrators who want to evaluate existing learning communities. This book discusses learning communities in the context of the need for university administrators to implement them. Specific examples of types and models of learning communities across the country are evaluated, including cluster courses, cohorts in large courses, team-taught programs, and residence-based programs. Shapiro and Levine advocate creating a new academic culture that supports and promotes these learning communities, and developing creative curricula to establish and maintain this culture. New faculty roles, faculty reassignment of duties, and new partnerships between student affairs divisions and academic affairs divisions are among numerous ideas that the authors suggest for the interested reader. Finally, they discuss the evaluation of existing learning communities in terms of their impact on the lives of faculty and students, and on the institution.

Shapiro, N. S., & Levine, J. H. (1999). Introducing learning communities to your campus. About Campus, 4(5), 2-10. Category: Examples and Models In-depth look at the rising importance of restructuring student learning on campus to create seamless environments in which students can achieve academic and social success and integration within the campus setting. An exemplary section references the University of Maryland-College Parks model of a learning community established to enable students to achieve academic and social integration and success. The authors present many of the key issues involving the creation of such a community, including campus culture and curriculum as well as resistance to the program. They also stress the importance of building collaborative partnerships with the university administration and developing redefined roles for faculty participants of the learning communities. Constant assessment of each component of the program is a tool to improve the communities in the long run and help administrators reach desired outcomes. Other key issues are indicated in an overview of research on how learning communities affect the students, faculty, and institution as a whole.

Smith, B. L., & Williams, L. B. (2007). Learning communities and student affairs: Partnering for powerful learning. Olympia, WA: Washington Center. ISBN-13: 9780-9794134-0-7. Category: Examples and Models

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Over the past fifteen years learning communities have become widespread in higher education. The growth of the learning community movement can be attributed to an increasing body of evidence suggesting that learning communities can effectively address a variety of issues at many different types of colleges and universities. Learning communities are frequently built around partnerships between academic and student affairs, creating a venue where faculty and student affairs educators can collaborate, coordinate, and ultimately create new common ground for learning. This publication explores learning communities and their potential through the lens of student affairs. Common points of involvement in learning communities by student affairs are examined and successful collaborative efforts at a variety of institutions are described in detail. These examples include several compelling stories of programs that have responded effectively to some of higher educations most challenging populations: first generation students, nontraditional students and distance-learning students.

Spear, K. I., & Arnold, J. D. (2003). Learning communities in liberal arts colleges. Olympia, WA: Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education; Washington, D.C.: American Association for Higher Education. Category: Examples and Models Begins with a history of learning communities' roots in liberal arts education. Four case studies examine different goals for learning communities (e.g., recruitment and retention, curriculum development), and snapshots of four other distinctive programs show the range of models for liberal arts colleges. A list of websites and publications and names of contacts are additional resources.

Stassen, M., Doherty, K., & Poe, M. (2001). Course-based review and assessment: Methods for understanding student learning. Office of Academic Planning and Assessment (OAPA), University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Category: Guidelines and Strategies Designed to guide the practitioner through the steps of student learning assessment, offering strategies for assessing student learning at the course level.

Stewart, G. M. (2008). Assessing learning outcomes in living-learning programs: One journey. Journal of College and University Student Housing, 35(1), 50-59. Category: Examples and Models The article discusses the best practices from the assessments of the Scholars' 12 living-learning programs and the "big questions" in evaluating learning results. Some of the best practices are mentioned. These include international community building wherein College Park Scholars starts to build community with a kick-off event, reflective learning, which starts with a service day and

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Stewart, J. I. M., Beicken, P., Duncan, J., Fassinger, R., & James, B. (2005). Interdisciplinary living-learning communities: Pedagogies to actively engage students. Pedagogies of Engagement: Deepening. Learning In and Across the Disciplines Conference, Bethesda, MD: American Colleges and Universities. Category: Examples and Models College Park Scholars (http://www.scholars.umd.edu) is a federation of 12, interdisciplinary living-learning communities. Each program delivers a curriculum that complements students majors and general education. Through civic engagement, team projects and other activities, students examine and develop their personal character. This session will address pedagogical approaches that actively engage students, such as peer instruction, self-directed research, mock Senate hearings, and in-depth internship analysis.

Visher, M.G., Schneider, E., Wathington, H., & Collado, H. (2010). Scaling up learning communities: The experience of six community colleges. New York, NY: National Center for Postsecondary Research. Category: Guidelines and Strategies, Community Colleges The Learning Communities Demonstration is a large-scale, random assignment evaluation of learning community programs at six community colleges being conducted by the National Center for Postsecondary Research and MDRC. By spring 2009, the colleges operated more than 130 learning communities serving around 3,000 students. This report describes the strategies the colleges used to scale up their programs while working to improve their quality, and the many complex challenges that are likely to be faced by any community college intent on scaling up effective learning communities including scheduling, faculty engagement with and approach to teaching, and balancing developmental courses with traditional college-level courses.

Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education. (2012, July 913). Learning communities: Summer institute. Retrieved from: http://www.evergreen.edu/washcenter/project.asp?pid=2. Category: Faculty Engagement, Conference The institute is designed to help campuses start or strengthen learning community programs. It draws on the wisdom of experienced learning community practitioners as well as the growing research on what makes learning communities an effective institutional change strategy aimed at improving student learning, persistence, and graduation. Colleges and universities selected for

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the institute are matched with resource faculty who are leaders in learning community work and other reform movements in higher education.

Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education. National learning communities directory search. (2012, April 1). Retrieved from: http://www.evergreen.edu/washcenter/Directory.asp Category: Examples and Models This national directory of learning communities provides information about institutions across the United States that offer learning community programs. You can use this directory to search for all institutions within the directory that meet your criteria or select an institution listed in the directory. The search criterion allows you to specify institution type, undergraduate enrollment, and learning community program criteria.

Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education, Case Writing Group. (2004). Washington Center Casebook on Collaborative Teaching and Learning. Olympia, WA: The Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education. Category: Examples and Models The Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education has compiled case studies that highlight some of the problems that can arise between teaching partners. The following chapters might be helpful in anticipating potential problems

Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education, The Evergreen State College. (n.d). Retrieved from: http://www.evergreen.edu/washcenter/home.htm Categories: Guidelines and Strategies This website details Washington Centers current initiatives and related opportunities for faculty development: Critical Moments, the annual Campus Equity and Engagement Retreat, quantitative literacy across the curriculum workshops, learning communities summer institutes, and curriculum planning retreats. Go to http://learningcommons.evergreen.edu for more information on the Centers national work on learning communities.