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ABSTRACT There are several type of techniques for generating electricity from the ocean w aves. The most common method is the shore based oscillating water column because of its efficiency, ease of maintainability, durability etc. But it has some dra wbac s. a) Installation of the system is highly depended to the nature of the si te i.e. the nature of the shore. b) When the waves reached to the low depth cost al regions, the power in the waves is loses considerably etc. These limitations, demands the more exploration and research in the offshore waves for the generat ion of energy. Now many countries in the world seriously loo ing for to develop such technologies that can ma e significant improvements in this area. Here, we can find two new methods for generate energy from waves.1). Floating wave energy extractor :-€ A new technique for the maximum extraction energy from offshore wav es. 2). Near onshore based wave energy extractor :- It is also an efficient, dur able and cost effective method.€€ INTRODUCTION: The project has two goals. One is to verify that the basic technology for a new wave power concept is successful. The concept is based on a linear generator sta nding on a foundation on the seabed, and that will be tested under realistic, na tural conditions. Another aim is to evaluate alternative solutions. This means, e.g. testing several buoys varying in material, size and design. The project wil l also develop generators when nowledge and experience grows. The connected gen erators will be studied as a unified system for electricity production. The project has permission to use a maximum of 10 generators. Every generator wi





ll have an installed capacity of 10 W. The complete installation of 10 units (1 00 W) will, once it is fully operational, produce about 300,000 Wh per year. T his amount of electricity is the equivalent of the yearly consumption of about 2 0 households. Another, and equally important goal of the study is to gain nowledge of the eff ects of this new type of wave power plant (smaller and larger ones) on the local environment. This implies e.g. commercial and leisure fishing, effects on birds and other marine species and effects on other marine biological systems. Choice of location and coordinates The project area is relatively close to land, as this simplifies access and redu ces costs. Even the average depth (25m) was a factor in the choice of the locati on, as well as the actual bottom substrate, which is a flat sandy seabed. The de pth ma es diving relatively easy and diving will be required on a regular basis. Smaller areas close to the project location that are of a similar nature will be used as control areas, which is important for the biological studies. A full-scale commercial installation, however, would probably be located further offshore and in deeper, completely open water away from islands and s erries. p ressure air moves through the turbine, it rotate and the generator coupled to th e turbine generate electricity. Also, the arrangement of the oscillating water c olumns (shape of the system) provides a wave amplification effect and so it can utilize the maximum wave energy. WORKING: When the wave advance to the direction of the system, it firstly enters to th e first oscillating water column and then to the second column and third column etc. As the wave enters to the first oscillating column, it exert high up-ward t hrust on the column. Now the supporting stands holds the system and provide the counter force. Then, when the wave enters to the second oscillating column, it e xert high upward thrust on it. But, now the water that filled in the first colum n moves down ward because of the gravity and exert an equal down ward pull on th e first column.€ Also, when the wave enters to the third oscillating water column, the down-ward pull on the second column and up-ward thrust on the third columns cancels each other and so on. I.e. when the waves are passing through the syste m, the upward and down ward forces exerted on the adjacent oscillating columns c ancels each other and so, for every cycle of waves, when the wave enters to two adjacent columns, there are no any significant role for the supporting stands. A s the high pressure air moves through the turbine, it rotate and the generator c oupled to the turbine generate electricity. Also, the arrangement of the oscilla ting water columns (shape of the system) provides a wave amplification effect an d so it can utilize the maximum wave energy. Technical Bac ground : Research into wave power and wave power systems has been performed for decades. There have been several proposals on how to convert the energy in the ocean's wa ves into electricity and several research installations have been built all over the world. So far, none have been commercially viable. The main reason has been that all experiments used complicated mechanics and standard generators that ar e optimised for speeds up to 100 times higher than those generated by ocean wave s. A wave rolls 10-15 times per minute. However, a standard generator typically spins 1500 rotations per minute (rpm). The result has been bul y and expensive installations; often placed in or close to the water surface and including gearboxes as well as other complex and vulner able sub-systems. Because of their size and emplacement, they cannot cope with t he harsh north-Atlantic wave climate they are intended for. No serious endeavours have been made on wave power plants for the considerably m ilder, but steadier wave climate in the Baltic Sea . Since the 1980ies, the wave energy of these waters has been considered to be too small for the types of sys









tems tested so far. However, through a thorough analysis of the physical prerequisites and through a pplying material science and other relevant advances in the construction, a new system concept for wave power has been developed. The new concept is environment ally friendly and commercially interesting in a manner that is very different fr om five or ten years ago. The wave power concept being tested in the project differs in many ways from ear lier attempts. Instead of adjusting rotating standard generators to rolling wave s, a totally new type of generator has been developed at Uppsala University , wh ich is specially designed for "standard" waves. PRINCIPLE: The concept is based on a generator situated on the seabed. The other components are a rope that couples the generator to a buoy on the surface. The rotor exist s of a piston that moves up and down in the stator. Therefore, the rotor does no t spin, but is driven directly via the rope by the buoy motion on the surface. T his results in a host of system advantages. A generator placed on the seabed is protected from harsh weather. Should a buoy brea adrift, it should float to lan d. This, together with the rope, would only constitute a minor cost. This new direct-driven linear generator with a uniquely low pole width means tha t electrical power can be generated even with the low velocity of ocean waves. I t also entails that the power supply can be connected to the main grid on land b y standard transmission. Moreover, this type of generator allows for very simple device mechanics (buoy and rope). These can also cope with high loads in a cost effective way. Computer simulations indicate that this solution can compete commercially with e stablished methods of producing electrical energy, without long-term subsidies. This is an important prerequisite, because renewable energy should be able to co ntribute to the energy supply without negative socio-economic consequences. What is more, the technology is expected to have little or limited effect on the environment. Wave power does not produce any emissions, will not be visible fro m land and may protect the marine environment. The solution contains only well nown materials. It is not dependent on shallow ban s and will contribute to fulf illing at least 5 of the 15 environmental goals that the Swedish Parliament appr oved: * Limited environmental effects (emission of greenhouse gases) * Fresh air * Only natural acidification * Protecting ozone layer * Safe radiation environment Besides, wave power plants may protect and even improve the marine environment w here they are located, as well as limit over-fishing. In this way, they fulfil 2 more environmental goals: * Ocean in balance * Living coast and archipelago The new technology is expected to have a substantial commercial potential and in case of industrialisation, to create about 3000 jobs. For that reason, cost ana lyses will be made in parallel with the other project studies. The various alter natives will be assessed against each other and costs and maintenance needs can be weighed against e.g. environmental costs SYSTEM Guidance PROJET Nautical chart of the project site, which lies in the municipality of Lyse il an d directly west of Islandsberg (2 m). The dashed area in the northwest indicate s the flat sandy seabed area that was considered suitable. The dots give a preli minary plan of how the buoys will be deployed. The yellow dot furthest west is t he measuring buoy, (shown as *).






Components: From a biological point of view, fouling can only be a good thing. It leads to a n increased local biodiversity, which in later stages might lead to an influx of small animals, e.g. smaller crawfish, which in its turn would attract predators and in the end would result in more fish in the area. Several of the concrete f oundations for both generators and buoys will be cast in special designs that co uld be beneficial to certain organisms li e crabs and lobsters. Finally, sound generation and changes in sedimentation motions and water motions will be examined, as these factors may have indirect effect on the local enviro nmental situation . Some attractiveness of the technology: a) The floating power plant system is designed for offshore. Since the power in the offshore waves are greater than low depth onshore waves, it can deliver cons iderable greater energy. b) The system can install anywhere there is sufficient waves are present because of it is independed to the nature of the site. c) It probably will not case any impact on the nature. d) The system can construct in an onshore factory and easily transport to the id eal sites with the a simple pulling boat. e) Whole of the metallic- corrosive parts of the system li e turbine, pistons et c are completely separated from the direct contact of the sea water. f) Any tidal rising of water or any other means of rising of the sea level will not affect the system because of it just floats on the sea surface Project Publications > Studying Buoy Motion for Wave Power , > "Wave energy conversion and the marine environment: Colonization patterns and habitat dynamics > , "Wave energy converter with enhanced amplitude response at frequencies coinc iding with Swedish west coast sea states by use of a supplementary submerged bod y", > "Development of Invertebrate > Assemblages and Fish on Offshore Wave Power", Unique features of the technology:-€ Since the cancellation of upward and downward forces of the waves are canceled b y the adjacent water columns, there is no need for the huge mass to the oscillat ing columns li e ordinary oscillating water columns. The only requirements are g ood materials and the interconnections between the oscillating water columns.€ Marine Ecology and Environmental Questions: All energy systems have an effect on the environment. This is valid even for ene rgy generation from renewable sources. In these cases, it is especially the loca l environment that is affected. The effect is double-sided, as the installations on the one hand have an effect on animals and nature to a greater or lesser ext ent. On the other hand, the installation itself is affected by and has to be ada pted to the local conditions. Hydropower is one example of renewable energy production confronted with this pr oblem. The dams and level control affect chiefly waterborne animals, salmon bein g the classical example. Even wind power can have various negative effects, e.g. when some bird species suffer fiercely in certain areas. Wave power is largely untested as a source of energy production. It is therefore important to learn at an early stage about the possible negative effects of wav e power plants on marine organisms and ma e adjustments accordingly. This is why the research installation consists of 30 extra buoys (only anchored to buoy fou ndations), besides the 10 with generators. Thus, potential area effects, which are connected to large wave power projects, are simulated better. Indications of negative effects and their causes can be ad dressed at an early stage and lessons can be learnt about how possible problems can be avoided. Wave power projects, unli e sea-based wind power plants are not dependent on bio





logically sensitive seabed ban s for their location. Nevertheless, they can be e xpected to have a local effect, especially on smaller seabed based organisms. Bi gger wave power plants may also have effects on fish, marine mammals li e seals and, in Swedish waters, on porpoises. In other seas, other species, li e whales, should be studied in more detail. Acceptance and General Questions The general public's attitude to wave power is an important matter. Big-scale ec o-friendly energy production requires the use of large areas in a way that limit s other activities or ma es them altogether impossible (thin of hydropower or w ind power). This goes for big-scale wave power plants as well. However, the most suitable location for commercial wave power plants is further offshore and will therefore not spoil the view from the coast, e.g. wide, open horizons. A buoy s tic s out at most one meter above the surface and is consequently only visible a t close range. Commercial shipping is not possible through a wave power plant, w hich is why they will not be located close to fairways etc. Smaller leisure boat s will probably be able to navigate through a wave power area and there should b e no objections to leisure fishing activities. Commercial fishing with trawl nets and dragnets will be impossible though. Fishi ng interests should therefore be weighed carefully against energy generation int erests. One argument could be that wave power areas could become "marine nature reserves". This would have side effects that in the long run would favour fishin g in the surrounding areas. This phenomenon has been observed in other waters. Biological/ecological sub-projects will, among others, consist of: * Effects on the seabed fauna, mainly marine invertebrates * Effects on fish living on the seabed (benthic) as well as on pelagic fish (liv ing in the open water) * Effects on seabirds * Effects on marine mammals (maybe the local harbour seal can be used as an indi cation) What is the current wave climate? The wave measurement buoy that was installed during the spring of 2004 continual ly measures the waves that enter the research site at Islandsberg. From the gath ered information on wave height and length, one can calculate something that may be thought of as a mean wave height, through a so called spectral analysis. Thi s is called the significant wave height. The significant wave height is not only important for the nowledge of how large the waves are that fall in towards the coast, but it is also needed for the calculations of the amount of power flux t hat enters the research area, and for calculations on the amount energy that is carried by the waves. ADVANTAGES: > More easy generation than ocean bases renewable energy systems. No corrosive parts involved in power generation& constructed with composite co nstruction & high strength. > Generation efficiency is good as thermal. > In extreme waves it automatically ceases operation & assumes a safe position b y lying flat on ocean bed. > It is non-fishing threaten power generation that is less prone to damage from adverse ocean conditions. Difficulties: a) Violent cyclonic wind and there by the giant waves may cause stability proble ms. b) Perfect anchoring of the system€ c) Depth of the sea.€€ Scope for future: > This method is the best method to replace coal based power plants in future. > The 250KW project is being carried out in Kings Island, Tasmania which is sche duled to operate by may 2030 > So, let us hope that technology will be available in few years > Waves generates about 2700GW of power of that only 500GW can be used with cur rent technology this can be expanded in future.








Conclusion > This method of power generation underwater plant mimic ing method can over com e power problems. > As, this method do not have pollutants it is eco friendly in nature. REFERENCES 1. M.Eri sson, R.Waters, O.Svensson, J.Isberg and M.Leijon JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 102,084910 (2007) Abstract | Full Text: | PDF€(674 B 2. Renewable Energy Volume 28, Issue 8, July 2003, Pages 1201-1209 Mats Leijon, Hans Bernhoff, Marcus Berg, Olov Ågren 3 . Waters, O. Danielsson and M. Leijon ", J. Appl. Phys. 101, 024518 (2007), Full Text




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