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Most Vulnerable, Most Resilient: Migrant and Refugee Children Final Paper Comfort Agboola The Chicago School of Professional Psychology

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Most of the country would have immigrated or be born of immigrant parent(s) making them the new face of American society. Immigrants can be legal residents, refugees, and some are undocumented (most immigrants are legal citizens). Immigrants, however, are constantly bombarded with the inability to access a country's resources because they are seen as “undeserving foreigners” (Ferguson et. al., 2005). Newcomers are seen as undeserving, or that they must prove their entitlement in order to gain access to basic support necessities. It is clear that individuals are exploited and marginalized within the country they have emigrated (Ferguson et al., 2005). The most vulnerable population are migrant and refugee children who’s rights, as defined by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, are often ignored and devalued. This topic selection is focused on highlighting social institutions that inhibit and promote the acculturation process for immigrant and refugee youth. The second portion of this topic is developing ways that institutions that promote acculturation and positive settlement can be strengthened and ways to eliminate norms that inhibit growth and stability among this very vulnerable population. This topic must begin with the strengths and problems for immigrant and refugee youth in settlement. The current political landscape in the United States is seeing pressure for immigration reform from both sides of the debate. Meanwhile, in 2009, there were 74.5 million children under the age of 17 in the United States, constituting nearly 24% of the population (Hernandez 2004). Nearly 24% of that population (about 16.9 million) had at least one immigrant parent (Hernandez 2004). These 16.9 million children need reform and resources that meet their socialization and acculturation needs. Three of the most important concerns for immigrant and refugee youth are language barriers, racism and discrimination, and poverty (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). With lack of

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supports these three barriers make acculturation a difficult process and many do not become fully accepted into society, as born United States citizens would. Sheilds & Behrman (2004) research suggests that children are resilient to one risk factor but multiple risk factors can undermine a child's development. Immigrant and refugee youth face multiple challenges in their adaption to a new country and culture making them vulnerable. Pre-migration stressors (trauma, family, extreme poverty, etc.) to post-migration issues (culture shock, finding employment, language, changing in family dynamics, etc.) can cause acculturation to be difficult (Chung, Bemak, & Grabosky, 2010). Immigrant and refugee youth desire a need to feel safe in their new environment which is often met with emotions of a life “on hold” (Brinegar 2010). Certain social institutions can exacerbate this emotion of being in socioeconomic purgatory. After research on this topic, it is apparent that there is a need for structural changes. However, it is also clear that public opinion on immigration reform is based on social, historical and political shifts as found in Espenshad and Calhoun (1993). Espenshad and Calhoun explain how the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) was a response to public opinion that wanted to reduce the flow of undocumented immigration. However, the flow of undocumented migrants did not decrease and was not deterred by IRCA. Various historic events help shape public opinion and public opinion shaped legislature about immigration. In order to change legislature one must have public opinion and this can only be achieved by providing an accurate portrayal of immigrants and refugees. There are many studies addressing the difficulties of marginalized natural born citizens but few addressing how to lessen the strain on the immigrant adolescent. Immigrants entering

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the country at adolescence can be increasingly more complicated because of the major social changes occurring at this stage. Adolescents are already facing the developmental issue of identity versus role confusion. Immigrant parents have strong work ethic and value hard work even for low wages; they expect their children to value hard work and achieve a better life (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). Immigrants possess a number of strengths that can be surprising to therapist who use traditional modes of treatment. For instance, on average, children born to immigrant mothers are healthier than those born to U.S. mothers. This includes infant mortality rates and fewer health conditions, such as injuries, physical impairments, infectious disease and asthma (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). Children are also more likely to come from intact families (two parents in the home); commonly the father would be employed and the mother is a stay-at-home mother. Immigrant families living in single parent homes is 16% compared to U.S. born families with 26% living in single parent homes (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). In the home environment, there is more stability and a larger extended family, sometimes with non-blood relatives. There are both social and economic benefits to this that immigrant families have unique access to this. As previous mentioned immigrant families may have a strong work ethic because many come to the United States with the intention of improving their livelihood. Parents value hard work and expect their children to as well, including in school. Immigrant children are more likely to have working parents even if the wages are lower despite achievement of higher education. Immigrant parents despite their educational background expect their children to achieve high levels of education. In many immigrant communities, educational completion is a major achievement and is celebrated. On average, despite language barriers, 8th grade children

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of immigrants have higher grades and math scores than their counterparts of the same ethnicity in U.S. born families (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). Another aspect of immigrant success is community cohesion. When immigrants arrive, they try to locate to areas of familiarity. People from similar countries of origin tend to live in the same areas. Fellow immigrants help “facilitate a new family’s adjustment, helping them learn to navigate new systems and institutions (such as schools) and to find jobs” (Sheilds & Behrman 2004, p. 6). These communities also help in a child's adjustment by providing emotional support and reinforcement of tradition and parental authority. All of these strengths help in the newcomers feeling welcomed and supported; however, there are still areas of weakness that can appear insurmountable forcing immigrant families into deeper poverty. Three of the most important concerns for immigrant youth are language barriers, racism and discrimination, and poverty (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). With lack of supports these three barriers make acculturation a difficult process and many do not become fully accepted into society, as born United States citizens would. Sheilds & Behrman (2004) research suggests that children are resilient to one risk factor but multiple risk factors can undermine a child's development. Language barriers are often tackled in academic institutions. Referential strategies, used often in education of immigrants and refugees, are how “individuals are grouped together using specific characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, culture, religion, education)” (The Policies and Politics of Educating Refugee Adolescents 2010). There is an assumption that if one is an immigrant or refugee they have a shared experience so therefore they have a universal needs and challenges. Bilingualism is beneficial in society however many immigrant youth have little mastery of the English language because they live in linguistically isolated communities. This drawback in development leads to lower waged jobs and continued poverty.

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Another concern for immigrants and their families is discrimination and racism. Discrimination is defined as the unequal treatment of different people based on the groups or categories to which they belong (Baumeister & Bushman, 2008). Social standing, racism and segregation marginalizes children of color and children of immigrants from the mainstream of America (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). Discrimination has been common place in society, but in both personal and institutional forms. Immigrants face personal discrimination from others who feel that immigrants “steal” jobs from Americans or even how they perpetrate more criminal acts. Neither of these statements exist in the realm of reality but are very popular prejudices faced by immigrants. Xenophobia causes people to want their culture and theirs alone. The institutional injustices may be far more difficult to overcome. Immigrants are unaware of many government assistance programs available to them. Institutional discrimination is when an institution or dominant group promotes discrimination (Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Institutional discrimination there are laws created to insure the dominance of majority. Arizona's Immigration laws for example target Latino immigrants and profile them for proof of citizenship. In addition, other legislature have isolated and disproportionately affected immigrant populations. The most influential in health and mental health care is the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (PRWORA) which changed the method and goal of federal assistant to the poor. It effectively stated that immigrant children are not created equal under the law and decreased their access to care. In October 2008, the Obama Administration started Secure Communities (SComm) which is a federal deportation program, under Immigration Customs and Enforcement. The purpose of this program is to for local law enforcement to share information for anyone they take in for any reason to Immigration Customs and Enforcement. Information that can be shared are

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fingerprints and immigration status. There are three stages prior to being deported: identification, release into ICE custody, and removal from the United States. After information is shared, ICE can initiate deportation proceedings against any undocumented immigrant. American nativist press for tougher immigration laws and border control mainly the United States-Mexico border. This discrimination pushes for fewer resources for immigrant families and their children while continuing this practice of isolation and criminalization. Immigration is also changing the social structure of the nation. No longer is it a white country with several minority groups but now it is turning into multicultural nation. This social transformation is important to US interests and growth in a global society. This includes funding organizations that support and assist refugees. This is a fact that many organizations in immigrant and refugee issues face. The lack of funding and the overall unpopularity of helping migrants, as they are viewed as “undeserving”. This is an area of research that psychologist and community organizers seek to examine how to increase popularity and understanding of helping those that have migrated and are most vulnerable in society. Psychologist can also perform the work of lobbyist and create more active organizations in the protection and support of immigrant and refugee rights. Nothing is more disheartening than a refugee or immigrant coming to the United States fleeing persecution and hoping for freedom, only to be handcuffed and imprisoned. Isolationism and dehumanization is not the path for psychology and certainly not the United States. Psychologist should strive to be socially responsible and promote social justice. The issue of immigration is not going to disappear as millions of people are migrating around the world. This world is no longer a small place that we can seek refuge in corners but it is interconnected. This is a result of globalization and the United

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States reaps many rewards including money and power. However, in the words of Voltaire, “with great power comes great responsibility” (Voltaire 1756).

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Annotated Bibliography

The Policies and Politics of Educating Refugee Adolescents. (2010). Language Learning, 60(Suppl 1), 119-145. The Policies and Politics of Educating Refugee Adolescents’ is aimed at addressing the educational needs of refugee adolescents since "Everyone has the right to education" as proclaimed in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Education is referred to as a "multiplier right" because it enhances or leads to other human rights that affect an individual's civil, economic, social, cultural and linguistic rights. Learners have different needs making them require different supports. This article covers the story of 13 East African adolescents who filed a civil rights lawsuit against their alternative school, owning organization and school district. The lawsuit focused on federal and state violations concerning their educational well-being, including the Equal Education Opportunity Act of 1974 and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The article explains the discriminatory practices as referential and predicational strategies. Referential strategies are how “individuals are grouped together using specific characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, culture, religion, education)”(The Policies and Politics of Educating Refugee Adolescents 2010). There is an assumption that if one is an immigrant or refugee they have a shared experience so therefore they have a universal needs and challenges. This assumption is incorrect. Immigrant and refugee youth are diverse: coming from many different countries, for many different reasons, with varying amounts of resources. Predicational strategies go further by assigning qualities to individuals verbally. This as a form of bias would be displayed when someone says “immigrants and refugees take jobs, are uneducated and dependent on welfare”. By understanding the discriminatory practices, one can reform systems to eliminate this and open up social channels to immigrants and refugees. The distress of

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immigrants and refugees threatens us all because social inequities can last for generations creating societal stress. Brinegar, K. (2010). "I Feel Like I'm Safe Again:" A Discussion of Middle Grades Organizational Structures from the Perspective of Immigrant Youth and Their Teachers. Research In Middle Level Education Online, 33(9), 1-14. This article is a case study examining immigrant children and how the quality of their schools will ease or complicate their transition. The case study uses a population of immigrant youth to test a larger belief about middle grade organizational structures. The study group is comprised of the 14 students, 9 were males and 5 were females. In terms of country of origin, three were from Somalia, one from the Congo, six were Bosnian, and four were Vietnamese. The length of time they had been in the United States varied, with one year being the shortest amount of time and 10 years the longest. The one characteristic they all shared was their eligibility for English Language Learner (ELL) services. There variation in countries of origin, language, length of arrival, genders, and ages were meant to show that immigrants and refugees arrive under varied circumstances and require varied services that English Language Learner services is supposed to provide universally. This is another case of universal programming attempting to reach a variety of needs, yet Brinegar (2010) seeks to illustrate how services can be adapted to treat youth within their organizational structures taking place over 3 years. Throughout the 3 years, students and teachers shared numerous thoughts on the benefits of collaboration in accessing and accommodating the necessities for immigrant and refugee students. One major result showed that migrant youth need a safe space where they can have a voice and learn to advocate for themselves comfortably. This research revealed that the practice of organizing middle schools into smaller units helped provide a positive environment. Traditionally, schools are where most immigrant youth are socialized into U.S. culture. The

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article gives a strong example of how to implement an acculturation program for middle school migrant student in a school setting. In turn, reducing their vulnerability and increasing their resilience. Espenshade, T. J., & Calhoun, C. A. (1993). An analysis of public opinion toward undocumented immigration. Population Research and Policy Review, 12(3), 189-224. Public attitudes towards immigration are important in understanding the direction of policy and laws passed concerning immigration. Espenshad & Calhoun (1993) explain how the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) was a response to public opinion that wanted to reduce the flow of undocumented immigration. However, the flow of undocumented migrants did not decrease and was not deterred by IRCA. One thing that is affected by legal and social history is public opinion. Various historic events help shape public opinion. The authors propose five attitudes towards undocumented immigrants using a public opinion poll in Southern California, which has the largest concentration of undocumented migrants. Social events showed to affect public opinion including events such as "Zoe Baird, the World Trade Center bombing, and the arrival of numerous ships from China carrying illegal human cargo"(Espenshad & Calhoun 1993). The article also reviews the history of immigration sentiment and how negative attitudes have a deep history extending past contemporary events. Restrictionist immigration laws first appeared in 1875. This period expressed negative beliefs about the effects of immigration specifically immigrant groups from southern and eastern Europe. The economic recession helped fuel these negative sentiments which spread into the 1920's when immigrants from northern and western Europe were more favored. Post World War II adopted liberal viewpoints to immigration. By amending the 1952 Immigration and Nationality Act, The United States promoted principals of family reunification; moreover,

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America accepted its new role as a world power. This meant accepting responsibilities to refugees, economic prosperity, and reducing religious and racial prejudice. This was reserved for better educated populations however. This new acceptance of immigrants did not last long as more media coverage on the arrival of undocumented immigrants. This created fears of economic insecurity and introduction of undesirable cultural traits. Undocumented immigrants became the scapegoats for economic distress, cultural turmoil and other societal ills. Undocumented immigration also shows up in issues of United States national sovereignty, integrity of US borders (especially the US-Mexico border), and American dislike of law breaking generally associated with immigrants and ethnic minorities. Undocumented Immigration continues to be an issue in all realms of society. Fong, R. (2007). Immigrant and Refugee Youth: Migration Journeys and Cultural Values. Prevention Researcher, 14(4), 3-5. Fong begins this article emphasizing that immigrant youth have challenges both pre and post migration. Common problems of identity crisis, peer pressure, parental conflict and selfworth are felt by migrant youth. Others also suffer with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from witnessing or experiencing violence, torture (physical and mental), rape, or extreme harassment. Migrant youth are split into immigrants and refugees. Their experiences as migrants differ within their groups and between one another. The conditions in which immigrant youth and refugee youth leave their countries of origin differ. Refugees have more “psycho-political baggage” because they did not leave voluntarily, prepared nor do they have the option of returning home. They have to make a life for themselves in a new country as there is no real possibility of them resuming their life prior to migration. Understanding the differences in

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adjustment between immigrants is often overlooked and for some populations resources for acculturation are more accessible. Fong (2007) states when working with immigrant youth, the professional must provide "culturally appropriate intervention and prevention strategies that take in mind client's migration journeys and legal status" (Fong 2007). There are 5 common migration statuses: documented immigrant youth, undocumented immigrant youth, refugee youth, unaccompanied refugee minors, and victims of human trafficking. Each category has specific implications for prevention as they are all at-risk youth. This article highlights the needs of each group and prevention strategies. Fong (2007) provides a much needed overview of specific vulnerabilities and failings in understanding that not all immigrants are equally immigrants.

Fuligni, A.J. & Hardway, C. (2004). Preparing Diverse Adolescents for the Transition to Adulthood. Future of Children, 14(2), 100-117. Fuligni and Hardway (2004) focus on immigrant and ethnic minority youth and aspects will allow them to make a successful transition into adulthood. Their success is fostered by their educational attainment, acquisition of employable skills, and physical and mental health. The article finds that “adolescents from Latino and African American backgrounds appear to be less prepared to become healthy, productive, and successful adults than their peers”(Fuligni & Hardway 2004). A major influence in immigrant and minority youth achievement is access to high quality educational institutions and programs; after school enrichment; health care resources; and access to college or universities. In order to improve their chances, there must be improvement in school quality, financial support and health insurance, reducing information and

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language barriers, and building on cultural traditions. The authors call for true acculturation practices that occur at the levels of social policy reform. Furthermore, the authors’ state “Schools with higher enrollments of minority and limited English proficient students...are less likely to... [have] social climates that are conducive to learning and achievement” (Fuligni & Hardway 2004). Immigrants possess a number of strengths that can be surprising to therapist who use traditional modes of treatment. Immigrant families from Latin and Central America, Africa, and Asia possess values and beliefs that are distinct from those held by American society. These cultural traditions should be used to create cohesion and smooth transition into American and youth cultures. Understanding their unique strengths can help further their resilience and social adjustment.

Isbister, J. (1996). Are Immigration Controls Ethical. Social Justice, 23(3), 54-67. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/29766952 Isbister (1996) also addresses the idea of public opinion but under an ethical stance. He asks the reader to consider if immigration controls are ethical. The author sets up this question but displaying the mindset behind both sides of the argument. The United States is built on the premise that all men are created equal. This is an idea is conflicted by immigration policy meant to "perpetuate a privileged lifestyle at the expense of foreigners". The United States is not willing to abandon either ideals but in turn we react with outrage at undocumented immigration. Isbister (1996) refers to this as a "moral muddle" because of propensities to confuse "our interests with ethics". Setting the false belief that "what is best for us is best, period"(Isbister 1996). However, this is false.

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Immigration from an economic standpoint shows that some Americans are hurt by it but a greater number are helped. As more immigrants arrive the number hurt by immigration has shrunk. The most stated argument is that "immigrants take jobs" but the jobs they work many American would not perform. In many ways, immigrants help keep our economy alive. Immigration is also changing the social structure of the nation. No longer is it a white country with several minority groups but now it is turning into multicultural nation. This social transformation is important to US interests. The author is careful to emphasize that interests do not equal morality. Isbister (1996) continues to state the arguments against immigration and provide reasons why these concerns are inaccurate. The article goes further in stating that “Freedom of movement is a facet of the "Liberty" that the Declaration of Independence takes to be an inherent right of equal human beings. Countries that systematically restrict the movement of their people are rightly criticized” (Isbister 1996). By this argument, immigration policies are since 1875 are in conflict with the Constitution.

Meissner, D., Meyers, D. W., Papademetriou, D. G., & Fix, M. (2006). Report of the Independent Task Force on Immigration and America’s Future. Immigration and America’s Future: A New Chapter. Meissner, et.al. states that international migration is changing the social landscape of not only the United States but also other countries. Despite America priding itself on being a nation of immigrants and welcoming newcomers, policy and opinion show a division on immigration. The author's pose not a question on what side of the debate is correct but rather what forms of immigration policy and system would advance US national interests and the interests of

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immigrant populations. The authors take the stance that immigration is not preventable therefore restriction policies are a losing battle and a waste fiscally. The authors outline three benefits to the nation in the global society: productivity, competitive, and success. As far as productivity, the US will not be able to sustain the growth and prosperity that has been a custom for some time now. The working age population is shrinking but immigrants not only provide a working population but also a taxpaying population. Immigrant populations also make America competitive in fields of science and engineering. Foreign-born populations do value education and especially higher education. Immigrants are also more likely to be entrepreneurs compared to native born Americans. One quarter of Silicon Valley start-ups were established, at least partially, by immigrants. Thus, they are creating jobs, revitalizing neighborhoods and helping the economy adjust to global market conditions. The final benefit is dynamism which is in reference to the fact that immigration affects our everyday activities- the food we consume, the people who watch our children, the entertainment we watch are all a product of immigration. Immigrants have an influence in foreign policy. America's openness to immigrants affects how countries view the US, including our values and rule of law.

Morland, L. (2007). Promising Practices in Positive Youth Development with Immigrants and Refugees. Prevention Researcher, 14(4), 18-20. Children of immigrants are an important and growing part of society. By the year 2015 more than one-third of the children in United States schools will be children of immigrants or migrants themselves. Morland (2007) emphasizes a strong sense of ethnic heritage with bicultural identity into American society. Cohesion is crucial to their success. Cohesive ethnic communities provide emotional and practical support to parents, and helping them maintain a

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close relationship with their children, thus addressing the acculturation gap. Morland (2007) suggest that programs that are more constructive rather than focusing on negative behaviors are more affective because they acknowledge strengths to build on to like "strong sense of family obligation and ethnic pride, and with the importance of education" (Morland 2004). The author goes further than previously mentioned authors by introducing specific practices that will help immigrant and refugee youth adjust to a new society. Promising practices that the author discusses are: partnering with immigrant communities; engage the entire family (addressing acculturation gaps that are common); support and develop bicultural or bilingual staff; strengthen positive ethnic and bicultural identities; encourage youth leadership and community involvement; academic and career development support services; and build bridges with mainstream organizations. National Immigration Forum. (2011, May 11). DREAM Act Reintroduced in Senate. National Immigration Forum. National Immigration Forum is an organization that advocates and increase public support for policies that assist immigrants and refugees in the United States. Along with this they also publish numerous articles and research about legislation concerning migrant rights. Two issues at the forefront are Secure Communities and deportations, and The DREAM act. This organization’s article helps explore these two issues currently in the public and political forum. Both legislative policies directly affect an immigrant’s ability to be successful in American society which is the undertone of many of the articles discussed. In October 2008 the Obama Administration started Secure Communities (SComm) which is a federal deportation program, under Immigration Customs and Enforcement. The purpose of

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this program is to for local law enforcement to share information for anyone they take in for any reason to Immigration Customs and Enforcement. Information that can be shared are fingerprints and immigration status. There are three stages prior to being deported: identification, release into ICE custody, and removal from the United States. After information is shared, ICE can initiate deportation proceedings against any undocumented immigrant. Since May 2011, more than 260,000 people have been arrested by ICE due to Secure Communities, but over 100,000 have been deported (National Immigration Forum, 2011). Approximately, 25 percent of people caught through Secure Communities were not convicted of a crime and this percentage is higher in various states. In Illinois, 78 percent of the people caught through SComm are non-criminals or had only minor offenses (like minor traffic violations) (National Immigration Forum, 2011). States with higher immigrant populations see larger deportation numbers of non-criminals. This program causes families to be separated and instability for children. Education is another area where there is tenuous debate about whether undocumented adolescents can receive higher education. In 2011, Senator Dick Durbin (D-IL) and 32 bipartisan cosponsors re-introduced the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act (DREAM Act). This legislation would benefit talented immigrant youth who attend college or serve their country. For many, the United States is the only country they are familiar with. The argument for the DREAM Act is that denial of access to higher education does not force them to leave our country but forces them to remain in the underground workforce. Effectively this limits the increased economic productivity and the tax revenues achieve through educated and competitive workforce. For many immigrants, education means a future and safety from the lives they left in their country of origin.

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Shields, M. K., & Behrman, R. E. (2004). Children of Immigrant Families: Analysis and Recommendations. Children of Immigrant Families, 14(2), 4-15. This article is a meta-analysis because the article summarizes data from individual studies that concern the specific research question of what are the areas of strength and weakness for immigrant families. The focus is on the necessity of a support system targeting immigrant children and their families. Sheilds and Behrman (2004) pinpoint 3 strengths and 6 challenges, both areas validated by other studies. This article is an analysis of the strengths and challenges of children growing up in immigrant families, and the types of resources and supports they need in order to become productive and engaged citizens. Sheilds and Behrman are cited in several resources about immigrant youth making them an expert resource. The authors’ main argument is that current support systems do not fully support the needs of immigrant populations. This is substantiated by an examination of challenges, focusing on 3 ethnic groups and childhood age ranges. Sheilds and Behrman (2004) first providing a generalization of all immigrants and then making the argument more focus gives a thoroughness to their research. The article concludes by identifying a number of areas of strengths and challenges more direct care can be provided for immigrants. The goal of the article is not for assimilation but acculturation so that these families become pivotal parts of American society while maintain their own cultural values. At the end of the article, Sheilds and Behrman (2004) state recommendations for several programs however, they do not mention funding for these social policy changes. This is a fact that many researchers in immigrant and refugee issues face. The lack of funding and the overall unpopularity of helping migrants as they are viewed as “undeserving”. This is an area of research that other researchers and authors seek to examine

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how to increase popularity and understanding of helping those that have migrated and are most vulnerable in society.

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References The Policies and Politics of Educating Refugee Adolescents. (2010). Language Learning, 60(Suppl 1), 119-145. Brinegar, K. (2010). "I Feel Like I'm Safe Again:" A Discussion of Middle Grades Organizational Structures from the Perspective of Immigrant Youth and Their Teachers. Research In Middle Level Education Online, 33(9), 1-14. Espenshade, T. J., & Calhoun, C. A. (1993). An analysis of public opinion toward undocumented immigration. Population Research and Policy Review, 12(3), 189-224. Ferguson, I., Lavalette, M., & Whitmore, E. (2005). Globalisation, global justice and social work. Abingdon [England: Routledge. Fong, R. (2007). Immigrant and Refugee Youth: Migration Journeys and Cultural Values. Prevention Researcher, 14(4), 3-5. Fuligni, A.J. & Hardway, C. (2004). Preparing Diverse Adolescents for the Transition to Adulthood. Future of Children, 14(2), 100-117. Hernandez, D. J. (2004). Demographic Change and the Life Circumstances of Immigrant Families. Future of Children, 14(2), 17-47. Retrieved April 13, 2012, from http:// www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/ publications/docs/14_02_03.pdf Isaacs, D. (2010). Man's inhumanity to children. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 46(11), 617-618. Isbister, J. (1996). Are Immigration Controls Ethical. Social Justice, 23(3), 54-67. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/29766952 Meissner, D., Meyers, D. W., Papademetriou, D. G., & Fix, M. (2006). Report of the Independent Task Force on Immigration and America’s Future. Immigration and America’s Future: A New Chapter. Morland, L. (2007). Promising Practices in Positive Youth Development with Immigrants and Refugees. Prevention Researcher, 14(4), 18-20. National Immigration Forum. (2011, May 11). DREAM Act Reintroduced in Senate. National Immigration Forum. Shields, M. K., & Behrman, R. E. (2004). Children of Immigrant Families: Analysis and Recommendations. Children of Immigrant Families, 14(2), 4-15.

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Sue, D. W. & Capodilupo C. M. (2008). Racial, gender, and sexual orientation microaggressions: Implications for counseling and psychotherapy. In D. W. Sue & D. Sue (Eds.), Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (5th ed., pp.105-130). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Voltaire. (1756). Collection complette des Oeuvres de M. de Voltaire. Première édition. Tome IV [-XVII]. Genève: Cramer.

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