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SAP  ERP  –  INTEGRATION  OF  BUSINESS  PROCESSES  (C_TERP_60)  
  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS     1)  
1)

ERP  Basics  /  SAP  ERP  positioning   SAP  NetWeaver  integration      Lifecycle  Data  Management      Procurement  Cycle    

 
2)

 
3)

  5)        Material  Planning        7)        Manufacturing  Execution     9)      Sales  Order  Management     11)      ERP  Financials  –  Financials  Accounting  (FI)     15)      Management  Accounting-­‐Controlling  -­‐  CO       20)        Inventory  and  Warehouse  Management  /  Stock  Transfer  and  Transfer  Posting     23)      Enterprise  asset  management  and  customer  service       27)      Program  and  Project  Management       31)        Human  Capital  Management  /  HCM  Structures     35)          Business  Intelligence  /  Business  Information  Warehouse        
Abbreviations  used:  
Q  =  quantity    -­‐    $  =  price              -­‐              oo  –  1  (several  to  one)  

 
      THIS  DOCUMENT  WAS  CREATED  FOR  FREE  DISTRIBUTION   WWW.SAP-­‐TERP10.COM.AR     2012    
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ERP  Basics  /  SAP  ERP  positioning  
ESA:  Enterprise  Services  Architecture  enables  business  innovation  by:     • Levering  existing  IT  assets   • Reducing  TCO   • Maximizing  agility,  flexibility,  extendibility  of  business  process   Enterprise  services  describe  the  broader  business  process  logic.   Web  services  are  small,  modular  applications  that  use  Internet  technologies  and  are  usually  accessed  as  detailed  functions  in  applications  or  enterprise  services.     SAP  Netweaver  is  the  application  and  integration  platform  that  best  supports  ESA  using  web  services  technology.   4  addit.  features  offered  by  SAP  ERP  2003  vs  SAP   • SAP  R2:  Mainframe  computing/centralized  computing   R3  Entreprise   • SAP  R3  Enterprise  (1992):  Client  Server  architecture:  2  layer  architecture  (SAP  basics  +  SAP  application)  Started  Using  Web  AS   • Self  services   • SAP  ERP  (2003):  Service  Oriented  Architecture  (SOA)  powered  by  Netweaver.  Uses  Web  AS   • Self  service  procurement     1  additional  feature  offered   • Internet  sales   • SAP  ERP  Central  Component  (ECC)  Uses  Web  AS   SAP  Business  suite:   • SAP  ERP    (Entr.  Ressource  Planning)   • SAP  CRM    (Cust.  Relat.  Mgt)   • SAP  PLM    (Product  Lifecycle  Mgt)   • SAP  SRM    (Supply  Relat.  Mgt)   • SAP  SCM    (Supply  Chain  Mgt)  
  by  SAP  ERP  vs  SAP  ERP  2003   • Composite  applications    

 

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SEM  

 

Solution  map:  Shows  the  processes  enabled  by  a  specific  solution  
 

SAP  NetWeaver  integration  
(SAP  Enterprise  Portal)  

People  Integration    

Information  Integration    (SAP  Business  Intelligence)   Process  Integration    (SAP  Exchange  Infrastruct)  
(SAP  Web  Applic.  Server)  
 

Application  Platform  

• • • • • • • • • • •

Portal  infrastructure   Collaboration   Multi  channel  Access   Business  Intelligence   Knowledge  Management   Master  Data  Management   Integration  Broker   Business  Process  Management   Support  J2EE   Support  JAVA   DB  &  OS  abstraction  

The  central  component  of  the  Application  Platform  is  the  SAP  Web  Application  Server  (SAP  Web  AS)   • Operating  System  and  DB  independence   • Multilevel  architecture   • Java  and  ABAP  environment  (open  environment)   • Provides  basics  functions  for  almost  all  SAP  systems     • High  scalability  
 

The  functions  of  the  different  SAP  systems  (such  as  SAP  ECC,  SAP  CRM)  can  be  divided  into  two  categories:     • Basis  functions:  are  very  similar  in  the  various  SAP  systems.  Are  provided  by  the  SAP  WebAS,  which  is  a  further  development  of  the  classic  SAP  Basics.   • Application  functions:  are  different  in  the  various  SAP  systems  
 

Advantages  of  SAP  NetWeaver:   1. Openness  and  Extendibility  (Microsoft.NET;  IBM  WebSphere)   2. Immediate  Integration   3. Lower  Total  Cost  of  Ownership   4. Clear  Roadmap   Organizational  levels:  represent  the  enterprise  structure  in  terms  of  legal  and/or  business-­‐related  purposes.  
 

Client   Company  Code   Controlling  area   Plant   Storage  Location   Sales  area   Purchasing  organiz  
 

Is  the  highest-­‐level  element  of  all  organizational  elements   FI  –  central  org.  element:  balanced  sheet,  legally  independent  
Identifies  a  self-­‐contained  organ.  structure  for  which  costs  and  revenues  can  be  managed  and  allocated.  It  represents  a  separate  unit  of  cost  accounting.  

Prod.  Planning,  logistics:  central  org.  element   Inventory  Management   Combination  of:   sales  organization   Distribution  channel          division   Each  country  in  which  plants  operate  has  ONE  purchasing  organization.  It  purchase  for  all  plant  in  the  country.  

Master  data   Master  data:  data  which  is  used  long-­‐term  in  the  SAP  system  for  several  business  processes  and  ensures  NO  redundancy  of  data  in  the  system.  Master  data  has  an   organizational  aspect  as  the  information  is  organized  into  VIEWS  which  are  assigned  to  organizational  elements.  EX:  Customer  master  =  3  views:    
• (Client):        General  data                            -­‐                                        (Company  code):            Financial  Accounting  data                            -­‐                                        (Sales  Area):                  Sales  data  

  Transactions:  application  programs  which  execute  business  processes  in  the  SAP  system  such  as  creating  a  customer  order;  posting  an  incoming  payment,  etc.   Document:  a  data  record  that  is  generated  when  a  transaction  is  carried  out.  Every  transaction  creates  a  document  which  contains  all  relevant  pre-­‐defined  information  from  the   master  data  and  organizational  elements  assigned.   Reporting  solutions   OLAP:  online  analytical  processing:  optimized  for  query.  (Informative  environment)   OLTP:  online  transaction  processing:  optimized  for  transaction  processes.  (Operating  environment)   SAP  BW:  enable  the  analysis  of  data  from  operative  SAP  applications  as  well  as  all  other  bus.  applic.  and  external  data  sources  such  as  databases,  online  servs,  internet.  

 

 

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Lifecycle  Data  Management  
SAP  PLM  is  used  in  tight  collaboration  with  SAP  CRM  and  SCM.  
 

 

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4  components  of  Life  Cycle  Data  Management:  (DIPE)   1. Document  management:  integrate  external  files,  by  storage  of  the  original  documents  in  secure  storages  areas  or  links  to  other  objects.     2. Product  structure  browser:*  is  a  navigation  tool  to  manage  product  data.  It  displays  all  product-­‐relevant  info,  such  material  master,  BOM,  routing,  class,  docs.   3. Integration:  of  most  CAx  solutions,  Office  application,  GIS,  Classification  system  using  PLM  interface   4. Engineering  Change  and  configuration  management  (ECM)*:  let  make  change  dependent  on  date,  serial  number.  Replications  of  product  data  is  a  method  used  to   run  a  separate  system  for  engineering  process  in  addition  to  a  production  system.  
   

Document  is  made  up  of  a  document  info  record  and  the  original  that  belong  to  it.   Documents  Info  Record:  Functions:    Version  management,  Status  management,  Classification,  Secure  storage  areas    Purpose  :   • Can  be  linked  to  other  objects  in  order  to  make  the  original  information  available  to  these  objects  (Material,  Equipment,  Functional  location,  Purchase  requisition,  Document,  WBS   element,  PRT,  QM  info  record,  Purchase  order,  Change  number,  Network  operation,  Production  order,  Customer,  Sales  document  item,  etc.)   • Allows  to  view  and  manage  originals   • Controls  the  process  flow.   • Integration  in  ECC  through  object  links  *   • Interfaces  to  external  systems  (PLM  interface  +  ArciveLink  interface)*   • DMS  allows  easy  way  to  handle  documents.  
 

PLM  Interface:   • Third  party  CAD-­‐CAx  systems,  Office  appl,  GIS,  Class.System  are  connected  to  SAP  ERP  using  PLM  interface.   • Third  party  archiving  systems  are  connected  by  using  the  ArchiveLink  interface.   • Bidirectional  data  exchange  with  third  party  systems.   • Standard  BAPI  and  RFC  technology.   • Transfer  data  with  or  without  a  GUI:  The  Easy  DMS  interface  is  a  tool  for  creating  and  changing  docs  without  an  SAP  GUI.  (SAP  is  invisible)  (BAPI,  RFC,  Java  connectors).  

  Classification  enables  flexible  searching.  Also  as  a  Variant  configuration  and  Batch  management   • Create  characteristics  and  allowed  values.   • Maintain  classes  and  assign  characteristics  to  them.   • Create  objects  and  assign  classes  to  them  (also  assign  characteristic  values  for  this  object).   • Search  for  objects  by  specifying  the  class  to  which  it  belongs  and  then  specifying  the  values  for  the  charact.  of  the  class.   The  classifications  take  place:   • Directly  in  the  object  or   • Indirectly  in  a  transaction  within  the  classification  system.  
 

Configurable  material:    is  a  product  that  can  be  made  in  several  variants.  (is  not  a  finished  product)  Are  all  materials  in  a  BOM  always  used  to  produce  an  item  that  the  BOM   represents?  No.  In  the  case  of  configurable  materials,  the  BOM  mentions  all  the  materials  for  all  variants.  Thus  some  of  the  materials  will  be  used  only  in  some  variants.   Dependencies  is  a  feature  used  to  select  the  materials  and  operations  for  a  specific  variant  of  a  configurable  material.  
 

*Product  Structure  Browser:   Is  the  central  navigation  and  information  tool  in  SAP  Life-­‐Cycle  Data  Management.     It  displays  in  tree-­‐structure  form  all  objects  that  belong  to  each  other  functionally,  such  as:  materials,  BOMs,  documents,  classes,  characteristics,  routings,  etc.   You  can  call  and  change  each  of  the  objects  from  the  browser.   The  Enterprise  Application  Integration  (EAI)  is  a  component  that  allows  the  direct  viewing  of  originals  in  the  product  structure  browser.     Engineering  Workbench  (EWB):   Is  used  as  a  maintenance  environment  for  product  structures  and  can  be  used  to  create  and  maintain  BOMs  +  Routings.   You  define  a  worklist  that  contains  selected  objects  copied  from  the  database  to  be  processed.     *Engineering  Change  management  (ECM):  Advantages:   • Changes  that  belong  together  are  grouped  in  a  change  number   • Monitoring  and  documentation  of  changes   • Saving  multiple  change  statuses  for  an  object   • Planning  and  realization  of  a  specific  effectivity   • Integration  in  the  logistics  process  chain   Change  Number   • Header  (general  info  -­‐-­‐  date,  validity,  status)  (No  items)   • Object  types   • Object  management  records  (Actual  objects  affected)   • Other  info  (accompanying  docs,  Classification  -­‐-­‐  facilitates  search  for  changes,  alternate  dates  for  individual  objects)  
 

 

The  ECR/ECO  unlike  change  master  record  has  a  status  network  that  enables  change  processes  to  be  requested,  checked,  and  released.  

 

 

 

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 DATA  (payment  conditions.   • Extended  conditions:  are  only  included  in  the  purchase  order  if  it  meets  certain  criteria.  Org.    Also.  They  are  flexible.  procures  materials  for  all  plants   belonging  to  one  company  code.  etc)   COMPANY  CODE                              =    COMPANY  CODE    DATA:  (ACCOUNTING  data.  To  define  vendor  discounts  or  include  discounts  for  a   material  type.-­‐>  is  relevant  to  the  Company  Code   Materials  Planning  data  for  material  requirements  planning  (MRP)  and  Execution  (Work  Scheduling)  -­‐>  is  relevant  to  the  Plant   Purchasing  Info  Records   Contains  info  on  a  vendor  and  the  material  you  procure  from  this  vendor.  Balance  sheet  and  P/L  statements.  but  a  plant  can  only  have  one  company  code.  No  assign  to  a  purchasing.  units  with  separate  Inventory  Mgt  (=>can  belong  to  <>  plants.  The  vendor  master  record  is  therefore  maintained  by  Accounting  +  Purchasing   Data  is  structured  by  organizational  levels:   • • • CLIENT                    =    GENERAL  DATA:  valid  for  the  whole  corporate  group.sap-­‐terp10.   Negotiate  the  general  condition  of  purchase  for  one  or  more  plants  or  companies  /  Legally  responsible  for  completing  purchasing  contracts   (do  not  set  price  conditions).  payment  transactions.  it  contains  all  the  data  you  require  to  do  business  with  your  vendors.  in   Customizing.   Plant-­‐Specific  Purchasing  Organization   Purch.   Are  completely  independent  org.  it’s  subdivided  into  information  grouped   by  user  departments  (functions)  that  manage  the  modules.   Info  store  and  maintain:   • Current  and  future  prices  and  conditions  (freight  and  discounts)   • Delivery  data  (planned  delivery  time.  It  controls  how  transaction  data  is  posted   and  processed  for  a  vendor.  etc)     Basic  Data  applicable  to  the  entire  company  -­‐>  Client:  product  description.  allowing  to  find  out  at  any  time  which  vendors  offer  a  particular  material  or  which  materials  can  be   procured  from  a  particular  vendor.  you  can  use  the  same  storage  location   number  in  more  than  one  plant).  bank  account.   • In  a  Purchasing  Info  record:  apply  to  all  purchase  order  items  that  contain  the  material  and  vendor  contained  in  the  purchasing  info  record.  material  #.       Type  of  conditions  in  Purchasing:   • In  a  Contract:  apply  to  all  contract  release  orders  created  with  reference  to  this  contract.  (address.  so  each  one  has  a  different  VIEW  of  the  material  master  record  and  is  responsible  for  maintaining  the  data  to   support  their  function.     Master  data  in  Procurement:     Material  Master  Data/record:     Used  by  all  Logistic  modules.  tolerances)   • Vendor  data   • Texts     Conditions       Are  used  in  purchase  orders  to  determine  price.   Several  plants  can  be  affiliated  with  one  company  code.  For  example  the  Views:   • • • • •   Vendor  Master  Data   It  contains  information  about  a  vendor  from  a  Purchasing  (Material  Management)  and  Accounting  (Financial  Accounting)  perspective.   In  Accounting.   SEE  PROCUREMENT  PROCESS  DIAGRAM       3       .  tax)   Each  PURCHASING  ORG    =    PURCHASING  ORG.   Purchasing  Organization  Types  *   Cross-­‐Plant  Purchasing  Organization   Purch.  unit  of  measure   Purchasing  data  for  orders  -­‐>  relevant  to  the  Plant   Inventory  Mgt  data  for  posting  goods  movements  and  managing  physical  inventory   Accounting  data  for  material  valuation  upon  goods  movements  or  in  invoice  verification.  Org.     Purchasing  info  records  can  be  referenced  in  the  planning  process  to  predetermine  vendor  specific  information.   Buyer  or  group  of  buyers  responsible  for  certain  purchasing  activities.  When  you  create  a  purchase  order  you  must  enter   the  company  for  which  you  want  to  procure  the  material.  Level  included  for  a  PO  because  it’s  not  necessary  until  good  are  not  received.            www.com.  No  Org.  For  ex.ar   Client   Company  Code   Plant   oo     |   1   Organizational  Levels   oo     |   oo     1   |   1   Storage  Location   Purchasing  Organization  *   Purchasing  Group     Highest  organizational  element)  (defined  in  the  system  by  a  3  digit  key   Represents  an  independent  accounting  unit.    The  data  maintained  within  a  view  may  be  valid  for  more  that  on  Organizational  level.  material  group.  the  vendor  is  regarded  as  the  company’s  crediting  business  partner.  required  by  law  are  created  at  this  level.  Org.  procures  materials  for  only  one  plant.   Cross-­‐Company-­‐Code  Purchasing  Organization   you  can’t  assign  a  company  code  to  the  Purch.  (The  integration  of  all  material  data  in  a  single  database  object  prevents  the  problem  of  data  redundancy).       Procurement  Cycle     Organizational  Levels/Units  represent  the  legal  and/or  organizational  views  of  an  enterprise.

 descending  order   Functions   Add  values  create  totals   Create  subtotals   Layout:  change  the  appearance  of  the  list         (LIS)  Logistics  Information  System   The  following  application-­‐specific  information  systems  are  available  under  LIS   • SIS       (Sales  Information  System)   • PURCHIS   (Purchasing  Information  System)   • INVCO     (Inventory  Controlling)   • TIS     (Transportation  Information  System)   • SFIS     (Shop  Floor  Information  System)   • QMIS     (Quality  Management  Information  System)   • PMIS     (Plant  Maintenance  Information  System)     How  Information  Structures  are  organized   The  Purchasing  Information  System  is  based  on  information  structure  which  contains  3  basic  types  of  information:       • Characteristics:  criteria  used  for  collecting  data  on  a  subject  (Ex:  vendor.  customer)   • Period  unit:  (Ex:  day.     Parameters  that  control  the  information  presented  in  a  purchasing  report  list         Selection  criteria     (ROWS)     Selection  parameter  determines  which  purchasing     documents  are  analyzed  by  the  report     (COLLUMNS)    Scope  of  list  parameter  determines  which  data  is  displayed     for  a  selected  document                 List  Viewer  and  ALV  Grid  Control:  standardize  and  simplify  the  handling  of  lists   • Uniform  design  of  all  lists  and  tables   Key  elements   • Cross  application.     Reporting   Standard  reports  enable  evaluation  of  documents  and  master  data.   • Combine  characteristics  and  key  figures  from  different  information  structures  in  one  list   • Use  your  own  formulas  to  calculate  new  key  figures  from  existing  ones   • Choose  between  a  variety  of  layouts                  www.com.ar       4   .  week.  month)   • Key  Figures:    are  performance  measures.       Standard  Analyses:   • Drill  down  list   • Analyses  can  be  archived   • Graphically  supported     Flexible  analyses:  allow  to  determine  the  way  in  which  data  should  be  combined  in  an  individual  report  procurement.  standardized  function  with  uniform  icons   • Simple  creation  and  changing  of  layouts  (display  variants)   Choose  detail   Set  filter:  display  lines  with  certain  criteria   Sort:  ascending.sap-­‐terp10.  quantitative  information  based  on  measurable  facts   and  are  updated  for  each  characteristic  combination  and  periodicity.

  Safety  stock  can  be  set   Strategy  group:  control  the  behavior  of  planned  independent  requirements   Availability  check  group:  control  of  the  Available  to  Promise  (ATP)  check.com.  (The  integration  of  all  material  data  in  a  single  database  object  prevents  the   problem  of  data  redundancy).   A  BOM  consist  of  a  BOM  header  and  the  BOM  items.  These  are  represented  through  several  single-­‐level  BOM’s   A  BOM  can  contain  documents  or  text  items.   Several  plants  can  be  affiliated  with  one  company  code.  material  #.  unit  of  measure   Purchasing  data  for  orders  -­‐>  relevant  to  the  Plant   Inventory  Mgt  data  for  posting  goods  movements  and  managing  physical  inventory   Accounting  data  for  material  valuation  upon  goods  movements  or  in  invoice  verification.   BOM’s  are  used  in:  MRP.  units  with  separate  Inventory  Mgt  (=>can  belong  to  <>  plants.  so  each  one  has  a  different  VIEW  of  the   material  master  record  and  is  responsible  for  maintaining  the  data  to  support  their  function.  it’s  subdivided  into  information  grouped  by  user  departments  (functions)  that  manage  the  modules.  you  can  use  the  same  storage  location   number  in  more  than  one  plant).   The  material  type  attached  to  product  identifies/determines/controls:     • Business  process  and  functions  allowed.  For  example  the  Views:   • • • • • Basic  Data  applicable  to  the  entire  company  (Client):  product  description.  using  the  BOMs   of  the  assemblies  of  and  so  on.   Production  versions:  defines  the  production  procedure.   • • • • • • • Material  type:   • Raw  materials   • Operating  supplies   • Semi-­‐finished  products   • Finished  products     It’s  the  most  important  value  assigned  to  a  material.    The  data  maintained  within  a  view  may  be  valid  for  more  that  on  Organizational   level.  product  costing.-­‐>  is  relevant  to  the  Plant   Materials  Planning  data  for  material  requirements  planning  (MRP)  and  Execution  (Work  Scheduling)  -­‐>  is  relevant  to  the  Plant   In  the  Views  1  to  4  we  have  the  fundamental  settings  for  Material  Planning:   • MRP  type:  specifies  how  a  material  should  be  planned   o MRP   o Consumption  based  planning  (strategy  40)   o No  planning   Lot  size  (key):  determines  the  lot  size  (quantity)  of  each  of  the  procurement  proposals.  multilevel  production  is  described  using  the  single-­‐level  BOMs  of  the  finished  product  and  those  of  the  assemblies  and  where  required.   The  base  quantity  in  the  BOM  header  specifies  to  which  amount  of  the  finished  product  the  item  quantities  refer.  material  group.    Materials  with  similar  basic  attributes  are  grouped  together  by  material  type.ar   Organizational  Levels   oo     |   1   Client   Company  Code   Plant     Highest  organizational  element)  (defined  in  the  system  by  a  3  digit  key   Represents  an  independent  accounting  unit.  Balance  sheet  and  P/L  statements.    This  means  you  can  manage  your  materials   according  to  their  business  requirements.  procurement.   An  item  of  a  BOM  can  itself  also  contain  a  further  BOM   In  this  way.     Material  Planning     oo     |   1   oo     |   Storage  Location   1          www.     • Views  (Screens)  that  appear  in  the  Material  Master  record   • Department-­‐specific  data  that  can  be  maintained   • Material  #  assignment   • Procurement  types      that  are  allowed  (in-­‐house  production  or  external  procurement)   • GL-­‐  general  ledger  accounts  that  are  updated   BOM:   • • • • • • • The  BOM  contains  the  assemblies  or  components  that  are  to  be  included  in  the  production  of  a  material.  Used  by  all  Logistic  modules.   Are  completely  independent  org.  but  a  plant  can  only  have  one  company  code.   5       .   Procurement  type:  controls  how  a  material  is  to  be  procured   o In  house  production  (internal)   o External  procurement   o Internal  and  External   In  house  production  time:  specifies  how  long  procurement  will  last.  required  by  law  are  created  at  this  level.  Does  SAP  directly  support  multi-­‐level  BOMs?    No.   Master  data  in  Material  Planning   • • • Material   BOM   Routing     Material  Master  Data/record:     Represents  the  central  source  for  releasing  material-­‐specific  data.sap-­‐terp10.  production.

  o Item  category:  specifies  what  kind  of  item  you  are  dealing  with.sap-­‐terp10.     Routings:   Routings  contain  the  steps  that  are  necessary  for  production.com.   Work  Centers  which  these  operations  are  to  be  executed.   BOM  structure:            www.       SEE  MATERIAL  PLANNING  DIAGRAM           6   .ar   • Header:  settings  that  apply  for  the  whole  BOM   o Material   o Plant   o Usage:  determines  the  business  applications  for  which  a  BOM  can  be  used   o Status:  controls  whether  the  BOM  is  active  for  particular  applications   o Description   o Validity   o Lot  size  area   o Base  Quantity  (q  of  finished  product  the  item  q  refers)   • Items:  components  necessary  for  the  production  of  the  finished  product.)  relevant  for  scheduling   operations.  that  is:     • • • • • • Operations.  Influence  the  processing  of  the  component   § Stock  item:  executed  in  the  warehouse  and  used  in  production  /  must  have  a  material  master   § Non  stock  item:  directly  assigned  to  a  manufacturing  order  (not  via  the  warehouse)  /  don’t  need  material  master  (and  its  number)   § Variable  size  item     § Documents  item  (design  or  diagram)   § Text  item   § Class  item   § Intra  material     o Descriptions   o Quantity   o Control  data   Multi  level  BOM  structure  is  exploded  automatically  by  MRP  and  Product  Cost  Planning.     Operation  Sequences   Usage   Time  elements  (and  base  quantity:  for  ex.     Component  allocations   Routing  can  be  transferred  to  SAP  APO  (Advanced  Planning  and  Optimization)  in  the  form  of   production  process  models  (PPMs)   A  routing  can  be  defined  using  the  routing  group  and  the  group  counter.  10  min.  per  1  pc.

 multilevel  production  is  described  using  the  single-­‐level  BOMs  of  the  finished  product  and  those  of  the  assemblies  and  where  required.com.  procurement.  product  costing.  For  example  the  Views:   • • • • • BOM:   • • • • • • • Basic  Data  applicable  to  the  entire  company  (Client):  product  description.  or  master  recipes.   The  base  quantity  in  the  BOM  header  specifies  to  which  amount  of  the  finished  product  the  item  quantities  refer.   • Kanban:  Replenishment-­‐controlled  using  stock  transfer.    The  data  maintained  within  a  view  may  be  valid  for  more  that  on  Organizational   level.   o Item  category:  specifies  what  kind  of  item  you  are  dealing  with.ar   oo     Client   |   Company  Code   1   Plant   Organizational  Levels   Highest  organizational  element)  (defined  in  the  system  by  a  3  digit  key   oo     Represents  an  independent  accounting  unit.-­‐>  is  relevant  to  the  Plant   Materials  Planning  data  for  material  requirements  planning  (MRP)  and  Execution  (Work  Scheduling)  -­‐>  is  relevant  to  the  Plant   The  BOM  contains  the  assemblies  or  components  that  are  to  be  included  in  the  production  of  a  material.  unit  of  measure   Purchasing  data  for  orders  -­‐>  relevant  to  the  Plant   Inventory  Mgt  data  for  posting  goods  movements  and  managing  physical  inventory   Accounting  data  for  material  valuation  upon  goods  movements  or  in  invoice  verification.   PRTs  (productions  Resources  /  tools   Material  Master  Data/record:     Represents  the  central  source  for  releasing  material-­‐specific  data.  Balance  sheet  and  P/L  statements.          www.  external  procurement.   Storage  Location     • • • • • Master  data  for  Manufacturing  Execution   Material   BOM   Work  Center  /  Resource   Task  Lists  (can  be  routings.     Manufacturing  Execution     Production  types  supported  by  ERP  Operations:   • Make  to  order  prod:  production  with  a  Production  Order   • Process  Manufacturing:    production  with  a  Process  Order   • Repetitive  manufacturing:  Period  and  Quantity-­‐oriented  production.  production.  rate  routings.   An  item  of  a  BOM  can  itself  also  contain  a  further  BOM   In  this  way.  Used  by  all  Logistic  modules.  in-­‐house  prod.  These  are  represented  through  several  single-­‐level  BOM’s   A  BOM  can  contain  documents  or  text  items.  Influence  the  processing  of  the  component   § Stock  item:  executed  in  the  warehouse  and  used  in  production  /  must  have  a  material  master   § Non  stock  item:  directly  assigned  to  a  manufacturing  order  (not  via  the  warehouse)  /  don’t  need  material  master  (and  its  number)   § Variable  size  item     § Documents  item  (design  or  diagram)   § Text  item   § Class  item   § Intra  material     o Descriptions   o Quantity   o Control  data   Multi  level  BOM  structure  is  exploded  automatically  by  MRP  and  Product  Cost  Planning.  units  with  separate  Inventory  Mgt  (=>can  belong  to  <>  plants.   |   Are  completely  independent  org.sap-­‐terp10.    Not  order-­‐related.  Via  self-­‐controlled  control  cycle.   A  BOM  consist  of  a  BOM  header  and  the  BOM  items.     Work  Center         7   .  it’s  subdivided  into  information  grouped  by  user  departments  (functions)  that  manage  the  modules.  material  #.  Does  SAP  directly  support  multi-­‐level  BOMs?    No.   BOM  structure:   • Header:  settings  that  apply  for  the  whole  BOM   o Material   o Plant   o Usage:  determines  the  business  applications  for  which  a  BOM  can  be  used   o Status:  controls  whether  the  BOM  is  active  for  particular  applications   o Description   o Validity   o Lot  size  area   o Base  Quantity  (q  of  finished  product  the  item  q  refers)   • Items:  components  necessary  for  the  production  of  the  finished  product.   BOM’s  are  used  in:  MRP.  using  the  BOMs   of  the  assemblies  of  and  so  on.   |   oo     1   Several  plants  can  be  affiliated  with  one  company  code.  you  can  use  the  same  storage  location   1   number  in  more  than  one  plant).  required  by  law  are  created  at  this  level.  so  each  one  has  a  different  VIEW  of  the   material  master  record  and  is  responsible  for  maintaining  the  data  to  support  their  function.  material  group.   • Project  oriented  production:  with  production  lots.  but  a  plant  can  only  have  one  company  code.  (The  integration  of  all  material  data  in  a  single  database  object  prevents  the   problem  of  data  redundancy).

   Work  centers  can  be:     -­‐  Machines     -­‐  People     -­‐  Production  lines     Difference  between  cost  center  and  work  center   Cost  center  is  place  where  you  incur  your  costs.   Capacities   Formula  key:  to  calculate  costs.  such  as  a  measuring  instruments  or  a  support.   calculate  the  execution  of  an  operation  during  process  order  scheduling   Scheduling   Formula  key:  to  calculate  costs.   Formula  key:  to  calculate  costs.  inspection  plans)  in  which  the  resource  can  be  used.  EX:  setup  time.  Examples  of  such  keys  and  indictors  are:  Scheduling:  If  you  set  this  indicator.     Work  center  is  a  place  where  an  operation  is  performed  by  a  person/machine  (group).  personnel  time.  master  recipe.  the  system  creates  capacity  requirement  records  for  the  operation.     The  work  center  has  an  available  capacity.  execution  times  and  capacity  requirements  of  phases  carried  out  at  a  resource.sap-­‐terp10.  scheduling  and  capacity  requirements  planning  in  order  to  calculate  costs.   Scheduling  formulas  stored  in  the  work  center  define  the  duration  from  the  allowed  time  elements  in  the  routing.   machine  time.)  relevant  for  scheduling  operations.  but  that  are  necessary  for  production.   People   HR   Positions   assignment   Qualifications       Routings:   Routings  contain  the  list  the  sequence  of  steps  for  producing  a  material.     An  organizational  unit  that  defines  where  and  when  an  operation  must  be  performed.     Link  between  them:     The  activities  performed  at  or  by  the  work  center  are  valuated  using  charge  rates  which  are  defined/determined  by  cost  centers  and  activity  types.  EX:  setup  time.  execution  times  and  capacity  requirements.ar   Routings  and  Bills  of  Material:   • • • • Production  is  described  via  a  routing  and  a  BOM   BOM  components  can  be  assigned  to  a  certain  operation   Production  resource  tools  (PRTs)  can  also  be  assigned  in  the  routing.     Default   Control  key:  how  an  operation  is  to  be  processed  in  a  task  list.   PRTs  are  operating  facilities  that  are  not  location  related.   • Work  Centers  which  these  operations  are  to  be  executed.          www.  machine  time.  equipment  task  list.  per  1  pc.   available   Calculate  the  execution  of  an  operation  during  process  order  scheduling.   The  standard  value  key  in  the  work  center  specifies  the  time  elements  (standard  values)  that  have  to  be  taken  into  consideration  during  planning.  execution  times  and  capacity  requirements  of  phases  carried  out  at  a  resource.   Cost  center   Activity  types:  define  specific  output  for  the  resource.  the  system  carries  out   scheduling  for  an  operation.   For  the  operation  to  be  executed  at  a  resource.     • Operation  Sequences   • Usage   • Time  elements  (and  base  quantity:  for  ex.   Order  Creation  Options:   Without  BOM  –  Routing   With        BOM  –  Routing   With          Routing   With  Planned  Order         8   .   Routings  and  Work  Centers:   • • • A  work  center  is  assigned  to  an  operation.  since  the  values  are   stored  centrally  and  you  do  not  need  to  enter  them  in  each  operation.   Standard  value  key:  are  planned  values  for  the  execution  of  an  operation.  By  entering  default  values  you  reduce  the  effort  necessary  in  editing  operations.     • Component  allocations   Routing  (and  BOM)  can  be  transferred  to  SAP  APO  (Advanced  Planning  and  Optimization)  in  the  form  of   production  process  models  (PPMs)   A  routing  can  be  defined  using  the  routing  group  and  the  group  counter.com.  Capacity  planning:  If  you  set  this  indicator.  Standard  values  are  used  in   costing.  that  is:     • Operations.  10  min.  personnel  time.     values   Standard  text  key   Wage  data   Is  assigned  to  a  resource  to  link  the  resource  to  cost  accounting  and  can  now  carry  out  product  and  order  costing.  execution  times  and  capacity  requirements  of  phases  carried  out  at  a  resource.         The  resource-­‐related  data  is  maintained  on  several  screens  –  views:     Maintained  on  Plant  level   Name  and  description   Person  or  group  responsible  for  the  maintenance  of  the  master  data  of  this  resource   Basic  data   Task  list  usage:  specify  the  task  list  types  (routing.

 units  (CC  level).  it  means  that  you  can  use  the  same  storage   location  number  in  more  than  one  plant).   Shipping  Point  oo-­‐  oo    Plant     Master  data  for  SD     • • • • • Customer   Customer-­‐material  Info  record   Material   Output  (mail.)   It’s  used  to:   • Define  responsibilities   • Achieve  flexible  pricing     • Differentiate  sales  statistics     Represents  a  product  line  to  group  materials  and  services  (pumps.  fax)   Condition  (EX:  automatic  pricing  /  customer  discount)     Customer  master:  The  customer  master  groups  data  into  categories:  (views)   • • General  data:  relevant  for  the  SD  and  for  Accounting.  EDI.  unit  of  shipping.  a  mail  depot.  units  with  separate  Inventory  Mgt  (can  belong  to  <>  plants.  Also  select  $  +  discounts     |   1   Is  the  highest  level  organizational  elements  in  SD  (Logistics)  .     Sales     1   Organization   Sales  Org.  units  (Client  level).   Company  Code   oo     oo     It  defines  the  distribution  channel.  In  sales  statistics.          www.   Sales  Area  data:  relevant  for  SD.  channel-­‐division).   Plant  and  storage  location  are  organizational  levels  that  can  be  used  by  all  logistic  areas:  <>  points  of  views:   MM:  The  plant  is  location  where  the  material  is  kept.com.  required  by  law  are  created  at  this  level.sap-­‐terp10.  The  plant  has  a  central  function:   • You  have  to  create  at  least  one  plant  in  order  to  be  able  to  use  the  sales  and  distribution  module   oo   • A  plant  must  be  uniquely  assigned  to  a  company  code   • The  assignment  between  sales  organizations  and  plants  does  not  have  to  be  unique   • The  plant  is  essential  for  determining  the  shipping  point.     Sales  Order  Management  -­‐  SD     • Kanban:  Replenishment-­‐controlled  using  stock  transfer.  external  procurement.  is  the  highest  level.  Valid  for  the  sales  area  (sales  org.    1-­‐  oo    CC.   Represents  your  strategies  to  distribute  goods  and/or  services  to  your  customer  (ex.    We  use  it  to  select  master  data  when  processing  sales  orders.     Is  responsible  for:     Sales   oo     • Distributing  goods  and  services   Area   |   • Negotiating  sales  conditions   1   Distribution   Channel   oo     |   1       Plant   oo     Division   |   oo   oo     |   1   Storage  Location   Shipping  point                 • Product  liability  and  rights  of  recourse   Is  the  way  in  which  sales  materials  reach  the  customer.    It  can  be  a  loading  ramp.-­‐dist.  motors.  via  self-­‐controlled  control  cycle.  You  maintain  own  master  data.     Production:    represents  a  manufacturing  facility   Sales  and  Distribution:  represents  the  location  from  which  goods  and  services  are  distributed  and  corresponds  to  a  distribution  center.   The  relevant  stocks  are  kept  here.  in-­‐house  prod.  retail.    Valid  for  all  org.  a  sales  organization  uses  to  sell  products  from  a  certain  division.  internet)  (1  or  +  Dist.  Ch.   •       9   .       It’s  the  highest  level  org.  Wholesale.       Here  we  store  the  mandatory  partner  functions  for  the  customer  master  during  the  sales  order  processing:   o Sold-­‐to-­‐party:     places  the  order   o Ship–to-­‐party:     receives  goods  or  services   o Bill-­‐to-­‐party:     receives  the  invoice  for  goods  or  services   o Payer:       is  responsible  for  paying  the  invoice   Company  Code  data:  is  relevant  for  Accounting.       |   Are  completely  independent  Org.ar       oo         tion  of   |         1   combina Organizational  Levels   Highest  organizational  element)  (defined  in  the  system  by  a  3  digit  key     Client   Represents  an  independent  accounting  unit.  services)  (1  or  +  Div)   The  system  uses  the  division  to  determine  the  sales  areas  a  material  or  a  service  is  assigned  to.  Balance  sheet  and  P/L  statements.  etc     You  assign  a  shipping  point  at  plant  level   oo   A  shipping  point  is  a  physical  place  and  should  be  near  the  delivering  plant.    Valid  for  all  org.     |   Each  SD  document  is  assigned  to  exactly  one  sales  area.   Plant  1-­‐  oo    Company  Code.

  Definition  of  customer  group:   • Customer  Group  identifies  a  particular  group  of  customers  for  the  purpose  of  pricing  or  generating  statistics.  specifying  if  the  customer  accepts  partial  deliveries  or  the  default  delivering   plant).  delivery).     It  is  valid  for  the  Delivery  plant.   It  is  valid  for  the  respective  Delivery  plant.  material  group.     Lists  and  reports:  2  categories:   • Online  list  (provide  data  from  documents  /  display  documents  /  allow  to  review  and  change  documents)   • Worklists   (display  work  that  needs  to  be  processed  /  allow  to  organize  tasks  into  efficient  work  unit)     Information  structures:  (where  data  is  stored)   • Characteristics   • Time  unit   • Key  figures     Standard  analyses:   Helps  create  sophisticated  presentations  and  analyses  for  the  data.  FAX).     It  is  valid  for  the  respective  Sales  org.  you  select  the  required  data  scope  according  to  the  characteristics  and  the  period  of  the  info  structure.    In  this  master  data  you  define:   • • • • Output  Types:  (Quotation.  to  obtain  information  which  will  help  you  make  strategic  business  decisions.   It  is  not  obligatory  for  Sales.  Tlex.  EDI)   Time  (at  which  output  is  sent):  (Immediately  when  saving.  Each  analysis  can  be  saved.  and  the  Dist.  Using  standard  program)   • The  definition  can  be  found  by  placing  the  cursor  on  the  field  and  choosing  the  F1  function  key  or  pressing  the  Help  icon.    Ship–to-­‐party.  A  variety  of  drill-­‐down  features  are  available  in  the  lists.  EDI.  data:       Sales  plant  data:   Purchasing:              www.  The  data  that  can  be  maintained  are:   • • Cross-­‐reference  from  your  customer’s  material  number  to  your  material  number  and  the  customer’s  material  description.   is  relevant  for  SD.  Order  confirmation.  Fax.ar   is  relevant  for  the  entire  company  (Client):  product  description.  or  the  definition  can  be  found  in  the  glossary.   is  relevant  for  MM.  Invoice)   Partner  functions:  (Sold-­‐to-­‐party.  Ch.     Output  master:    is  information  that  is  sent  to  the  customer  using  various  media  (mail.  In  the  first  step.   Specific  shipping  information  for  this  customer  and  material  (such  as  delivery  tolerances.  Bill-­‐to-­‐party.     Condition  master:   • • • • Prices   Surcharges  &  Discount   Freight     Taxes   Order  to  cash  business  process     SEE  SALES  ORDER  MANAGEMENT  DIAGRAM     Reporting  and  analysis  tools   SIS  -­‐  Sales  Information  System  belongs  to  SD.  Payer)   Transmission  medium:  (Printer.   The  analysis  is  based  on  the  information  structures.   Tools  to  analyze  data  include:   • ABC  analyses   • Correlation   • Classification   • Dual  classification   The  analyses  can  be:   • Printed   • Download  as  a  file  to  your  local  PC   • Downloaded  into  a  spreadsheet  program   • Sent  to  one  or  employees  using  the  SAP  workplace  component             10   .sap-­‐terp10.com.  Mail.  you  can  compress  data  from  sales  docs.   Material  master:    views:   • • • •   Customer-­‐material  Info  Record  master:   Basic  data1:     Sales  org.   You  can  use  the  customer-­‐  material  information  to  record  data  for  a  combination  of  certain  customers  and  materials  when  processing  a  document  (order.   SIS  contains  standard  analyses  as  well  as  flexible  analyses  to  help  you  evaluate  statistical  data.  material  #.  With  SIS.  This   data  is  displayed  in  an  initial  list.  unit  of  measure   is  relevant  for  SD.

 the  Chart   of  Accounts  can  be  assigned  to  multiple  company  codes.  commercial  law.  Does  not  usually  extend  across  national  boundaries.       11       .  name.  It  takes  much  of  its  data  from  Puchasing    (MM  –   Materials  Management)   The  Accounts  Receivable  Accounting  (AR)  records  all  business  transactions  that  have  to  do  with  the  relationships  to  customers.  Legal  reporting  will  be  different  for  each  country.   The  Company  Code  is  the  smallest  SAP  entity  that  supports  a  full  legal  set  of  books.   The  Asset  Accounting  (AA)  records  all  business  transactions  that  have  to  do  with  the  management  of  assets.  type  (balance  sheet  or  P/L)  A.   • You  can  define  an  unlimited  number  of  charts  of  accounts  in  the  system.  It  represents  a  separate  unit  of  cost  accounting.   Important  tasks  of  Financial  Accounting  are  the  recording  of  monetary  and  value  flows  as  well  as  the  evaluation  of  the  inventories.   The  component  Treasury  (TR)  focuses  on  functions  such  as  payment  means.  etc).  Balance  sheet  and  P/L  accounts  are   Internal  management  information  regarding  cost  and  revenues.  consolidation  number.   • Company  Code:  details  how  the  CC  manages  every  account:  account  ctrl.    If  Cross  Company  Code  controlling  required.  It  takes  much  of  its  data  from  Sales  &   Distribution  (SD).     The  Chart  of  accounts  contains  the  definitions  of  all  G/L  accounts  of  the  general  Ledger.  which  enables  cross  company  cost  accounting  between  the  assigned  company   00   codes.  doc.  A.     G/L    Account  Master  Record:    2  segments.   GR/IR  account:  it’s  a  clearing  account  used  to  ensure  that  goods  are  received  for  each  invoice  and  vice-­‐versa.     One  or  more  company  codes  can  be  assigned  to  a  controlling  area.    Chart  of  Accounts  oo  –  1  CC.  bank  details.   The  General  Ledger  (GL)  contains  the  recordings  of  all  accounting-­‐relevant  business  transactions  on  to  G/L  accounts  from  a  business  point  of  view.   GL-­‐  General  Ledger  Accounting   Business   Areas   Controlling   Area     Charts  of  Accounts  (COA):   • Contains  the  definitions  (Account  #.  P/L.ar   The  General  Ledger  is  managed  at  company  code  level  and  from  this  the  Balance  sheets  required  by  the  legislator  as  well  as  the  P/L  statement  are  compiled.   |   Can  run  across  many  CC.  You  can  make  postings  to  business  area  from  several  company  codes  because  they  are  generally  CC  independent.   Tasks  in  Financial  Accounting:     ERP  Financials  –  Financials  Accounting  (FI)   The  component  Financial  Accounting  (FI)  focuses  on  the  General  Ledger.sap-­‐terp10.  OPTIONAL.  This  means  that  the  GL  of  these  company  codes  have  identical  structure.  asset.  is  specified  in  the  CC  seg.  Type  of  G/L  account  –>  1)  Profit  and  Lost    or    2)  Balance  sheet)  of  all  GL  accounts.  field  status…   Account  Groups  for  G/L  Accounts:   Acc.   • Each  CC  is  associated  with  1  chart  of  accounts.  and  other  financial  accounting  criteria.   Financial  Accounting  VS  Management  Accounting:       Goal   Financial  accounting  (FI)   Management  accounting  (CO)   External  reporting  purposes  -­‐  legal  reporting.  A.  ctrl.  groups  classify  GL  acc.   Cost  and  Revenues  at  a  higher  level  (across  countries)   Level   Additional  account  assignment  with  specification  of  the  assignment  object   Integration   Direct  Relation.com.   created  in  FI  with  general  accounting  standard  (US-­‐GAAP  or  IAS)   Defined  by  law  for  compliance.  It’s  an  independent  accounting  entity.  (cash.  This  is  only  possible  if  company  codes  and  controlling  area  use  the  same  operating  chart  of  account  and  fiscal  calendar  year.   Is  assigned  to  ONE  controlling  area.  A.  Every   general  ledger  is  structured  according  to  a  chart  of  accounts.   Invoice  verification  –  accounts  payable    and  purchasing  //  GI  to  prod.  loans  and  Market  Risk  Management.  (transactions  cannot  be  posted  to  reconciliation  accounts).       Internal  purposes  to  create  Balance  sheet  and  Profit/Lost  statements     Facilitate  external  segment  reporting  across  CC.   Company  Code  is  usually  created  based  on  geographic  considerations.  The  Field  Status:  SUPRESS.  Treasury  Management.   1   There  must  be  at  least  one  company  Code  in  the  production  environment  for  a  business  to  be  live.  interest  calculation.  into  user-­‐defined  segments.   The  assets  of  a  company  are  listed  in  the  Balance  sheet.  group.  divided  into:   • Assets    -­‐  (application  of  funds)   • Liabilities  -­‐  (source  of  funds)   The  business  transactions  that  are  entered  in  MM  (material  stock)  or  in  Treasury.  mgt.   Integration  of  the  G/L  accounts  in  FI:            www.  flows  into  Balance  sheet  in  real  time.  covering  the  company’s  main  areas  of  operation.   Reconciliation  accounts  connect  the  subledgers  to  the  General  Ledger  in  real  time.   Identifies  a  self-­‐contained  org.   You  should  create  a  Company  Code  according  to  tax  law.  material.  the  processing  of  receivables  and  Asset  Accounting.   The  aim  of  recording  business  transactions  is  to  create  a  Balance  sheet  and  P/L  Statement  in  the  sense  of  a  report.   The  Bank  Ledger  (BL)  supports  the  booking  of  cash  flows.  DISPLAY.     • COA-­‐Chart  of  accounts:  high  level:    Account  description.  These  definitions  basically  include  the  account  number..   • A  CC  can  also  have  a  country  specific  chart  of  accounts.  REQUIRED.   The  Accounts  Payable  Accounting  (AP)  records  all  business  transactions  that  have  to  do  with  the  relationships  to  suppliers.  Order-­‐GL  accounts         Organizational  Levels   Company   Code   It’s  an  independent  accounting  entity.  the  G/L   account  designation  and  the  categorization  of  the  G/L  account  as  an  income  statement  or  Balance  sheet  account.  structure  for  which  Costs  and  Revenues  can  be  managed  and  allocated.  Each  GL  is  set  up  according  to  a  chart  of  accounts.

      Vendor   Level  stored   Level  stored   Level  stored   Client   Specific  information.  $   AP  Invoice  /  Credit  Memo  Entry:   You  create  and  post  a  vendor  invoice  or  credit  memo  using  a  one  screen  transaction.  Credit  Vendor   3.  is  created)   Output  may  be  generated  (GR  slip   • • • • Effects  of  Invoice  Verification   Accounting  document  is  created   The  provision  in  the  GR/IR  clearing  account  are  reversed   PO  history  is  updated   Open  Item  is  created  in  the  vendor’s  account   Account  Posting   1.  you  can  drill  down  to  the  document  overview.   -­‐  Real  time  Document  split  (online  split)  (a  single  invoice  can  be  posted  to  multiple  segments).   During  the  payment  run.  This  ensures  real-­‐time  integration  of  a  subledger  account  with  the  general  ledger.   The  balance  display  is  an  overview  of  the  saved  transaction  figures  of  an  account.   such  as  name.  Credit  GR/IR   2.  the  stock  value  and  the  current  mov.  DISPLAY. Pay  Vendor:  Debit  Vendor.  and  updated  in  the  material  master.  but  not  when  the  purchase  order  is  created.     Reconciliation  Accounts  and  Sub-­‐Ledgers:   The  Reconciliation  account  can  post  only  through  a  subledger  account  (not  directly).   From  the  line  item  list.  Each  document  line  item  contains  one  posting  key.   -­‐  Real  time  Integration  (Reconciliation)  between  CO  and  FI.   • • • • • •   Effects  of  Goods  Receipt   Material  document  is  created  (quantity)   Accounting  document  is  created  (value)   Purchasing  (Purchase  Order  History  is  updated)   Quality  Management  (Inspection  lot  is  created)   Warehouse  Mgt  (Transfer  Req. Good  Receipt  :  Debit  Stock.     Accounts  Payable  (Cuentas  por  pagar)   (Integration  of  procurement  cycle  (Procure-­‐to-­‐Pay  Process)  with  account  payable)     Vendor  Master  Record:  contain  all  data  about  a  vendor.  Multiple  books  can  be  maintained.  address   CC   how  particular  CC  will   process  transactions   Purch.  for  a  material  valuated  with  moving  aver.sap-­‐terp10.              www.     Posting  Key  (PK):    has  a  controlling  function  for  the  documents  item.  Org.  Credit  Bank/Cash    If  the  invoice  $  differs  from  the  PO  $.Which  fields  of  the  line  item  may  have  or  require  an  entry   In  the  new  ENJOY  transaction  (FB50).  REQUIRED.    It   specifies  the  following:   • Account  Type  :  (Balance  sheet  or  P/L)   • Debit  or  Credit  posting   • Field  Status:  SUPRESS.        The  A/P  entry  screen  is  divided  into  4  areas:   • Work  templates   • Header  and  vendor  data   • Line  item  information   • Information  area   Elements  of  the  Payment  process:   The  standard  system  contains  common  payment  methods  and  corresponding  forms  that  have  been  defined  separately  for  each  country.  the  system  does  the  following:   • Posts  payment  documents   • Clears  open  items   • Prepares  data  for  the  printing  of  payment  media         12   .       Benefits  of  the  New  General  Ledger:     -­‐  Extended  data  structure:  allows  additional  fields.com.ar   Account  Information:   The  balance  display  and  line  item  display  are  provides  to  display  the  account  data.  OPTIONAL  .   Specific  data  to   purchasing     Procurement  process  from  the  accounting  view  -­‐  Integration  with  Materials  Management                           MM Doc FI Doc FI Doc Purchase order Goods Receipt GR Invoice IR 2 Pay 3 Storage location 105 103 101 MM Doc Goods receipt area F Q X Documents generated MM Doc FI Doc 1 CO Doc Balance sheet Consumption Raw Stock Raw Bank-Cash GR / IR Vendor Reconciliation Vendor Subledger Libro mayor auxiliar de proveedores 300 1 3000 1 3300 3 3300 2 3300 1 3300 3 3300 2 3300 3 3300 2 A  Financial  document  is  created  when  goods  are  received  and  when  the  invoice  is  received.  this  controls  how  transaction  data  is  posted  and  processed.   -­‐  Parallel  accounting.  you  no  longer  need  to  enter  the  posting  key.     -­‐  Contains  functions  that  unify  the  conventional  general  ledger  with  the  special  ledgers  components.  price  is   recalcul.  without  reference  to   a  purchase  order.  This  type  of  invoice  entered  directly  in  A/P  is  a  miscellaneous  invoice. Invoice  Receipt:  Debit  GR/IR.

 The  accounting  documents  debits  cost  of  goods  sold  and  credit  inventory.  sets  up  a  separate  credit  mgt  master  record. Goods  Issue  :  Credit  Inventory.   Can  be  assigned  to  individual  company  codes  (decentralized  organization)  or    to  a  group  of  company  codes  (centralized  organization).  At  this  stage  the  effects  in  accounting  start  to  appear.   13       .     Customer     us   Level  stored   Level  stored   Client   specific  information.     If  the  credit  limit  is  exceeded.  an  outbound  delivery  documents  is  created.  the  sales  process  can  be  carried  out  the  usual  way.   groups     Credit  Management  master  record:   The  credit  dept.   such  as  name  address   CC   how  particular  CC  will   process  transactions   Sales  area     (Sales  org-­‐Dist.  A  GI  doc  is  created  in  MM.   • The  goods  to  be  delivered  are  posted  as  a  goods  issue.  and  the  credit  department  has  to  act. incoming  Payment:  Credit  Customer(Reconc+Subdledger).  The  responsible  credit  representative  can   either  be  notified  automatically  via  mail.com.  Or  can  use  a  report  to  check  list  of  all  blocked  orders.  the  order  is  blocked.  either  by  using  credit  information  system.  Debit  Cost  of  goods  sold  (Inv.  Debit  customer  (Reconc+Subdledger)   3.ar   Customer  master  record:  contain  data  that  controls  how  transaction  data  is  posted  and  processed.  If  this  is  not  the  case.  which  is  an  extension  of  the  customer  master  record.   The  credit  management  master  record  consists  of  the  following  sections:   • General  data  (customer’s  address.   A  credit  control  area  is  generally  managed  by  a  separate  credit  department.  or  by  calling  the  customer.  so  that  data  relevant  to  credit  management  can  be   maintained  and  monitored. Billing  a  customer  :  Credit  Revenue.Ch.  with  each  group  consisting  of  several  credit  representatives.  which  is  divided  into    a  number  of  credit  representative  groups.  Debit  Bank  account       On  the  day  of  shipping.  the  credit  representative  releases  the  order.  and  the  transaction  can  be  processed  in  SD.     Accounts  Receivable   (Integration  between  order  to  cash  cycle  and  accounts  receivable)     Level  stored          www.   Credit  Control  Area   Credit   Department   Company   Company   Company   Credit   Represent.  a  check  is  run  (credit  control)  to  see  whether  the  customer’s  credit  limit  would  be  exceeded  if  the  order  were   to  be  accepted.     The  credit  representative  then  clarifies  the  situation.     Once  clarification  has  been  made.   • When  the  billing  document  is  created  in  SD.  communication  data)   Credit   • Credit  control  area  data  (credit  limit.  customer’s  risk  category)   Customer   • Overview  (which  contain  the  most  important  data  from  all  sections)   Mgt     us   Credit  Control  Process:   us   When  the  order  is  placed.  Change)   2.  an  FI-­‐accounting  document  that  debits  the  customer  and  credits  revenue  is  automatically  created  so  that  the  goods  issue  is   posted  to  the  correct  G/L  accounts.-­‐Div)   Specific  data:  conditions   and  terms  of  payments   Credit  control  area:   The  organizational  unit  for  credit  control  is  the  credit  control  area.     Sales  Process  &  integration:           Inquiry Quote Sales Order Confirm Pick Quantity Warehouse Transfer Order Pick Quantity TO Transfer Request Delivery/ Shipping 10 Goods Issue Invoice/ Billing Receive Payment             Inventory Change 4000 1 Inventory 4000 1 Cash/Bank 10000 3 Documents generated MM FI CO Doc Doc Doc MM FI CO-PA Doc Doc Doc FI Doc 1 Revenue 10000 2 2 Customer Reconciliation 10000 2 10000 3 Auto 3 Customer Sub-Ledger 10000 10000 2 3 Sales   • Sales  order  (SD)   • No  document  (FI)   Shipping   • Outbound  delivery  (SD)   • Transfer  order  (picking)   • Goods  issue  (MM)  (FI)   Billing   • Billing  document  (SD)   • Invoice  (FI)   Account  Posting   1.   groups   Credit   Represent.  the  order  is  rejected.sap-­‐terp10.  If  the  credit   representative  decides  not  to  release  the  order.

  Additionally.     Asset  class:  The  asset  class  is  the  main  criteria  for  defining  the  asset.  (The  account  must  be  assigned  to  an  appropriate  line  item  in  the  financial  statement   version  used  when  running  the  Balance  sheet.   14       .  A  billing  document  is  created  in  SD.   Partial  payment:  the  item  being  short-­‐paid  does  not  clear.            www.  Ex.  In  FI-­‐AA  you  can  post  the  following  ways:   • Without  a  vendor  or  a  purchase  order   • To  a  vendor.   The  application  component  PM  (Plant  Maintenance)  is  used  for  the  technical  management  of  assets.  retirements.com.  depreciation.  Otherwise.  At  the  same  time.ar   Incoming  payments  in  Accounts  Receivable:   The  items  are  cleared  if  the  customer  pays  his  open  items  to  the  full  amount  or  with  an  authorized  deduction  of  cash   discount.  posted  amounts.    Machinery:  account  for  machinery.  the  posting  will  appear  at  the  end  of  the  financial  statement  in  a  category  called  accounts  not  assigned).  To  keep  more  than  one  valuation  basis.  The  accounting  document  debits  the  customer  and  credits  revenue.  you  can  assign  the  asset  to  various  CO  objects  (cost  center.     Asset  explorer:  gives  a  clear  overview  of  the  activity  for  an  asset  per  depreciation  area  and  fiscal  year  for  planned  value.   Any  greater  difference  (outside  of  tolerance)  must  be  dealt  with  manually.   • • • •   •   • Company  code  financial  statements   Business  area  financial  statements   Operating  chart  of  accounts   Country  specific  chart  of  accounts   The  Financial  statement  version  determines  the  structure  of  a  Balance  sheet  and  income  statements  as  far  as  which  accounts  map  to  which  line  items  on  the  report.  and  activity  type)  and  logistic  organizational  units  (for  selection  purposes  only).  Building:  Accounts  for  building.  but  without  reference  to  a  purchase  order   • Via  materials  management  using  the  MM  functions  (purchase  order.  posted  and   planned  depreciation.  and  depreciation  parameters.  posted  transactions.  internal  order.     • The  last  stage  in  the  sales  process  is  billing.  depreciation  areas  are  kept  in  the  system.     Prepare  Financial  Statements   To  support  legal  reporting  requirements.   If  a  minor  payment  difference  exists.         Fixed  Asset  Accounting   Assets  in  FI  Organizational  levels:   Each  asset  belongs  to  a  company  code  and  a  business  area.   The  maximum  amount  that  constitutes  a  minor  payment  difference  is  defined  in  tolerance  group  settings.   The  application  component  TR  (treasury)  is  used  for  managing  financial  assets.  this  can  be  charged  off  automatically.  The  depreciation  is  posted  to  the   corresponding  depreciation  accounts  in  the  general  ledger  and  to  the  assigned  CO  cost  object  assigned  to  the  asset  master  record.  and  a  printed  invoice  is  sent  to  the  customer.   ü ü ü ü ü Each  asset  has  to  be  assigned  to  an  asset  class.  it  automatically  appears  on  the  Balance  sheet.sap-­‐terp10.                       Depreciation  Areas:   Often  asset  balances  and  transactions  need  to  be  valuated  differently  for  various  purposes.   All  postings  made  for  the  asset  (acquisitions.  etc.   Residual  item:  the  open  invoice  is  cleared  and  a  new  open  item  (residual  item)  in  the  amount  of  the  payment   difference  is  created.  goods  receipt  and  invoice  receipt)     Transaction  type:  is  necessary  to  enable  the  asset  to  be  correctly  listed  in  the  asset  history  sheet.  The  run  can  be  in  direct  or  batch  mode.     Asset  Transactions:  can  be  posted  in  various  ways.)  are  applied  in  the  assigned  company  code  and  business  area.   When  a  transaction  is  posted  in  FI.   You  can  create  asset  classes  for  intangible  assets  and  leased  assets.     Depreciation  Run:   Only  after  the  depreciation  posting  run  has  been  completed  is  the  depreciation  actually  posted  in  asset  accounting  and  in  the  GL.  a  document  is  created  in  FI  so   that  the  receivable  and  revenue  can  be  posted  to  the  correct  accounts.   In  the  asset  class.  currently  several  reports  meet  country-­‐specific  requirements.  you  can  define  certain  control  parameters  and  default  values  for  depreciation  and  other  master  data.

  Purchasing  Organ.  This  enables  controlling  across  company  codes.   Financial  reports  used  for  external  reporting  purposes.          www.     Integration  with  other  SAP  ERP  Applications:   Financial  Accounting  (FI)  is  a  primary  source  of  data  for  Management  Accounting.     Control  overhead  costs  and  allocates  costs   • Overhead  Cost  Controlling:  examines  the  origin  of  costs  in  the  functional  areas  of  an  enterprise.  such  as  Balance  sheets  and  P/L  statements.   Comparison  of  Financial  and  management  Accounting:     Management  Accounting  -­‐  Controlling  -­‐  CO     Management  accounting  contains  all  the  functions  necessary  for  effective  cost  and  revenue  controlling.  can  be  used  in  Product  Cost  Accounting.  Accounting  and  Financial  Accounting  (CO-­‐FI).  vendor  invoices.     Typical  Tasks  in  Management  Accounting:   The  main  components  of  CO-­‐Management  Accounting:  are  used  for  different  tasks  and  types  of  analysis.   The  Manufacturing  area  of  Logistics  also  works  closely  with  Management  Accounting.  It  also  enables  you  to  reconcile  costs   between  Mgt.  In  addition.     Classify  cost  and  reconcile  data   • Cost  Element  Accounting:  Classifies  the  costs  and  revenues  posted  to  CO.  These  allocations  cannot  affect   (CO-­‐OM/CO-­‐PC/EC-­‐PCA)   objects  in  other  controlling  areas.  and  Profit  Center   Accounting  (PCA).  planned  personnel  costs  can  be  transferred  and  used  for  Management  Accounting  planning.  Product  cost  estimates   created  in  Management  Accounting  can  update  price  fields  in  material  master  records.  the  creation  of  purchase  orders  in  Materials  Management  can  generate   commitment  postings  within  Management  Accounting.  BOM  and  routings.  HCM  offers  you  the  opportunity  to  allocate  labor  costs  to  various  controlling   objects.  are  created  in   Financial  Accounting  according  to  accounting  standards  (GAAP/IAS).  It  can  be  used  to  represent  the  internal  market  in  the   enterprise.     Represents  a  production  unit  and  is  the  central  organizational  unit  in  Materials  Management  and  Production  Planning.  You  can  assign  several  controlling  areas  to  each  operating  concern   Operating  Concern  (CO-­‐PA)     so  you  can  analyze  them  together.   Company  Code   oo   1   Is  an  independent  accounting  unit.   In  Materials  Management  (MM).  particularly  if  multiple  valuation  approaches  and  transfer  prices  are  used.     Plant  (MM/PP)   1   A  Plant  is  assigned  to  a  company  code.  the  controlling  area  and  the  company  code  can  have  different  currencies.  created  in  Manufacturing.  Financial  and  P/L  statements  are  prepared  at  company  code  level  to  meet  legal  reporting   requirements.     Evaluate  the  cost  of  goods  or  services   • Product  Cost  Accounting  is  used  for  costing  and  evaluating  the  cost  of  goods  manufactured  for  a  product  and  the   costs  associated  with  providing  a  service  or  when  carrying  out  a  project.   Is  an  organizational  unit  used  Materials  Management  –  Purchasing.  You  can  allocate  costs  only  within  a  controlling  area.  For  example.    Looks  at  how  individual  profit  centers  are  performing  in  the  enterprise.   Human  Capital  Management  (HCM)  can  generate  cost  postings  in  Management  Accounting.  These  costs  are  then  allocated  to  production  processes.ar   Organizational  Levels   Is  the  basic  organizational  unit  in  CO-­‐Management  Accounting.  you  can  allocate  overhead  costs  from  administrative  cost  center  to  production   cost  centers.         Analyze  Profit   • Profitability  Analysis:  external  focus.    Looks  at  how  profitable  various  market  segments  are  (product  divisions  for  ex.     Flow  of  values  within  Management  Accounting:   Costs  incurred  in  one  part  of  the  enterprise  are  often  passed  on  to  a  different  part.  Overhead  costs   include  costs  that  cannot  be  directly  assigned  to  a  product  or  service.   Sales  Order  Management  (SD)  is  a  primary  source  for  revenue  postings  from  billing  documents  to  revenue  postings  in  Profitability  Analyses  (CO-­‐PA).  Profitability  analysis  (CO-­‐PA)  is  used  with  Operating  Concern.   oo   Multiple  Assignments:  You  can  assign  more  than  one  CC  to  a  controlling  area.  a  goods  issue  transaction  can  create  a  cost  posting  in  Management  Accounting  to  whichever  cost  object  is  specified.  These   expense  postings  to  the  General  ledger  can  be  journal  postings.   Sales  Organ.     Analyze  success  of  individual  profit  centers   • Profit  Center  Accounting:  internal  focus.com.  Most  expense  in  the  general  ledger  result  in  a  cost  posting  in  Management  Accounting.)  and  how  profitability  has  evolved  over  a  period  of  time.  Activity-­‐Based  Costing  (ABC)  provides  you  with  more  ways  of  allocating  costs.     Can  be  used  to  group  strategic  business  units  for  reporting  P/L  and  financial  statements  (not  suitable  for  auditing.     Is  a  closed  entity  used  for  cost  accounting.  It  covers  all   aspects  of  management  controlling  and  includes  many  tools  for  compiling  information  for  company  management.  Finally.  (SD)   Controlling  Area     In  cross-­‐company  code  cost  accounting.  or  depreciation  postings  from  Asset  Management.  (MM-­‐PP)   Is  an  organizational  unit  used  in  Sales  Order  Management.  suitable  for   Business  Areas   |   reporting  purposes  only).  Business  areas  can  also  be  cross-­‐company  code.   |   Represents  the  structure  of  external  segments  for  the  enterprise.  The     controlling  area  and  its  company  code  must  use  the  same  operating  chart  of  accounts  and  the  same  fiscal  year.  You  can  use  3  currencies  in  CO:   • Controlling  area  currency   • Company  Code  currency  or  object  currency  (by  default)   • Transaction  currency  (used  for  posting  a  document  to  Management  Accounting)         15   .  It  is  often  difficult  to  determine  what   caused  overhead  costs.sap-­‐terp10.

)  is  represented  only  once  in  the  group.  even  if  there  are  to  CC  for  a  Client  (=>2  names)     Cost  Center  Planning  Process:     Imputs:  Manual  entries.  as  well  as   additional  activity  planning  for  Overhead  Cost  Controlling.     Cost  Center  Accounting   G/L  Accounts  and  Costs  Elements:   As  we  know  the  chart  of  accounts  is  created  in  FI.  (ex.  energy  cost)  give  a  direct.  minutes  of  long  distance  calls…)   You  can  use  statistical  key  figures  for  cost  allocation  as  a  Tracing  Factor  in  overhead  cost  allocations.   Cost prices Quantities Planning Center Planning A  capacity-­‐based  comparison  of  plan  quantities  with  production  resources  then   Additional takes  place  in  SOP.     In  cost  center  planning.com.  You  can  enter  up  to   eight  allowed  cost  center  categories  in  the  activity  type  master  record.  Plan  activity  prices  are  then  calculated.  Both  fixed  and  variable  costs  can  be  planned  for  each  area   of  responsibility  (Cost  Center).  but  whichever  approach  is  selected.  cost  element.  HCM-­‐Assests  ?   Steps:  SOP.  production  overheads)  are  created  only  in  CO  and  are  used  for  internal  cost  allocations.  etc.   • Primary  cost  elements:  (material  cost.   Each  controlling  area  must  have  a  unique  standard  hierarchy.  personnel  cost.   The  name  of  a  master  data  group  has  to  be  unique  for  a  client-­‐CC.  each  hierarchical  level  can  produce  automatic  totals  of  the  levels  beneath  it.  one  to  one.  (EX:  total  number  of  employees  in  a   cost  center.  Consulting.   Cost  Center  Accounting  answers  the  question  of  where  costs  occur.  The  sales  plans  can  be   Production Product Plan Activity Plan Activity Cost Cost Resources compared  with  one  another  so  that  a  single  forecast  can  be  transferred  to  SOP.  Internal  activity  is  allocated  using  secondary  cost  elements.  or  leave  the  assignments  “unrestricted”  by  entering  an  asterisk  (*).  the  plan  activity  quantities  are  created  on  the  basis  of  scheduled  quantities  from  SOP.   Types:   • Fixed  value  is  useful  for  statistical  key  figures  that  tend  to  remain  constant  over  time  (EX:  number  of  employee)   • Totals  value  must  be  entered  for  each  individual  period  and  is  useful  for  values  that  tend  to  change  each  period  (EX:  Kilowatt  hour  of  electricity  consumption).   You  can  restrict  the  use  of  the  activity  type  to  certain  types  of  cost  centers  by  entering  the  allowed  cost  center  categories  in  the  activity  type  master  record.  overhead   calculation.  which  estimates  the  production  costs  of  the  planned  products  by  using  BOM  and  Routings.   • Secondary  cost  elements:  (production  costs.    The  costs  of  goods   manufactured  that  were  calculated  on  the  basis  of  the  sales  plan  are  then  transferred  to  CO-­‐PA.     Prod / Product Group COST CENTER PLANNING PROCESS Sales Info Syst Sales Plan vs CO-PA Sales Plan Forecast Plan Quant SOP Additional Resources Obtained or Sales Plan changed Non HR Assets Accounting values Activity Scheduled Cost Center Plan can In  the  Sales  Information  System  (SIS).   The  calculated  plan  activity  prices  go  to  Product  Cost  Planning.     Planned  values  (such  as  planned  personnel  costs  and  planned  depreciation)  can   also  be  transferred  automatically  to  the  Cost  Centers  from  HR  and  Assets   Accounting  (FI-­‐AA).  material  overheads.     The  activity  type  planning  is  an  important  step  in  Cost  Center  Planning.  Cost  planning  is  performed  for  cost  centers  and  internal  orders.  Cost  center  planning.  Activity  types.   The  costs  of  these  resources  need  to  be  allocated  to  the  receivers  of  the  activity.   Statistical  Key  Figures:   Are  a  measurable  quantity  that  can  be  assigned  to  Cost  Centers.  correspondence  with  GL  account  in  FI…to  allow  costs  to  flow.   The  value  (cost  center.     Activity  Types:   Classifies  the  activities  performed  or  produced  by  a  cost  center  (ex.   CO   FI   All  expense  accounts  are  groups  in  one  class  (class  4)  and  all  revenue  accounts  in  another  (class  8)   • Expense  accounts  -­‐  class  4   • Primary  cost  element   Expense  accounts  to  which  costs  are  posted  for  cost  accounting  purposes  must  also  be  created  as  cost   • Revenu  accounts  -­‐  class  8   • Revenu  element   elements  in  CO-­‐Management  Accounting.  Production  planning.   Cost  centers  can  be  defined  according  to  several  different  design  approaches  (Ex:  low  level  unit  that  has  responsibility  for  managing  costs  /  geographic  location  /  activities  or   services  provided).  sales  quantity   planning  can  be  accomplished  in  Profitability  Analysis.  If  the  plan  cannot  be  met.it  does  not  flow  to  FI…            www.  Machine  Hour  Rate).  Planned  costs  from  HR  and  Assets  can  be  transferred  to  cost  center  planning.  formulas.  you  need  to  enter   • Activity  type   • Cost  center   • Quantity     • Unit  $  (is  calculated  based  on  the  $  of  the  activity    +  Q)   and  generates  a  debit  to  the  receiver  and  a  credit  to  the  sender  for  both  the  quantity  and  costs.  settlement  transaction  and  do  not  have  any  corresponding  GL  account  in  FI….  which  are  store  in   the  master  data  types  as  default  values.     16   .  These  costs  are  used.   Routing BOM The  activity  requirements  can  then  be  created  in  SOP  or  Long  Term   Overhead Cost Requirements  (LTP)  and  transferred  as  scheduled  activities  to  cost  center   Controlling planning.sap-­‐terp10.  the  company  can  plan  sales  quantities  for   depreciation Sales & Operation Yes Requirements be met? Activities Planning vs (created in SOP) Planning a  product  or  product  group  level  for  the  following  year.  This  ensures  that  all  postings  to  this  type  of  expense  account   always  arrive  in  CO  at  the  same  time.  10  hs)   Relationship  between  Cost  Center/Activity  Type:  In  an  internal  direct  activity  allocation.      Activity  Document:  Activity   type.  Q.   It  is  the  aim  of  Cost  Center  Planning  to  calculate  planning  costs  to  define   deviations  later  and  to  prepare  the  allocation  to  cost  bearers.   The  cost  center  is  an  organizational  unit  in  a  Controlling  area  representing  a  clearly  delimited  location  where  costs  occur.  alongside  the  forecasted  revenues.  activity  type.  Overhead  Orders.  and  Profit  Centers.ar   Standard  hierarchy  represents  all  Cost  Centers  per  Controlling  Area:  Only  1  standard  hierarchy.   You  can  also  transfer  statistical  key  figures  values  from  the  Logistics  Information  System  (LIS)  by  linking  key  figures  from  LIS  with  SKF’s  in  CO.  You  can   use  the  results  of  this  plan  to  make  adjustments  to  the  original  sales  plan.  Similarly.  to  create  a  profit  plan.  additional  resources  must  be   Internal activity Orders planning obtained  or  the  sales  plan  must  be  changed.     Master  Data  Groups:   When  you  use  master  data  groups  in  reporting.  which  then  initiate  the  complete  integrated  planning  process  again.  Product  cost  plann.      Activity  types  serve  as  tracing  factors  for  this  cost  allocation.  as  the   planned  activity  amounts  can  influence  planned  costs.  ABC  -­‐Activity-­‐based  Costing  answers  the  question  of  why  (for  what  purpose)  costs  occur.   Each  value  can  be  used  in  more  than  one  group.  it  should  be  consistent  throughout  the  enterprise.  Business  Processes.   Planned Planned personnel costs.

 or  to  monitor   revenues  not  affecting  the  organization’s  core  business  (miscellaneous  revenue).com.  you  must  enter  a  movement  type  to  differentiate  between  the   various  categories  of  goods  movements.  primary/secondary   cost  and  revenue  planning  comprises  the  planning  of  primary  costs.   As  a  result  is  created:   1  FI  document  that  debits  material  consumption  account  and  credits    material  stock  (inventory)  account.   • Accrual  orders:  used  to  offset  postings  of  accrued  costs  (costs  calculated  in  CO)  to  cost  centers.   • Are  created  in  the  Purchasing  function  of  Materials  Management.  By  recording  commitments.     Periodic  Allocations  with  sender/receiver  relationships  –  techniques  (examples):   • Periodic  Reposting  (use  original  cost  element)   • Distribution  (use  original  cost  element)   • Assessment  (use  secondary  cost  element)   • Indirect  Activity  Allocation   • Template  Allocation     Internal  Order   Is  a  cost  collector  that  allows  a  better  view  of  costs  that  could  not  be  itemized  in  detail  in  a  cost  center.   ü A  valid  controlling  object  (such  as  cost  center)  is  referenced  in  the  FI  line  item.   • Primary/secondary  cost  and  revenue  planning:     can  be  used  if  you  have  detailed  information  about  an  internal  order.   • Investment  orders:    used  to  monitor  costs  incurred  in  the  production  of  a  fixed  asset.   4  types/categories:   • Overhead  orders:  used  to  monitor  overhead  costs  incurred  for  a  particular  purpose.   • Unit  costing:  can  be  used  to  carry  out  more  detailed  planning  than  is  possible  on  costs  elements.  unlike  a  conventional.   Posting  from  MM  to  a  Cost  Center:   Goods  issue  for  material  consumption  transactions  posted  in  the  MM  can  be  assigned  to  a  cost  center.  activity  inputs.  known  as  activity  types  in  Cost  Center  Accounting.   Commitments  (future  costs):   • Identifies  costs  which  be  incurred  in  the  future  for  materials  and  services  requested  or  ordered.   • Is  recorded  automatically  when  you  assign  an  overhead  order  to  a  purchase  order.  or  tracking  costs  for  mainten.   Activity  allocation            www.ar     Posting  from  FI  to  a  Cost  Center:  Activity  allocation     • When  a  journal  entry  is  created  in  FI  that  includes  an  expense  line  item.  that  expense  can  be  posted  to  CO  as  a  cost  if:   ü A  primary  cost  element  has  been  created  in  CO  that  corresponds  to  the  expense  account  used  in  the  FI  journal  entry.  it  is  treated  as  a  one-­‐sided  journal  entry.     For  a  direct  activity  allocation.     When  a  cost  is  moved  from  one  controlling  object  to  another.   You  need  to  create  the  corresponding  (measurable)  tracing  factors.     ü A  valid  controlling  object  (such  as  cost  center)  is  referenced  for  the  expense  line  item.     Internal  Orders  -­‐  Cost  Planning:   Costs  are  normally  planned  for  orders  that  have  a  long  life  cycle.  Also.  such  as  conducting  a  trade  fair.       • When  an  FI  documents  is  created  that  posts  to  an  expense  or  revenue  account     ü Having  a  corresponding  cost  element.  you  can  compare  the   funds  you  have  allocated  to  your  planned  or  budgeted  costs  to  determine  funds  availability.  and  revenues.  Orders  with  a  short  life  cycle.   17           .   As  a  result  is  created  (each  document  has  a  unique  document  number):    1  FI  document    1  CO  document.  and  allocation  of  an  organizational  activity.  such  as  for  unexpected  small  repairs.  monitoring.  alloc.  You  can  plan  overall  values  and  annual  values  irrespective  of  the  cost  elements.   As  a  result  is  created:   1  CO  document.  balanced  financial  accounting  journal  entry.  For  manual  planning  purposes.     3  options/ways  for  planning  cost  on  internal  orders:   • Overall  Planning:     is  the  simplest  level  for  planning  order  costs.    and  repair  work.  the  sending  object  is  credited  and  the  receiving  object  is  debited  for  the   same  amount.  as  well  as  actual  costs.  such  as  from  one  cost  center  to  another.     Direct  activity  Allocation:  Deals  with  the  measurement.  such  as  building  a  storage  facility.  This  CO  document  has  its  own  unique  number  and  contains  the  following  details:   • Controlling  object  posted  to   • Cost  element  used   • Amount   When  a  primary  cost  is  initially  posted  to  in  CO.  posting.   • Orders  with  revenue:  used  to  replace  the  cost  accounting  parts  of  SD  customer  orders  if  SD  is  not  being  used.   Any  transactions  that  create  cost  movements  within  Management  Accounting  are  balanced  entries.   Posting  to  an  Internal  Order:  can  be  real  or  statistical  (information  postings  only).  the  following  info  is  needed:   • Sender  cost  center  –  credited  (Cost  center  that  provides  the  activity    (using  secondary  cost  element)   • Receiver  –  debited  (Object  that  receives  the  activity    (using  secondary  cost  element)   • Activity  type   • Quantity  of  the  activity  provided.sap-­‐terp10.  of  costs  and  reporting.  so  that  both  costs  and  revenues  can  be  tracked.  are  normally  not  planned.     The  cost  center  is  debited  with  the  value  of  the  goods  issued  using  a  primary  cost  element.  Useful  for  planning.

 offices.   • You  must  have  activated  commitment  management  in  Management  Accounting  for  each  controlling  area.  cost  of  sales.  you  must  enter     • costing  variant   • material   • plant   • lot  size     18       .  production  cost  collectors).  customer.  planning.  3  step  process:     1.  then  the  system  can   automatically  create  a  cost  estimate  based  on  this  data.     • Comparison:  If  you  divide  your  enterprise  into  profit  centers.   Profitability  Analysis  (CO-­‐PA)  –  external  focus     You  can  use  Profitability  Analysis  (CO-­‐PA)  to  analyze  the  profitability  of  segments  in  your  external  market.  which  then  become   companies  within  the  company.   • Internal  controlling  purposes.  and  other  groups  in  your  organization  with  market-­‐oriented  decision  support.  division)   • Geographical  factors  (regions.   Product  Cost  Accounting/controlling  (CO-­‐PC)     It’s  concerned  with  all  aspects  of  planning  the  cost  of  producing  products  or  services.  Business  Area.  and  by  your  internal  organizational  units.     Typical  questions  in  CO-­‐PA:  How  successful  was  the  last  marketing  campaign  for  a  certain  product  line?    Who  are  the  largest  customers  and  who  has  the  strongest  growth?   What  effect  does  a  price  determination  strategy  have  on  a  customer  group?     Profitability  Segment  (the  affected  market  segment):   Is  the  combination  of:   • Characteristics:  answer  the  question:  “about  what  aspect  do  I  want  to  report?”  EX:  divisions.    This  is  the  link  to  debits  and  credits  posted  to  those  controlling  objects   Profit  Centers  Planning   Is  an  integral  part  of  overall  business  planning.  It  focuses   on  simultaneous  costing  and  the  period-­‐end  closing.ar   Profit  centers  set  up  according  to:   • Products  (product  lines.).   • Characteristics  values:    are  the  key  figures.  discounts.  sales)     Profit  Centers  are  not  real  account  assignment  objects   CO  linked  to  Profit  Centers:   Controlling  objects  master  data  contain  a  profit  center  field.  monitoring.  regions.com.   Typical  questions  in  Profit  Center  Accounting:    What  is  the  operating  profit  of  a  profit  center?  Which  fixed  asset  value  is  assigned  to  a  profit  center?            www.  These  segments  can  be  defined  by  product.  products. Costs  Object  Controlling:  collects  costs  incurred  during  production  of  a  product  or  service  using  cost   objects  (such  as  production  orders.   • Value  field:  provide  a  view  of  a  segment  of  the  business. Product  Cost  Planning:  used  to  estimate  the  costs  to  produce  goods  or  services.  customers.  This  process  continues  until  the  purchase   order  is  closed  and  the  commitment  is  reduced  to  zero.  CO-­‐PA.      Profit  Center  Accounting  –  internal  focus    (EC-­‐PCA)  Profit  Center  Accounting   • Measure  profitability  of  areas  of  responsibility  within  the  organization.     • You  reduce  the  commitment  by  posting  a  goods  receipt  against  a  purchase  order.  answer  the  question:  “what  values  can  I  have  for  the  characteristics?”  EX:  Region  south.  This  rule  is  defined  in  the  order  master  record.  etc.   -­‐If  no  quantity  structure  is  available.   The  aim  of  Profitability  Analysis  is  to  provide  the  board  of  directors.  and  reporting  processes.   -­‐If  a  quantity  structure  (BOM  and  Routing)  is  available  in  Manufacturing  Planning.  or  production  sites)   • Functions  (production.  SD.  internal  orders.   Order  Settlement:   Internal  orders  are  usually  used  as  an  interim  collector  of  costs  and  an  aid  to  the  planning.   2.  marketing.  in  order  to  compare  planned  and  actual  costs.  It  is  another  form  of  periodic  cost  allocation.  reflects  the  success  of  a  given  profit  center  at  meeting  the  profitability  goal  for  which  it  was  given   responsibility.  product  cost  planning.  then  you  can  either  enter  the  costing  items  manually  with  the  unit   costing  tool  or  transfer  them  automatically  from  a  non-­‐SAP  system  using  batch  input.   Settlement  can  occur  periodically.     When  you  create  a  cost  estimate  with  a  quantity  structure.  you  can  analyze  the  areas  of  responsibility  and  delegate  responsibility  to  distributed  units.  sales  orders.  Actual  costs  are  posted  to  the  internal  order. Transfer  of  planning  data  from  cost  centers.  2  steps:   1. Modification  of  these  planning  data  directly  in  the  profit  centers.  profitability  segment.  for  example:  Company  Code.  When  the  task  is  complete.sap-­‐terp10. Actual  Costing  and  Material  Ledger:  provides  actual  costs  for  each  material  at  the  end  of  the  period.  fixed  asset.  This  is  called  “settlement”.  geographical   area.  Region  north.  Answer  the  question:  “which  key  figures  do  I  want  to  track  and  analyze?”  EX:  gross  sales.  process  orders.   A  settlement  rule  must  be  defined  for  each  order.  as  well  as  tracking  and  analyzing  the  actual  costs.  or  at  the  end  of  the  order’s  life.       3.   2.  the  costs  have  to  be   passed  on  to  their  final  destination  (cost  center.  or  other  characteristics.  depending  on  the  type  of  order  and  its  business  purpose.

 these  future  prices  are  updated  as  the  current  standard  price.  such  as  quantities  and  prices  of  the  materials  and  internal  activities  used).     The  following  prerequisites  must  be  met  before  a  standard  cost  estimate  can  be  marked  or  released:   • Standard  cost  estimate  must  be  free  of  errors  (status  KA.  the  inventory  is  valuated  at  standard  price.  of  all  materials  in  a  multilevel  BOM  are  included  in  the  cost  estimate  of  the  higher-­‐level   material. Releasing     Effects  of  Marking  and  releasing  a  standard  cost  estimate   • Standard  prices  in  material  master  is  updated.   • Cost  element  itemizations:  (groups  the  individual  costing  items  into  cost  elements)   • Cost  component  split:  (groups  the  cost  elements  into  cost  components     Cost  Rollup  in  Product  cost  Planning:   It’s  used  to  ensure  that  the  costs  of  goods  manufactured.  costed  without  errors)   • The  marking  and  release  must  be  allowed     When  you  release  the  standard  cost  estimate.  such  as  quantity  or  price  variances.  unless  you  delete  the  previously  released  standard  cost  estimate  from  the  database.  it  can  be  used  in  Cost  Object  Controlling.  you  can  use  standard  cost  estimates  (or  other  material  cost  estimates)  to  compare  the  revenues  of  the  billed  quantity  with  the  cost  component  split  of   the  product.  3:  can  be  used  for  raw  materials  and  purchased  parts.   Price  control:  indicator  that  controls  which  price  is  used  to  valuate  the  inventory  of  a  material.  This  is  achieved  by  assigning  the  costs  in  a  cost  estimate  to  cost  component.ar   The  costing  results  can  be  saved  and  displayed  as     • Itemizations:  (shows  detail  detailed  information  about  the  origin  of  the  costs.     The  standard  or  moving  average  prices  used  to  valuate  inventory  is  determinate  in  the  Price  control  setting  in  material  master.   A  standard  cost  estimate  can  be  used  to  update  the  standard  price.  In  addition.  The  saved  itemization  provides  the  basis  for  the  variance  calculation.   The  system  can  use  the  itemization  of  standard  cost  estimates  to  determine  the  target  costs  for  manufacturing  orders.   Tax  based  and  commercial  prices:  are  entered  for  purchased  parts  in  inventory  costing  for  values  such  as  the  determination  of  lowest  value.   If  the  standard  price  was  updated  by  a  standard  cost  estimate.   • Inventory  is  revaluated.  2. Marking   3.  and  then  update  the  costing  results  for  finished  and  semi  finished  products  in  these  fields.     Standard  Price  Update:  3  steps   1.   A  standard  price  is  also  required  in  the  Material  Ledger  to  determine  the  actual  price.           19   .   Material  Master:  prices:   • • • Planned  Prices  1.       The  dates  proposed  from  the  costing  variant  specify  the  following:   • The  period  of  validity  of  the  cost  estimate  (costing  date  from/to)   • The  selection  date  for  the  BOM  and  routing  (quantity  structure  dates)   • The  pricing  data  for  the  material  components  and  activities  (valuation  date)          www.  The  following  option  are  available:   o Standard  price   o Moving  average  price   These  prices  are  used  to  valuate  goods  movements  within  SAP  ERP  and  to  valuate  inventories.com. Analyze  the  costs   2.   You  can  branch  from  the  accounting  and  costing  views  to  the  results  of  standard  cost  estimates  these  results  update  the  standard  price.  An  inventory  cost  estimate  can   use  these  prices  for  valuation.   You  can  release  a  standard  cost  estimate  only  once  per  period.  The  difference  between  target  cost  and  actual  cost  can   be  analyzed  at  the  level  of  variance  categories.sap-­‐terp10.     Integration:  Standard  Price  and  Standard  Cost  Estimate:   Price  control  plays  a  crucial  role  in  material  valuation.  material  and  production  costs.  goods  movements  are   valuated  directly  in  the  System  using  a  price  selected  in  accordance  with  the  price  control  indicator.   In  Profitability  Analysis.  When  the  price  control  indicator  is  set  to  S.  and  to  valuate  the  materials  in  the  cost  estimate.

 Loc.  2    MM  material     Docs  generated  (also  affects  MRP)   containing  2  items   When  removing  the  material  from   MM  -­‐-­‐>   (GR-­‐GI)   storage.   It’s  carried  out  within  the  same  plant.  There  is  not  valuation.  valuation  areas).sap-­‐terp10.  and  therefore  has  the  same  posting  data.   1  step  procedure   2  steps  procedure   Can  only  be  booked  out  of  (F)  unrestricted  use  stock  .  A  GR  leads  to  an  increase  of  warehouse  stock.   No    FI  accounting  document.  within  the  same  plant  and  between  two  plants.  There  is  an  accounting   procedure   document  if  the  material  is  split-­‐valuated  and  the  valuation  type  changes  in  the  course  of  the  transfer.  Consignment  to  warehouse                                                                       1  and  2  steps  Stock  Transfer  Procedures     Same  Plant  stock  transfer   Storage  Loc.Q  .     Inventory  and  Warehouse  Management  /  Stock  Transfer  and  Transfer  Posting   Goods  Receipt:  is  a  goods  movement  in  which  the  receipt  of  goods  from  both  an  external  vendor  and  from  production  is  posted.   Once  the  goods  issue  is  posted  from  the  issuing  point.   (Additional  material  movement  is  possible).  Material  to  material.  A  goods  issue  leads  to  a   decrease  of  warehouse  stock.  1  item  for  the  placement  (goods  receipt).  goods  issue.  and  the  2  at  the  time  of  goods  receipt  (placement  in  storage).   Storage  Loc   Docs  generated:   stock  transfer   1  MM    material  doc.    2  steps   Docs  generated:   procedure   2    MM  material  docs:  1  at  the  time  of  goods  issue  (removal  from  storage).   Example:      Stor.          Company  Code  to  Company  Code     Transfer  posting:  results  in  a  change  in  the  stock  ID  number  or  the  stock  category  of  a  material.  Transfer  postings  need  not  involve  an  actual  physical  goods  movement.   to   Advantage  :  you  enter  a  single  transaction  in  the  system.      Plant  to  Plant.  the  quantity  is  booked  out.  Loc  to  stor.       Stock  transfer:  is  a  removal  of  materials  from  a  particular  storage  location  into  another  storage  location.   Advantage:  enables  to  monitor  stocks  that  are  in  the  process  of  transferring  from  one  place  to  another.  you  must  specify:   Plant  to  Plant   1  FI  (if  the  2  plants  are  assigned  to  a  diff.   1  MM    material  doc.   Cross-­‐plant  stock  transfer  (plant  to  plant  in  the  same  CC  or  diff  CC)   The  plants  between  which  material  is  transferred  can  belong  either  to  the  same  CC  or  to  diff.  containing  2  items  for  each  item  entered.   Example:    Stock  to  stock  (quality  inspection  to  unrestricted  use).   -­‐  the  receiving  plant.  you  should  not  have  any  stocks  in  transfer  because  you  cannot  inventory  such  stocks.X)   • Can  monitor  transport  with  PO  history     The  following  statements  are  correct:   • A  stock  transfer  between  storage  locations  is  not  relevant  to  accounting   • You  can  enter  stock  transfers  using  the  transaction  MIGO       20   .     A  stock  transfer/transfer  posting  consists  of  goods  issue  from  the  issuing  point  and  a  goods  receipt  at  the  receiving  point.  The  stock  is  regarded  as  in  transfer  at  the  receiving  point   to     In  the  case  of  stock  transfer  between  two  plants.   CC  to  CC   2  MM     2  FI:  one  for  each  CC.  level   (no  valuation  if  the  2  plants  are  assigned  to  the  same  valuation  area)   Valuation  takes  place  at  the  time  of  the   Docs  generated:   first  step.   Storage  Loc.com.  1  item  for  the  removal  (goods  issue).  or  goods  shipment  is  posted  to  a  customer.  (1  and  2  step  procedures  possible).  ones.     Stock  Transport  Order:  A  stock  transfer  using  a  stock  transport  order  has  the  following  advantages  compared  with  a  stock  transfer  without  a  stock  transport  order:   • Integration  with  MRP   • Can  plan  GR  for  shipping  and  receiving   • Can  manage  transportation  and  freight  (delivery  cost/carrier)   • Can  post  (GR)  to  Consumption   • Can  receive  goods  into  all  stock  types  (F.  With  stock  transfer   there  is  always  a  physical  movement  of  goods.  material  consumption.            www.ar   Good  issue:  is  a  goods  movement  in  which  a  material  withdrawal.              -­‐  The  stock  transfer  is  valuated  at  the  valuation  price  of  the  material  in  the  issuing  plant     -­‐  the  issuing  organiz.    1  step   No    FI  accounting  document  because  the  transferred  material  is  managed  in  the  same  plant.   Storage  Loc   At  the  time  of  physical  inventory.  the  two  step  procedure  is  necessary  if  users  have  authorizations  only  for  their  own  plant  in  each  case.   stock  transfer   Restriction:  only  transfer  material  from  (F)  unrestricted  use  stock  at  the  issuing  location  to  (F)  unrestricted  use  stock  at  the  receiving  storage  location.   -­‐  the  material              -­‐  Update  in  the  stock  accounts.

  It  is  not  possible  to  assign  a  plant-­‐storage  location  combination  to  two  or  more  warehouse  number.   • (MM  +  FI  docs)   • Transfer  requirement  doc   • Material  is  booked  into  the  goods  receiving  area/section  (interim  storage  area)   • Transfer  requirement  is  created   • (in  a  put  away  process)  the  destination  storage  type  and  the  storage  section.  This  posting   always  refers  to  the  delivery.   In  Logistics  Execution.  Q.   Storage  bins  are  master  data  that  you  create  within  a  storage  section.       Logistic  Execution  (LE)  the  link  between  procurement  and  distribution            www.  picking  area  is  optional.             Storage  Loc.com.  The  following  overview  shows  the  document  flow  and  the  posting  process  for  each  of  these  methods:   If  deliveries  are  used.  loading).ar   Transfer  order:  is  the  document  with  which  all  material  movements  in  the  warehouse  are  executed.  storage  bin  are  determined   • A  Warehouse  Mgt  tab  appear  in  the  items  section  of  a  PO     You  enter  a  GR  against  a  PO.   Represents  a  production  unit  and  is  the  central  organizational  unit  in  Materials  Management  and  Production  Planning.  Shipping  is  also  the  name  given  to  the  department  responsible  for  the  logistical  process  of  delivery  handling  (picking.     You  assign  a  shipping  point  at  plant  level   Are  completely  independent  Org.  Financial  and  profit  loss  (P&L)  statements  are  prepared  at  company  code  level  to  meet  legal  reporting   requirements.   Picking  Area:  (same  hierarchy  level  as  the  storage  section)  is  used  to  divide  storage  type  area  for  technical   stock  removal  purposes.   ü Interim  storage  area:  serve  as  the  link  between  Inventory  and  Warehouse  Mgt  (GR  and  GI  areas)     • • • •     Storage  type-­‐category  (F.  a  mail  depot.  It  can  be  a  loading  ramp.   Can  be  linked  with  only  one  company  code  (necessary  because  of  the  shipment  cost  calculation  and  settlement).    Linking  it  to  a  warehouse  allows  warehouse  mgt.  Unlike  the  storage  section.   GR    item  from  PO  is  received  into  a  Stor.  unit  of  shipping  .   Is  always  linked  with  at  least  one  combination  of  plant  and  storage  location.  Where  can  this  stock  type  be  entered?   • On  the  purchase  order  document   • On  the  material  Master  record   • On  the  goods  receipt  transaction     Physical  Inventory  Procedures   The  physical  inventory  has  2  reasons:   • MRP:  correction  of  incorrect  stock  quantities   • Accounting:  determination  of  material  stocks  for  current  assets     It’s  carried  out  on  the  basis  of  Stock  Management  Unit  (a  non-­‐divisible  part  of  stock  of  materials):  is  uniquely  defined  by:   • Material   • Plant-­‐  Storage  location   • Stock  type  (F.  subject  to  Warehouse  Mgt.  X)   Storage  areas  (or  storage  section)  are  created  within  storage  types  for  further  separation  of  storage  spaces.  Quality  inspection  is  required.  Since  the  delivery  document  can  also  be   used  in  other  areas.  packing.X)   • Batch   • Special  stock       21   .  the  original  delivery  process  that  relates   to  an  order.    It’s  a  physical  place  and  should  be  near  the  delivering  plant.  These  actually  only  describe  outbound  goods  movements.   Several  plant-­‐storage  locations  combinations  can  be  lined  with  one  warehouse  number.     The  terms  “shipping”  or  “shipping  process”  are  often  used  in  conjunction  with  deliveries.  Loc.  we  refer  to  deliveries  related  to  sales  documents  as  outbound  deliveries.  enables  Inventory    mgt.  there  are  2  ways  of  modeling  GR  and  GI:  you  can  create  either  a  delivery  or  an  inventory  management  posting  (generally  with  reference  to  a  preceding   document)  at  the  beginning  of  the  process.  units  with  separate  Inventory  Mgt  .  the  warehouse  management  activities  (creating  and  confirming  a  transfer  order)  are  completed  before  the  inventory  management  posting.Q.sap-­‐terp10.  A  Plant  is  assigned  to  a   company  code.     Organizational  Levels  in  LE   |       Transportation   |   1   Planning  Point     oo    1   1   Plant     oo     |         Shipping  Point  oo   |   |   oo     Storage  Location     Warehouse  Number   oo     Client   oo     Company  Code     oo     Highest  organizational  element)  (defined  in  the  system  by  a  3  digit  key   Is  an  independent  accounting  unit.   Highest  level  org.

 Stock  transp. Enter  count  and  post  PI  difference   3.  Dep.  EX  theft.  or  recounted.   • If  a  document  exceeds  the  document  tolerance  defined  for  the  user  group.  posted.sap-­‐terp10. Creation  of  physical  inventory  (PI)  documents     Entry  of  counts   Posting  of  inventory  difference     Combining  physical  inventory  steps:  you  have  the  option  of  combining  individual  phases   and  performing  them  in  a  single  step:   1.  The  item  with  more  consumption  value   are  classified  as  A.  Req.   Requirement  Analysis:  The  system  determines  the  total  value  of  the  requirement  of  the  material  from:  Indp.ar     PI  document:   • Is  created  per  plant-­‐storage  location   • Can  be  for  special  stocks:  per  plant.  the  system  creates:   • MM    doc  that  correct  the  stock  figures.    The  difference  between  the  count  result  and  this  book  is  the  Inventory   difference.   • The  status  of  an  item  indicates  if  the  item  has  been:    processed.  The  system  fixes  the  posting  period  of  FI  doc  automatically.  “A”  indicator  items  will  be  counted  frequently  (say  every  month).  The  list  of  differences  contains  the  following  information  on  each  item:   Contains  the  following  information  on  each  item   You  can  perform  the  following  functions  with  the  list  of  differences   • Quantity  counted        -­‐    Q   • Enter.   The  physical  inventory  process  comprises  3  phases:   1. You  must  print  out  the  PI  doc  and  forward  it  to  the  persons  responsible  for  the  count.  he  can  process  the  other  items.  or  via  separate  transactions)   • Difference  quantity  –  Diff  Q   • Display  or  change  document   • Difference  amount      -­‐  Diff  $   • Recount  documents  or  item     Posting  of  Inventory  difference:  either  via  the  list  of  differences  or  via  separate  transactions. Enter  count  without  PI  document  and  post  inventory  difference          www. 2.       There  is  an  option  in  SAP  to  have  a  fixed  indicator  for  a  material  say  A  for  a  material  which  does  not  have  a  high  consumption  value  but  it  is  important  to  count  it  every  month.  a  user  who  is  assigned  to  the  physical  inventory  tolerance  group  may  not  post  an  inventory   difference  for  this  document.  D  will  be  less  frequently  (say  every  6  months  or  every  one  year).  C.  orders  and  the   Valuation  Price  of  the  material.  storage  loc.               22   . 3.  and  with  minimum  as  D.  you  can  freeze  the  book  inventory  in  the  PI  document  at  the  time  of  the  count.     • FI  doc  recording  the  necessary  account  movement.  above  which  the  system  issues  a   warning  message. When  the  entered  data  is  saved..  B.   • You  can  specify  a  reason  for  the  inventory  difference  discovered  for  each  item. Enter  count  without  PI  document   2.  you  can  enter  a  percentage  variance  of  the  count  quantity  from  the  book  inventory.  but  certain  items  exceed  the  maximum  amount  per  item.  as  long  as  no  count  has  taken  place     • Delete  the  document     Blocking  Goods  Movements  and  Freezing  Book  Inventory   • You  can  block  all  goods  movements  relating  to  a  stock  management  unit  for  the  purposes  of  a  physical  inventory  by  means  of  the  posting  block  indicator  in  the  PI   document  header  (shows  the  value  X).  posting  of  diff  and  in  evaluation. When  entering  the  physical  inventory  count.  special  sock.   2.  Req.     Options:   Consumption  Analysis:  The  system  uses  the  consumption  quantities  and  valuation  price  based  in  the  master  data  of  the  specified  plant.     You  can  analyze  the  difference  via  the  list  of  differences.     You  have  created  a  physical  inventory  documents.     A  cyclic  count  indicator  A  or  B  or  C  or  D  is  allocated  to  material  in  the  material  master  based  on  either  consumption  or  forecast  value.  display  count   • Book  inventory                  -­‐  Q   • Post  difference  (via  List  of  Diff.   then  the  material  can  be  marked  as  A  indicator  in  material  master  with  indicator  “fixed”.  change.  At  what  point  are  the  inventory  count  adjusted?   • When  the  differences  are  posted     ABC  Analysis  of  the  Cycle  Counting  Inventory   The  cycle  counting  indicator  is  used  to  group  the  materials  together  into  various  cycle  counting  categories  (for  example.  vendor  or  customer  or  project   • You  can  specify  the  storage  bin  or  the  material  group  as  grouping  values  (the  items  are  then  all  assigned  to  a  material   group  or  a  storage  bin)   • You  can  specify  a  physical  inventory  number  in  the  document  header  (different  from  the  number  of  PI  doc)  to  facilitates   the  selection  of  the  PI  doc  to  be  process  during  entry  of  the  count  data.     Entering  physical  inventory  count:   1.   3.  A.   • If  the  total  value  of  the  documents  lies  below  the  document  tolerance.  and  D).  counted.     Changes  allowed  in  the  PI  doc  Header:   • Change  the  planned  count  date   • Set  or  Unset  the  posting  block   • freeze  book  inventory   • Create  or  change  the  physical  inventory  number   In  a  item  still  to  be  counted  (no  count  yet)   o Change  the  stock  type   o Change  the  count  unit  of  measure   o Set  the  Deletion  indicator   • Enter  new  items.com.  the  user  may  not  post  the  differences   for  these  items.   • If  it  is  not  possible  to  block  the  goods  movement  for  organizational  reasons.   • The  fiscal  year  is  set  as  a  result  of  specification  of  the  planned  count  date  when  the  PI  documents  is  created.  the  system  determines  the  book  inventory  in  the  system.  Sales  Orders.

 however.  They  are  assigned  to  the  respective  maintenance  plant  as  workshops.     Manages  the  units  of  capacity.     Pieces  of  Equipment   Are  individual  physical  objects  maintained  as  an  autonomous  unit.  press  frame.  which  does  the  maintenance   planning.    If  the  maintenance  work  is  planned  at  this  plant.  work  scheduling          www.  building.  Group  of  people   Used  for:   Main  functions:   Contain:   • Main  WC  in  the  Master  Data  for  the   • Costing:  determine  the  costs  of  an  internal  activity  by  a  product  unit.   • Management  of  individual  data   You  can  monitor  the  installation  times  for  a  piece  of  equipment  from  both   L  ocation   • Recording  of  maintenance  tasks   the  functional  location  view  and  the  equipment  view.  Ex.  press   hydraulics   Polymerization.  Ex.  unit  within  an  operational  system.  building  2   The  identification  for  funct.  the  tasks  are  performed  by  workshops  available  locally.  Site.     The  aim  is  to  structure  a  technical  system  or  building  into  units  that  are  relevant  for  Plant  Maintenance.   • Other  constellations:  The  planning  of  a  plant’s  requirements  (plant  1300)  as  well  as  the  spare  parts  procurement   takes  place  in  another  plant  (1000).sap-­‐terp10.   L  ocation     Differences:            -­‐  Equipment  can  be  managed  with  inventory  functions  while  functional  locations  cannot.loc.  Foreman.  Ex.  It    consists  of  two  input  fields:   Pieces  of  Equipment   Serial  Numbers  #   BOM   • Technical   • Functional     (process-­‐oriented)   Press.  in  which  the  services  are  planned  and  scheduled.  Group  of  machine.com.   Criteria  /  Reasons  to  justify  a  Functional  locations   Master  Data   Structures  criteria   Structure  indicator   system  structure   (Views)   Building  1.  level  in  which  maintenance  requirements  are  planned.       The  planners.  level.   Planner  group   Work  center   Employee   Technical  objects  (4  types)     Functional  locations  (places)     Functional  locations   Are  hierarchically  (not  network)  ordered  structures  that  represent  a  technical  system.   O  rganization   • Object-­‐based  recording  of  costs     S  tructure   • Evaluation  of  technical  data     • Recording  of  usage  times         23   .   • Cross  plant  planning:  Multiple  maintenance  plants  are  assigned  to  a  planning  plant.  The  usage  list  displays  all  the  pieces  of  equipment  that  have  been  installed  in  chronological  order   Criteria  /  Reasons  to  justify  a  Piece  of  Equipment   Installation  /  dismantling  of  Equipment:   Master  Data  (Views)  (bis)   structure     G  eneral   Equipment  can  be  installed  and  dismantled  at  functional  locations.  The  planning  plant  need  not  be  the  plant  that  performs  the  services.  Mechanics   Org.   Subdivide  a  maintenance  plant  according  to  location  criteria.   S  tructure   • Effects  of  the  usage  conditions  on  the  installed   equipment  have  to  be  analyzed.  level:  service  center  are  defined  as  plants   Plant     Planning  plant:  is  a  plant.   • Default  values  for  task  list  and  ordes   equipment  or  functional  locations   • Scheduling:  determine  the  dates  when  operations  should  be   • Costing  data   • Main  WC  in  a  maintenance  item   performed   • Scheduling    data   • Main  WC  in  the  order  header   • Capacity  planning:  the  capacity  requirements  for  the  operations  in   • Available  capacity   • Main  WC  in  the  task  list  header   the  orders  are  determined  and  compared  with  the  available  capacity   • Performing  WC  in  the  operations  for  an  order   defined  in  the  work  center.  Financial  and  profit  loss  (P&L)  statements  are  prepared  at  company  code  level  to  meet   legal  reporting  requirements.  is  one  of  the  most  important  org.       Enterprise  Asset  Management  and  Customer  Service     Organizational  Levels     Client   General   Company  Code  (FI)   Plant  (MM/PP)   Highest  organizational  element)  (defined  in  the  system  by  a  3  digit  key   Is  an  independent  accounting  unit.  is  created  using  the   G  eneral   • Spatial   • Execution  of  maintenance  tasks   structure  indicator.  or  part  thereof  in  which  objects  can  be  installed.  In  most  organizational  structures.ar   Location-­‐ Based   Planning-­‐ Based   Maintenance  Plant   Location   Maintenance  Work  Centers   Maintenance  Planning  Plant   Maintenance  Planner  Groups       Maintenance  Plant:   • Plant-­‐specific  planning:  maintenance  plant  =  (maintenance)  planning  plant.   the  maintenance  requirement  is  planned  in  the  same  plant  where  it  occurs.   condensation   • Recording  of  maintenance  tasks   • Coding  template:  which  characters  may  be  used  for   identification  (Alpha-­‐Numeric-­‐Alphanumeric)   • Technical  data  has  to  be  store  and  evaluated  over  a   O  rganization   • Hierarchy  levels:  How  many  levels  the  structure   long  period  of  time   may  contain     • Costs  of  maintenance  tasks  need  to  be  monitored.   the  maintenance  plant  is  also  the  maintenance  planning  plant.  spare  parts  storage.   Within  Logistics.   Is  the  Plant  at  which  the  operational  systems  of  a  company  are  installed.  building.   -­‐ Functional  locations  are  arranged  hierarchically  while  equipment  is  not.       Maintenance  Work  center:  WC  is  an  organ.  order  execution.   • Performing  WC  in  the  operations  for  a  task  list     Service:  Organ.  Person.  It  can  be:  Machine.

 a   • Piece  of  Equipment  (with  or  without  assembly)   notification  can  contain  several  items. Material  reservation  (in  the  warehouse)   2.  tools     3.  availability  chk     4.   • You  can  assign  as  many  numbers  to  a  material  number  as  is  necessary.   1. Scheduling:  Release.   are  not  managed  in  the  system  under  a  number)     Maintenance  Order     Structure   • Header  data:  serves  to  identify  and  manage  maintenance  order.  the  required  materials  are  withdrawn  from  storage  with  reference  to  the  order.  damage  or  activity  in  detail.   • Material  with  Serial  number   o Activities:  document  the  work  performed  for  a  notification.   • The  combination  of  material  number  and  serial  number  is  always  unique.com.   Material  BOM’s  are  always  used  in  Plant  Maintenance  if  a  number  of  similarity  constructed  objects  have  to  be  maintained.  which  are  required  to  execute  the  task.   5.  It’s  used  to  compile  multiple  notifications  and  also  to  assign   several  technical  objects  to  the  order. Planning:  Work. Order  release   5.  The  aim  is  to  create  just  one  BOM  for  several  same  technical  objects. Goods  receipt   6.   In  the  corrective  maintenance  process.  which  are  required  and  used  when  the  maintenance  order  is  executed.  they  prove   • BOM   certain  tasks  have  been  performed. Printing   4. Purchase  Order   4.   • Object  list:  contains  the  objects  to  be  processed  (functional  locations.     The  maintenance  BOM  differs  from  other  BOM’s  in  that  it  only  contains  items  relevant  to  plant  maintenance.  serial  numbers).   • Costs:  tells  you  how  much  the  estimated  plan  and  actual  costs  are  in  the  value  categories  for  this  order.  settlement  -­‐  TECO.  The  materials  can  be  BOM  components  for  the  reference  object  or  freely  assigned  materials   1. Component  assignment   2.     Maintenance   Creation  of  Maintenance  Order:  Options   Notification   Maintenance   Maintenance   • Directly   Order   Notification   Maintenance   • From  a    notification   Notification   • From  many  notifications   • Order  is  first  created  and  then  a  notification/activity  report  is  created   Maintenance   • Order  is  automatically  created  based  on  a  maintenance  plan   Plan     Stock  material  process  flow   Non  stock  material  process  flow   You  can  plan  materials.   • Settlement  rule:  provides  information  on  who  should  bear  the  costs.ar   Corrective  Maintenance  Process   5  steps.  (Ex.   An  equipment  master  data  is  created  for  each  serial  number.  assemblies. Order  release  (automatic  availability  check)   3.  etc).   o Material  list  (component  list):  contain  spare  parts.  equipment.     Serial  Numbers  #   • Is  a  number  that  is  assigned  to  an  individual  material  item  in  addition  to  its  material  number.   • No  object:  without  specifying  an  object  number  (for  new  objects  or  for  ones  that   o Task  data:  describes  activities  that  should  still  be  performed. Completion:  Time.   • Serial  numbers  enable  you  to  track  individual  items  for  a  given  material  number.  material.    This  info  comes  from  the  Object  Master  data  that  is  maintained.   • Functional  location  (with  or  without  assembly)   • Notification  item:  data  about  the  problem.     Maintenance  BOM     Are  used  to  structure  functional  locations  and  pieces  of  equipment  in  more  detail. Component  assignment  (availability  check)   1.  trucks.   • Operation:  describe  the  tasks  that  should  be  performed  for  the  maintenance  order  and  who  performs  them  with  what  guidelines. Notification:  what?. Execution:  material  usage  plnd/unplnd  . Purchase  Requisition  (application)   3.  for  each  operation  in  the  maintenance     order.sap-­‐terp10.  Task  is  performed.  maintenance  requirements  are  collected  within  notifications  and  then  dealt  with  during  order  processing     Maintenance  Notification     Structure   Technical  Objects   Maintenance  notification  can  be  created  for  the  following  type  of  objects   • Header  data:  information  use  to  identify  and  manage  the  maintenance   notification. Invoice  receipt     Cost  analysis  in  maintenance  order:  can  be  performed/display  in  2  ways.   o PRT  -­‐  Production  resources/tools:  are  required  to  execute  the  maintenance  order.   3  important  functions   • Structuring  of  the  objects   • Spare  parts    (piezas  de  repuesto)  planning  in  the  order   • Spare  parts  planning  in  the  task  list     3  categories  of  maintenance  BOM   • Material  BOM   • Equipment  BOM   • Functional  location  BOM          www.  This  in  turn  enables  you  to  perform  inventory  management. Goods  issue     5.  This  is  indicate  in  the  Structure  view  of  the   technical  object  (construction  type  field).  Protective  clothing.  at:   • Cost  element  level  (controlling  view)   • Value  category  level  (maintenance  view)       24       .   • The  same  serial  number  may  occur  for  different  material  numbers.  where?   2.

 completion:    UNTECO:  Effects   • Order  becomes  modifiable   • Status  becomes  RELeased   • Location  and  account  assignment  data  are  re-­‐copied   from  object   • Open  purchase  requisitions  are  recompiled   • Open  reservations  are  recompiled   • Open  capacities  are  recompiled   Material  withdrawal:   Manual  workers  withdraw  materials  from  the  warehouse  to   perform  maintenance  tasks.  If  connected  to  DMS  can  print  graphics   • Operation  control  ticket:  shows  the  maintenance  engineer  responsible  a  complete  overview  of  the   maintenance  order.  and  functional  locations  are  displayed  in   chronological  order  in  an  action  log.   • Object  list:  Shows  an  overview  of  the  objects  (technical  objects.  can  be  withdrawn   • Printing  of  papers   • Confirmation  becomes  possible   • Goods  movement  becomes  possible  The  Document  Flow  allows  a  view  of  that. Print  /  communication   5. Confirmation:  after  performing  the  work.     Order  Confirmation:  times/activities:   There  are  4  different  ways  to  confirm  the  time  required  for  work  on  a  maintenance  order:   1.   7. Release:   the  processor  put  the  service  order  in  process.sap-­‐terp10. Settlement   10.   4. Billing  document:   the  employee  responsible  for  order  settlement  creates  a  billing  request  from  the  service  order   9.   -­‐Cost  Center  info  can  be  updated  if  there  are  changes  after  order   creating  using  “Update  reference  object  data”     Document  flow:    Docs.  and  so  on. Collective  entry  by  direct  entry  or  using  an  operation  list   3. Entry  using  the  cross-­‐application  time  sheet  (CATS)     Completion  confirmation:  Contains  the  following  info   • Time.  notif. Technical  completion:  the  technician  then  technically  completes  the  order  and  simultaneously  the  notification   8. Execution   6.   2.  and  is  only  printed  for  operations  with  the   corresponding  control  key.  on  a  collective  screen   4.  orders.     Order  release:  Effects  of  order  release:     • Reservation  becomes  effective.   • Planned  withdrawal  of  stock  material   • Unplanned  withdrawal  of  stock  material   Materials  can  also  be  procured  externally   The  Document  Flow  allows  a  view  of  the  maintenance  order   goods  movements            www.  for  the  customer  call.  Available:   • Notification   • Completion  confirmation   • Goods  movement   • Purchase  requisition   • Purchase  order     Reporting  and  Analysis     Reports  available   • Maintenance  history   o  Completed  notifications  and  orders   o Historical  orders   • Material  usage   o Material  where-­‐used  list  (material  withdrawals  planned-­‐unplanned   • Standard  Analyses     Action  log:   Changes  to  notifications.     There  are  two  types  of  withdrawal:  The  report  called  Material   Where-­‐used  List  enables  to  see  which  one  was  used.   • Material  withdrawal  slip:  authorizes  the  person  executing  the  maintenance  work  to  take  the  materials   required  for  the  order  from  the  warehouse.     • Material.     Documents  Printed  with  an  order   • Job  ticket:  is  a  document  which  gives  the  person  executing  the  maintenance  work  a  complete  overview   of  the  order.   Automatic  activities  after  TECO   • If  there  is  no  settlement  rule. Planning:   3. Individually  entry  of  times  for  each  order  operation   2.  The  order  receives  the  status  “released”  and  shop  papers  are  printed.Business  completion       25   .  the  technician  confirms  the  number  of  hours  worked  and  materials  consumed.  measurement  values.  This  enables  you  to  track  who  has  changed  the  data   or  status  of  which  fields  and  when.     • Measurement  documents     Technical  Completion:        TECO   can  then  only  be  changed  online  as  follows:   • It  can  be  locked  or  unlocked   • The  deletion  flag  can  be  set   • Post  cost  to  order  (even  after  Teco)   -­‐  Location  and  account  assignment  data  for  an  order  is  determinate   by  the  date  of  the  order  creation  (not  date  entered  during  TECO).com.   • Time  ticket:  contains  the  standard  time  and  duration.order  from  the  notification. Overall  completion  confirmation:  times.  Each  order  must  contain  at  least  1  operation.  activities.   • Material  pick  list:  Shows  the  warehouse  clerk  which  materials  have  been  planned  for  each  operation  in   this  order.  They  generate  a  serv.  notifications)  involved  in  the  order.  equipment.ar   Service  Order  Process   10  steps  in  Process  flow   1. Creation  (not  order):  the  employee  enters  a  serv.  one  is   created  automatically   • PR’s  for  which  there  are  no  PO’s  are   marked  for  deletion   • Close  the  open  capacities   • Close  open  requisitions   Reverse  techn.   • Confirmation  slip:  used  by  workers  an  entry  sheet  for  their  work  times.

  Prerequisites  for  the  settlement  of  a  service  order:   • The  order  must  be  released   • A  settlement  rule  must  exist   • The  order  must  contain  costs  or  revenues  that  have  not  been  settled.   • without  assignment  to  a  sales  order  item  revenue  bearing   The  result  of  this  difference  is  charged  to  the  settlement  receiver  of  the  service  order.  cost    and  revenue  are  posted  to  the  service  order.   • Revenue  postings  to  the  order  by  generating  billing  documents   • Technical  and  business  completion  of  the  order.  network.  cost  and  revenue  are  posted  to  the  superior  sales  document  item  or   • with  assignment  to  a  sales  order  item  non  revenue-­‐bearing     • Service  order  for  returns  and  repair  processing    non  revenue  bearing     the  service  order.  Unplanned  withdrawals.   • Billing  documents   Order  settlement:   • Settlement:  further  allocation  of  costs  and  revenues  for  an  order  to  the  settlement  receiver(s).ar     Service   Order  Creation  Option:   Notification   Service   • Direct  entry  (with  order  type  and  planning  plant)   Service   Order   • From  a  service  notification   Notification   • From  several  notification.   Possible  settlement  receivers  are:  G/L  account.       • • • • • • • Service  –  External  with  service  sheet  or  specifications:  Process  Flow:   External  operation   Purchase  requisition   Purchase  order     Order  release   Service  entry  (services  performed)  using  service  entry  sheets   Service  accepted  (serv.       • • • • • •   Service  –  External:  Process  Flow:  (we  buy  a  service  in  this  case)   External  operation   Purchase  requisition   Purchase  order     Order  release   Goods  receipt     Invoice  receipt.  goods  receipt  postings.  sales  organization.   • Printing  of  shop  papers   • Posting  costs  to  the  order.   A  profitability  segment  is  a  combination  of  account  assignment  features.     Order  Confirmation:   All  relevant  information  that  has  been  created  during  execution  of  the  order  is  entered  during  order  confirmation.  the  shop  papers  can  be  printed  and  the  order  is  released  (status  ‘RELEASED’)  and  saved  at  the  same  time.  Responsibility.  order.  cost  center.com.  Combine  several  notifications  in  one  order   Sales  Order   • From  a  sales  order  item   Item   • Automatically  from  a  maintenance  item     Maintenance  Item   Value  flow:   The  3  service  order  type  controls  whether  the  service  order  is  revenue-­‐bearing  or  not.  asset.     Cost  and  Revenue  Analysis  in  the  service  order:   Costs  and  revenues  are  collected  and  displayed  on  the  order  header  level.  Dates.   When  posting  confirmation.sap-­‐terp10.  time  confirmations.  Completion  confirmation  texts)   • Material  postings    (Planned  withdrawals.   • This  can  be  automatically  determined  based  on  the  order  header  data  entered   • Manual  changes  to  the  settlement  rule  are  possible.   When  posting  confirmation.  WBS  element.     Structure   • Header  data  (Customer.  planned  &  actual  costs.   There  are  two  views  for  costs  and  revenues:   • By  value  category   a  value  category  contains  one  or  more  cost  elements   • By  cost  element   26       .  material  withdrawals.  Service  data.  Service  entry  sheet)   • Activities    (Activity  reports.   • These  are  located  in  the  settlement  rule.   The  result  is  charged  to  the  settlement  receiver  of  the  sales  doc  item.  division.  Reference  object)   • Operations:  Who  should  do  what  when?   • Components:  Which  materials  are  required  /  PRT’s?   • Costs:  Estimated.  and  article.  and  so  on.  the  system  generates  dynamic  items  from  the  information  about  the  expenses  involved.  sales  order.  Goods  receipt  for  purchase  order)   • Object  changes   • Measurement  values  /  counter  readings   • Travel  expenses     Resource-­‐related  Billing:   • During  billing.  Revenues  are  only  posted  to  the  order  if  the  order  type  is  classified  as  revenue  bearing.  material.  revenues   • Partners:     Internal  and  external   • Objects:  Technical  objects  and  notifications  (object  list)          www.  You  can  use  overall  conf.  profitability  segment.   • The  billing  request  is  a  special  form  of  sales  order  and  forms  the  basis  of  the  billing  document.   The  function  “release”  is  used  to  release  the  order  without  a  printout  and  without  saving  automatically.  and  business  process.   • Working  time:  internal  activity   • External  services    (Goods  receipt.  order  is  debited  with  the  order  value   Invoice  receipt   Order  release:  Effects  of  order  release   When  you  perform  the  function  “put  in  process”.  such  as  company  code.

 capacities.  revenues.  Checking  against  budgets  also  becomes  possible     WBS  Functions                 WBS  element  -­‐  operative  indicators     WBS  elem.  activities.  materials.  components).   Activities  are  linked  to  each  other  by  means  of  relationships  –  this  result  in  a  causal  and  chronological  activity   sequence.  Cycle  analysis  is  a  tool  that  enables  you   to  detect  cyclical  relationships.  machinery.  and  correct  them.   • They  have  precise  targets  that  are  agreed  on  between  the  contractor  and  the  sold-­‐to-­‐party.  and  involve  a  high  degree  of  risk.  except  for  the  assignment  of  PRT’s.  costs.                www.  CO.  and  payment)  can  be  aggregated  at  the  WBS  element  level.  for  which  we  want  to  post  revenues.  and  shows  the  project   show  the  flow  of  a  project  or  of  activities  involved  in  a  project.  FI.    When  you  create  projects.  PS  texts.  you  can  copy  an  operative  project  or  a  standard  project   together  with  all  the  lower-­‐level  objects  (WBS  elements.     You  can  assign  milestones  to  activities  and  WBS  elements.   relationships.  as  well  as   planning  and  controlling  dates.  costs.     Editing  the  project  via  the  project  builder:   You  can  use  the  project  builder  to  create  or  change  objects  in  your  project  (project  definition.     PS  Texts.  activ.   There  are  4  activity  types  or  categories:   • Internal  processing     for  capacities  to  be  staged  in  your  own  company   • External  processing     for  tasks  to  be  assigned  externally   • Services       for  procuring  external  services   • Cost     for  planning  additional  primary  costs     Functions:   The  activities  in  the  network  are  used  to  plan  the  labor.     Program  and  Project  Management  -­‐  PS   Projects  are  tasks  with  particular  characteristics:   • They  are  usually  complex.   • They  are  of  mostly  strategic  significance  for  the  business  carrying  them  out.   PLANNING  elements   ACCOUNT  ASSIGNMENT  elem   WBS  elem.  networks.  Documents.  relationships  and  material   components).   • They  are  subject  to  specific  quality  requirements.  milestones.  This  means  that  the  activities  are  assigned  to  the  WBS  elements  in  question.  etc).  Milestones:  Assignments:   PS  texts  are  user-­‐definable  texts  that  are  managed  in  a  PS  text  catalog.  A  cycle  is  a  closed  sequence  of  relationships  and  activities.  The  texts  are  classified  into  different  text  types.  project  planning  board.   BILLING  elements       Project  Builder:   Is  a  tool  that  enables  the  maintenance  of  any  object  (WBS  elem.   Project  Information  System.  Purchasing.  and  services  to  carry  out   various  tasks  in  your  project.  unique.  or  activ.  WBS   elements.  Production.  You  can  assign  PS  texts  to  1  or  more  WBS  elem.  the  organizational  units  from  a  wide  range  of  areas  are   used  (SD.  and  payments.  activities.  and  resources  (personnel.     Network  structure  graphic:   All  of  the  functions  you  need  to  create  a  network  are  available  in  the  network  graphic  (EX:  inserting  activities   or  relationships)   You  can  access  the  network  graphic  from  various  functions  in  the  Project  System  (the  Project  Builder.  or  the  information  system.  you  create  activities  for  WBS  elements.  for  which  we  want  to  post  actual  costs.  The  individual  tasks  are  linked   activities  to  be  fulfilled  in  hierarchical  form   to  each  other.  It  also  means  that  the  planned  and   actual  data  for  the  activities  (dates.com.  documents.  and  grouped  together  to  form  what  are  known  as  networks.  document.  tools.  activity  elements.   Document  Management  System  can  assign  document  info  records  to  WBS  elements  and  activities.   Depending  on  the  project  type  and  configuration.   In  the  project  builder.   • They  are  limited  in  duration  and  are  cost  and  capacity  intensive.  HCM.  and   operative  basis  for   for  scheduling.       Organizational  units  in  the  SAP  system:   The  project  system  has  no  organizational  units  on  its  own.  can  display  the  documents  info  records  and  the  corresponding  original  documents  online.     Master  Data:       Work  Breakdown  Structure  (WBS)   Activities   is  a  model  of  a  project.  PRT’s.   WBS  elem.sap-­‐terp10.  materials.  for  which  we  want  to  plan  costs  manually.   milestones.   It  forms  the   planning  costs.  for  EX)   Cycle  analysis  is  a  function  that  you  can  only  perform  in  the  network  graphic.  PS  texts)  in  the  project  system.       Activities  and  networks:     Structures:   The  activities  in  a  project  describe  the  various  steps  and  work  involved  in  the  project.   • Several  departments  are  involved  in  a  project.ar       27   .  PS  texts.  and  budgeting   materials)   Linking  Activ-­‐WBS   Total  up  (aggregation)  of  dates  and  costs  of  individual  activities  at  the  WBS  level.

 cost  planning  is  shifted  automatically  along  with  the  activities.     Project:  Assignment  of  Orders:   You  can  assign  various  orders  to  a  project:  Internal  orders.  You  can   evaluate  the  capacities  of  the  various  work  centers   involved.  The  Project  System  draws  a  distinction  between  the  following  resources:            www.  you  access  from  the  project  builder. Acceptance  of  serv.  you  can  draw  up  service  specifications  and  set  value   processing  is  carried  out  via  the   limits  for  any  unplanned  services.  Maintenance  orders.  posting  of  activity  confirmation)     Cost  Planning  in  projects:   • Overall  (cost)  planning  (hierarchical  planning)   • Cost  element  planning   • Unit  costing   • Easy  cost  planning:        is  an  easy  to  use  tool  for  planning  costs  in  WBS  elements.  and   distribute  work  among  employees.  Network.  etc  and  then  evaluate  them.  You  need  to  specify  the  amount  of  work   (machine  or  personnel)  involved  and  the  work  center  that   is  to  perform  the  work.  capacity.com.  reschedule  these  capacities  as  necessary.     • Production  Planning  and  Control  (PP).   • Activity-­‐assigned  network  are  used  where  costs  are  gathered  in  each  activity.  networks  can  be  header  assigned  or  activity  assigned.sap-­‐terp10.  The  difference  between   provided  by  other  companies  in  order  to   service  activities  and  externally  processed  activities  is  that.   • Header-­‐assigned  networks  are  only  significant  for  sales  order.  External   service  activities.  The  purchasing  department  carries   purchasing  department.   out  service  processing:  entry  of  services  +  acceptance  of  services   Steps  in  externally  processed  activity:     Purch.   Work  centers  (where  activity  is  carried  out):  contain  data   for  costing  activities.  performed     Materials  in  projects:  Materials  establish  the  link  between  the  Project  System  (PS)  and   • Sales  and  Distribution  (SD).   • Materials  Management  (MM).  if  you  use   complete  the  activity.ar   Internally   Internally  processed  activity   determines  the  output  to  be  provided  by  machines  or   personnel  in  order  to  complete  the  activity.                             28   .  Req.  journal  entries)   • Asset  Management       (settlement  to  assets)   • Human  Resources       (entry  of  work  for  persons.   o Planning  using  network  activities  is  by  cost  element  and  period.   Depending  on  the  order  type  and  the  plant.   You  must  enter  work  data  for  an  activity  so  that  the   system  can  plan  capacities  for  a  project  and  calculate  costs   for  activities.  goods  receipt  for  materials  and  services)   • Inventory  Management     (goods  issue)   • Sales  and  Distribution     (billing  of  the  sales  order)   • Production  Planning       (confirmation  of  assigned  production  orders)   • Plant  Maintenance       (confirmation  of  assigned  PM  orders)   • Controlling       (internal  activity  allocation.  assigned  CO  orders)   • Financial  Accounting     (down  payments.     Resource  Planning:   You  use  activities  in  a  network  to  plan  the  resources  required  for  a  project.  Production  orders.     Project  Planning   Project  planning  board:  Objects:  (based  on  Gantt  chart)   Is  a  graphical  interface  you  can  use  to  create  and  edit  all  the  data  for  a  project:   • Project  definition   • WBS  elements   Six  typical  areas  of  focus  for  project  planning   • Activities   • Project  structures   • Relationship   • Dates   • Milestones   • Payments   • Documents   • Resources   • PS  text   • Materials   • Materials   • Basic  Dates     Basic  Dates  for  WBS  Elements:   You  can  plan  dates  for  individual  WBS  elements  as  well  as  you  can  enter  outline  dates  for  your  project  in  the  project  definition.   • Cost  planning  using  activities  /  network  costing   o The  resulting  plan  can  be  copied  to  new  projects   o If  parts  of  the  project  are  shifted.   Externally   Externally  processed  activity   Services  activities   to  specify  the  necessary  services  to  be   are  also  used  to  procure  services  externally.  -­‐>  Bid  invitation  -­‐>  Quotation  Entry  -­‐>  Vendor  selection  -­‐>  PO  processing  -­‐>  PO  monitoring  -­‐>   Goods  Receipt  GR  -­‐>  Invoice  verification    (In  GR  or  Invoice  verificatin  actual  costs  are  posted)     Goods  Receipt  for  services  involves  2  steps  :     1.     Actual  data  is  posted  to  the  project  by  business  transactions  from  various  SAP  components  including:   • Material  Management     (purchase  order.  Payments.  scheduling. Entry  of  services  performed     2.

 PS.   Transactions  that  are  triggered  automatically  by  confirmations:   • Posting  actual  costs.  budget  exceed).  You  use  it  to  ensure  that  all  data  belonging  to  a  period  is  determined  and  that  data  is   available  for  enterprise  controlling  purposes.  or  individual  capacity   • Collectively   • Using  the  SIS  -­‐  Structure  information  system     • Using  CATS  (Cross-­‐Application  Time  Sheet):  is  an  integrated  function  for  entering  actual  time  data  important  in  HR.   • Actual  dates.  this  can  trigger  various  system  responses.   Period-­‐end  closing  procedures  are  performed  periodically  in  the  background.  PM. Requested  budget   5.  However.  It  is  the  device  by  which  management  approves  the  anticipated  development  of  project  costs  over  a  given   period  of  time.  activity.  activity  element.   The  funds  overview  can  be  regarded  as  passive  availability  control.  the  available  funds  are  committed  to  various  places.     Assigned  funds  and  availability  control:   When  a  project  is  being  executed.  In  customizing  for  the  tolerance  limits.     Budgeting  overview:   • Maintain  original  budget  transaction  is  used  to  assign  funds  for  the  project  and  its  parts.   • Budget  carry  forward  function  is  used  to  transfer  any  funds  not  used  up  in  the  previous  year  to  the  budget  of  the  new  fiscal  year.  Together  with   the  costs  of  apportioned  orders.com.     Project  Execution   Confirmation     Documents  the  processing  status  of  activities  and  activity  elements  in  a  network. Approved  budget   6.  the  Project  System  also  supports  active  availability  control  (certain  events  can  be  triggered  if   certain  tolerance  limits  are  exceeded).   The  budget  differs  from  the  project  cost  plan  in  that  it  is  binding. Bottom  up  extrapolation   2. Budgeting   7.sap-­‐terp10.  it  is  in  the   approval  phase  that  funds  are  assigned  in  the  form  of  a  budget.  or  distributed  by  year  instead.  you  can  specify   which  response  is  to  be  triggered  and  when.  both  these  forms  of  fund  commitments  result  in  what  are  referred  to  as  assigned  funds. Top  down  distribution     Project  costs  must  be  estimated  as  accurately  as  possible  during  cost  planning.   The  corresponding  assigned  funds  are  calculated  and  checked  against  the  budget.     Project  budgeting   Cost  planning  and  budgeting:     1. Overall  plan  value   3.  The  procedures  are  generally  carried  out  for  the  previous  month  at  the   start  of  the  next  month.  The  assigned  funds  can  be  found  in  the  budget  bearing  WBS  element  and  in  the  lower  level   assignable  WBS  elements.   • Actual  labor  (work)   • Changing  activity  status     You  can  create  confirmations  in  the  following  ways:   • Individually  for  each  network.  These  so  called  commitments  are  created.     If  certain  tolerance  limits  are  violated  (shortfall  in  budget.       29   .  CS.   • Budget  release  function  is  used  to  make  funds  available  at  various  pints  within  a  fiscal  year.   • Via  the  Internet   • Using  Palm  Pilot     • Via  the  PDC  interface     Period–End  Closing                www.ar   Schedule  Manager     It’s  a  tool  to  carry  out  Period-­‐end  closing.  and  enable  you  to  make  forecasts  as  to  how  the  project  will  progress.   • In  the  budget  profile:  you  can  specify  whether  funds  are  to  be  assigned  as  overall  values.  usually  once  every  period.  that  is  period-­‐related  commercial  transactions.  and  actual  costs  are  incurred. Cost  planning   4.  and  CO.

 ProMan   • Stock/requirements  overview   • Progress  analysis.  each  object  (WBS  elements.  and  the  SAP  List  Viewer  for  line  items.  also  you  can  create  and  change  project  structures  from  the  reports.  In  a  navigation  panel  in  the  cost  element  reports.  profitability  segment)   • PS-­‐Project  system  (WBS  elements.  orders  and  activities)  in  a  project  is  settled  directly  to  a  cost  object  not  included  in  the  project.  purchase  requisitions.  It’s  used  for  settlement  to  WBS  elements  of  other  projects  or  internal  orders.  for  example.  lists  of  reservations.  networks.  transfers.  orders  and  activities)  are  first  settled  to  the  higher-­‐level  WBS  elements  in  the  project.  with  hierarchy  reports.  you  can  go  to  a  structure  and  choose  the  object  whose  costs  you  want  to  analyze   or  call  up  an  appropriate  list  and  choose  the  object  whose  costs  you  want  to  analyze  or  call  up  an  appropriate  list  and  choose  the  period  you  want  to  evaluate.  The  top   element  then  settles  the  costs  collected.  each  object  (WBS  elements.sap-­‐terp10.  networks.   • Capacity  analysis   • Order  report.   • Cost/revenue/payment  (Controlling)  information  system.     Multi-­‐Level  Settlement  –  Direct  Settlement:   • Direct  settlement.  You  can  use  sort   and  filter  functions  here.  as  well  as  different  currencies  to  display  the  data.  progress  tracking   • SAP  Business  Information  Warehouse     The  following  reports  and  systems  are  available.                       30   .  in  particular  for  cross-­‐project  evaluations:   • Project  summarization   • SAP  Executive  Information  System   • Profit  center  Accounting  reports   • Profitability  Analysis  Reports     Cost  Element  Report:   Display  costs  by  cost  element.  cost  center.  The  settlement  rule  contains  the  distribution  rules  and  the  settlement  parameters  for   a  sender  object.  networks.     Settlement:  Debit  and  Credit   Actual  costs  and  actual  revenues  arise  in  a  project  or  order  as  a  result  of:   • Material  withdrawals  and  goods  receipts   • Vendor  invoices  Customer  billing   • Internal  activity  allocations.  cost  element  reports.  process  costs.  overheads   • Confirmation  of  network  activities   In  settlement.com.              www.   • Multi-­‐level  settlement.  such  as  a   profitability  segment.  purchase  orders  pertaining  to  the  project.  It’s  used  for  the  settlement  of  PS  structures  to  receivers  other  than  those  specified  below.  activities)   You  need  a  settlement  rule  to  carry  out  settlement  which  is  defined  in  the  sender  object.  Costs/revenues  are  transferred  to:   • FI-­‐Financial  Accounting  (G/L  account)   • AA-­‐Asset  Accounting  (fixed  assets)   • CO-­‐Cost  Accounting/Profitability  Analysis  (order.  cost  distribution.ar   Information  System   Information  Systems:  Overview   You  can  use  the  following  information  systems  to  evaluate  important  key  figures  for  your  project:   • Structure  information  system  (SIS):  not  only  a  tool  for  displaying  info.

 Payroll  Accounting.  (Work  hours  and  compensation)   It  defines  the  relationship  between  an  employee  and  a  company  creating  various  types  of  employees.com.sap-­‐terp10.   Functions:  define/generate:   • Specify  the  country  group.   Persons  (assign.   Active  employees.  Payroll  for  all  employees  of  an  area  are  run  together.ar   When  you  enter  data  for  an  employee  in  infotype  0001.  Personnel.   • Selection  criterion  for  reporting.     Human  Capital  Management  /  HCM  Structures     Enterprise.  It’s  used  to  define  different  payroll  procedures  (hourly  VS  salaried).  and  to  store  and  manage  employee  data.   • Default  values  using  employee  subgroup  (EX:  payroll  area)   Is  used  to  determine  payroll  run  batches.   • Unit  in  authorization  checks.   Positions  are  occupied  by  employees   Structure/Plan     Position  (specific)   Positions  are  enterprise  specific     A  number  of  positions  are  based  on  the  same  job    Purchasing  Manager.            www.   • Unit  in  authorization  checks.  50%  each)   Represent  employees  that  hold  positions.    Sales  Manager.   The  first  step  in  recording  personnel  data  is  to  assign  the  employee  within  the  company  structures.  Contractors   Functions:  define/generate:   Employee  Group   • Default  values  for  data  entry  (EX:  payroll  accounting  area).  Pensioners.  partially  filled  or  vacant   One  position  may  be  shared  by  a  #  of  employees  (each  working  less  than  full  time  (ex.   • Default  pay  scale  type  and  area  for  an  employee’s  basic  pay.   Structure   Functions:  define/generate:   Employee  Sub-­‐group     • Payroll  procedures  for  different  employee  subgroups  (EX:  hourly  or  monthly  basis  pay)   • Wage  types  controls  the  validity  of  wage  types  on  an  employee  subgroup  level.  tasks    Jobs  are  used  in  the  following  components:   definitions)   • Shift  Planning     • Personnel  cost  Planning   Manager   • Personnel  Development   Organizational   Are  the  individual  employee  assignments.   Is  unique  within  to  Personnel  Administration  and  to  a  client.  infotype  0001)   Payroll  Area   • Dates  of  the  payroll  period   An  employee  may  only  change  payroll  areas  at  the  end  of  a  period.  hourly  wage  earner.  In  doing  this.  It  forms  employee  groups  by  specific  status  (active/inactive)  and  type  (salary  or  hourly).  Wage  type  structures.  and  Organizational  Structures:   A  personnel  management  system  enables  you  to  reproduce  company  hierarchies  and  relationships   within  the  hierarchies.  Time  Management.   Jobs  (general.  absence  and  leave  types  can  be  set  up  for   individual  personnel  subareas.  Represents  a  further  subdivision  of  the  personnel  area.   Enterprise   Is  also  unique  to  Personnel  Administration.  One  job  may  have  many  positions.  salaried  employee.  Organizational  Assignment.   Personnel   Active  employees  are  differentiated  according  to  their  position:  trainee.   Each  position  represents  one  employee.  you  include   employees  in  the  enterprise.  Assig.   • Selection  criterion  for  reporting.     You  assign  employees  in  infotype  0001.  Planning  work  schedules).     Structure   Principal  HR  aspects    are  controlled  at  this  level:  (Pay  scale.  etc   Positions  can  be  100%.  And  are  linked  to  an  Organ.   • Assign  a  legal  person  which  differentiates  between  companies  in  legal  terms.   If  Personal  planning  and  administration  are  integrated.  Early  retirees.  Admin.  for  the  entry  of:  Additional  data.   • Public  holiday  calendar.  Financial  and  profit  loss  (P&L)  statements  are  prepared  at  company  code  level  to  meet   Company  Code  (FI)   legal  reporting  requirements.  The  grouping   must  be  unique  within  a  company  code.   Highest  organizational  element)  (defined  in  the  system  by  a  3  digit  key   Client   Is  an  independent  accounting  unit.  to   Infotypes  for  persons  are  maintained  in  Pers.   Is  a  fine  division  of  employee  groups.   The  payroll  area  provides  the  payroll  driver  with  two  pieces  of  information:   • The  number  of  employees  for  whom  payroll  is  to  be  run  (determined  using  Org.  However.   • Wage  types  for  each  personnel  area.  it  is  possible  for  a  position  to  be  occupied  by  more  than  one  employee.   Personnel  Subarea   • Groupings  for  Time  Management  so  that  work  schedules  and  substitution.  It’s  a  legal  and  financial  structure.   position)       31   .  positions  can  be  entered  in  infotype  0000     Organizational  Structures  (Levels)     Is  hierarchy.  wage  types  and  pay  scale  groups  in  payroll  depend  on  the  country  grouping.   Is  relational.  Plan  through  their  position  assignment.  Each  personnel  area  must  be  assigned  to  a  company  code.   provides  a  model  of  the  structural  and  personnel  environment   Organizational  units   Represents  the  hierarchy  that  exists  between  the  various  organizational  units  in  your  enterprise   Are  general  classifications  of  tasks  that  are  performed  by  employees.  Organizational  Assignment  the  employee  is   assigned  to:  A  company  code  -­‐  A  personnel  area  -­‐  A  payroll  area  -­‐  A  position   This  result  in  the  employee’s  assignment  to:  An  organizational  unit  -­‐  A  job  -­‐  A  cost  center.  personnel  and  organizational  structures.   Information  on  the  organizational  assignment  of  employees  is  of  great  importance  for   authorization  checks.   represents  a  subdivision  of  CC   Functions:  define/generate:   Personnel  Area   • Default  values  for  data  entry  (EX:  payroll  accounting  area).

 In  this  case.  The  system  proposes  only  business  events  and  development  plans  that  result  in  the  same  or  a  higher   level  of  proficiency  at  the  qualification. Recruitment   2.       Personnel  File:   Lists  all  of  the  infotypes  for  which  records  have  been  created  for  a  personnel  number. Employee  Self-­‐Services     Recruitment  Process:  from  the  vacancy  to  hiring  an  Applicant:   1.     Managers  can  use  the  Manager’s  Desktop  tool  to  carry  out  their  recruitment  processes.  The  system  adopts  all  data  you  enter  in  the  Recruitment   infotypes  as  default  values  in  Personnel  Administration.  these  information  units  are  called  information  types  or  infotypes  for  short.  the  system  automatically  displays  the  organizational  assignment  (0001)  infotype.         32   .  you  can  transfer  the  applicant  data  recorded  in  Recruitment  to  Personnel  Administration.  Infotypes  have  names  and  4  digit  keys.  You  can  plan  and  implement  specific  personnel  and  training   measures  to  promote  the  professional  development  of  your  employees.  When  related  with  employees.  like  Individual  information.  we  refer  to  them  as   qualifications. Training  and  Personnel  Development   4. Compensation  and  Benefits   6. Travel  Planning   8.  we  refer  to  them  as  requirements. Payroll  Administration     7.   Jobs  openings  can  be  advertised  online  (web  based  browsing)  (display  and  apply)   • Externally:  web  based  application  called  Employment  Opportunities   • Internally:  the  employee  self-­‐service  solution  Job  Advertisements     Personnel  Development  and  Qualifying  Actions:   The  Personnel  Development  function  can  help  you  maximize  the  value  of  your  employees  for  your  enterprise.   Infotypes:  organ.   • Retaining  or  enhancing  existing  employee  skills  and  abilities   You  can  group  qualifying  actions  (training  courses  or  job  rotation)  into  development  plans   You  can  assign  qualifications  to  employees  and  positions.  and  cost  center  are  imported.  or  alternatively  prebook  them  for  business   event  types.   The  following  fields  are  already  filled  by  the  organizational  assignment:   • Company  code   • Personnel  area   • Personnel  subarea   • Business  area   • Employee  group   • Employee  subgroup   The  position  entered  and  its  existing  relationships  to  a  job. Applicant   4.  many  persons)     Initial  entry  screen  for  Infotype  Maintenance:   Infotypes  that  are  most  frequently  used  are  grouped  together  by  subject  matter  and  assigned  to  static  menus.            www.  first  name  and  date  of  birth.   You  can  use  the  tabs  pages  or  make  a  direct  entry  (search  directly  for  the  word  or  phrase)   The  green  ticks  next  to  the  menu  list  of  infotypes  indicate  that  these  records  already  exist  for  the  selected  personnel  number. Personnel  cost  planning  and  reporting   9.     Organizational  Assignment:   After  you  save  the  personal  data  (0002)  infotype.  You  can  book  employees  for  courses  directly.  organizational  unit. Vacancy   2.   Personnel  Development:  All  qualifications  and  requirements  are  stored  centrally  in  a  catalog.  Assignment  0001     Employee  Records   • Are  logical  groupings  of  data  fields.  the  system  proposes  training  courses  (business  events)  that  can  provide  any   missing  qualifications. Profile  matchup   5.   • Each  infotype  record  has  a  validity  period  or  a  key  date   Infotypes  Maintenance   3  ways  of  processing  infotype  records:     • single  screen  maintenance  (individual  infotype  maintenance)   • personnel  actions  (1  person  many  actions)   • fast  entry  (1  action. Managing  Work  Time   5.  such  as  name.  Data  fields  are  groups  into  data  groups  or  information  units   according  to  their  content.ar     HCM  Process   Human  Capital  Management  Process:   1.  Both  refer  to  the   same  object  but  from  a  different  perspective     Training  Proposals  for  Training  Deficits:   If  Personnel  Development  is  integrated  with  Training  and  Event  Management. Hiring   3. Advertisement   3.com.   Management  can  determine  the  personnel  development  needs  by  comparing  current  and  future  working  requirements  with  existing  qualifications  and  the  development   preferences  of  the  employees:   • Identifying  the  need  an  employee  can  be  transferred  to  a  specific  post.  when  related  with  positions. Hired  as  an  employee   When  you  hire  an  applicant.sap-­‐terp10.  you  can  use  the  Generate  training   proposals  function.  In  HR.

  Deviations  or  exceptions  of  an  employee’s  work  schedule  are  recorded  in  the  Time  Managers  Workplace.   Working  times  can  be  used  for  activity  allocation  in  Controlling:  costs  generated  by  working  times  can  be  assigned  according  to  their  source  in  Controlling.   • Long-­‐term  incentives  (stock  options  plans):  supports  5  types:   o Incentive  stock  options   o Nonqualified  stock  options   o Performance  shares   o Performance  units   o Restricted  stock       Integration  with  other  Application  Components:   Sales  and  Distribution   Billing  of  attendance  fees   Materials  Management   Generation  of  purchase  requisitions  and  material  reservations   Personnel  Development   Check  for  and  transfer  of  qualifications   Time  Management   Recording  and  checking  of  attendance   Organizational  Management   Use  of  organizational  units  as  attendees  and  organizers  of  business  events   Personnel  Administration   Use  of  persons  from  the  HR  Master  Data  as  attendees  and  instructors   Appointment  Calendar   Automatic  generation  of  entries  in  the  Appointment  Calendar   SAP  Knowledge  Warehouse   Display  of  information  material  from  the  Knowledge  warehouse   Cost  Accounting   Internal  activity  allocation  of  attendance  fees  and  instructor  costs       33   .       Time  Management:  overview:   Displays  and  records  working  times  flexibly   Information  on  working  times  is  used  to  calculate  gross  wages  in  Payroll     Several  options  are  available  for  recording  working  times:   • Time  Managers  workplace   • Central  time  sheet   • Online  menus   • Time  recording  systems   • Employee  Self-­‐Service  (ESS)  applications. The  business  event  preparation:  creation  of  master  data:    time  sched. Carry  out  day-­‐to-­‐day  activities   4.  substitutions.  shares  and  so  on. Recurring  activities  phase            www.  and  business  trips.  and  default  values.    This  info  is  stored  in  the  appropriate  infotypes.sap-­‐terp10.   • Budgeting:     you  assign  budgets  to  organizational  units.  plausibility  checks.com.   4  main  processes:   1.   Example  of  time  data  are:  hours  worked.  leave.  illness.   You  can  manage  time  accounts  (such  as  leave.  overtime.   You  can  determine  work  requirements  for  the  enterprise  and  plan  employee  shifts.ar   • • • • • • • • •     Career  and  Succession  Planning:  Has  2  goals   1.   • Compensation  administration:  distribute  salary  increase.     Types  of  Time  Data   Valuation  and  remuneration  of  employee  working  time  is  based  on  time  data  recording.   The  CATS-­‐Cross-­‐Application  Time  Sheet  offers  the  following  advantages:   • Cross-­‐application  standard  screens  for  entering  working  times   • Ease  of  use  for  all  users   • Default  values  and  data  entry  templates   • Integrated  approval  process          à   • Support  for  corrections   • Flexibility  in  the  definition  of  authorization  checks.   Information  in  time  management  is  used  in  Logistics  to  determine  employees’  availability  for  capacity  requirements  planning.  resources  …   2.  event  locations.  and  planning  their  professional  development.   Succession  Planning  involves  looking  for  suitable  candidates  to  fill  open  posts..  You  can  use  it  to  record  the  actual  working  times  of  individual  employees.  flextime)  manually  or  automatically. Create  the  business  event  catalog   3.   4  areas:   • Job  pricing:     determine  the  internal  value  of  jobs  and  positions  at  your  enterprise  to  ensure  that  you  remain  competitive. Encourage  the  professional  development  of  employees  in  a  company   2.       CATS  Business  Process:  steps             • Create  account  assignment   • Record  times   • Release  times   • Approve  times   • Transfer  data  to  follow-­‐on  processes       Compensation  Management:   The  Compensation  Management  component  controls  and  manages  remuneration  policy  at  an  enterprise. Ensure  that  there  is  always  sufficient  headcount     Career  Planning  involves  identifying  possible  career  goals  for  employees.     CATS  -­‐  Cross  Application  Time  Sheet   Is  another  form  of  Employee  Self-­‐Service.

  The  payroll  program  reads  the  master  data  and  time  data  infotypes.  and  if  needed  corrections  and  retroactive  accounting.   It  also  means  that  you  must  not  run  the  payroll  during  master  data  maintenance.  Special  areas.  approval.  This  enables  you  to  simulate  the  effect  of   certain  planning  assumptions  on  your  future  cost  situation.  such  as  taxes.  Bonuses.     34   • • • • •     .  Illness.  master  data  and  time  data  changes  that  affect  the  payroll  past  and  payroll  present  are  not  permitted.   • You  can  perform  scenario  specific  cost  planning  runs.  Recruitment.   Ad  Hoc  Query  enables  you  to  create  reports.  for  example:   • Transfer  of  payroll  results  to  Financial  Accounting   • Various  evaluations.  also  includes  a  number  of  subsequent  activities.com.  Components:   • Office   • Time  Management   • Payment   • Benefits   • Personal  Information   • Training  and  Event  Management   • Qualifications   • Appraisals  (evaluations)     Highlights:   • Extensive  functionality  beyond  basic  HR  functionality.   The  Human  Resources  Information  System  (HIS)  starts  all  HR  reports  within  Structural  Graphics.       Employee  Self  Service  (ESS)   Is  a  set  of  applications  that  empower  employees  to  view.     Payroll  Accounting:   It’s  the  calculation  of  payment  for  work  performed  by  each  employee.   • After  you  have  released  the  plan.     Calculation  of  Remuneration  Elements:   The  remuneration  elements  for  an  employee  are  formed  from  individual  wage  and  salary  types  that  are  used  during  a  payroll  period.   • You  can  take  payment  info  from  different  sources  and  planned  compensation  data  for  positions  and   jobs  to  generate  personnel  cost  plans.sap-­‐terp10.  SAP  ESS.   Remuneration  elements:  Basic  pay.   The  trips  must  end  before  the  end  date  of  payroll  period  in  order  to  be  settled.  settlement.  Organiz.  and  workflow   • ESS  functionality  that  leverages  the  strengths  of  underlying  SAP  infrastructure   • Global  capabilities   • Enabling  access  from  any  platform  at  anytime  from  anywhere   • Easy  to  use   • Personalized              www.  Leave.   Travel  Management  is  interfaced  with  FI  /  CO  /  HR  and  non  SAP  systems.   There  are  6  international  plan  categories  define  in  the  system:   • Health   • Insurance   • Savings   • Stock  Purchase   • Credit   • Miscellaneous     Personnel  Cost  Planning  and  Simulation:   • It’s  integrated  with  other  applications.  Workflow  inbox   The  Business  Warehouse  is  an  independent  system  in  which  analyses  can  be  performed.   Benefits:   In  many  countries.     Travel  management     This  component  includes  all  necessary  functions  for  dealing  with  business  trips:  travel  request.   • You  can  export  generated  cost  plans  to  SAP  Business  Intelligence  for  analysis.  so  changes  made  during  the  payroll  run  could  put  in  risk  the  accuracy  of  the  payroll  results.  Overtime.ar    Reporting  and  Analysis  HCM             You  can  access  Standard  Reports  from  the  SAP  Easy  Access  Menu  or  using  general  report  selection.  Cost  and  Budget.  including  travel  management  and  purchasing   • Inherent  integration  between  SAP  system  business  scenarios.     Travel  expenses:   The  Travel  Expenses  settlement  program  lets  you  settle  all  trips  with  the  status  approved/to  be  settled.   Managers  Desktop:  consists  of  the  6  theme  categories  and  their  function  lists:  Employee.     • It  as  a  web  based  interface.  SAP  HR  users  can  use  the  data  to:   • Generate  the  salary  budget  for  Compensation  Management   • Create  training  budgets  for  Training  and  Event  Management   • You  can  also  transfer  the  data  to  Accounting.  It’s  integrated  into  SAP  Query.  create  and  maintain  data  in  the  SAP  system  via  the  Intranet.  such  as  evaluating  the  payroll  account   • Transfer  of  payments  to  third  parties.  Shift  Work  Bonuses     Overview  of  the  payroll  Process:   During  the  payroll  run.  employees  generally  participate  in  benefit  plans  offered  by  their  employers  as  part  of  their  compensation  package.  Gratuities.

 (folders  to  store  infocubes)       InfoProvider:   Is  an  object  or  view  that  you  can  use  to  create  reports  in  Business  Explorer  (BEx).  Employees  can  analyze  historical  and  current  data  at  differing  levels  of  detail  and  from  different  perspectives.  loading  and  reporting)   • Is  preconfigured  for  core  areas  and  functions  by  Business  Content.ar   • Key  figures  are  performance  measures.  is  a  data  store  that  stores  data  at  the  basic  level  (document  level).  control.  you  determine  the  way  in  which  data  from  the  chosen  InfoProvider   is  evaluated.  as  well  as  hierarchies  and  texts  of   a  characteristic.  InfoProviders  deliver  data  that  can  be  analyzed  using  a  query.  sales  volumes…).  They  can  be  divided  into:   • Characteristics:  specified  criteria  based  on  characteristics  or  organizational  elements  (EX:  company.  To  do  this.  customer)    which  are  divided  in:   o Units   o Time  characteristics   o Technical  characteristics  (EX:  request  ID)          www.  division.sap-­‐terp10.com.   There  are  two  types  of  data  stores:   • Physical  data  stores  include:   o BasicCubes   o ODS  objects   o InfoObjects   • Logical  views  of  physical  data  stores  include   o InfoSets   o RemoteCubes   o VirtualInfoCubes   o MultiProviders     Operational  Data  Store  (ODS):   An  ODS.  online  services.   • Each  InfoCube  has  1  fact  table  and  a  maximum  of  16  dimensions  tables   • Each  fact  table  can  contain  a  maximum  of  233  key  figures   • A  dimension  can  contain  up  to  248  freely  available  characteristics.     OLAP  technology  permits  multi-­‐dimensional  analysis  according  to  various  business  perspectives.  net  sales.  vendor.     • Has  its  own  database  and  SAP  system     InfoObject:    are  business  analysis-­‐objects  (companies.  By  selecting  and  combining  the  InfoObjects  in  a  query.  costs…     Characteristics  describe  the  affiliation  key  figures.   BEx  allows  multiple  ways  to  access  to  information  into  SAP  BW:   • BEx  Analyzer   • Web  Application   • Formatted  Reporting  (using  Crystal  Reports)   • Mobile  Intelligence     SAP  BEx:  choose  Query:   Using  the  SAP  BW  reporting  functions.  segment.   The  Business  Explorer  (BEx)  component  provides  users  with  extensive  analysis  options.  AWB  functions  are  used  to  configure.  These  datasets  are  often  from  various  data  sources  and/or  source  systems.  you  define  a  query  for   your  chosen  InfoProvider  in  the  BEx  Query  Designer.     Business  Intelligence  /  Business  Information  Warehouse     Business  Intelligence:  Information  Warehouse   SAP  BW  data  sources:   • SAP  ERP   • Non-­‐SAP   • XML   • Databases   • (external:  databases.  It  is  normally  used  to  resolve   and  consolidate  datasets.  and  administrate  SAP  BW  elements.   • An  InfoCube  consists  of  several  database  tables  that  are  linked  according  to  the  star  schema.  They   contain  key  figures  and    links  to  its  associated  characteristics  (master  data)   • Master  data  in  the  BW  system  consists  of  attributes  of  a  characteristic.  product.     InfoCube:   • The  central  data  stores  that  form  the  basis  for  reports  and  analyses  is  SAP  BW  are  called  InfoCubes.     35       .       Reporting  in  Business  Warehouse   Business  Explorer  -­‐  BEx  is  the  SAP  BW  component  that  provides  flexible  reporting  and  analysis  tools  that  you  can  use  for  strategic  analysis  and  supporting  the  decision-­‐making   process  in  your  company.  you  can  evaluate  a  dataset  from  an  InfoProvider  according  to  various  characteristics  and  key  figures.   • InfoCubes  are  stored  in  structures  called  InfoAreas.     Administrator  Workbench  (AWB):     Is  a  workplace  for  SAP  BW  administrators.  quantitative  information  based  on  measurable  facts:  sales  volumes.  internet)     The  BW  system  (data  storage.

 The  query  displays  in  a  standard  Web  template.   6.  if  require.     Including  Text  Elements  in  BEx  Analyzer  Reports:   You  have  the  option  of  displaying  different  text  elements  as  additional  information  in  a  query  (EX:  the  author. Columns:  define  the  columns  of  the  report   3. Rows:  define  the  rows  of  the  report   4.  query.  columns.     Finding  a  query:   To  find  a  query  for  which  you  already  know  a  part  of  the  description  or  other  info.   You  can  restrict  the  characteristics  value  of  characteristics  in  the  rows.  free  characteristics  and  filter  areas  of  the  of  the  query  designer.                         Filtering  Data  in  the  Query  Definition:   It  is  often  necessary  to  restrict  (filter)  characteristics  to  specific  characteristics  values  in  the  report.  choose  find. Directory  tree  of  the  selected  InfoProvider:  all  available  objects  (dimensions.sap-­‐terp10.  last  changed  by. Free  Characteristics:  those  characteristics  are  transferred   5.   2.  structures)  are  displayed.  save  it  and  choose  display  Query  on  the  Web.   • Call  the  context  menu  of  an  already  included  in  the  definition  and  chose  restrict.  key  figure  or  combination.   2  ways  of  restricting  characteristics:   • By  selecting  a  characteristic  from  the  InfoProvider  of  the  characteristic  and  double  clicking  on  the  value  icon.ar         36   .  InfoProvider…)  these  text  elements  are  referred   to  as  the  header  information  of  the  query. Preview     Using  Drag  &  Drop.  In  the  search  for  queries  dialog  box  enter  the  technical  name  or  descr.  the  query  Designer  is  divided  into  6  subareas:   1.              www. Filter:  characteristics.     Query  Designer:   Once  you  have  selected  the  InfoProvider.com.  columns  or  free  characteristics).  key  figures.  You  can  change  the  stan.  Web  temp.     Web  query:   To  publish  the  query  on  the  web.  drag  the  selected  objects  of  the  InfoProvider  tree  to  the  appropriate  subarea  (rows.

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