The area is the surrounding of Susalgali village along the Khaki-Oghi Road is regionally metamorphosed. There is alignment of minerals and foliation in mansehra granite known as Susalgali granite gneiss. This susalgali granite gneiss is intruded in the Tanol formation which is metamorphosed into quartzite. Dolerite dyke and sills, quartz veins , Aplite bodies of feldspar are common in the granite. Rumli is a sedimentary succession. The youngest formation has Miocene age and older has Paleocene in observed sequence. This area is located on the backside of Quaid-e-Azam university, Islamabad. The area is in the vicinity of Main Boundary Thrust(MBT) that is why this area is intensively affected by the tectonic activity. The major lithologies of rock units are Sandstone (Murree Formation) , limestone (Lockhart Limestone, Margala Hill Limestone and Chorgali Formation) and Shale (Kuldana formation and Patala formation). Shale of Kuldana formation and Patala formation , limestone of Margala hill limestone and Lockhart limestone is richly fossiliferous in this area. Whereas Chorgali formation has no fossils as it has lagoonal environment conditions. The Mangla Dam is located on the Jhelum River about 30km upstream of Jhelum city, in Mirpur district of Azad Kashmir. It was constructed in 1967 during the reign of Mr. Ayub Khan with reservoir capacity of 5.88MAF for irrigation purpose and also there is a power house of 1050 MW.
The field tours are very necessary for the study of geology. By studying text books only theoretical knowledge is gained but real practical knowledge only can be gained by observing closely rock units in the field tour. Once such field tour arranged for our class from our respected Sir Syed Mahmood Ali Shah. The consists of different areas including Rumli area ( sedimentary), khaki-oghi road section (metamorphic) and Mangla dam ( for engineering site). The field areas were easily accessible and we went there through our university bus. The tract was smooth and journey was pleasant. On very first day we travelled form Lahore to Abbottabad. We did field work along the khaki- oghi road for three days from 2nd to 4th March, 2011. We travelled from Abbottabad to Islamabad stayed in youth hostel. Here in the rumble area, we also did field work for three days from 6th to 8th march, 2011. O Wednesday, March 9, 2011 we visited Mangla Dam and a historical place “ fort Rohtas”. On next day we aimed to do field work in Kundla section but it was fully covered with snowfalls
making it impossible for us. We enjoyed snow Murree. In fact, we enjoy that day a lot.
and take memorial photographs
and return to
The area near the town of susalgali along the khaki- oghi and is regionally metamorphosed. The area is easily accessible form Abbottabad youth hostel through Mansehra by khaki- oghi road. The area is covered b toposhet no. 43-F/3 under the title of “geological map of mansehra and khaki- oghi road section”. The concerned area lies between latitude 34.25 to 34.26 and longitude 73.3 to 73.8. The areas is drained by siran river and is covered by vegetation and trees which constitute the beauty of the area and act as natural purifier of atmosphere. Geologically the area is composed of granite and met sedimentary rocks regionally metamorphosed into gneiss and quartzite and quartos schist. The basic dykes and sills along the aplite and quartz veins are also present in the granite. Rumli is the small village on the back side of Quaid-e- Azam University, the area is sedimentary succession composed of sandstone, shale and limestone Islamabad. The area is sedimentary succession composed of sandstone, shale and limestone. There is a small nala which cross out the strike unit. There is a fair road along the nala and good exposures of rocks unit. The area is covered by thick cover of vegetation and is highly mountainous. It lies between latitude:33.45 to 33.46 and longitude 73.7 to 73.8. Geological area is sedimentary deposit with youngest formation of Miocene age and oldest formation of Paleocene. We made the traverses in this area and found that as we move in the direction of dip, older formations were present. So we inferred that rock units are overturned limb of overturned fold. Mangla dam is earth fill dam with 70% material composed of clay, silt and sand. It is located on the Jhelum River in Mirpur district of Azad Kashmir under the control of Pakistan. Dam was started to construct in 1962 and completed in 1969. It is a multi- purpose dam, main purpose is irrigation but a power station of 1050 mw is also working. Height of the Mangla dam is 265 ft with storage capacity of 5.88 maf. Dam is placed on the Nagri and Dhok Pathan formation.
Wynne (1879) was the first geologist who mapped the area on the scale l to 8 miles. He classified rocks into crystalline and metamorphic. The area remapped by middle miss (1896) on the scale 1 to 9 mile. Rehman (1966) submitted on account on the geochemistry of granites and associated rocks of manshehra area, of field et.al(1966). Calkins et. Al. (1988) and Sabri et. Al. (1967) gave and account of general geology and structure of mansehra, garhi h-k and oghi guardangless shams (1961, 19630 and shams et . al. (1966, 1967) describe geology petro
Ashraf M> (1974) also compiled his thesis of phd on geochemistry and petro-genesis of acid minor bodies of mansehra and batgram area. abdullaa an dlao (1975) dealt with stratigraphy and structure of a sequence of rocks that range in age from pre. Mapping Principles: Following are the principles of mapping which should be kept in mind while working. Rumli is a part of hazara basin which has been a site of deep interest for the geologists working on stratigraphy and tectonics sicne a long time Lydekker (1876. Base map such as topographic maps are used for this purpose. outcrop studies of different rock units.Sc and MSc students of geology department. practice how to use the brunt on compass for structural features and acquire knowledge o the origin & conditions of format of various rock types based o the field recognizable criteria.
Geological mapping is the transformation of ground information to flat sheet of paper. First of all physical reconnaissance of the area is done. major mineral content. The program enables the students to identify and distinguish among a large variety of igneous. Locate yourself in the field according to your map and orientate map withiest north. sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. geological mapping .
. To learn how to analyze and describe the geometry of structures. The students also collect samples and make snaps of rock units for subsequent interpretations.Cambrian to Miocene. textural and structural aspect s and relevant field measurements . typical field features. field relationship of rocks .chemistry of metamorphic and igneous rocks and also determined the radiometric ages of granites of Mansehra area. Offield. They determined geology of this area and named some of the rock units. university of the Punjab. Identification of different lithology and rock units.1883) and Middlenmiss (1896) carried out their work in Kashmir and hazara. a number of B. For many years. Calkins. Visit engineering site and learn then geological aspects of that site. The mapping exercise is aimed to make the students practically exposed to different field geological techniques and procedures of various ideologies.
Objectives of field tour
Geological excursion of about 11 days with following objectives. Lahore carried out mapping and completed basic mapping and geological information of eh area.
True Dip: True dip is measured in the direction normal to the strike. Specification for Mapping: There are some specification for mapping. stream or spring etc. digital cameras are perfectly used. Strike: Strike is the trend of rocks. It is formed by the intersection of the horizontal surface with bedding. Marks your position on the map with the help of brunt on and GPS. it also gives the idea of hardness of rocks and to break rock for taking rock samples. Dynameters and brunton: It is used to measure the dip and strike of the rocks. natural and manmade features. now a days. Geological Hammer: It is used to differentiate the color of weathered surface. Measuring tape: To measure the thickness of beds.
. Camera: It is used for taking photographs . Rock units are establish on the basis of lithology.
The following instruments are used for geological mapping. Dip: It is the angle between the inclined rock beds and the horizontal plane. with reference to ground features. Apparent Dip: Apparent dip is measured in the direction to the strike.
Mapping should be started from a definite point such as bridge. An important thing is to locate yourself on map.
the strata dip inward at different inclination but becoming less and less steeply inclined in the northern direction. Two or three traverses are made along different lines to know about the geology & structures of eh area. Distribution of rocks & soil types.
. Take help form the legends of the toposheet to recognize the cultural. south-west axis. The general strike of this structure swings in an arcute fashion. which shows alignment of minerals in a regular pattern. The geology and mineralogy of oghi. their main features such sliding & faulting. nalas. Thereafter. It is sleeved that mansehroa granite has been metamorphosed into susalgali granite gneiss. This granite gneiss has a wavy and irregular contact known as apophasis with the tanawal formation of sedimentary origin. The area Constitutes hard core of a major syntaxial loop of the north-western Himalayas.
The first step is reconnaissance. Self-reconnaissance of the area & of regional outcrops. In the major area.
GEOLOGY OF OGHI – KHAKI ROAD SECTION
Oghi-khaki road section is generally metamorphosed lithalogy from both igneous and sedimentary origin rocks. The regional structure. From Balakot to Batrasi the strike is almost north-south and then bends sharply to west-southeast trend that persist up to Darband (out of area). the plung of which decreases in the magnitude in north eastly direction. Susalgali area is part of lesser Himalaya. Study of Arial photographs. must be determined.
Tectonic And Structure Tectonically.
Exposure of rocks and their structural features are marked along with their dip and strike. it again bends sharply to become essentially north-south.khaki road section is discussed below. Environmental and groundwater conditions are studied. this is a gigantic synform with north-East.Place the contour on the premade toposheet of that area properly orientated with respect to the considering longitudinal and latitudinal lines. huts town etc. A complete search of geological area & literature. Base maps and new photographs amps are measured. buried channels etc. exposures of rocks and soils in nearby water well records.
Minor minerals are bootete. Calkins. It has irregular and wavy contact with susalgali granite gneiss in this area. tourmaline.e. Tanwal Formation: The stratigraphic committee of Pakistan formalized “ Tanol group” of wynne(18796) as “ tanol format or tanawal formatin “ middleniss (1896) called then tanol guarzite marks and ali (1962) and latif (1970) named then tanol formation. As being granite gneiss. In this area MBT is passing along with its splays. major minerals are patash feldspar. Dolerite dykes and sills of basic composition are present in it. apatite. rutitle. plagioclase of albite. monazite and epidote are important minor minerals (shams(1961). Older formation is present in the direction of dip showing overturned limb of an overturned fold. Overall it is forming an in imbricate system. muscovite. The overturned fold shows intense regional tectonic activity which is probably due to MBT. offield and alo (1969) made a detailed study and used the name tanawal formation for this unit of rock. quartzite and schistose conglomerate.
. In the area near susalgali.anorthite series and quartz. Master thrust lies towards hinterland.
TECTONICS AND STRUCTURE: Rumli area is the northern most part of potwar plateau ( foreland) i. MBT separates lesser Himalayas form sub – Himalayas. Master thrust (MBT) thrust which has the maximum displacement lies towards north and towards south displacement) lies north and towards south displacement decreases. politic to psamitic rock units showing chlorite to andalusite grade metamorphism. The format show intense shearing. it is the external part of orogeny.Susalgali Granite Gneiss: Susalgali granite gneiss is a foliated augen gneiss with macrocrysts of potash feldspar and gneissic structure. Its contact with tanawala formation is irregular and wavy and known as apophysis. Northward the grade of metamorphism is higher than it is in the south. quartzose schist. Splays lie between or towards south. chlorite laterally replaced by staurolite. Main boundary thrust ( MBT) has been marked between the samanasuk format of Jurassic age and Lockhart limestone of Paleocene age. The presence of master thrust towards south shows that it is a trailing imbricate fan. zircon. Aplitic body of feldspathic composition has also been recognized in area. Tanawal foramtioi consists mainly of guartzite. In Rumli area overturned stratigraphy can be observed due to the presence of reverse ad thrust faults. The age of formation is Cambrian.
The type section is located near the village of Kuldana (lat. We observed localize folding in gypsiferous beds.(1968). Murree Series of pilgrim (1910) have formally named Murree Formation by Stratigraphic Committee Of Pakistan. Murree Beds of Lydekker (1876). Fresh color of the formation is greenish grey to light.33’25’N .
. Murree formation is arenaceous and consists of medium grained Sandston. argillaceous bed and gypsum bed. Lower Charat Series of Eames (1952) and Mami khel Clay of Meissner et al. Kuldana Beds of Wynne(1874). While the weathered color is maroonish to brownish.
Geology Of Rumli Area
Murree Formation The Mari Group of Wynne(1874). A section expose to the north of the Dhok Maiki (lat.72’35’E) in Campbellpur district has been designed the type section. long. Moreover the repetitions of formations i. In this formation we found the joints and fractures. Marly and chalky type is also present.73’27’E) North of Murree Hill Station in the Hazara District.e. With the help of cross bedding. Its environment of deposition is shallow marine lacustrine. Its age is early Miocene.33’56’N. Murree format and Kuldana formation is because of splays in the vicinity of main boundary thrust(MBT). Kuldana formation has its upper contact with Murree Formation and it is disconformable. The name is derived from the Murree hills in the Rawalpindi district. we can map the top and bottom of the bed. interrelated with shale. Kuldana formation is composed of variegated beds i. Intrafomational folds and faults are the indicators of a thrust fault. It is highly shared due to tectonic activity and sometimes mixed with murree formation. Its contact with underlying Kuladana formation is disconformable. Traction of bedding shows the younger side while the parallelism shoes the older side. while its lower contact with Chorgali formation is normal.This intense tectonic activity can be observed by elongated and crushed nodules of margala hill limestone. long.e. Kuldana Series of Middlemiss (1896). We also found cross bedding in sandstone. Kuldana Formation: The term kuldana formation has been formally accepted by the stratigraphic committee of Pakistan following Latif(1970). variegated Shale of Pinfold(1918). It is basically of variable environment while the red shale in this environment is formed as a result of digenetic process due to the circulation of underground water.
We observed concentric fold. It is mainly composed of cream colored argillaceous limestone. Its upper contact is with Kuldana formation is normal and lower contact with Margala hill limestone is also normal. Its upper contact with Chorgali formation is conformable. Chorgali Formation: The term Chorgali beds of Pascoe(1920) has been formalized as chorgali formation by the stereographic committee of Pakistan. We also observed thinly bedded calcite veins nommulities and assilina fossils are observed. For the patala shale of Davies and Pinfold(1937) and its usage was extended to the other parts of the kohat-potwar and hazara areas. During the field of Rumli section we observed the kuldana formation two times. On the basis of foraminifera the age of formation is early Eocene. The name is derived from the margala hills in hazara. Patala Formation: The term patala formation was formalized by the stratigraphic committee of Pakistan. For nummulitic formation of Waagen and Wynne (1872) the upper part of the “hill stone “ of Wynne (1873) and cotter (1933) and the part of nummulitic series of Middlemiss (1896). Bhadrar beds of Gee and Evans(1937)in the salt range and Lora formation of Latif (1970) in the Hazara area. Margala hill limestone The term margala hill limestone of Latif (1970) has been formally accepted by stratigraphic committee of Pakistan.72’41’E) in the khiar-e-murat range. long. In locality it is nodular and nodularity is due to tectonic activity. The nodules of the formation were quite bigger. long 73’10’ E) of southeastern hazara is considered the type section of the formation.33’26’30’N. The Shahdara section (lat. The part of the numulitic formation
. Fresh color of the formation is grey.33’48N . It is fine to medium grained and medium to thick bedded and nodular. The section exposed in the chorgali pass (lat. Its environment of deposition is lagoonal super tidal and shallow marine.The formation is of Early to Early Middle Eocene in age. It mainly consist of lime stone with subordinate marl and shale. The formation is also represents the passage beds of Pinfold(1918) in the attack area . has been chosen the type section. The margala hill limestone was deposited in carbonate rich sequence. Weathered color of this formation is pale grey. The formation included the Takhabi shale of Eames (1952) and the part of hill limestone of wynne (1873) and cotter (1933). In concentric fold tensional joints were developed. The age of formation is early Eocene.
32’40’N.of Waagen and Wynne (1872) part of the nummulitic series of Middlemiss (1896) and the Kuzagali shale of Latif (1970). There are abundant foraminifers in limestone. A section exposed near fort Lockhart (lat. Dam is structure constructed for Water storage Community and commercial use Irrigation Flood control Diversion of river Silt and debris control
. This unit remarkably represent numulitic series of Middlemiss (1896). We observed the nummulities in this this formation. Its color is brownish grey. The environment of deposition of Lockhart formation is shallow marine and logoonal. Its environment of deposition is restricted to shallow marine. The formation mainly consists of shale mudstone. The color of limestone is grey to light grey.33’26’N. long 70’30’ E) in Samana range has been designated as type locality of the formation. The lower part of hill limestone of wynne (1873) and cotter(1933). marly materials. The Khairabad limestone of Eames (1952) and Mari limestone of Latif (1970).71’49’E) in the salt range has been designated as type section. Its upper contact is with margala hill limestone while its lower contact is with Lockhart formation. To similar units in the other parts of kohat-potwar and hazara areas.
Dam is check against the course of river to create a reservoir. It is mainly consist of nodular limestone. The section exposed in Patala nala (lat. Lockhart limestone Davies (1930) introduced the term Lockhart limestone for Paleocene limestone unit been extended stratigraphic committee of Pakistan. The age of this formation is Paleocene. On the basis of foraminifers late Paleocene age is assigned. long. The upper contact is with patala formation.
. Multi-purpose dam: A dam which is used for more than one purpose is known as multi-purpose dam. Classification on the basis of uses: Storage dams Diversion dams Detention dams
Classification on the basis of Hydraulic: Overflow dams Non-overflow dams
Classification on the basis of material: It is most commonly used classification. they hold back the water by shear force of their weight pushing downward. Arch Dam Arch dam are concrete or masonry structures that curve upstream into a reservoir stretching from one wall of a river canyon to the other side. Earth fill dams Rock fill dams Earth & rock fill dams Concrete dams
Concrete Dams: There are three types of concrete dams.e. Gravity dam Arch dam Buttress dam
Gravity dam: Gravity dams use only the force of gravity to resist water pressure i.Classification of dams
Uni-purpose dam: A dam which is used for only one purpose is called uni-purpose dam.
The vast majority of concrete that is reinforced with steel. to take the thrust of an arch dam where there is no suitable natural abutment. The earth utilized often contains a large percentage of large particles hence the term rock fill. Channel Section: The part of valley where water is flowing.Buttress dam: A buttress dam consists of a wall. Reservoir: The lake behind the dam is called reservoir of dam.
Parts Of dam
Abutment: The part of a valley side (wall) against which a dam is constructed. It has two types: Earth fill dams Rock fill dams Earth fill dams
Earth fill dams: Earth fill dams also called earthern. force supported by several buttress on the downstream side. Rims: The highest parts on the slopes of the valley. A homogenous rolled-earth dam is entirely constructed of one type of material but may contain a drain layer to collect seep water. An artificial abutment is sometimes constructed as a concrete gravity section.
. Right and Left abutment are those on respective sides of an observer looking downstream. rolled-earth or simply earth dams are constructed as a simple embankment of well compacted earth. Rock fill dams: Rock fill dams are embankment of compacted free draining granular earth with an impervious zone. Embankment Dams: Any dam constructed of excavated natural materials or industrial waste materials.
axis of dam: The horizontal center of a dam in the longitudinal direction. Minimum water level: The level below which we can’t draw water. it is less than crests. Cutoff: An impervious construction or material that reduces seep rate or prevents water from passing through foundation material. excluding any parapet wall railing etc.
.Crest of dam: The elevation of the upper most surface of a dam. in international usage it refers to the crown of an overflow section of dam. usually earth or rock placed with sloping sides and usually with a length greater than its height. Maximum water level: The level to which we allow the water to rise. Toe of dam: The junction of downstream face of a dam with ground surface. Heel of dam: The junction of the upstream face of a dam with ground surface. Rip Rap: Layer of stones broken rock or precast block placed in random fashion on the upstream slope of an embankment dam. Freeboard: The difference between crust level and maximum water level. Embankment: Artificial hill or ridge constructed of fill material. on a reservoir shore or on the sides of a channel as a protection against waves. Ice action and flowing water.
Significant other engineering and engineering geology considerations when building a dam include: permeability of the surrounding rock or soil earthquake faults landslides and slope stability water table peak flood flows reservoir silting environmental impacts on river fisheries. The sites are usually those where the gap becomes a minimum for the required storage capacity. the valley sides can then act as natural walls.Suitable Location
One of the best places for building a dam is a narrow part of a deep river valley. The most economical arrangement is often a composite structure such as a masonry dam flanked by earth embankments. The primary function of the dam's structure is to fill the gap in the natural reservoir line left by the stream channel. The current use of the land to be flooded should be dispensable. forests and wildlife (see also fish ladder) impacts on human habitations compensation for land being flooded as well as population resettlement removal of toxic materials and buildings from the proposed reservoir area
This can in return affect upstream and downstream navigation by altering the river's depth. Examples include London . the Itaipu Dam on the Paraná River in South America generates 14 GW and supplied 93% of the energy consumed by Paraguay and 20% of that consumed by Brazil as of 2005. often Stabilize for agricultural purposes and irrigation. For example. that can be dammed for power generation purposes. they are used to divert water to another drainage or reservoir to increase flow there and improve water use in that particular area. or other uses. power generation.
Many urban areas of the world are supplied with water abstracted from rivers pent up behind low dams or weirs.
Dams create deep reservoirs and can also vary the flow of water downstream. Others such as the Berg water flow / Strait dam can help to stabilize or restore the water levels of irrigation inland lakes and seas. Deeper water increases or creates freedom of movement for water vessels. Other major sources include deep upland reservoirs contained by high dams across deep valleys such as the Claerwen series of dams and reservoirs. Large dams can serve this purpose but most often weirs and locks are used.
.Dam creation purposes
Hydroelectric power is a major source of electricity in the world. Dams (often called dykes or levees in this context) are used to prevent ingress of water to an area that would otherwise be submerged. Flood prevention Land reclamation Dams such as the Blackwater dam of Webster. Many countries that have rivers with adequate water flow.with water from the River Thames and Chester with water taken from the River Dee. A typically small dam used to divert water for irrigation. in this case the Aral Sea.
Dams are often used to control and stabilize water flow. New Hampshire and the Delta Works are created with flood control in mind. Occasionally. with usually no other function. See: diversion dam. allowing its reclamation for human use.
Atkinson Company of South San Francisco. a consortium of 8 U. construction firms. Sutlej and Beas rivers. The project was designed and supervised by Binnie & Partners of London. part of disputed Kashmir under the control of Pakistan. Americans. Often the reservoir will be placid and beauty surrounded by greenery. sponsored by Guy F. Mangla Dam Contractors employed Pakistanis. It is the sixth largest dam in the world. British. and convey to visitors a natural sense of rest and relaxation. Canadians. in addition to waters of the above three rivers
.Dams built for any of the above purposes may find themselves displaced by time of their original uses. Nevertheless the local Recreation community may have come to enjoy the reservoir for recreational and aquatic and aesthetic reasons. India gained rights to the waters of the Ravi.
The Mangla Dam
The Mangla Dam is located on the Jhelum River in Mirpur District. and it was built by Mangla Dam Contractors. It was built from 1961 to 1967 with funding from the World Bank.S. Germans. while Pakistan.
As part of the Indus Waters Treaty signed in 1960. and Irish.
the Pakistani government has decided to raise the dam by 40 feet (12 m). 5 power-cum-irrigation tunnels and a 1. As a consequence. sedimentation has occurred to the extent of 1. The live capacity has declined to 4. The main dam is 10. The main structures of the dam include 4 embankment dams. The agricultural yield was very low for a number of reasons. the entire irrigation system of Pakistan was fully dependent on unregulated flows of the Indus and its major tributaries.13 million acre feet (1. Until 1967.
The Mangla Dam project
The Mangla Dam was constructed in 1967 across the Jhelum River. Chenab and Indus river basins through construction of the Indus Basin Project.39 km).25 km). The power station of Mangla dam consists of 10 units each having capacity of 100 MW.65 km) from 5. The Mangla Dam was the first development project undertaken to reduce this shortcoming and strengthen the irrigation system. and the present gross storage capacity has declined to 4. This implies a reduction of 19. This problem stemmed from the seasonal variations in the river flow due to monsoons and the absence of storage reservoirs to conserve the vast amounts of surplus water during those periods of high river discharge. 2 spillways. Islamabad in Mirpur District of Azad Kashmir.75 million acre feet (5. the hydro project was temporarily out of service.58 million acre feet (5.
.88 million acre feet (7.86 km) from the actual design of 5. the most important being a lack of water during critical growing periods. about 67 miles (100 km) southeast of the Pakistani capital. received the rights to develop the Jhelum. The dam was damaged due to an Indian Air Force raid during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.34 million acre feet (6. to 494 feet (151 m) high. This will increase the reservoir capacity by 18% and provide an additional 644 MWh of power. Since its first impounding in 1967.59 km).300 feet (3140 m) long and 454 feet (138 m) high (above core trench) with a reservoir of 97.within Pakistan and some monetary compensation.000 MW power station.7 square miles (253 km). Pakistan. In order to remedy the storage capacity decreases. but will displace 40.22% in the capacity of the dam.000 people currently living near the reservoir.
Over 280 villages and the towns of Mirpur and Dadyal were submerged and over 110. although some benefit in this respect also arises from its use for irrigation and water supply. in many cities in the UK the majority of the 'Pakistani' community actually originated from the Dadyal-Mirpur area of the disputed region of Jammu & Kashmir. and as a result. 67 miles (100 km) south-east of the Pakistani capital.000 people were displaced from the area as a result of the dam being built. Some of those affected by the dam were given work permits for Britain by the Government of Pakistan.The project was designed primarily to increase the amount of water that could be used for irrigation from the flow of the Jhelum and its tributaries. Mangla Dam is approx. Islamabad while
. The Government of Pakistan had agreed to pay royalties to the Government of AJK (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) for the use of the water and electricity generated by the dam. The project was not designed as a flood control structure. Its secondary function was to generate electrical power from the irrigation releases at the artificial head of the reservoir.
Tarbela Dam is 60 miles (100 km) northwest. On completion of the project in 2007 the average annual water availability for irrigation releases would increase by 2.13 MAF.
. Unless measures were taken in time. The raising project will also generate construction activity and employment opportunities at large scale. WAPDA inked a Rs. this mega project would have become a dead dam in years to come. two spillways are provided. The average annual energy output is estimated to increase by about 12 percent of the present energy production.2004 with CWE JV led by a Chinese Company China International Water and Electric Corporation for the construction of main works of Mangla Dam Raising Project in the stipulated period of 39 months ending September 19. Raising of the Mangla Dam will help into regain the reservoir capacity lost to sediment deposition and make provision for future sedimentation. Construction of an 18 kilometers long Mirpur bypass Road is also included in the contract. Interconstruct Gammon Pakistan and Sachal Engineering Works. The live capacity has declined to 4. and the present gross storage capacity has declined to 4. Main features of the project include four earth dams with a maximum height of 454 ft.88 million acre feet (3. Availability of additional water and hydro power will further enhance these positive impacts.58 MAF from 5. sedimentation has occurred to the extent of 1. This implies a reduction of 19.75 MAF from the actual design of 5.13. The local contractors in CWE JV include Descon Engineering.
Mangla Dam Raising
Since its first impounding in 1967. The major components of the Mangla Dam raising works comprise raising of the dams and main spillway head works besides constructing a control weir upstream of the emergency spillway.2007. job opportunities and improved standard of living. For flood routing. The dam has already contributed significantly towards improvement of the environment in terms of agriculture growth.88 MAF.34 MAF.793 billion contract on June 28. The power generating facilities of the original dam were designed for raised Mangla conditions. the government of Pakistan decided in 2004 to go ahead with its raising project. (154 meters) and total length of about 13 kilometers.22% in the capacity of the dam.550 MCM). Since the design feature of the dam includes its raising to an additional 30 feet.
1266 ft. (379 m)
1234 ft. (376. Aplite Dykes Aplite dykes are commonly found in granitic bodies.7 m) 1040 ft.
. Dolerite Dyke: Dolerite Dyke found in susalgali Granite Gneiss are intrusive basic rocks of plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene. (147. These are commonly found in granitic bodies. (378. Crest elevation 1243 ft.132 MCM) in year 2007 2007
Crest Elevation of Erodible 1216 ft (initial 1208 ft) Bund
Replaced by Concrete Control Weir. (366. Nature has blessed Pakistan with enormous geological and mineral resources. (138. (386 m) 484 ft.1 m)
4.5m) 1040 ft.1 m) Projected 1242 ft. (317. These dolerite dykes are being used as dimension stones because of their good strength and very good polish value.553 MCM) in year 7. Geological and mineral resources play their role in the economy of country.6 m)
Main and Intake Embankment 454 ft. These are light colored equigranular bodies formed from residual melt rich in quartz and alkali feldspars. Some are discussed below.4 MAF (9.Salient Aspect of Raising Project
Feature Reservoir Minimum Operation Level Gross Storage Capacity Present 1202 ft.5 MAF (5. (317.5 m) Height
Natural resources present in a country reflects economic and prosperity of that country. These alkali feldspars are used for making ceramics. Our concerned area is also rich in mineral resources.
These shales are rich in hydrocarbon compounds.
. Murree Sandstone: Murree sandstone has good engineering properties as it has been used as rip rap in Tarbela dam. Alkali feldspars are also used for radiometric dating. In Rumli areas. The gypsum in kuldana formation indicate tidal environment while the red share is older
result of digenetic process due to the circulation of groundwater. Foundation of mangla dam is placed on sandstone bed of dhok pathan formation. Zircon. Tourmaline.
The basic purpose of Mangla Dam is irrigation. Granite may condition upto $ppm Uranium. the rock represent the overturned limb of overturned fold. The grade of metamorphism of Tanol formation increases northward. Chorgali formation in rumble area has no fossils indicating lagoonal conditions of deposition. Plagioclase Feldspar: Plagioclase feldspars having albite is most common raw material for ceramics and geopolymers. And some other trace minerals are present in susalgali area.
Susalgali granite gneiss is metamorphosed from mansehra granite and is member of group granites. Trace minerals: Apatite. Patala Shale: Patala shale is one of the formations in Pakistan known as petroleum source rock. Rock units in this area are intensely sheared due to tectonic activity.These are also used in geochronology and thermo-chronology.
Now dams should be constructed on the plane to remove the silt periodically through the turbulence tunnels.
. Urbanization is continuously reducing the geologically important sites. Same is the case in Rumli area.made activities are constantly replacing the older features. So there should be a check on urbanization.RECOMMENDATION
Older top sheets should be regularly updated because natural and man.