Tutorial-1 (Rinsing of Objects and Mixing of Wastewater Streams

1. In a metal finishing industry, electroplated objects are being rinsed with process water to reduce the plating chemical concentration in the liquid film attached to the plated objects from 16000 mg/L to 1.6 mg/L. Assume the plated objects carry 5 L/hr. of liquid when taken out from one liquid tank to the next. Find water consumption and wastewater generation rates, and chemical concentration in the generated wastewaters for the following alternative ways of rinsing?  Single stage rinsing  Two stage rinsing  Two stage counter current rinsing If, during rinsing, chemical concentration in bulk liquid is 70% to that in the liquid film of the object, find the water consumption (and wastewater generation) rate, and chemical concentration in the wastewaters generated for all the above three cases? 2. An industry is generating two streams of wastewater one having 3 pH and other having 11 pH. Wastewater flow rate is 25 m3/hour for first stream and 17 m3/hour for the second streams. What will be the resultant pH when both the streams are mixed. Is the information sufficient, and if not whatelse information is needed? Assuming that information appropriately find the resultant pH? 3. Wastewater flow rates from an industry over 24 hours time and a pollutant strength in the wastewater are as given below: Time Flow rate Pollutant concentration (m3/min) (mg/L) 8-00 AM 12 15 10-00 AM 25 25 Noon 19 18 2 PM 23 23 4 PM 20 40 6 PM 17 50 8 PM 15 27 10 PM 10 17 Midnight 6 10 2 AM 4 4 4 AM 8 11 6 AM 10 7 For collecting 5 liters of composite sample find out the volume of sample to be taken each time if the sampling is done at 2 hours interval? Find out the pollutant concentration in the composite sample?

Tutorial-2 (Combustion in Boilers and Flue Gases)
1. Composition and characteristics of rice husk and petroleum coke are as given below:
Parameters Moisture (%) Ash (%) Carbon (%) Hydrogen (%) Nitrogen (%) Sulfur (%) Oxygen (%) Calorific value (Kcal) Fuel combustion rates Rice husk 8 15 36 4.8 Negligible Negligible 36 3200-3600 18-20 tons/day Petroleum coke 8 1 80.5 3.7 Negligible 6.5-7.9 Negligible >8200 7-8 tons/day

Find out stoicheometric air requirements for the combustion of these fuels? 2. If 1.0 ton/hour of rice husk or 0.3 tons/hour of petroleum coke is burnt as fuel in a boiler in 60% excess air find the flue gas generation rate, and the percent carbon dioxide, the percent oxygen and the percent water vapour and the SPM concentration in the flue gases. Assume bottom ash to fly ash ratio as 80% for rice husk and 20% for petroleum coke. 3. Temperature of the flue gases from the boiler in the stack is 180C. Find the percent heat loss occurring through the flue gases. For minimizing the heat loss through the flue gases, temperature in the stack is dropped to 130C through providing a Heat Recovery Unit (HRU) operating at 85% efficiency. If the HRU is used for preheating the boiler feed water find the temperature by which the feed water will be heated. Assume 70% efficiency for the boiler and take boiler blow down related water losses as 5%. Also find the boiler efficiency after installing the HRU? Estimate the amount of boiler blow down and the amount of steam generated from the flashing of the boiler blowdown water?

1. A RO unit is generating 6 m3/hour of RO water from process water with TDS level of 405 mg/L. if reject water generation is 35% of the feed water, find out the TDS level in the reject water stream? Assume that the RO water has 20 mg/L of TDS. 2. 4500 LPM circulating water system is used in an industry. TDS level in the circulating cooling water sould be <1500 mg/L. ΔT of the circulating cooling is 12ºC. Drift losses of water is 0.5%. If TDS level in the make-up water is 370 mg/L find out the cooling tower blow down rate and the make-up water consumption rate? Leaks and direct (consumptive) use of water from the circulating cooling water system is negligible. What will be the cooling tower blow down rate and the make-up water consumption rate if the leaks and direct (consumptive) use of water from the circulating cooling water system is 5 LPM? If leaks from the system are 40 lpm what will be the TDS level in the circulating cooling water? 3. Pasteurization unit of a milk plant requires 500 LPM hot water at 90ºC. Temperature of the hot water returning from the pasteurization unit is 70ºC. The hot water required is supplied from a 1000L hot water tank. The return hot water is heated by saturated steam supplied at 110ºC through direct injection in the hot water tank. Because of water hammering, the steam injection is resulting in loss of 40% of the tank volume per hour. For tank volume make-ups soft water at 35ºC is used. Estimate the steam consumption and the wastewater generation rate at the hot water tank. Indicate what can be done for both water and energy conservation and estimate the water and energy conservation potential?

Crushed bone leaching process
Crushed bones are screened in vibratory screen for removing dust and classifying the crushed bone into two size categories: smaller size and larger size. Smaller size and larger size crushed bones are leached separately in separate batches. Screened material is then pneumatically conveyed into a silo and from there added with water (20:80) and pumped into a hot water treatment tank. Pneumatic conveyance involves removal of low density impurities from the raw material. Once transferred into the hot water treatment tank, the water content is drained out as wastewater. In the hot water treatment tank, for the hot water treatment, water is taken, heated to about 60C through steam injection, and circulated through the bone material for about 6 hours. After this, the hot water is drained out. Then the bone material is washed in water and taken into leach tanks for leaching out the mineral matter of bones with 4.5-5.0% HCl solution. Crushed bone is leached in batches of 12 tons each over 5 to 7 days. For the leaching the acid solution is added from the top, drained out from the bottom and pumped to add at the top. Counter-current leaching with acid of 5 to 7 batches of bone material is actually practiced. Fresh acid solution is actually used in the last day of leaching and from there shifted daily towards the first day leaching and finally the bone leachate is drained from the first day of leaching tank. Each batch of bone material consumes about 13 tons of 30% HCl. Leached boned material is washed in water for removing the residual acid prior to conveying for subsequent processing into gelatin. The washwater generated is reused in the fresh acid solution preparation. The leachate generated is 0.4% HCl solution and contains the leached minerals mainly phosphate. The leachate is taken into a neutralization tank, mixed with milk of lime (5-10% quick lime slurry) to neutralize to 5-5.3 pH and allowed to settle. About 1.92-2.16 tons of quick lime is consumed in the neutralization of 12 tons of bone material. At 5-5.3 pH, phosphate of the leachate precipitates as dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and settles to the bottom. After settling, the supernatant is drained out as wastewater. The settled bottom DCP mud is subjected to 2-stage counter current washing (mixing water, allowing settling and decanting the supernatant) and sent to the rotary vacuum drum dewatering unit. Rotary vacuum drum filter dewaters the DCP mud and the dewatered mud is conveyed to the drier. Seal pit overflows (water separated from the DCP mud on the rotary vacuum drum filter) is allowed to drain out as wastewater. Water is used as gland sealing water in the vacuum pump and the overflows of vacuum pump seal pit is reused in the counter current washing of the DCP mud. The following schematic diagram provides details on the process and on the water consumption and wastewater generation.

Crushed bone Vibratory screen


Dust ladden Air

Conveyance water
Conveyanc e in water




Pnuematic convey. & winnowing

Wash tank

Wash tank

Bone dust

HCl solution

Circulating acid

Conveyance Hot wash water water Leach tank4 Leach tank3 Leach tank2

Wash water

Wash water

Leach tank5

Leach tank1

Circulating acid

Circulating acid

Circulating acid

Circulating acid

MOL Neutral. & settle. tank

Washing-1 Excess of wash water


Water for washing Leached bone material for gelatin making

Wash water
Seal water Filter fabric washing Rotary drum filter

Decanted supernatant Wash water
DCP mud wash-2 Wash water

DCP mud wash-1

Pit overflows

Vacuum pump

Cyclone separator

DCP washwater
DCP for drying

Excess of Pit overflows

Vacuum seal pit

Seal pit

Pit overflows

Schematic crushed bone leaching process flow diagram

Tutorial -6
Sequence of steps involved in the dyeing of cotton fabric are as following: 1. Filling the soft flow machine with water, loading the fabric, dosing wetting agent, anticreasing agent, peroxide, caustic and stabilizer, heating to 98°C and holding for 45 minutes, cooling to 80°C, checking, overflow cooling to 45°C and draining out the liquid. 2. Filling the machine with water, heating to 80°C and holding for 10 minutes, overflow cooling to 55°C and draining out the liquid. 3. Filling the machine with water, dosing acetic acid, heating to 60°C and holding for 20 minutes and draining out the liquid. 4. Filling the machine with water, dosing sequestering, anticreezing and leveling agents, dyes, salt, soda and caustic, raising temperature to 60-65°C and holding for about 60 minutes, check, overflow washing to 40-45°C and draining out the liquid. 5. Filling the machine with water, running the machine for a cold wash and draining out the liquid. 6. Filling the machine with water, dosing acetic acid, heating to 45-50°C and holding for 20 minutes and draining out the liquid. 7. Filling the machine with water, dosing soap, heating to 60-90°C and holding for 10 minutes, overflow cooling to 45°C and draining out the liquid. 8. Filling the machine with water, raising temperature to 70-80°C and holding for 10 minutes and draining. 9. Filling the machine with water, raising temperature to 70-80°C and holding for 10 minutes and draining. 10. Filling the machine with water, run the machine for 10 minutes for cold wash and drain out the liquid. 11. Filling the machine with water, dosing dye fixing agent, heating to 40°C and holding for 20 minutes, and draining out the liquid. 12. Filling the machine with water, dose softner chemical and acetic acid, raise temperature to 40C and hold for 30 minutes for softner application, unload the fabric and drain out the liquid. 13. Load the fabric to hydrosqueezer, squeeze dewater the fabric and unload the fabric. 14. Load and unload a pole drier with the squeeze dewatered fabric for drying. The dyeing process involves use of a soft flow machine (of 450 kg capacity), hydrosqueezer and pole drier. Liquid to fabric ratio in the soft flow machine is 10:1. For the heating and cooling of the soft flow machine contents an external heat exchanger is used and its efficiency is 85% for heating and 110% for cooling. Delta T of the circulating cooling water is 12°C. Liquid left behind in the fabric after draining out the liquid is 2.5 times to the fabric. Fabric unloaded from soft flow machine has 50% moisture in it. Hydrosqueezing reduces the moisture content to 30%. Pole driers use steam in the radiator heaters for hot dry air generation. Steam consumes is 2.5 kg per kg of the water evaporated. Moisture content of the dried fabric is <4%. Water temperature is 35C. Temperature of the saturated steam 110C. Specific heat of the fabric 0.3 Kcal/kg.C. Heating and cooling rates of the contents of the soft flow machine are 1.5 c/min and 4C/min. At present both the cooling water and the steam condensate are allowed to flow out as wastewaters. Assume overflow cooling rate is 4C/min at full flow of inlet. Filling of the machine at full flow is reported as 4C/min. Estimate per batch water, cooling water and steam requirements and also the wastewater generation rates?

Suggest modifications for waste minimization through source reduction and through waste recycling and reuse? Estimate the water, cooling water and steam requirements and the wastewater generation rates after implementing the modifications?

Tutorial-7 (Wastewater management: A case of Mercerizing)
Mercerizing includes the following activities:  Brushing  Impregnating  Stabilizing  3-stage washing  Neutralization and washing  Multiple drum drier  Drum cooler Process and material flow details are shown in the following schematic diagram.
Brushing Blower Bag filter Vent gas

720 gpl caustic

Caustic Dosing tank

fabric Steam Stabilizer

Fibrous waste water

Caustic wash tank Caustic washwater


Water Water Rinsing-1

Washwater overflow

Water Steam

Washwater overflow

Washwater for counter current rinsing

Washwater overflow Rinsing-3
Washwater overflow

Steam Acetic acid solution


Steam Water


Cooling water
Drum cooling Cooling water

Rinsing Washwater overflow

Drum drying Steam condensate

The mercerizing unit is run at about 1200 m/hour rate and uses the following:  Caustic: 84 L/hour (720 gpl strength)  Acetic acid: 16.67 L/hour of 67% purity  Water  steam  Circulating cooling water

Caustic strengths observed in different units of mercerizing are  Mercerizing bath (impregnator):  Stabilizer:  Rinse tank-1  Rinse tank-2  Rinse tank-3 180 gpl 110 gpl 35 gpl 10 gpl 4.18 gpl

Water is consumed at the stabilizer, rinse tanks -1 to 3 and at the post neutralization rinse tank. Water is also consumed for the dilution of the acetic acid at the neutralization step. In the current rinsing practice, fresh process water is used at each stage (applied as water jets on the fabric, prior to the associated squeeze press) and from each stage excess water is taken out as rinse water overflows. Wastewaters generated from the mercerizing include  Wastewater draining from the stabilizer (it is collected into an underground sump and part of it is used in the preparation of 180 gpl caustic from 720 gpl caustic, and the rest is allowed to overflow as wastewater)  Washwater overflows from rinse tank-1  Washwater overflows from rinse tank-2  Washwater overflows from rinse tank-3  Washwater overflows from post neutralization rinsing Mercerizing wastewater upsets functioning of the effluent treatment plant and makes compliance with the applicable effluent standards impossible. 1. Quantify the wastewaters generated by the mercerizing unit and indicate the measures that can be taken for minimizing the wastewater generation rates? 2. What treatment scheme do you propose for the cost effective handling and disposal (collection, treatment and disposal) of the wastewaters?

A manufacturing unit is manufacturing non-dairy cream from vegetable fats and oils and sugar syrup and generating wastewater of the following characteristics: S.No. Parameter value 3 1. Flow rate (m /day) 75 Highly variable hourly flow (50 at present and can go upto 100) 2. BOD5 at 20°C (mg/L) 2500 3. COD (mg/L) 4500 4. Oil and grease (mg/L) 200 5. TSS (mg/L) 1500 6. TDS (mg/L) Not known 7. TKN (mg/L as N) Not known Total-N (TKN+Nitrate+Nitrite) Not known (mg/L as N) 8. Total-P (mg/L as P) Not known 9. Chloride (mg/L) Not known 10. Sulfate (mg/L) Not known 11. Alkalinity (mg/L as CaCO3) Not known The industrial unit wants to treat the wastewater to comply with the prescribed effluent standards and reuse the treated effluent in the circulating cooling water systems as makeup water. Suggest a scheme for the treatment of the wastewater and shown it in the form of a process flow diagram? Please give your reasons for choosing the scheme and different treatment units employed therein? Divide into five groups and design the effluent treatment plant as per the scheme you have finalized?

Tutorial-9 (WTP-Material and Water Balance)
A Water Treatment Plant (WTP) includes coagulation flocculation, clarification and filtration units. The WTP is receiving raw water at the rate of 150 m3/hour and has 120 mg/L of suspended solids. Coagulation-flocculation treatment of the water involves dosing of lime and alum at 120 mg/L and 70 mg/L respectively. 5% slurry/solution of lime and alum are used for the dosing and filtered water is used in the preparation of the slurry/solution. Coagulation-flocculation treatment of the water is resulting in 340 mg/L of TSS. The clariflocculaor is reducing the TSS level of water to 50 mg/L level. Underflow sludge of the clariflocculator is having 1.8% consistency. This filter used is reducing the TSS to 5 mg/L level. The filter is run for 23 hours a day and filtering water at the rate of 9 m/hour. Backwashing of the filter is done daily once at 65 m/hour rate. Backwashing uses the filtered water. 1. Find the filtered water requirement of the backwashing and the TSS level in the filter backwash water? 2. Estimate filtered water requirement of alum solution and lime slurry preparation? 3. Find the net production rate of the filtered water by the WTP? 4. If the backwash water and the underflow sludge are clarified in a sludge pit and the clear supernatant with 120 mg/L of TSS is recycled as raw water find out the net production rate of the filtered water? Assume 6% consistency for the sludge accumulated in the sludge pit.

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