Engineering Codes and Ethics

Engineering ethics is the field of applied ethics and system of moral principles that apply to the practice of engineering. The field examines and sets the obligations by engineers to society, to their clients, and to the profession. As a scholarly discipline, it is closely related to subjects such as the philosophy of science, the philosophy of engineering, and the ethics of technology. Codes of engineering ethics identify a specific precedence with respect to the engineer's consideration for the public, clients, employers, and the profession. Many engineering professional societies have prepared codes of ethics. Some go back to the early decades of the twentieth century. These have been incorporated to a greater or lesser degree into the regulatory laws of several jurisdictions. While these statements of general principles served as a guide, engineers still require sound judgment to interpret of how the code would apply to specific circumstances. The general principals of the codes of ethics are largely similar across the various engineering societies and chartering authorities of the world, which further extend the code and publishes specific guidance. The following is an example from the American Society of Civil Engineers: 1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public and shall strive to comply with the principles of sustainable development in the performance of their professional duties. 2. Engineers shall perform services only in areas of their competence. 3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. 4. Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of interest. 5. Engineers shall build their professional reputation on the merit of their services and shall not compete unfairly with others. 6. Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the honor, integrity, and dignity of the engineering profession and shall act with zero-tolerance for bribery, fraud, and corruption. 7. Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers, and shall provide opportunities for the professional development of those engineers under their supervision. Responsibility of engineers The engineer recognizes that the greatest merit is the work, so exercise their profession committed to serving society, attending to the welfare and progress of the majority. By transforming nature for the benefit of mankind, the engineer must increase their awareness of the world is the abode of man and his interest in the universe is a guarantee of overcoming their spirit and knowledge of reality to make it fairer and happier. The engineer should reject papers

even if the failure to report such a danger does not result in the loss of life or health. As professionals. the engineer can only discharge the duty by making the situation public. It is an inescapable duty of the engineer to hold the prestige of the profession and ensure its proper discharge. with the consciousness of individual well-being subordinate to the good social. fortitude. which also may include   Gifts. and entertainment Treatment of confidential or proprietary information . life. and ensuring the client takes the engineer's advice. and others Conflict of interest Bribery and kickbacks. According to first principles. in this way avoid situations involving hazards or constitute a threat to the environment. this duty overrides the duty to a client and/or employer. In particular. engineers are expected to commit themselves to high standards of conduct (NSPE) [1] 11/27/11 Whistle-blowing A basic ethical dilemma is that an engineer has the duty to report to the appropriate authority a possible risk to others from a client or employer failing to follow the engineer's directions. modesty. the engineer must ensure that the remedial steps are taken and. services.that are intended to harm the general interest. In many cases. These include:     Relationships with clients. provide opportunities for education and training of workers. share experience. The engineer must ensure the continuous improvement of their knowledge. or have their license revoked. health and other rights of human beings. honesty. but many others have to do with broader considerations of business conduct. the situation must be reported to the appropriate authority. disseminate their knowledge. if they are not. meals. moral and material support to the school where he studied. Some have to do with technical practice. consultants. ensure compliance with the standards of worker protection provided by the law. and courts have often sided with engineers in such cases. particularly of their profession. this duty can be discharged by advising the client of the consequences in a forthright matter. magnanimity. In very rare cases. where even a governmental authority may not take appropriate action. in this way revert to the opportunities the company has received. As a result. However. honesty and justice. provide recognition. An engineer may be disciplined. competitors. and contractors Ensuring legal compliance by clients. also maintain a professional demeanor rooted in the ability. whistle-blowing by professional engineers is not an unusual event. It is the responsibility of the engineer who carried out their work efficiently and supports the laws. overruling duties to employers and confidentiality considerations that otherwise would have prevented the engineer from speaking out. Conduct There are several other ethical issues that engineers may face. client's contractors. temperance.

unsupported or exaggerated statements regarding engineering. Will use his knowledge and skill in the service of humanity The code also directs the relationship of Nepalese Engineer with public.  Consideration of the employer’s assets Outside employment/activities (Moonlighting) Some engineering societies are addressing environmental protection as a stand-alone question of ethics. According to NEA Fundamental Principles of Professional Engineering Ethics   Upholding and advancing engineering profession Keeping high standards of Ethical conduct Quality of Engineers to adhere with above principles Engineer 1. Will have proper regard for the health. . Will declare to the advancement of competence of engineering profession and to disseminate engineering knowledge 3. The field of business ethics often overlaps and informs ethical decision making for engineers. Will be honest and fair and serve employer. Will endeavor to extend public knowledge and appreciation of engineering and its achievements and oppose any untrue. safety and welfare of public in performing his professional duties. clients and public 2. 2065. 2. On the other hand. Nepal Engineers’ Association adopted code of ethics for its fellow members in Chaitra 6. employers and fellow engineers: Relation with Public The Engineer 1.

Will uphold the principle of appropriate and adequate compensation for those engaged in engg. Will indicate employer the adverse consequences if his judgement is overruled. Will inform his employer or client of his financial interest in any vender or contractor and this should not affect to his services. 5. Relation with Engineers The engineers 1. 3. 7. 2. . 4.3. Will not divulge any confidential findings of studies or action of any commission or broad in which he is member. 4. Will take care that credit for engineers work is given to those directly responsible people. 5. Will not attempt to injure falsely or maliciously professional reputation prospects or practice of other engineer. Will endeavor opportunity for professional development and advancement of fellow engineer under his supervision. Will not accept compensation or remuneration from more than one party for same service or service pertaining same work without consent of all interested parties. Will provide complete information on working conditions and status of employment. Will undertake only those engineering assignments for which he is qualified. 3. Will express an opinion on an engineering subject Relation with Employers and Clients The engineer 1. Will not disclose information concerning business affairs or technical processes. Will be dignified and modest in explaining his work and merit and refrain from misrepresentative of self-laudatory advertisement. works . 8. 6. 4. Will not exert under influences or offer solicit or accept compensation for the purpose of affecting negotiations for an engineering engagement. 2. Will act as faithful agent or trustee for employer or client.

7. Will not use the advantage of salaried position to compete unfair with other engineer. Will not review the work of other engineer for the same client expect with the knowledge of such engineer. Should give due regards to all professional aspects of the engagement. 8. 10. 9. Will not attempt to supplant other engineer in a particular engagement.6. However he has proof that engineer has been unethical illegal or unfair in his practice he should so advice to proper authority. Will cooperate in advancing the engineering profession by interchanging information and experiences with other engineers by contributing to public communication media. 11. .

Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries. transportation. and processes. new work programs. teamwork. health care. (viz: mental workload.) Human factors engineering continues to be successfully applied in the fields of aerospace. data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. and its cognitive abilities. IT. principles. reasoning. human reliability. work design. aging. and motor response. . work stress and training as these may relate to human-system and Human-Computer Interaction design. and quality management.Ergonomics Ergonomics is the study of designing equipment and devices that fit the human body. participatory design. decision-making. such as perception. policies. memory. product design. crew resource management. It is relevant in the design of such things as safe furniture and easy-to-use interfaces to machines and equipment. nuclear and virtual environments.(viz: communication. human-computer interaction. Cognitive ergonomics: is concerned with mental processes. design of working times. cooperative work. which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. The International Ergonomics Association defines ergonomics as follows: Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system. and the profession that applies theory. community ergonomics. as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system. virtual organizations. Ergonomics is employed to fulfill the goals of health and productivity. its movements. among others.) Organizational ergonomics: is concerned with the optimization of socio technical systems. including their organizational structures. training. telework. skilled performance. According to the International Ergonomics Association within the discipline of ergonomics there exist domains of specialization:    Physical ergonomics: is concerned with human anatomy and some of the physiological and bio mechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity.

This means: – Get up and move around (move your printer to a location where you have to get up. etc. . It is important to know and understand the risk factors. Forceful Exertions . bending. – Try to vary your tasks as much as possible so you aren’t in a position where you have to keep doing repetitive motions. use as light a touch as possible. this will help if you’ve been typing for a long time.) without ergonomic education won’t work. Repetition • If you find yourself doing a job task over and over.Goal of Ergonomics Close harmony between equipment and people Ergonomic Program • Training – It is important to train people regarding good ergonomic practices. holding fixed positions. • • • • Repetition – task or series of motions performed over & over. you should take adequate breaks from the repetitive motion.roll your wrist and hands.reaching. Forceful Exertion • To minimize forceful exertion . This class is designed to help you better understand ergonomics and how you can help improve your ergonomic setting. You will benefit from being aware of the risk factors and how to minimize the risk as much as possible. Understanding the risks can help you to mitigate the risks. Purchasing equipment (chairs. twisting.) – During a break . Contact Stress – localized pressure exerted against the skin by external force. Even though risk factors may be present. this does not mean you are destined to suffer an not type with much force.amount of physical effort required to complete task. Awkward Postures . • Occupational Risk Factors There are four main risk factors people may experience when dealing with computer work. keyboard trays.

Divide your work space into three zones: Primary work zone .do not rest your wrists on anything that will leave an indent mark on your skin. but don't need all the time. – Make sure you do not have to twist (awkward posture) at the waist to reach the phone. – If the chair you are sitting in has a seat pan that pushes against the back of your knees you are experiencing a contact stress. • You may need to get a chair with a sliding seat pan to give you enough room between the edge of the seat and the back of your knees. we should try and do it with as little force as possible. Use this zone for your least-often used items. Contact Stress • There are a couple of places you may feel contact stress: – If you are resting your wrist on a sharp edge you are creating a contact stress.Within arms reach. Secondary work zone . Things you touch on a daily basis. Awkward Posture The location of the telephone may cause you to have an awkward posture that you may not be aware of – Make sure your telephone is within easy reach.With everything we pick up. Use this zone to position those items that you use frequently. Ergonomics can be helpful in the following ways: EMPLOYEE:       Fewer injuries Improved Health & Safety Reduce absenteeism Lower worker turnover Fatigue Quality of life . • To fix .the distance from elbow to hand. • Arranging Workspace Arrange tools around your desk so you minimize the distance you have to reach for them.Outside arms reach. or push against. Reference zone .

EMPLOYER:      Increase in work quality Morale improves Increase productivity & efficiency Lowered workers’ compensation rates Less likelihood of OSHA fines .

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