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**C_Energy_Momentum Practice 2008
**

____ 1. A 100-kg block slides down a frictionless ramp and loses 10 meters of elevation in the process. What is the kinetic

energy change of the block? A) 100 J B) -1,000 J

C) 1,000 J

D) -10,000 J

E) 10,000 J

____

2. A 60-kg skier skies from rest down a 20 m long slope that is at a 30o angle with the horizontal. What is the potential

energy change of the skier? A) -600J B) -3000 J

C) 3000 J

D) -6000 J

E) 12,000 J

____

3. A 60-kg skier skies from rest down a 20 m long slope that is at a 30o angle with the horizontal. At the bottom of the A) 0

slope, she is moving at 10 m/s. How much work did friction do on the skier? B) -3000 J C) 3000 J D) -6000 J

E) 6,000 J

vo

m

h

____

4. For a block of mass m to slide without friction up the rise of height h as shown above, it must have a minimum initial

speed vo of

1 2

A)

gh

B)

gh 2

C)

2gh

D)

2gmh

E)

gmh 2

____

5. A man holds a 10-kg weight at arm’s length for 1 minute. His arm is 1.5 m above the ground. The work done by the man

on the weight while he is holding the weight still is: A) 0 B) 150 J C) 100 J

D) 600 J

E) 6000 J

15 m 30o

____

6. A giant man pulls a 20-kg crate from the bottom to the top of a frictionless 30o slope that is 15 m high as shown above. A) 3000 J B) 1500 J C) -3000 J

Assuming the crate moves up the ramp at constant speed, the work done by gravity is: D) -1500 J E) Gravity does no work; the man does it all.

____

7. A spring hangs next to meter stick. When a 100-N weight is attached to the end of the spring, it hangs down to the 40 cm

mark on the meter stick. When a 200-N weight is attached, it hangs down to the 60 cm mark. When an unknown weight X is attached, it hangs down to the 30 cm mark. How much does X weigh? A) 10 N B) 20 N C) 30 N D) 40 N E) 50 N

1

E) (4i + 36j) J ____ 11. The work by done by an external force opposing this restoring force in stretching this rubber band from x = 0 to x = L is: A) aL 2 + bLx 3 B) aL + bL 2 v2 C) a + 2bL D) 2bL v v E) aL 2 bL 3 + 2 3 v W I II W2 III W IV W ____ 9.0-kg particle has a velocity in m/s of 4i – 3j.000 W. F. D) –40 J. E) 60. its velocity in m/s is 2i + 3j. and the particle speed. v? B) II C) I and III D) II and III E) I and IV ____ 10. where a and b are constants. 5 m above. does work W on a particle. When a certain rubber band is stretched a distance x. What force must be applied to the rope on the left A) mg/4 to lift the load? Assume there are no resistive forces.0 J. A single constant force. this time the net work done on the particle was B) –4. it exerts a restoring force F = -(ax + bx2). B) mg /3 C) mg /2 D) 2 mg E) 4 mg ____ 12. C) 1000 W. and that the pulleys themselves have no mass. The load being lifted by the pulley system shown above has a mass m. At time t = 0. Which of the five graphs above correctly show the A) I relationship between the work done. Three seconds later.0 J. An escalator is used to move 20 people (60 kg each) per minute from the first floor of a department store to the second floor.____ 8. W. D) 2000 W. 2 . The minimum power required to accomplish this is approximately A) 100 W. B) 200 W. During A) 4. a 2. C) –12 J. initially at rest.

II. II. doing the same work each time. Which of the forces described above are conservative? A) Force I C) Force III B) Force II D) Forces I. Force I moves the body and returns it to its original position. 2 6 C) −mg + kx . E) No relationship exists between force and potential energy. ˜ B) 2g Ê h 1 − h 2 ˆ . The potential energy function of a body of mass m is given by U(x) = –mgx + ½ kx2. Force III moves the body from A to B and changes the potential energy of the system in the process. ˜ Ë ¯ ____ 14. B) D) mg − kx . The force acting on the body at position x is A) −mgx 2 kx 3 + . and II act upon a body such that the body moves. its speed is A) 2g h1 − h2 . A block at point P is released from rest at height h1 and slides along the frictionless track shown above. ____ 17. the distance it has traveled along the plane is A) L 4 Ê Á B) L Á Á Ë ˆ ˜ 2 − 1˜ ˜ ¯ C) L 2 D) L 2 E) 3L 4 Force I. The effect in terms of work performed and/or potential energy change are described below.P Q h1 h2 ____ 13. At point Q. A block starting from rest slides down a frictionless inclined plane of length L. C) D) Êh − h ˆ Á 1 ˜ 2¯ Ë 2g . when acting alone. will result in a change in total amount of mechanical energy possessed by the body upon which they act? A) Force I C) Force III B) Force II D) Forces I and II E) None of the Forces 3 . Force II moves the body from A to B via several different paths. Which of the forces described above. ____ 16. When the block has attained one-half of its final speed. 2 6 mgx 2 kx 3 − . doing no net work in the process. Á Ë ¯ Á 2g Ê h 1 − h 2 ˆ . and III E) None of the Forces. which is at height h2. ____ 15. E) Êh − h ˆ 2 Á 1 ˜ 2¯ Ë 2g .

E) is rearward of original position and not moving. U U U x A) U C) U x E) x x B) D) x ____ 20. This is an example of A) stable equilibrium. If at a given point x on the potential energy curve dU/dx = 0 and d2U/dx2 = 0. E) none of the above. D) all of the above. Q A) has more mass than P. C) neutral equilibrium. B) unstable equilibrium.0 k) N acts on a particle.0 k) m. B) is moving faster than P. but Q has more kinetic energy than P. D) disequilibrium. ____ 23. How much work does the force do on the particle? C) -3 J D) 3 J E) 6 J ____ 22.____ 18. Which of the following potential energy (U) versus displacement (x) graphs best represents the cone balanced on its point shown above? Consider the midpoint of x (x=0) to be the point at which the cone is perfectly balanced. have the same momentum. D) is rearward of original position and moving backward. A cone is balanced on its point as shown in the figure above. A force of (5. 4 . the canoe A) is forward of original position and moving forward. Consider U to be potential energy and x to be position on the x-axis.5 j + 2. B) unstable equilibrium. the particle undergoes a A) (2i + j + 6k) J B) (2i + j . B) is forward of original position and moving backward.3.0 j . ____ 19. D) is moving slower than P. Two objects. Therefore. C) neutral equilibrium. then x represents a point of A) stable equilibrium. ____ 21. Afterwards. A man sits in the back of a canoe in still water. C) has the same mass as P. and positive and negative values of x to be where the cone is tipped to one side or the other. P and Q.0 i + 2.6k) J displacement of (0. C) is rearward of original position and moving forward. E) none of the above. During the time the force acts upon it.4 i + 0. He then moves to the front of the canoe and sits down there. E) is moving the same speed as P.

C) –25 and 50. After the collision the velocities (in m/s) of A and B. A 10 kg rock traveling at 20 i m/s is subjected to an impulsive force shown in the graph above. are A) –50 and 25. Blocks A and B are moving toward each other along the x-axis. It fires a bullet of mass m and velocity v (relative to the ground).0 kg and a velocity of 50 m/s (in the positive x direction). D) 25 and –50.____ 24. A golf ball of mass m is hit by a golf club so that the ball leaves the tee with speed v. directed in the –i direction. The club is in contact with the ball for time T. A rifle of mass M is initially at rest but free to recoil.0 kg and a velocity of –25 m/s (in the negative x direction). A has a mass of 2. the velocity of the rifle (relative to the ground) is: A) −mv B) −Mv m C) −mv M D) −v E) mv M F (x 104) 10 8 6 4 2 1 2 3 4 5 t (x 10-2) ____ 25. The average force of the club on the ball during the time T is: A) mvT B) mv T C) mv 2 T 2 D) mv 2 2T E) mT 2 2v ____ 28. After firing. A rifle of mass M is initially at rest but free to recoil. respectively. After firing. B) total mass is not conserved but momentum is. E) -25 and -50 B) 50 and –25. C) neither kinetic energy nor momentum is conserved. 5 . They suffer an elastic collision and move off along the x-axis. What is the resulting velocity of the rock? A) -60 i B) 60 i C) -100 i D) -140 i E) 180 i ____ 27. D) momentum is conserved but kinetic energy is not. An inelastic collision is one in which A) momentum is not conserved but kinetic energy is. It fires a bullet of mass m and velocity v (relative to the ground). ____ 29. E) the total impulse is equal to the change in kinetic energy. the velocity of the rifle (relative to the ground) is: A) −mv B) −Mv m C) −mv M D) −v E) mv M ____ 26. while B has a mass of 4.

The following graphs. Which graph represents the force that will cause the greatest change in the kinetic energy of the object from x = 0 to x = x1? F F F A) 0 F x1 x C) 0 F x1 x E) 0 x1 x B) 0 x1 x D) 0 x1 x ____ 32. momentum p. all drawn to the same scale.m1) v C) ½ (m1 + m2) v D) ½ (m2 – m1) v E) m2 v ____ 34. the potential energy of the pulley system illustrated above has decreased by A) (m2 – m1) g h B) m2 g h C) (m1 + m2) g h D) ½ (m1 + m2) g h 6 E) 0 . When the speed of each object is attached to the pulley above is v. When the object of mass m2 has descended a distance h. it is necessary to C) double p E) none of the above D) double m m2 m1 ____ 33.____ 30. and kinetic energy K. It ejects a particle of mass m with speed v0. represent the net force F as a function of displacement x for an object that moves along a straight line. An unstable nucleus has mass M and is initially at rest. A projectile of mass m is shot straight into the air with speed v. It reaches a A) double v B) double K maximum height of h. In order for the projectile to obtain a maximum height of exactly height 2h. The remaining nucleus recoils in the opposite direction with a speed A) v o B) mv 0 M C) mv 0 (M + m) D) (M + m)v 0 m E) mv 0 (M − m) ____ 31. the magnitude of the total linear momentum of the system is A) (m1 + m2) v B) (m2 .

0 m/s E) 3. moving with equal speeds vo along paths inclined at 60o to the x-axis as shown above. The center of mass of a uniform wire. bent in the shape shown above. The speed of the center of mass of the system is a.0 m/s C) 0 D) 2. (1 . Two particles of equal mass mo. Their velocity after the collision has magnitude A) 1 4 vo. (1 + M2 /M1) v e.mo 60o y vo x 60 mo o vo ____ 35. D) 3 2 vo.0-kilogram brick is dropped straight down on a 4.0-kilogram cart moving horizontally at 5. (M1/M2) v d. is located closest to point A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E ____ 37.0 m/s 7 . A 6. C) 2 2 vo. (1 + M1/M2) v c. L A B C D E L ____ 36. collide and stick together. E) v o . Mass M1 is moving with speed v toward stationary mass M2.0 meters/second. (M1 / (M1 + M2 ) ) v ÊM ˆ Á 1˜ Á ˜ ˜ Á A) Á Á M ˜v Á 2˜ ˜ Á ˜ Ë ¯ Ê Á M1 Á Á B) Á 1 + Á Á M2 Á Ë ˆ ˜ ˜ ˜v ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ¯ Ê Á Á Á1 + Á Á Á Á Ë Ê Á Á Á D) Á 1 − Á Á Á Ë C) ˆ ˜ ˜ ˜v ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ¯ ˜ M1 ˆ ˜ ˜ ˜v ˜ M2 ˜ ˜ ¯ M2 M1 E) Ê M ˆ Á ˜ Á ˜ 1 Á ˜ Á ˜ Á Á M1 + M2 ˜v ˜ Á ˜ Ë ¯ ____ 38.0 m/s the change in velocity of the cart? B) -2. B) 1 2 vo. What is A) -3.M1/M2) v b.

where c is a constants and t A) 3ct12 is time. A particle of mass m moves along a straight path with speed v defined by the function v = ct3. which of the following statements about the center of mass of the student-skateboard system are true? I. III. As the student walks toward the front of the skateboard. The position of the center of mass is unchanged. An air track car with mass m and velocity v to the right collides elastically with a second air track car with mass 2m and initial velocity zero. What is the velocity of the 2m car after the collision? A) B) 2 3 v to the right 1 2 C) 1 2 v to the right E) 1 3 v to the right v to the right D) v to the right ____ 41. a 4-kg particle has a velocity in m/s of 4i – 3j. A student stands on the back end of a giant skateboard that is initially at rest.____ 39. At t = 3 its velocity in m/s is 2i + 3j. At time t = 0. The momentum of the center of mass is unchanged. Assume the frictional forces in the wheels of the skateboard can be ignored. During this time the work done on it was: A) 8 J B) –8 J C) –24 J D) –80 J E) 8i + 72j J ____ 42. What is the magnitude F of the net force on the particle at time t = t1? B) 3mct12 C) mct12 D) mct14 E) ¼ mct14 + vo 8 . A) none C) III only E) all B) I only D) II and III only ____ 40. II. The velocity of the center of mass is unchanged.

ANS: A His force is directed up. ANS: E ∆K = −∆U = −(U f − U i ) = −(0 − mgh) = mgh = (100)(10)(10) = 10.000J PTS: 1 2. ANS: C W g = −∆U g = −(U f − U i ) = −(mgh − 0) = −(20)(10)(15) = −3000J PTS: 1 1 . ANS: B W nc = ∆K + ∆U = K f − K i + U f − U i = 1 1 2 mv 2f − 0 + 0 − mgh = 2 (60)(10) 2 − (60)(10)(20sin30) = 3000 − 6000 = −3000J PTS: 1 4. but the block is not moving up or down. PTS: 1 6. ANS: C ∆K = −∆U K f − K i = −(U f − U i ) (0 − 2 mv 2 ) = −(mgh − 0) o 1 2 1 mv 2 = mgh o 2gh vo = PTS: 1 5.ID: A C_Energy_Momentum Practice 2008 Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: D ∆U = U f − U i = 0 − mgh = −(60)(10)(20sin 30) = −(60)(10)(10) = −6000J PTS: 1 3. so no work.

since we are asking about the applied force exerted on the rubber band -. PTS: 1 12.3rd Law! PTS: 1 9. and quadratically with v. PTS: 1 10. The string is pulled four times further than the load is lifted. ANS: E W net = ∆K = 1 2 mv 2 − 0 The net work varies linearly with v2. Increasing the distance by a factor of four reduces the force by a factor of four. ANS: E F = k∆x 100N = k(40 − x o ) 200N = k(60 − x 0 ). ANS: C 1 1 W net = ∆K = K f − K i = 2 mv 2f − 2 mv 2 = i 1 2 m(v 2f − v 2 ) i v 2 = 4 2 + (−3) 2 = 16 + 9 = 25m2 / s 2 i v 2f = 2 2 + (3) 2 = 4 + 9 = 13m2 / s 2 W net = 2 (2)(13 − 25) = −12J PTS: 1 11. ANS: E W applied = ∫ L 0 F(x)dx = ∫ L 0 ˙ Ê 2 ˆ˘L 2 3 Á ax Á ˜˙ bx 3 ˜ ˙ Á ˜ ˙ = aL + bL Á ˜˙ (ax + bx )dx = Á + ˜˙ Á 2 3 ˜˙ 2 3 Á ˜˙ ˙ Ë ¯˙ ˚0 2 Note that the force is the opposite of the given restoring force. we get k = 5N / m X = (5)(30 − 20) = 5(10) = 50N PTS: 1 8. ANS: A Four strings attached to the load must be shortened. ANS: C 1 È ˘ Í ˙ W mgh (20) Í (60)(10)(5) ˙ Î ˚ P= = = = 1000W t t 60 PTS: 1 2 . dividing the top equation by the bottom gives: 1 40 − x 0 = which can be used to show that 2 60 − x 0 By substitution of xo = 20cm into one of the equations above.ID: A 7.

PTS: 1 17. ANS: E All are conservative. ANS: A If it goes all the way down. ANS: D ∆K = −∆U 1 2 mv 2f − 0 = −mg(h 2 − h 1 ) 2g(h 1 − h 2 ) vf = PTS: 1 14. This is characteristic of unstable equilibium. PTS: 1 18. ANS: C The first and second derivatives are both zero. Only non-conservative forces change mechanical energy by increasing or reducing the sum of potential plus kinetic energy. ANS: A Unstable equilibrium is a maximum potential energy situation. PTS: 1 20. this speed is attained when 1/4 of the height has been lost. PTS: 1 3 . 1 2 v= 1 2 2gh = 2g PTS: 1 16. ANS: D d(−mgx + 2 kx 2 ) dU Fx = − =− = −(−mg + kx) = mg − kx dx dx PTS: 1 15. the speed is given by v = 2gh where h is the vertical height lost.ID: A 13. To get 1/2 of this speed 1 h 4 Therefore. ANS: D Each statement describes a characteristic of a conservative force. it will topple. which is a condition for a flat potential energy surface. ANS: B If a force is exerted to unbalance the system. PTS: 1 19. This will occur when 1/4 of the distance L has been covered.

whereas momentum depends on m and v. Therefore. To maintain the same center of mass.5) + (−3)(2) = 2 + 1 − 6 = −3J PTS: 1 22. the canoe must have no momentum. PTS: 1 26. ANS: A 1 1 J = Area = 2 (base)(height) = 2 (0. ANS: B Ft = p f − p i = mv f F= mv f t = mv T PTS: 1 4 . ANS: C W = F • R = (5)(0. any reduction in m with a proportional increase in v necessary to have the same momentum will increase the kinetic energy. PTS: 1 24. PTS: 1 25.02s)(80.ID: A 21. the mass of the canoe must move backward to account for the movement of the man’s center of mass forward. since it had none before the movement started. ANS: E After the movement. ANS: C 0 = mv + Mv r vr = −mv M the negative sign indicates a direction opposite that of the bullet.000N) = 800Ns J = ∆p = p f − p i p f = p i + J = mv i + J = (10kg)(20m / s) − 800N = −600Ns vf = −600Ns = −60m / s 10kg PTS: 1 27.4) + (2)(. PTS: 1 23. ANS: C 0 = mv + Mv r vr = −mv M the negative sign indicates a direction opposite that of the bullet. ANS: B Kinetic energy depends upon m and v2.

PTS: 1 5 . ANS: A 1 + p 2 = m1 v − m2 v = (m1 − m2 )v (This is the magnitude. PTS: 1 33. ANS: B The smaller block is going up at the same speed the larger block is going down. to correctly show the sign of the linear magnitude would require (m1 − m2 )v which would be negative indicating a downward vector momentum. One block’s potential energy goes up by m1gh while the other’s potential energy goes down by m2gh.ID: A 28. the first two are possible. Therefore. PTS: 1 32. ANS: D Definitional. ANS: B You need to double the initial kinetic energy to double the final potential energy. PTS: 1 30. The other would have required A to travel through B. but only a) allows for a rebound of A. the decrease in potential energy has a magnitude given by (m2 – m1) g h. if up is considered positive. ANS: A Using momentum conservation (no units for simplicity) (2)(50) + (4)(−25) = 2v A + 4V B 100 − 100 = 2v A + 4v B 0 = v A + 2v B v A = −2v B Looking at the answer choices. So ∑P = p PTS: 1 34. which happens if you multiply the velocity by 2. ANS: E Greatest area under the curve means greatest work. ANS: E 0 = mv 0 − (M − m)v v= mv 0 M −m (the nucleus goes down in mass by m when it ejects a particle of mass m) PTS: 1 31. PTS: 1 29.

0 units PTS: 1 37.ID: A 35. ANS: E Forces are internal. ANS: B Assume the length of each wire is 4 units m(2) + m(2) + m(0) 4 y cm = = units 3M 3 or just above the 1 unit mark. ANS: B The y-momentum before the collision is zero. ANS: A PB = ∑ ∑P A mv B = (m + mbrick )v A 4(5) = 10(v A ) v A = 2m / s ∆v = 2 − 5 = −3m / s PTS: 1 39. but not as far as 2. The x-momentum problem is: mo v o cos(60 o ) + mo v o cos(60o ) = (2m0 )v Ê 1ˆ Á ˜ Á 2 Á v o ˜ = 2v Á 2˜ ˜ ˜ Á Ë ¯ v = vo 1 2 PTS: 1 36. no change in COM. ANS: E vM 1 + 0 v cm = M1 + M2 PTS: 1 38. PTS: 1 6 . so it will remain zero after the collision.

ID: A 40. yields v 2 = v 2 + 4v 1 v 2 + 4v 2 = v 2 + 2v 2 and simplifying 1 2 1 2 4v 1 v 2 + 4v 2 = 2v 2 which yields 2v 1 + 2v 2 = v 2 and then − 2v 1 = v 2 or v 1 = − 2 v 2 2 2 Putting this in initial momentum equation yields 1 3 2 mv = m(− 2 v 2 + 2v 2 ) which yields v = 2 v 2 which yields v 2 = 3 v PTS: 1 41. ANS: C 1 È ˘ 1 Í ˙ W = ∆K = K f − K i = 2 (4) Í (2 2 + 3 2 ) − (4 2 + (−3) 2 ) ˙ = −24J Í ˙ Í ˙ Î ˚ PTS: 1 42. ANS: A mv = mv 1 + 2mv 2 AND 1 2 mv 2 = 2 mv 2 + 2 2mv 2 1 2 1 1 v = v 1 + 2v 2 AND v 2 = v 2 + 2v 2 1 2 squaring the left-hand equation. and setting it equal to the right-hand equation. ANS: B dv a= = 3ct 2 dt F = ma = 3cmt 2 evaluated at t=t1 PTS: 1 7 .

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