AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I

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DESIGN PROJECT OF FOUR HUNDRED SEATER TWIN
ENGINE PASSENGER AIRCRAFT

A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted by

In partial fulfilment for the awards of the degree
Of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

IN
AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
DHANALAKSHMI SRINIVASAN COLLEGE OF ENGG & TECHNOLOGY,
CHENNAI.
ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025
APRIL 2011

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this report “A DESIGN PROJECT OF FOUR HUNDRED
SEATER TWIN ENGINE PASSENGER AIRCRAFT’’ is the bonafide work of
.................................... who carried out the project work under my supervision.

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SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

SARAVANAN.G .........................
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR
Aeronautical engineering, Lecturer,
D.S. College of Engineering & Technology, D.S. College of Engineering&
Chennai- 603104. Technology, Chennai-603104.







Internal Examiner External Examiner




This report for the Design of FOUR HUNDRED SEATER TWIN ENGINE
PASSENGER AIRCRAFT is prepared on the basis of Anna University Syllabus.
This is prepared by references attached in this report.

For getting interested in this subject and nurturing my knowledge base, I would
like to thank my beloved teachers. Mr. Saravanan.G , Head of the Department and
......................... , lecture who deserve all credit
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Last, but not least, I am thankful to all of my Department staffs.


Dedicated to
Beloved Parents, Department Staffs
& Management














TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO TITLE PAGE
ABSTRACT
LIST OF SYMBOLS
INTRODUCTION
1. COMPARITIVE STUDY OF 12
1.1 DIMENSIONS
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1.2 WEIGHT CONFIGURATION
1.3 PERFORMANCE
1.4 ENGINE CONFIGURATION
2. SELECTION OF MAIN PARAMETERS 16
2.1 SELECTION OF PARAMETERS
2.1.1 Airfoil selection
2.1.2 Co-efficient of lift Vs Angle of attack
2.1.3 Co-efficient of lift Vs Drag
2.1.4 Max L/D Vs Velocity or Mach no.
2.1.5 Range Vs Velocity
2.1.6 Altitude Vs Velocity
2.1.7 Aspect ratio Vs Velocity
2.1.8 Wing loading Vs Velocity
2.1.9 SFC Vs Mach number
2.1.10 T/W Vs Velocity
3. WEIGHT ESTIMATION 25
3.1 WEIGHT CALCULATION
3.2 MISSION PROFILE
3.3 APPROXIMATE WEIGHT ESTIMATION

4. ENGINE SELECTION 29
4.1 LOCATION OF ENGINE
4.2 THRUST CALCULATION
4.3 ENGINE CONFIGURATION
4.4 CONFIGURATION
4.4.1 Advantages of Buried Engine
4.4.2 Disadvantages of Buried Engine
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4.4.3 Advantages of Low wing
4.4.4 Disadvantages of Low wing

5. AIRFOIL SELECTION 36
5.1 CALCULATION OF CL
5.1.1 Reynolds’s Number
5.1.2 Maximum CL


5.1.3 Skin friction Drag for turbulent flow
5.1.4 Required CL
max
5.1.5 NACA-63-215

6. WING SELECTION 46
6.1 EQUIVALENT ASPECT RATIO
6.2 STRUCTURAL WEIGHT FOR VARYING
THE THICKNESS OF AIRFOIL
6.3 LOCATION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY



7. WETTED SURFACE AREA AND DRAG ESTIMATION 49
7.1 CALCULATION OF WETTED SURFACE AREA
7.1.1Fuselage
7.1.2 Wing area
7.1.3 Horizontal Tail
7.1.4 Vertical Tail
7.1.5 Engine

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12. THREE VIEWS OF SUPERSONIC FIGHTER AIRCRAFT 52
12.1 FRONT VIEW
12.2 TOP VIEW
12.3 SIDE VIEW
\
13. CONCLUSION 58
13.1 BIBLIOGRAPHY












ABSTRACT
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All of the airliners aim at building an aircraft with large capacity
and long range at a higher velocity and with low fuel consumption. Our mini
project conceptualizes this aim. So in our mini project we have concentrated on a
400 seater passenger aircraft with twin engine which can travel at a cruise mach
number of 0.84 and a minimum range of 1200km at an optimum altitude. For the
propulsion system we have chosen an existing engine for reference. Historic data is
being used wherever necessary to make our project more precise













LIST OF SYMBOLS


W Weight of aircraft
W
0
Overall weight
W
f
Weight of fuel
W
e
Empty weight
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L Lift of aircraft
D Drag of the aircraft
C
L
Coefficient of lift
C
D
Coefficient of drag
S Wing area
B Wing span
T Thrust
T/W Thrust loading
W/S Wing loading
A.R Aspect ratio
C
r
,C
t
Chord length of root,tip
T
r
,t
t
thickness of root, tip
S
π
Wetted surface area
C

Coefficient of drag of wetted surface
area
Λ
L.E
Sweep angle of the leading edge
ß Dihedral angle
Α Angle of attack
Ρ Density(kg/m
3
)
C
Wing mean chord
Μ Ground friction
Ν Kinematics viscosity
Λ Taper ratio
C.G Center of gravity
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R range
E

Endurance
V
·

Free stream velocity
C Chord
Lf Length of fuselage
VT Vertical tail
HT Horizontal tail
Θ Angle of flap deflection
η
0

i
Span station of flap
G Gravity
S Distance
H Height
H altitude





INTRODUCTION



Airplane Design – Introduction


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Three major types of airplane design are

1. Conceptual deign
2. Preliminary design
3 Detailed designs



1. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN:

It depends on what are the major factors for the designing the aircraft
A. power plant location
The power plant location is either padded or buried type
engines are more preferred .Rear location is preferred for low drag, reduced shock
and to use whole thrust.
B. selection of engine:
The engine to be used is selected according to the power
required.


Wing selection:
The selection of wing depends upon the selection of
× low wing
× mid wing
× high wing


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2. PRELIMINARY DESIGN:
Preliminary design is based only on loitering; U is the
mathematical method of skinning the aircraft after skinning the aircraft looks like a
masked body.
Preliminary design is done with the help of FORTRAN software.
3. DETAILED DESIGN:
In the detailed design considers each and every rivets, nuts, bolts,
paints, etc. In this design the connection and allocation are made.








1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PASSENGER AIRCRAFT
SPECIFICATION:



1.1.WING SPECIFICATIONS:


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S.NO. NAME OF
A/C
WING
SPAN (m)
LENGTH
(m)
HEIGHT
(m)

WING
AREA
(m
2
)
1. A330-300 60.30 63.30 16.70 361.6
2. A340-
600/600HGW
63.43 75.30 17.30 475.5
3. A350-900R 64.8 67.0 17.2 480.5
4. 777-300ER 64.8 73.9 18.7 477.6
5. 747-400 64.4 70.6 19.4 378.5
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1.2.WEIGHT SPECIFICATION:

S.NO NAME OF
A/C
EMPTY
WEIGHT
MAX
(T/W)
GROSS
WEIGHT
1. A330-300 173000 0.7350 233000
2. A340-
600/600HGW
177000 0.70027 368000
3. A350-900R 176000 0.8990 301000
4. 777-300ER 175000 0.8517 347540
5. 747-400 178750 0.7180 396890
















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1.3.POWER PLANT SPECIFICATIONS:



































S.NO. NAME OF
A/C
TYPE OF
ENGINE
NO.OF
ENGINE
THRUST
(KN)
1. A330-300 Pratt&Whitney
pw 4170
2 320
2. A340-
600/600HGW
RR Trent 500 2 257.7
3. A350-900R PR Trent x WB 2 270.6
4. 777-300ER GE 90-110B 2 296
5. 747-400 GECF6-80CB5F 2 282
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1.4. PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS:





















S.NO. NAME OF
A/C
MAX.
SPEED
(km/hr)
CRUISING
SPEED
(km/hr)
SERVICE
CEILING
(m)
RANGE
(km)
CREW
1. A330-300 900 871 12,643 10,501 2
2. A340-
600/600HGW
905 854 11,887

14,350 2
3. A350-900R 850 805 11,490 9250 2
4. 777-300ER 840 810 11,680 14,630 2
5. 747-400 912 870 12.863 14,205 2
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2. SELECTION OF MAIN PARAMETERS FOR AIRCRAFT DESIGN


2.1. SELECTION OF MAIN PARAMETERS:
2.1.1 Co-efficient of lift Vs Angle of attack
The experimental data indicate that C
L
varies linearly with over a
large range of angle of attack. Thin airfoil theory, which is the subject by
more advanced books on aerodynamics also predicts the same type of linear
variation. The slope of the linear position of the lift curve is designed as lift
slope there is still a positive value of CL that is there is still a positive value
of CL that is, there is still some lift even when the airfoil is at zero angle of
attack.
2.1.2 Co-efficient of lift Vs Co-efficient of drag
The drag polar is a parabola with its axis on the zero-lift axis and its
vortex is C
D

2
0
L
D D
C
C C
eAR t
= +

C
D0
-is the parasite drag co-efficient at zero lift
and
2
L
C
eAR t
includes both induced drag and the contribution to parasite drag
due to lift in our redefined e, which now includes the effect from is called
the Oswald efficiency factor. The basic aerodynamic properties of the
airplane are
2
0
L
D D
C
C C
eAR t
= +
and we consider both C
Do
and e as
known aerodynamic qualities obtained from the aerodynamicist.




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2.1.3.Co-efficient of lift Vs Mach number
At low mach number less than M
cr
, C
D
is virtually constant and
is equal to its low speed values. The free stream mach number at which C
D

begins to increase rapidly is defined as the drag divergence mach number.

2.1.4.Dihedral
Dihedral is the design feature of the airplane that provides
lateral stability. Dihedral effect is always a coupling between yawing and
rolling motion, so that one doesn’t occur without the other.


2.1.5.L/D
max
Vs Mach number
To design the aircraft we should better understand the L/D Vs
Velocity. Because for passenger aircraft L/D should be maximum and is a
key parameter in design. Usually the (L/D) is maximum for the cruise flight
of most of the commercial aircraft.
















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2.1.6. Range Vs Velocity

It is plot the between the range of the aircraft and the velocity. The plot of
different aircraft is drawn. The Range is the total distance traversed by an
airplane on one load of fuel.

Range equation
0
1
ln
t
V W L
R
C D W
o
=
Ct -
specific fuel consumption

W
0
– Gross weight of the airplane including everything, fuel load, payload, crew,
structure etc
W
1
– Weight of the airplane when the fuel tanks are empty







0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
820 840 860 880 900 920
R
a
n
g
e

(
k
m
)

Velocity (km/hr)
RANGE Vs VELOCITY
A330-300
A340- 600/600HGW
A350-900R
777-300ER
747-400
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2.1.7. Altitude Vs Velocity

The graph is drawn between the altitude and velocity. It is main design
parameters.





















1650
1700
1750
1800
1850
1900
1950
830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920
A
l
t
i
t
u
d
e

(
m
)

Velocity (km/hr)
Altitude Vs Velocity
A330-300
A340- 600/600HGW
A350-900R
777-300ER
747-400
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2.1.8. Weight Vs velocity

The weight Vs velocity is drawn in the graph. For the various aircraft weight
is considered for the various aircraft weight is considered for drawing the graph.
The optimum weight is calculated.


















175500
176000
176500
177000
177500
178000
178500
179000
830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920
W
e
i
g
h
t

(
k
g
)

Velocity(km/hr)
Weight Vs Velocity
A330-300
A340- 600/600HGW
A350-900R
777-300ER
747-400
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2.1.10 Wing loading Vs Velocity

Wing loading effect on climb
Wing loading selection is important parameter for design of aircraft to find the
optimum wing loading by drawing graph.













700
705
710
715
720
725
730
735
820 840 860 880 900 920
(
W
/
S
)

Velocity (km/hr)
Wing Loading Vs Velocity
A330-300
A340- 600/600HGW
A350-900R
777-300ER
747-400
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2.1.11. Thrust loading Vs Velocity
The drawn the graph between thrust loading for different passenger
aircraft with velocity of that aircraft. We find the optimum thrust loading of certain
category of aircraft.




















0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
820 840 860 880 900 920
(
T
/
W
)

Velocity (km/hr)
Thrust Loading Vs Velocity
A330-300
A340- 600/600HGW
A350-900R
777-300ER
747-400
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2.1.12 Aspect Ratio Vs Velocity

The graph is drawn between the aspect ratio and velocity. The
choice of low aspect ratio is driven by supersonic performance and high aspect
ratio for subsonic aircraft.
















0
2
4
6
8
10
12
820 840 860 880 900 920
A
s
p
e
c
t

r
a
t
i
o

Velocity (km/hr)
Aspect ratio Vs Velocity
A330-300
A340- 600/600HGW
A350-900R
777-300ER
747-400
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2.2. SELECTION OF PARAMETERS

Optimum VELOCITY 910km/hr
Optimum RANGE 12000km
Optimum ALTITUDE 1820m
Optimum WEIGHT 176000kg
Optimum ASPECT RATIO 9.30
Optimum W/S WING
LOADING
713kg/m
2

Optimum T/W THRUST
LOADING
0.801















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3. WEIGHT ESTIMATION:

3.1.Weight of aircraft:
Overall weight

1
o crew payload fuel empty
crew payload
o
f
e
o o
W W W W W
W W
W
W
W
W W
= + + +
+
=
÷ ÷

From the specification
e
o
W
W
=0.5742


3.2. Mission profile








2 3



0 1 4 5


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3.3. Approximate Weight Estimation:

Estimation of
f
o
W
W
:

1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5
1
f
o
W
W W W W W W
W W W W W W W
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

Warm up & Take off:

1
0
W
W
=0.995
Climbing:

2
1
W
W
=0.985
Cruising:

3
2
exp
W RC
L W
V
D
(
(
÷
= (
| |
(
|
(
\ . ¸ ¸


R=6479.48nm

C=0.6-0.9lb/hr/lb

V=491.36 knots
L
D
=10-13

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3
2
W
W
= exp (

Loitering:

4
3
exp
W EC
L W
D
(
(
÷
= (
| |
(
|
(
\ . ¸ ¸


E=18min
C=0.6-0.9lb/hr/lb
L
D
=10-13

Descending:

5
4
W
W
=0.99
Landing:

6
5
W
W
=0.9628

M
ff
=0.995*0.985*0.4533*0.9821*0.99*0.9628

M
ff
=0.415
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f
o
W
W
= (1-M
ff
) = (1-0.415)

f
o
W
W
=0.5841

o
W =330325.71kg

















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4. ENGINE SELECTION
Types of turbine engines


Turbojets:

The basic working principle of the turbojet engine is that air from outside is taken
into the front of the engine. Then it is compressed to achieve 3 to 12 times more
than its original pressure by a compressor. It passes into a combustion chamber
where fuel is added to the air. There it is ignited and the temperature is raised to
between 1,100°F to 1,300° F. The hot air is then pushed through a turbine, which
is used to drive the compressor. For a typical turbojet engine, the pressure at the
turbine discharge is nearly twice the atmospheric pressure, this high pressure gas
can be sent to the nozzle, where the velocity of the gas can be increased. In order to
increases the thrust, an afterburner can be placed after the turbine and before the
nozzle. This is basically another combustion chamber and it can substantially
increase the gas temperature before the nozzle. This increases by about 40 percent
in the thrust at takeoff and by a much larger percentage at high speeds once the
plane is in the air. The turbojet engine is a reaction engine. It sucks air in and
AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
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compresses it. The gas then passes through the turbine and escapes from the back
of the engine.

Turboprops:

The turboprop engine is a jet engine, which is attached to a propeller. Hot gases
pass through the turbine and the turbine is turned. The propeller is then turned by
the gas turbine by means of a drive shaft. It is very similar to the turbojet engine,
the turboprop engine consists of a compressor, combustion chamber, and turbine.
The turbine is turned by the passing gases, and then the turbine is used to drive the
compressor and propeller. Compared to a turbojet engine, the turboprop has higher
propulsion efficiency at flight speeds below about 500 miles per hour. In the
modern turboprop engine, in order to gain high efficiency at high speed, the
propellers have a smaller diameter but use a larger number of blades. To adapt to
the higher flight speeds, scimitar-shaped blades with swept-back leading edges at
the blade tips are used. Nowadays, turboprop engines are used in some small
airliners and transport aircraft.




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Turbofans

The turbofan engine is a jet engine with a large fan at the front. The fan sucks in air
and most of the air flows around the outside of the engine, which make it operate
quietly and provides more thrust at low speeds. Nowadays, most airliners are
powered by turbofan engines. Compared to the turbojet, the turbofan engine has
many advantages. In a turbojet all the air passes through the compressor,
combustion chamber, and turbine. In a turbofan engine only a proportion of the
incoming air goes into the gas generator. The rest of the air is directly ejected out
of the engine, or mixed with the gas generator exhaust to produce a "hot" jet. The
aim of this system is to increase the thrust without increasing fuel consumption. It
achieves this by increasing the total mass of air that passes through the engine and
reduces the velocity within the same total energy supply.

Turbo shafts:


The Turbo-shaft engine is another form of gas-turbine engine, which is widely
used in helicopters. It operates like a turboprop system. However, it does not have
a propeller but drives the helicopter rotor instead. The turbo-shaft engine is
AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
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designed to keep the speed of the helicopter rotor independent from the rotating
speed of the gas generator. It allows the rotating speed of the rotor to remain
constant even when the rotating speed of the generator is varied to adjust the
amount of power it produces.
Ramjets

The Ramjet engine is the simplest jet engine. It has no moving parts. It is
essentially a turbojet engine without the rotating machinery inside the engine. So
its compression ratio depends wholly on its forward speed. Because of this fact, it
can not produce static thrust and it produces very little thrust, when the speed is
below the speed of the sound. Consequently, a ramjet vehicle cannot take off by
itself. So, other means, such as another aircraft may be needed to help it to take off.
This engine is used in guided-missile system, and space vehicles.











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4.1. Location
The engines are padded under the wing of the aircraft.
4.2. Thrust Loading

( ) 0
T
T=W 9.81N
W
× ×


Where,
e
0
- estimated weight
T/W-optimum thrust loading value

Total thrust required =330325.71×0.3 × 9.81
=972148.56 N
=99097.71kg

Total thrust required = 218473.05lbf


For single engine the thrust is 218473.05lbf,



After examination of available engine, meeting our requirement have been
short listed and the engine “GE90-115B” was chooses to be used in this design.










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4.4. Padded Engines

Advantages

× There engines produce less noise in the cabin because the engine and
exhaust are away from the fuel age.

× It has higher wetted area than build engine and jet exhaust can be directed
downward by flaps which greatly increases lift and short takeoff.
Disadvantages

× Increases the drag due to presence of pylons.







UNDER WING

Advantages

× Length of landing gear can be less.

× Lateral stability is more.

Disadvantages

× Ground clearance is low.










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ENGINE CONFIGURATION:







































W
e
i
g
h
t

1
8
2
6
0

W
i
d
t
h
/

D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

(
i
n
c
h
)

1
3
4

L
e
n
g
t
h

(
i
n
c
h
)

1
9
2
.
8

F
a
n

D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

(
i
n
c
h
)

1
2
3

S
F
C

0
.
3
2
4

T
h
r
u
s
t

1
1
5
0
0
0

l
b
f

M
o
d
e
l

G
E

9
0
-
1
1
0
B

M
a
n
u
f
a
c
t
u
r
e

G
e
n
e
r
a
l







E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
s

AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
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5. AIRFOIL SELECTION
We have to keep in mind that the airfoil of our flying surfaces is only one
variable of the many components which makes our airplanes fly well - or not so
well - in a range of possible configurations. When we do an investigation of any
part of our aircraft we must not look at this part as THE solution, rather we must
always remember that it is only one part of a whole. Analysis is necessary; but
only a synthetic view will give us the whole picture. It is a bit like somebody trying
to understand the human body by studying the skeleton only, or the chemicals of
the body only, etc.: the failure of modern medicine comes from this fact. Scientists
look at the parts of a corpse and decide they know something about a living body!
But, let us go back to something less serious (!?!) and look at the airfoil or wing
section of our airplane in such a way that we will have a little better understanding
of how our aircraft flies.
Relative Motion
Today it is universally accepted that an airfoil in motion through still air and air
blowing over a stationary airfoil have the same effects. This was not the case in
scientific circles some 120 years ago, but now is common knowledge, and justifies
the wind tunnel tests where true air flows over an airfoil and from which we can
predict characteristics of an airplane moving through still air. The important thing
is the relative speed of airfoil and air.
Reynolds Numbers
Early investigations into the theory of fluid dynamics have predicted a certain
number of constants to which similar disturbances (and an airfoil in the air is a
AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
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disturbance) produce similar effects - in hydrodynamics, these are referred to as
'Froude Numbers" (hulls of boats); in high speed aerodynamics the "Mach Number'
are other examples. For our smaller and slower aircraft, the only "number" which
really needs to be considered is the "Reynolds Number" and it is defined as:
Re = V x I / v
Where:
V = Relative speed (m/sec)
I = typical "length" of a solid body (M)
v = kinematic viscosity of the air (sec/m
2
)

Re is a dimensionless number, which makes it independent of the measuring
systems. The kinematic viscosity is to a certain extent dependent on the density of
the air, but for our aircraft flying below 12,000 ft., it can be assumed constant
(equivalent to 15 x 10
6
sec/m
2
in metric).
The speed can easily be converted to metric:
1 mph = 1.15 Kts. = 1.61 km/h = 1.61 / 3.6 m/s = .45 m/sec.
The same applies to the length:
1 ft. = .305 m.
Our small aircraft have a wing chord, which is the "length" to use when talking
about airfoils, of some 5 ft. equivalent to 1.5 m.
Thus the Reynolds number simplifies to:
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Re = (.45 x vmph x 1.5) / (15 x 10
-6
) = 4.5 vmph
or at stall speed of 50 mph: Re = 1.8 x 10
6
(you know that 10
6
= 1,000,000 = 1
million).
Keep in mind the above values are for a 5 ft. chord. For a 2-1/2 ft. chord typical of
tail surfaces or the tip of a tapered wing, the Re will be only 1/2 above values.
If the air is looked at, not as a continuous medium, but composed of small balls
(the molecules of modern physics), there is obviously an average distance between
those balls. The Reynolds number is then nothing else than the relation between
the typical solid body length to this average distance between the molecules of the
air in which the solid is moving.
As long as this Reynolds number is between the values of .4 x 10
6
(400,000) and
some 10 X 10
6
(ten million) what we will say about airfoils will apply.
Note that for smaller Re (say 10,000 to 400,000, which is the range for radio
controlled models and smaller windmills), other lows apply; however, we will not
consider these numbers in this present set of articles which deal with light planes.
The same applies at very large Reynolds numbers, which are practically associated
with Mach numbers larger than .3, where the compressibility of the air can no
longer be neglected as it is in classic aerodynamics which considers the air as an
incompressible, continuous medium.



AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
39

Boundary Layer
When the air hits the airfoil leading edge it will separate into the upper and lower
airstream, which meets again at the trailing edge.

It is obvious that the air very close to the airfoil "rubs" against the solid surface and
is slowed down. In other words, starting downstream of the impact point, the air
loses some of its momentum, or velocity. And it loses more and more as we follow
it along the path close to the solid airfoil. We can see that friction creates an area
where there is less speed. The reduced speed area just outside of the airfoil
becomes thicker and thicker as we follow it from the leading edge to the trailing
edge. This area is called the boundary layer. Its thickness is increasing as described
and is defined as the thickness at which the local free stream speed is finally
AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
40

reached. A typical boundary layer thickness is 1/2" near the trailing edge. The
friction, which obviously, is a loss, results in the friction drag of the airfoil.
Again the theory of fluid dynamics shows that there are two possible types of
stable boundary layers:
1. The first, to build up, is called 'laminar" because the flow is nice and steady
and the friction drag is relatively low.
2. The second is called 'turbulent" because the flow is rather rough and the
friction drag is higher.
The unfortunate thing is that the "laminar boundary layer" will automatically
become turbulent (with associated higher drag) close to the leading edge of the
airfoil unless very special precautions are taken. These precautions are:
a. A very smooth airfoil surface: Slight construction defects (or bugs as they
stick to the airfoil leading edge) will change the laminar boundary layer into
a turbulent one. Unless you have a perfect airfoil and keep it this way forget
about the gain possible with a laminar flow!
b. A special shape of the airfoil: The pressure distribution on the airfoil is
related to the airfoil shape. Today we can calculate (with high speed
computers) airfoils which maximize the length of the laminar boundary
layer. Still, what is mentioned in a) applies. But, do not get desperate. The
friction drag of the airfoil with a laminar boundary layer is .08, whereas in
turbulent flow it becomes .12. Sure, this is a 50% increase but only on the
friction drag of the airfoil. The other drag contributions are airfoil shape,
wind induced drag, tail drag, fuselage and landing gear drag, interference
drag, cooling drag and a few more. Your aircraft will never go 50% faster
AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
41

just by changing the airfoil - at the very best, you may gain a few (3 to 5)
percentage points.


5.1. CALCULATION OF C
L
:

5.1.2. COEFFICIENT OF LIFT: ( max L C )



q =

= 0.25 * 248

= 62.5



At 1800 altitude

T = 272.57 K

P = 7.563*



= 1.02



q =

q = 0.5 * 1.02*

q = 1922.2


AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
42

optimum = 4074




=

= 2.112

( )
0 e D f
D0
wetted surfacearea
C C *
reference surface area
C 0.0195
=
=



Coefficient of drag

=

+ K

K =

K =

K = 0.04445

=0.219


5.1.4. Calculation of ( )
max L required C


( )
max available max L required L L C C C = +A





= 2.112 – 1.745



= 0.367
AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
43

This extra lift can be obtained by the use of flap. Our required max L C A is
0.367. Hence we can use split flap which meets our lift requirement also spoilers.

NACA 63-215 AIRFOIL CO-ORDINATES:




UPPER SURFACE LOWER SURFACE
0.000000

0.000000
0.003990 0.012500
0.006370 0.015280
0.011200 0.019800
0.023480 0.027920
0.048290 0.039600
0.073230 0.048470
0.098230 0.055690
0.148340 0.066820
0.198520 0.074870
0.248750 0.080490
0.299000 0.083920
0.349260 0.085300
0.399520 0.084570
0.449770 0.081940
0.500000 0.077680
0.550190 0.072030
0.600350 0.065240
0.650470 0.057510
0.700530 0.049060
0.750550 0.040140
0.800510 0.031050
0.850430 0.022130
0.900300 0.013680
0.950140 0.006160
1.000000 0.000000
0.000000 0.000000
0.006010 -0.011500
AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
44



















0.008630 -0.013880
0.013800 -0.017660
0.026520 -0.024200
0.051710 -0.033280
0.076770 -0.039990
0.101770 -0.045350
0.151660 -0.053360
0.201480 -0.058950
0.251250 -0.062590
0.301000 -0.064480
0.350740 -0.064700
0.400480 -0.063150
0.450230 -0.060040
0.500000 -0.055620
0.549810 -0.050130
0.599650 -0.043820
0.649530 -0.036910
0.699470 -0.029620
0.749450 -0.022240
0.799490 -0.015130
0.849570 -0.008670
0.899700 -0.003340
0.949860 0.000160
1.000000 0.000000
AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
45




DIAGRAM OF NACA63-215
















AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
46

6. WING SELECTION



Equivalent Aspect Ratio
Aspect ratio = a× M
c

Aspect ratio = 6.5*(0.84)

Aspect ratio = 9.3

W/S=415.29 N/m
2

S=330325.71/415.29

S=795.41m
2


Aspect ratio =b/s
b
2
=AR×S

b=(AR×S)

b=(9.3×795.41)

b=86.007

b/c=8.9m

8.94/8.9

=1.00m

Taper ratio=0.394

/

=0.41

=0.41×

= 0.41m
AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
47




c = 2 c
r
(1+λ+ λ
2
)
3 1+ λ

c =2×13.21 (1+0.4+0.4
2
)
1+0.4

c = 9.81 m

C
r
=

=

=13.21 m

C
t
/C
r
=0.4

C
t
=0.4*C
r

=0.4*13.21

=5.284 m

c = 2 c
r
(1+λ+ λ
2
)
3 1+ λ

c =2×13.21 (1+0.4+0.4
2
)
3 [1+0.4]

c = 9.8131

From historical data

LE
=35
0
(Leading edge sweep angle)


AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
48



CALCULATION OF THICKNESS TO CHORD RATIO:

Volume of fuel

Volume of fuel = weight of fuel/800

W
f
/W
0
= 0.374
W
f
=123541.8155 kg

Volume of fuel V
f,

= 154.42 m
3


V =[

*

c
* 0.5 *
c
* 0.5 b * 0.75] * 2

= 0.0497
t
r
/C
r
=0.0497
t
r
=0.6565 m
t
t
/C
t
=0.0497
t
t
= 0.2626 m

CALCULATION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY(C.G)
X=

=

= 2.642
Y=

(

)
=

(

)
=18.43 m
C.G of wing(2.642, 18.43)


AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
49



7.CALCULATION OF WETTED SURFACE AREA:

FRONTAL AREA:
Frontal area=

d
2

=

*6.072
2

=28.95m
2
Length of the fuselage l
f
=70.08m

7.1 WING AREA:
Wing area
w w
b *t =

Wing area,
S=86.007*.6565
=56.46 m
2

7.2 HORIZONTAL TAIL:

ht ht
HT
S t * b =

B
ht
=√

=
=30.37m
t
ht
/C
ht
=.1823
S
ht
=b
ht
*C
hr
[

)]
99.20=21.259

C
hr
=4.666m

ht ht
HT
S t * b =

AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
50

=0.85061*30.37
=25.83m
2
VERTICAL TAIL:
S
vt
= t
vt
*b
vt
b
vt
=√

s
vt
=53.67

t
vt
/c
r
= 0.1823
b
vt
=
b
vt
=22.34m
t
vt
=0.1823*3.98
=0.7555
s
vt
= 0.7255*27.3
=16.20m
2

ENGINE:

=

* 3.54
2

=9.84m
2

For two engines
=2*9.84
=19.68m
2
Under carriage or landing gear:
Assuming 90% of engine area for main landing gear
So, = 0.9*19.68m
2

= 17.712m
2

Neglect the drag of the nose wheel landing gear
AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
51

¼ of the flap
S =

* *r
2

r = 0.2*C
r
=0.2*13.21
=2.642m
S =

**2.642
2

S=0.9137m
2

Full flap
(Wetted area where full flap is deflected)
S =

* *r
2

r =2.642
=38.5
o

S m
2



SL:NO WETTED AREA
D
C
t

2
S (m )
t
D
C *S
t t

1 Fuselage 0.03 28.95 0.8685
2 Horizontal tail 0.008 56.46 0.45168
3 Vertical tail 0.008 25.86 0.20688
4 Wing 0.008 16.20 0.1296
5 Engine 0.01 17.712 0.17712
6 Landing gear 0.04 19.68 0.7872
7 ¼ flap 0.035 0.9137 0.03197
8 full flap 0.0504 2.345 0.1181


AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
52

8. THREE VIEWS OF THE AICRAFT :
8.1 FRONT VIEW




´:´´l
.:±´
:´l±
¯±_ ¯±_




8.2 SIDE VIEW

l´´´


AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
53

8.3 TOP VIEW
l´´´ ¯±
·]_Ò]]
¯_¯_
.¯±.


















AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
54

MATERIAL SELECTION


Several factors influence the choice of a material for different parts of an aircraft.
High Strength to weight is the chief among them. Other factors include stiffness,
toughness, resistance to fatigue, corrosion resistance, ease of fabrication,
availability, consistency of supply and of course cost. The main groups of
materials used have been wood, steel, aluminium alloys, titanium alloys and
fibre reinforced composites. Let us have a bird’s eye view of the different
categories of materials used.


WOOD:
The first generation of aircrafts was fabricated with wood and canvas. The
strength to weight ratio of the Spruce and birch varieties of wood used was
moderately high and equal to that of the present day heat treated aluminium
alloys. The effect of moisture and humidity made the use of wood less advisable
as it caused inconsistency in the properties of the material. Changes in shape and
dimensions also resulted. Though wood was made use in the manufacture of
wing spars for its good properties, the increased wing loadings and complex
structural forms of turbo jets has brought its usage to an end.


STEEL:
Steel delivered high modulus of elasticity, high proof stress and high tensile
strength to the manufacturer. However, it exhibited very high specific gravity
which limited its usage. Thin walled, box section spars were fabricated using
steel. Carbon present in steel though produces necessary hardening, causes
brittleness and distortion. So, a new family called maraging steels were
manufactured involving either no or very less carbon content in it. Typical
maraging steel would have these elements present in the proportions: nickel 17-
19%, cobalt 8-9%, molybdenum 3-3.5% and titanium 0.15-0.25%. The cost of
manufacture of maraging steel is very high, about three times that of the
conventional one. Arrestor hooks, rocket motor casings, helicopter under
carriages, gears and ejector seats are few components manufactured using
maraging steel.


AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
55

ALUMINIUM ALLOYS:
The three major groups of aluminium alloys used for airframe construction
are Nickel free duralumin, derivatives of Y alloy and the aluminium-zinc-
magnesium group. The type of alloy used varies for different requirements of the
aircraft and also on the type of aircraft used. But the major disadvantage of
aluminium alloys is that one property is increased by sacrificing many other
properties. For instance, the duralumin alloys possess a lower static strength than
the zinc-bearing alloy, but are preferred for portions of the structure where
fatigue considerations are of primary importance such as the under-surfaces of
wings where tensile fatigue loads predominate.


TITANIUM ALLOYS:
Titanium alloys are mostly used in combat aircrafts than in transport
aircrafts. They possess high fatigue strength to tensile strength ratio, good
corrosion and fatigue resistance. But exposure to temperature and presence of
salt environment greatly affect these properties. Moreover high density imposes
weight constraints on the material.


COMPOSITE MATERIALS:
Composite materials consist of strong fibers such as glass and carbon set
in a matrix of plastic or resin. They are mechanically and chemically protective.
They have very high strength to weight ratios. Weight saving is a major
advantage while using composite materials. However, failure of a composite is
not clearly defined yet and also repair of this class of materials is still a topic
under study. This is an emerging class of materials.












AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
56







Material AISI
alloy
steel
4340
5 Cr-
Mo-V
Steel
6A1-4V
Titanium
alloy
Inconel
X
Nickel
Alloy
8 Mn
Titanium
alloy
A261A
Mg Alloy
7075
Al
Alloy
F
tu
ksi 260 280 130 155 120 39 79
F
ty
ksi 217 240 120 100 110 24 69
F
cu
ksi 242 260 125 105 110 14 69
F
sy
ksi 149 170 80 108 84 19 47
e % 10 7 10 20 10 9 6
E *10
6

psi
29 30 16 31 15.5 6.3 10.3
E
c
*10
6

psi
29 30 16.4 31 16 6.3 10.5
w lb in
-3
0.283 0.281 0.16 0.304 0.171 0.0647 0.101
Form Bar Bar Bar Sheet Sheet,
plate
Extruded
bar
Sheet,
plate


From the above table, based on the strength to weight ratio, 7075 Al Alloy is the
best suited material for the wing spar design as well as the aircraft skin.








DETAILED WING DESIGN
SPAR DESIGN:
Spars are members which are basically used to carry the bending and shear
loads acting on the wing during flight. There are two spars, one located at 15-
25% of the chord known as the front spar, the other located at 60-70% of the
AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
57

chord known as the rear spar. Some of the functions of the spar include:
× They form the boundary to the fuel tank located in the wing.
× The spar flange takes up the bending loads whereas the web carries the
shear loads.
× The rear spar provides a means of attaching the control surfaces on the
wing.
Considering these functions, the locations of the front and rear spar are
fixed at 0.175c and 0.758985c respectively. The AG04 airfoil is drawn to scale
using any design software and the chord thickness at the front and rear spar
locations are found to be 0.356m and 0.134m respectively.
The spar design for the wing root has been taken because the maximum
bending moment and shear force are at the root. It is assumed that the flanges
take up all the bending and the web takes all the shear effect. The maximum
bending moment for high angle of attack condition is 750527.6785 Nm. the ratio
in which the spars take up the bending moment is given as
(M
fr
/M
r
) = (h
1
2
/h
2
2
) = (0.356
2
/0.134
2
) = 7.05814
M
fr
+M
r
= 750527.6785 Nm
From the above two equations, M
fr
= 657388.6069 Nm, M
r
= 93139.07161 Nm
The yield tensile stress σ
y
for 7075 Al Alloy is 455.053962 MPa. The area of the
flanges is determined using the relation
σ
y
= Mz/(A*z
2
)
where M is bending moment taken up by each spar,
A is the flange area of each spar,
z is the centroidal distance of the area = h/2.
Using the available values,
Area of front spar A
fr
= 81.15948 cm
2
, Area of rear spar A
r
= 30.5488 cm
2

Each flange of the spar is made of two angle sections. For the front spar,
the length of the angle is 6t, angle height is 5t with angle thickness t. Area for
each angle of front spar is found to be 20.288 cm
2
and hence value of t is found
to be 1.455947 cm.
Front spar - Dimensions of each angle:
Length = 8.735682 cm
Height = 7.27974 cm Thickness = 1.455947 cm.





AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
58





CONCLUSION:

We have come to a completion of the conceptual design of an
aircraft. Aircaft design involves a variety of faculties of the field of Aeronautical
engineering structures, performance, aerodynamics, stability etc. this project has
enabled us to get a taste of what it is to design a real aircraft. The fantasies of the
flying world seem to be much more than what we thought. With this design
project as the base, we will strive to progress in the field of airplane design and
maintenance. We convey our heartfelt gratitude to all of them who have provided
their helping hand in the completion of this project.













AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
59

BIBLOGRAPHY:

REFERENCES:
Aerodynamic design:
1. Jane’s All the world’s aircraft
2. Aircraft design – a conceptual approach – Daniel P. Raymer
3. Design of aircraft – Thomas Corke
4. Aircraft Performance – J.D. Anderson
5. Aircraft performance, Stability and control – Perkins and Hage
6. Fluid dynamic Drag - Hoerner
7. Summary of airfoil data – Abbott, Doenhoff and Stivers
8. www.airliners.net
9. www.wikipedia.org
10. www.aerospaceweb.org

Structural design:
1. Analysis of Aircraft structures – Bruhn
2. Aircraft Structures for engineering students – T.H.G Megson
3. Aircraft structures – Peery and Azar
4. Airplane design – Jan Roskam
5. Airframe Stress Analysis and Sizing – Niu
1. Analysis of Aircraft structures – Bruhn
2. Aircraft Structures for engineering students – T.H.G Megson
3. Aircraft structures – Peery and Azar
4. Airplane design – Jan Roskam
5. Airframe Stress Analysis and Sizing – Niu

AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
60


www.NASA.org
www.ZAP16.com
www.AIRLINERS.COM
Few websites followed,
www.Propulsion.org
www.ADL.GETCH.edu
www.wikipedia.org



























AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
61







BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this report “A DESIGN PROJECT OF FOUR HUNDRED
SEATER TWIN ENGINE PASSENGER AIRCRAFT’’ is the bonafide work of
ANOOJ.M (32207101001) who carried out the project work under my
supervision.



SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

SARAVANAN.G CHOCKAPPAN.N
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR
Aeronautical engineering, Lecturer,
D.S. College of Engineering & Technology, D.S. College of Engineering&
Chennai- 603104. Technology, Chennai-603104.





AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
62


Internal Examiner External Examiner

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this report “A DESIGN PROJECT OF FOUR HUNDRED
SEATER TWIN ENGINE PASSENGER AIRCRAFT’’ is the bonafide work of
DILIP SANKAR.S (32207101006) who carried out the project work under my
supervision.



SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

SARAVANAN.G CHOCKAPPAN.N
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR
Aeronautical engineering, Lecturer,
D.S. College of Engineering & Technology, D.S. College of Engineering&
Chennai- 603104. Technology, Chennai-603104.






Internal Examiner External Examiner

AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
63



BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this report “A DESIGN PROJECT OF FOUR HUNDRED
SEATER TWIN ENGINE PASSENGER AIRCRAFT’’ is the bonafide work of
DURAI KESAVAN.D (32207101007) who carried out the project work under my
supervision.



SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

SARAVANAN.G CHOCKAPPAN.N
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR
Aeronautical engineering, Lecturer,
D.S. College of Engineering & Technology, D.S. College of Engineering&
Chennai- 603104. Technology, Chennai-603104.






Internal Examiner External Examiner



AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
64

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this report “A DESIGN PROJECT OF FOUR HUNDRED
SEATER TWIN ENGINE PASSENGER AIRCRAFT’’ is the bonafide work of
ARIF AHAMED.B (32207101002) who carried out the project work under my
supervision.



SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

SARAVANAN.G CHOCKAPPAN.N
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR
Aeronautical engineering, Lecturer,
D.S. College of Engineering & Technology, D.S. College of Engineering&
Chennai- 603104. Technology, Chennai-603104.






Internal Examiner External Examiner




AIRCRAFT DESIGN PROJECT-I
65

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this report “A DESIGN PROJECT OF FOUR HUNDRED
SEATER TWIN ENGINE PASSENGER AIRCRAFT’’ is the bonafide work of
CHANDRA MOHAN.R (32207101004) who carried out the project work under
my supervision.



SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

SARAVANAN.G CHOCKAPPAN.N
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR
Aeronautical engineering, Lecturer,
D.S. College of Engineering & Technology, D.S. College of Engineering&
Chennai- 603104. Technology, Chennai-603104.






Internal Examiner External Examiner

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