For certain uses like tarpaulin, umbrella cloth, and raincoat fabrics etc. Water proofing or water repellent effects are required. When a uniform coating of suitable substances such as rubber is produced on the surface of a fabric, the interstices between the warp and the weft yarn are blocked by the continuous film of the substance and water will not pass through the treated fabric. However in such a case, the treated fabric becomes impermeable to air as well. As the movement of air is restricted, the wearer would definitely feel elevated amounts of uncomfotability. For this same reason, a Water-Proof Finish is given to the fabric. Large quantities of tarpaulin and tent fabrics were water proofed by coating them with PETROLEUM WAXES. The problems at high temperatures were overcome by using noncrystalline waxes and incorporating plasticising and toughening agents in them. Water repellent finishes are produced by the use of metallic soaps like aluminium stearate. This is usually done by treating the fabric first with an aqueous solution of the metal and then passing through a solution of soap. Paraffin wax or vegetable waxes are sometimes added along with sodium stearate to increase the water repellent effect. This method, which involves two bath application techniques, is a long procedure. These are non durable water repellents, since they do not have any affinity for the fibres, nor do they chemically react with the fibre substance, but are simply present on the fabric. They are not fast to washing and dry cleaning. In water repellent finishing the individual fibres present in the fabric are coated with a continuous water impermeable film with out at the same time binding the fibres to each other or blocking the interstices of the fabrics. These chemicals must be tough, pliable and elastic and must adhere to the fibres firmly. These hydrophobic film forming substances include acetates and soaps of aluminium and zirconium ammonium zirconyl carbonates, microcrystalline waxes, methylol stearamide, strarmidomethyl pyridinium chloride, etc.

Basic concept of wetting and water repellency Suppose a drop of water is put on each of three smooth solid surfaces in each case its behaviour observed. In figure,    It may assume an almost spherical shape, in It may assume some intermediate form between these two extremes. It may become nearly flat or

The apparatus used throws as enlarged image of a strip of fabric. The ability of the water to withdraw from the pores depends on the tarn water receding contact angle being high. penetration of the water through the fabric will take place. Succeeding drop falling on the pore will withdraw to a less extent because the yarn water receding contact angle a has decreased. and the Bundesmann. To carry out this test. the sample holder is removed and the surplus water is removed by tapping the frame six times against a solid object with the face of the sample facing the solid . At the start of the test. a small scale mock rain shower is produced by pouring water through an s spray nozzle. 250 cm of water at 70F are poured steadily into the funnel. The water falls on to the specimen this is mounted over 6 inch diameter embroidery hood and fixed at an angle of 95 degree. When this condition is attained. The time taken to drop to 90 degree is called wetting time. end on. After spraying has finished. Thus the maximum absorption of a fabric and the penetration are determined by the fibre-water advancing contact angle and the physical construction of the fabric while the rate of picking up of water depends on the effective receding contact angle and its decay with time. the initial yarn receding contact angle will be high and this ensures that the water will contract out of the pore in to the drop and pearl off. all three methods used. noted by a stop watch the decreases to 90 degree. it was found that this method was the most sensitive to assessment of proofing efficiency on heavy-wool cloths. This process of penetrating of fabric by rain will continue until a kinetic energy of the falling drops is not sufficient to force the water column deeper into the pore. hydrosbatic head. the absorption of the fabric will have reached a limiting value and further exposure to rain will result in no further absorption. Whereas on the cotton fabrics. such as wetting time. It is necessary to conclude that a practical test for water repellency should be influenced both by the effective advancing and receding contact angles as both are equally important in the wetting of a fabric in rain. as it is slowly withdrawn from the surface of water in a small tak. ranked the fabrics in roughly the same order.Wetting of fabric in rain A drop of water falling in to a fabric will penetrate most deeply in to the pores between the yarns. Distilled water at 20C is used and the speed of withdrawal is 8 mm/min. With a reasonably proofed fabric. Fig 7 The spray test In this test. If the thickness of the fabric is greater than the maximum depth. a large receding contact angle is seen but after a time. In a series of comparative test. Methods of testing This test was developed by Baxr and Cassie following their research on water repellency.

The assessment of the fabrics water repellence is given by the spray rating. 100. three taps at one point on the frame. The ratings are as follows.Partial wetting of whole of upper surface 50. with a constant head of water. the fabric become wet. In this experiment. And then three times at a point diametrically opposite. a drought shield of large diameter is used. the fabric-specimen is clipped on to glass plate with a piece of filter paper sandwiched between the fabric and the glass. Fig 9 .Slight random sticking or wetting of the upper surface 80.Complete wetting of whole of upper surface/ 0-Complete wetting of whole of upper and lower surface The drop test or drop penetration test It was noted earlier that in the initial stages of wetting. but in time pearling ceases.No sticking or wetting of the upper surface 90. The drop test is a count of number of drops required to penetrate through to the underside of the fabric when all the drops fall on the same spot. the drops of water pearl off the fabric.Wetting of upper surface at spray point 70.object. After removing the surplus water the fabric surface is examined visually. The later is prepared from a fine bore glass tube to produce a certain number of drops of a given size in a minute. To ensures that the drops fall on to the same spot. The American Association of Textile Chemists and Colourist recommended the use f a chart of photograph against which the actual fabric appearance compared. A frame holding the assembly at an angle of 45 degrees directly under the drop forming device. The tapping is in two stages.

In this experiment a square of fabric. From its known dry weight the percentage water absorbed is calculated. In this test a small square specimen about 1x1 inch is cut and drape it to the surface of water in a beaker.The pressure required to force-water through a fabric may be determined and the assessment of the fabric ability to do a particular job. especially by wicking or capillary action maybe observed by timing the rate at which water climates up a narrow strip of fabric suspended vertically with its lower end dipping into the water. 1. . Sinking Test This involves a simple test of wettability of fabric. Test for this involves .Conditioning and re measuring the specimen in a standard testing atmosphere and measuring the distance between the datum lines. Garner-States that good towelling should absorb 100% of its own weight. Wetting by Wicking The ability of fabric to absorb water.Washing the sample is relevant washing solution in a washing machine conforming to certain specification and ringing at the sample after specified time. The shorter the time. . The time taken for the specimen to sink below the surface is observed. 3. Shrinkage Tests A fabric can have great technical merit if its dimensions remain constant throughout its useful life. . the greater the wettability. And after a few washes some fabric shrink. The dimensional change occurs when a fabric is washed. 2. 2x2 inch is fully immersed in water at 20 degree centigrade for 20 sec. Percentage shrinkage is calculated from the mean changes in the distance between the datum lines. and weigh. Remove.Preparation of specimen by conditioning in a standard testing atmosphere and marked with usually 3 pairs of datum lines in each direction with indelible ink or fast dyed sewing thread.

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