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The Textile Pipeline Clothing from Fiber to Consumer Fibers: - Natural, Man-made, Blends ↓ Yarns: - Staple fiber, Continuous Filament ↓ Textiles: - Woven, Knits, Nonwovens ↓ Textile Finishing: - Coloration, Mechanical Finishing, Chemical Finishing ↓ Clothing Manufacture ↓ Retailing: - Chain Stores, Independents ↓ Consumer: - Use, After use ↓ Disposal/ Recycling: - Recovery, incineration
Natural Fibers Vegetable Mineral
Man- Made Fibers Natural Polymers
Cotton Kapok Coconut Flax Hemp Jute Ramie Sisal Manila
Animal (Protein) Wool Fine Hair Wool Virgin Wool Alpaca, Llama, Vicuna, Guanaco, Camel, Rabbit, Angora, Mohair, Cashmere, Yak Cattle, Horse, Goat Cultivated, Wild tussah
Coarse Hair Silk
Mineral Rock Fibers Asbestos
Man-Made Fibers Natural Polymers Cellulosic Viscose, Lyocell, Modal, Cupro, Acetate. Triacetate
Synthetic Polymers Elastomeric Fluorofibers Polyacrylics Polyamides Chlorofibers Polyesters Polyolefins Vinylal Elastane Fluoro Acrylic, Modacrylic Nylon, Aramid Vinyl Chloride, Vinylidene Chloride Polyester Polyethylene, Polypropylene Poly Vinyl Alcohol
Inorganics Glass Glass
fabrics. unless there are compensating properties. 4. the length of filaments may range from a few hundred meters. Flexibility: Fibers must be bendable. or fabrics. yarns. Fabric: A planar substance constructed from solutions. yarns. that have the quality of drapability and the capacity to move with the body and that permit freedom of movement. Weak fibers. or any combination of these. A fiber or staple fiber is a unit of matter which is usually at least 100 times longer than it is thick. in case of silk. thus. In case of man-made fibers they are several kilometers long. fabrics. yarns. This quality is referred to as a high length to width or length to breadth ratio. or products made of fibers. These fibers are referred to as regenerated fibers. Fiber Properties Primary Fiber properties 1. Most apparel fibers range in length from about 15mm to 150mm. fibers. Regenerated Fibers: Manufactured fibers are produced from naturally occurring polymers. These polymers do not naturally occur as fibers. twisted or laid together so as to form a continuous strand that can be made into textile fabric. 3. Spun Yarn: Spun yarns are continuous strands of staple fibers held together by some mechanism. Yarn: An assemblage of fibers. or flexible if they are to be made into yarns and fabrics that can be creased. pliable. Spinning Quality or cohesiveness: Cohesiveness can best be described as the . will result in textile products that break apart at an early stage of service. 2. processing is needed to convert them into fiber form. A filament is a very long fiber. A fiber must flex repeatedly in order to be classified as pliable. with exceptions like flax ranges up to 500mm and sometimes even longer. it must always be sufficient to withstand chemical and machine processing of the fibers as well as to provide durability in the end product.Textile: A term generally applied to fibers. Often the mechanism is a mechanical twist that takes advantage of the fiber’s irregularities and natural cohesiveness to bind the fibers together into one yarn. High length to width ratio: Fibers must be considerably longer than they are wide to permit processing into yarns and fabrics. Tenacity: Strength varies among different kinds of fibers. The thickness of filaments tends to be similar to that of fibers. Finish: Any process used to convert gray goods (unfinished fabric) into finished fabric. The thickness of these fibers tends to range about 10µm to 50µm.
Specific gravity: The specific gravity of a fiber indicates the density relative to that of water. either raising it or reducing it by means of added pigments or other modifying processes. This water is called moisture regain and is expressed as a percentage of the weight of the moisture-free fiber. It helps to determine a fabric’s . It depends upon the amount of light reflected by a fiber and determines the fiber’s natural brightness or dullness. Fabrics composed of fibers such as nylon or acrylic (with low density). 5. snagging or roughening of surface texture. Resiliency: The ability of a fiber to return to shape after compression. 5. fabric thickness. In manufactured fibers it is possible to control the degree of luster. The cohesiveness of fibers may be due to the longitudinal contour or the cross-section shape that enables them to fit together And adhere to each other. A few fibers have no regained at all. silk inherently has a high luster. bending. The density of water at that temperature is 1. A fiber with extremely high elongation but medium to low elastic recovery might be undesirable. others are weaker when wet. The spinning quality of a fiber may be seen in such characteristics as yarn fineness. Uniformity will produce even yarns and. Some fibers are stronger when wet than dry. surface irregularities and cross section. They are responsible for certain differences in yarn and fabric properties. 4. Elastic Recovery and Elongation: The amount of stretch or extension that a fiber will accept is referred to as elongation. in spinning quality. the care must be taken during laundering to prevent undue stress on the wet fiber. cotton a low luster. creasing or similar deformation is called resiliency. Without cohesiveness or spinning quality. and in flexibility. Secondary Properties: 1. Luster: Luster refers to the gloss or shine that a fiber possesses. Fibers with good moisture regain will accept dyes and finishes more readily than fibers with low regain. because the product would not return to size after extension. 2. Physical Shape: In addition to the high length-to-breadth ratio. 6. Among natural fibers. or it may result from the surface or skin structure of the fibers. appearance.ability of the fibers to stick together during fiber arranging or yarn manufacturing processes. Uniformity: For the processing of yarns it is important that fibers be similar in length and width. 3. Density measurements for comparison are made at 4ºC. which causes them to stick together. surface contour. Therefore. and durability. Moisture Regain and Moisture Absorption: Most textile fibers have a certain amount of water as an integral part of their structure. The fibers with a specific gravity of less than 1 will float on water. ultimately provide fabrics of uniform appearance that give relatively consistent service. fibers would not hold together properly. These properties serve as the basis for a description of both the macroscopic (low magnification) and microscopic (high magnification) appearance of a fiber. the shape of a fiber includes such factors as average length. provided all other factors are identical. and this creates many problems in processing.
Burning Test: It is preliminary test. Flammability and Other Thermal Reactions: These indicate the behavior of individual fibers at various temperatures. Identification of a fiber type helps consumers to verify label content. god elastic recovery indicates good resiliency. Fiber identification is done by three main tests which are as follows: 1. 2. cotton & rayon among cellulosics. Knowledge of the chemical behavior of the fibers is of value to the consumers in the process of stain removal and laundering and dry cleaning of the textile items. but does not identify the fiber specifically. These are divided into following two categories (a) Category 1: This part of the chemical test is the confirmatory test for the wider group of the fibers like celluloses. Identification of textile fibers Fiber identification is a systematic procedure where the basic component and nature of the fiber is identified. It indicates the general fiber grouping and thus can provide valuable information for the appropriate care of the textile product.e. 7. (b) Category 2: This category identifies specific fiber from the wide group i. 3. After carefully lowering the cover slip on this fiber mount (ensuring that no air bubble is formed). Burning Test for Cellulosic fibers Fiber Approaching In the flame Away from Odor Flame Flame Residue . For this test the fibers are mounted on slides to obtain views of the longitudinal sections of the fibers. Chemical test: The chemical test finally confirms the fiber type. Microscopic Evaluation: It is possible to be quite specific in identification of some of the fibers by viewing them microscopically. proteins and synthetics. Single fibers are unraveled from their respective yarns and mounted on slides with a drop of glycerin. Thermal characteristics of textiles are important in their use and care. provides information for product care and performance of the textile item.crease recovery or smooth-surface. wool & silk among proteins etc. it is viewed under the microscope. Elastic recovery is a significant factor in the resiliency of a fiber or fabric and usually.
odor Hot molten drops fall while burning Residue Hard. crisp & crushable Brittle small bead like residue. fluffy. grey in color. melts and shrinks away from flame Burns rapidly and sputters Continues to Acidic burn & melt. crushable . quickly ignites on contact Does not Burns shrink away quickly Continues Smell of burning with burning an after glowpaper Continues Smell of burning with burning an after glowpaper Light.burning splutters ing hair Burns slowly Self Smell of extinguish. crisp and crushable Wool Burning test for Synthetic fibers Fiber Approaching In the Away from Odor Flame flame Flame Polyester Fuses.burning ing hair Black bead like residue. tough black/brown bead Hard black regular bead. easy to crush Light feathery residue in very small amount Rayon Burning Test for Protein Fibers Fiber Approaching In the flame Away from Odor Flame Flame Residue Silk Curls away from the flame Curls away from the flame Burns Self Smell of slowly and extinguish. melts Burns Self Smell of and shrinks slowly and extinguishing chemicals away from melts flame Acrylic Fuses.Cotton Does not Burns shrink away.
Silk Confirmed Wool confirmed Chemical test for Synthetic fibers S. Black ppt. Heat slightly Fiber dissolves 2. 2.The fiber chars 50% Sulphuric acid and heat and dissolves. Cool the above solution and add lead acetate White/No ppt. Acrylic confirmed . Experiment 1.Nylon Fuses. Observation Inference Could be silk or wool Boil the fiber in 5% solution of Fiber dissolves Sodium hydroxide 2. Experiment 1.No. Take the fiber and dip it in Fiber dissolves 60% sulphuric acid solution in a test tube and leave it for 5-10 Fiber does not minutes at room temperature dissolve (may disintegrate) Rayon confirmed Cotton confirmed Chemical test for Protein fibers S. tough and shrinks slowly and extinguishing odor black/brown away from melts bead flame Chemical test for Cellulosic fibers S. Observation Inference Nylon confirmed Add the fiber in 85% solution Fiber dissolves of Formic acid at room temperature Add the fiber in DMF (dimethyl formaldehyde) solution.No. Observation Inference Cellulosic fiber.No. melts Burns Self Synthetic Hard. could be cotton or rayon Take the fiber and dip it in 30. Experiment 1.
Add the fiber to meta-cresol solution. Heat Fiber dissolves on Polyester strong heating confirmed Maintain the sequence as both nylon and acrylic also get dissolved in meta-cresol but polyester gets dissolved only in meta-cresol.3. .
The cotton blossom. amount of foreign matter present and ginning preparation. where yarns and fabrics are made. which appears creamy white or light yellow on first day. or red on second day. Fiber grade depends on color. Cotton may be spotted or tinged. it changes to pink. After ginning and classification are complete. the cotton bales are shipped to manufacturers. It is cultivated in warm climates both humid and dry. lavender. Staple length refers to the length of the lint and is determined to some degree by the variety of cotton. Each bale weighs about 500 pounds gross. The fibers or cotton lint are packed into large bales at the gin. is separated form the seed. The color can vary from white to gray or yellow. bright or dull. it is taken to the gin. Cotton Plant Processing: After cotton has been picked. The petals drop off after 48 hours. Factors like staple length. leaving the boll or seed pod in which the fibers form. the grade and the character of the cotton. 50-80 days later the pod bursts open and fleecy cotton fibers are ready for picking. called cotton lint by the trade. The seeds are valuable by-product of the cotton industry and produce cattle feed and cottonseed oil.Natural Cellulosic Fiber: Cotton Growth & Production: Cotton plant is a member of Malvacae family. where the fiber. . The sample is taken form the bales for determining the class.
Longitudinal view Cross sectional view . while mature fibers have thick walls and small lumen. The cross section of the fiber shows these three layers.Fiber Properties Microscopic Properties: Cotton fibers are composed of outer cuticle and primary wall. The diameter of the fiber narrows at the tip. Immature fibers exhibit thin wall structures and large lumen. The contour varies some fibers are nearly circular. some are elliptical and some are kidney-shaped. a secondary wall. and a central core a lumen. The longitudinal view of the fiber shows a ribbon like shape with twist (convolutions) at irregular intervals.
elongation 3-7% Low 1. wet strength 110-120% of dry Low elasticity. most fibers 7/8 to 11/4 inch Width and length aid in distinguishing varieties Low 3-5 grams per denier. 15-25% at saturation Luster Strength Elastic recovery & Elongation Resiliency Specific gravity Moisture absorption Dimensional stability Considered relatively stable of fiber .Physical Properties Property Shape Evaluation Fairly uniform in width.5% at standard conditions. 12-20 microns length variable from ½ to 21/2 inches.54 8. medium strength.
Chemical Properties: Cotton is highly resistant to alkalis. but the process is slow and may not be immediately evident. Silverfish eat cotton cellulose.Thermal Properties: Cotton burns rapidly and quickly with the smell of burning paper. Most detergents and laundry aids are alkaline. Mildew will produce a disagreeable odor and will result in rotting and loss of strength. so cotton can be laundered in these solutions with no fiber damage. It leaves a small amount of fluffy gray ash. Long exposure to dry heat above 149ºC will cause the fiber to decompose gradually and temperatures greater than 246ºC will result in rapid deterioration. especially if it is sized. Prolonged exposure to sunlight causes the cotton fiber to become yellow and will gradually result in loss of strength. Biological Properties: Cotton is damaged by various microorganisms. and hot dilute acids will cause disintegration. . they are used in finishing and processing of fiber. Cotton is highly resistant to most organic solvents and to all those used in normal care and satin removal. Strong acids destroy cotton. Cold dilute acids cause gradual weakening.
Dew retting involves the spreading of flax on the ground.Natural Cellulosic Fiber: Flax Growth and Production: Flax is a bast fiber. Retting: To obtain the fibers from the stalk. It is obtained from the stalk or stem of the Linum usitatissimum. Harvesting occurs in late August when the plant is a rich golden brown color. The natural method of retting gives uneven results but provides the strongest and most durable linen. After drying. the outer woody portion must be removed. It requires a long period of time. This process is known as retting. where it is exposed to the action of dew and sunlight. . the flax is rippled. Flax seeds are planted by hand in April or May. the fibers become permanently discolored. The flax plant needs a temperate climate with generally cloudy skies and adequate moisture. Average exposure time is 4-6 weeks. It must have slightly acid soil to obtain the considerable nutritive value it requires. Processing: Pulling and Rippling: Flax for fiber is pulled by hand or by mechanical pullers to keep the roots intact. If flax is cut. that is it is pulled through special threshing machines that remove the seed pods or bolls.
Spinning: The flax fibers are drawn out into yarn. After retting the water is drained away and flax is dried. called tow. but it reduces the unpleasant smell associated with dew and pool retting and produces good quality flax. Breaking and Scutching: After retting the flax is passed between fluted rollers that break the outer woody covering into small particles. sodium carbonate or dilute acid. Stream retting is a process where the flax is stacked along the banks of slow moving streams. The fiber is then subjected to the scutching process. the flax fibers are hackled or combed. There are no convolutions but longitudinal lines or striations can be seen. uniform in size and strength. The points at which the fiber width changes are marked by swellings and irregular joint formations called nodes. giving slightly darker effect down the center. Longitudinal view of the fiber shows irregular width. Bacteria develop in water and rot away the stalk covering. This separates the short fibers. It is accomplished in a matter of hours instead of days or weeks. after scutching. Both pool and tank retting give good quality flax that is light in color. Tank retting. the twist is imparted. . called line. is similar to pool retting.Pool retting is a process in which flax is packed in sheaves and immersed in pools of stagnant water. In Chemical retting the flax is stacked in tanks containing water and chemical such as sodium hydroxide. The central canal or lumen casts a shadow. Pool retting requires from 2-4 weeks. It must be carefully controlled in order to prevent damage to the fiber. which separates the outer covering from the spinnable fiber. from long fibers. Hackling. The constant moving water slows down the retting procedure considerably. but wet spinning is considered to give the best quality yarn. Fiber Properties: Microscopic Properties: Flax fibers consist of fibrils or bundles of fiber cells held together by bonding or by a gummy substance. Flax fibers are spun either dry or wet.
Physical Properties Property Shape Evaluation Line fibers are quite long-usually more than 12 inches and frequently from 18-22 inches. There is a gradual loss of strength when linen fabrics are exposed to sunlight. elongation Low It has standard moisture regain of 12% Luster Strength Elastic recovery & Elongation Resiliency Moisture absorption Dimensional stability Flax fibers do not stretch or shrink to any marked of fiber degree Thermal Properties: Flax burns like any other cellulosic fiber.5 grams per denier. the thick outer wall. Inferior quality fiber having tenacity of 2. . It will withstand temperatures to 149˚C for a long period of time with little change. Immature flax may be oval in shape and usually has a larger lumen than mature fiber.5 grams per denier It is naturally stiff and resists bending. but it is damaged by hot dilute acids and concentrated acids. High natural luster. Above this temperature prolonged exposure will result in gradual discoloration and degradation.The cross section view clearly shows the lumen. produces attractive yarns and fabrics Strong fiber having tenacity 5. It has little elasticity. Tow fibers are less than 12 inches long and can be as short as a fraction of an inch. cool dilute acids and dry cleaning solvents. and somewhat polygonal shape. Chemical Properties: Flax is highly resistant to alkaline solutions.5 to 6.
It is resistant o household pests and insects. In a moist humid atmosphere. . mildew will grow rapidly and damage the fiber.Biological Properties: Dry linen has excellent resistance to mildew.
Natural Protein Fiber
Natural protein fibers are of animal origin: wool and specialty wools are the hair and fur of animals and silk is the secretion of the silkworm. Wool Wool was one of the first fibers to be spun into yarns and woven into cloth. Wool has a combination of properties that are unequaled by any manufactured fiber: ability to be shaped by heat and moisture, good moisture absorption with out feeling wet, excellent heat retention, water repellency, felt ability, and flame retardance. Sheep were probably among the first animals domesticated. The covering of primitive sheep consisted of a long, hairy outer coat (kemp) and a light, downy undercoat. Sheep are generally sheared once a year in the spring. The fleece is removed with power shears. Wool can be sheared from the living animal or pulled from the hide after the animal has been slaughtered for its meat. The sheared wool is called fleece or clip wool. Wool taken from the slaughtered animal hide is called pulled wool and is inferior quality. The sheared (or pulled) wool is raw wool or grease wool. It contains impurities such as sand, dirt, grease, and dried sweat (suint), which account for 30-70 % of the weight of the fleece. Grease is a valuable by product; in its purified state, it is lanolin used in manufacturing creams, cosmetics, soaps and ointments. The best quality wool comes from the sides, shoulders and back; the poorest wool comes from the lower legs. Different qualities of wool are used differently. Fine wool may be used in a light weight worsted fabric while coarse wool could be used in carpets. The quality of wool is based on fineness and length and does not imply durability because fine fibers are not as durable as coarse fibers. Fineness, color, crimp, strength, length, and elasticity are characteristics that vary with the breed of the sheep. Construction of Wool Fiber: The wool fiber is made up of a cuticle, cortex and medulla. Medulla: When present, is a honey-comb like core containing air spaces that increase the insulating power of the fiber. It appears as a dark area when seen through the microscope, but is usually absent in the fine wool.
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Cortex: The cortex is the main part of the fiber. It is made up of long, flattened, cigarshaped cells with a nucleus near the center. In natural-colored wools, the cortical cells contain melanin, a colored pigment. The inner layer of wool fiber is divided into halves the paracortex and ortocortex. These two cells absorb moisture to different extents hence they expand and contract by different amounts causing bending of the fiber, which results in a crimp pattern along the length of fiber. The 'two-halves' arrangement is generally found and is more pronounced in finer wools and usually absent in coarse fine wools (if present the waves are long and irregular). The crimp gives the fibers elasticity and resilience that allows wool to be bent and twisted over 30,000 times without danger of breaking or being damaged. The natural elasticity allows wool to be stretched by as much as one third and then bounce back into place making it perfect for carpet that engages heavy furniture and footsteps. The irregular lengthwise waviness gives wool fabrics three very important properties: cohesiveness, elasticity, and loft (bulk). Crimp help individual fibers cling together in a yarn, which increases the strength of the yarn. Elasticity is increased because crimp helps the fiber act like a spring. Crimp also is an important factor in the loft that wool fabrics exhibit. Because of the crimp of the fibers, yarns and fabrics made from wool are lofty or bulky and retain this loftiness throughout use. Cuticle: The cuticle consists of an epicuticle and a horny, non fibrous layer of scales. The epicuticle is thin, non protein membrane that covers the scales. This layer gives water repellency to the fiber, but is easily damaged by mechanical treatment. The scale covering gives wool its abrasion resistance and felting property. Wool absorbs moisture (is hygroscopic). It can absorb about 1/3 of its mass of water vapor without feeling wet. The moisture is released only slowly. In spite of the strong affinity for water of the fiber interior, its surface is water repellent (hydrophobic) because it is covered by an extremely thin skin, the epicuticle. The skin causes liquid water to roll up into droplets although allowing the passage of water vapor. The makeup of wool makes it water resistant and breathable. When wool comes into contact with water the cuticles cause water to form beads and run off the fiber. Whilst wool repels moisture in a liquid form, it will absorb moisture vapor from the atmosphere at times of high humidity. This causes chemical reactions to take place that release energy giving the fiber a warming effect. Wool can absorb up to one third of its own weight in moisture without feeling damp. The moisture is released back into the air when the atmosphere is dryer. This evaporation allows the damp wool to remain absorbent and comfortable. Chemical Composition and molecular arrangement of wool Wool fiber is a protein called keratin. It is the same protein that is found in human hair, fingernails, horns and hooves. Keratin consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. These combine to form over 17 different amino acids. The wool molecule consists of flexible molecular chains held together by natural cross links -cystine (or sulfur)
linkages and salt bridges-that connect adjacent molecules. When wool is pulled, its inherent tendency is to recover its original shape; the cross links are very important in this recovery. If cross links are damaged, the structure is destroyed and recovery cannot occur. In wool molecule about 40% of the chains are in spiral formation, with hydrogen bonding occurring between the closer parts. The spiral formation works like a spring and is also important in the resilience, elongation, and elastic recovery of wool fibers. The cystine linkage is the most important part of the molecule. Any chemical, such as alkali, that damages this linkage can destroy the entire structure. In the controlled reactions the linkage can be broken and then reformed.
Structural Formula of wool molecule
32 1.36-16.0 Felting Shrinkage: When wool yarns are subjected to mechanical action. This is the area through which food reaches the fiber during growth. Fine wool does not have as clear and distinct scales as coarse wool. Fine wool from 1 ½ to 5 inches long.30-1. It contains the pigment that gives color to the fibers. Some are exceptionally stiff and coarse and are called Kemp. medium from 2 ½ to 6 inches long and coarse wools from 5 to 15 inches. The outer layer is called the epidermis and is composed of the scales. . and coarse wools about 40 microns. which accounts for about 90 percent of the fiber mass. Medium Luster Strength-gpd Dry-20-40 Wet-20-70+ Resiliency Density Moisture absorption 20˚ (70˚ F) 65% R. Width-15-70 microns. such as agitation or abrasion combined with heat and moisture. In the center is the medulla.Excellent 1.H. Physical Properties: Shape Length. they tend to become entangled and matted. medium from 24 to 34 microns. The cross section of wool shows three distinct parts of the fiber. The major portion of the fiber is the cortex. Fine wool such as Merino having diameter of 15 to 70 microns.Microscopic Properties The length of the wool fiber shows a scale like structure.11/2 inches-15 inches. The size of the scale varies from very small to comparatively broad and large.
causing the fabric or product to shrink. A crisp. upholstery. which. Thermal Properties: Wool burns slowly in the presence of flame with a slight sputtering. Solvents used in cleaning and stain removal for wool fabrics have no deleterious effects. Specialty and Fur Fibers Fibers from animals such as goat. The elasticity and elongation of wool means that it will be extended during yarn manufacturing. warm and comfortable. Cashmere is similar to wool in most properties. Wool is resistant to mild or dilute acids. Strong detergents or soap should be avoided. but strong concentrated mineral acids will bring about its decomposition. They are available in limited quantities and are desired for special characteristics. Cashmere: It is a fiber of the cashmere (Kashmir) goat. and will destroy the fiber. Chemical Properties: Wool is damaged by alkaline substances. They are naturally crease resistant. It is self-extinguishing. Biological Properties: It has good resistance to bacteria and mildew. brittle.Relaxation Shrinkage: Wool fabrics are likely to shrink after weaving or knitting. and will return to their original length. If wool is stored in an atmosphere where moisture is present. medium. the fiber is expensive. Since the yearly production of true cashmere is very small. The larvae of the clothes moth and of the carpet beetle are the most common predators on wool. which is raised in Asia. can be constructed into thick. and llama are referred to as specialty fibers. Moisture tends to release the tension of yarns. or lightweight fabrics. Its major advantages include resistance to wear and abrasion. mildew will form. and draperies may be of mohair or of a blend including mohair fibers. It can produce either fine or thick yarns. a high degree of luster. Suiting and sportswear fabrics. flexible and elastic. black. appropriate to both warm and cool climates. rugs. The cashmere fiber is highly adaptable. in turn. and the odor is of burning hair. absorbent. except that it is more easily damaged by alkalies. Mohair: Mohair is the fiber of the Angora goat. Wool is ironed at temperature below 140˚C. bead-shaped residue is formed as wool burns. Steam or damp press cloth should always be used. Wool in Use: Woolen and worsted fabrics are widely used throughout the world. alpaca. Wool deteriorates when prolonged exposed to sunlight. Yarns are held in a partially extended state during knitting and weaving. Mohair resembles wool in both physical and chemical properties. excellent resiliency and adaptability to complex yarns and textured fabrics. Chlorine bleaches damage the fiber and in concentrated form will dissolve it. . 5% sodium hydroxide will dissolve the fiber. camel.
and prestige value.Camel Hair: The Bactrian or two-humped camel is the source of camel-hair fiber. Camel hair is used in coating fabrics. It is used for coats. This is one of the softest fibers in the world. because it gives a fluffy. plush upholstery. and linings. muskrat. Vicuna: The most valuable and most prized hair fiber is that taken from the vicuna. The fine fibers which are separated from the coarse guard hairs are used in fabric manufacturing. They are added to fabrics primarily for softness. Llama: It is also a member of camel family. color interest. Alpaca fabrics appear in suits. The angora fiber from Angora rabbit appears frequently in knitting yarns and in knitted fabrics. It is light in weight and very warm. but the fine. sportswear. and knitted products. . beaver. dresses. chinchilla. The outer camel fibers are coarse and utilized only in low-quality merchandise. raccoon. and rabbit. Camel hair possesses thermal properties similar to those of wool that keep the wearer warm in extremely cold weather. Alpaca: The alpaca is a member of the camel family. The fibers are strong and glossy and make fabrics similar in appearance to mohair. Fur Fibers: These are obtained from mink. silky appearance to products. It is fine and lustrous and has a lovely cinnamon brown or light tan color. alpaca offers excellent warmth and insulation. Like camel hair. white. fox. nutria. Coarse camel hair fibers are used in industry for special belting and in artist’s brushes. and is strong enough to make very desirable fabrics. short under hairs are as soft and fine as top-quality wool. The Llama produces fibers similar to those of the alpaca and is found in the same geographical area. Natives make blankets out of the coarse fibers. suit fabrics and soft shawls and capes.
The ends are collected.Silk Sericulture (Growth and Production): Silk is produced by the larvae of several moths. The cocoons are placed in hot water to soften the gum. it solidifies into silk filaments. As the liquid emerges into the air. and the surfaces are brushed lightly to find the ends of the filaments. threaded through a guide. hence the name reeling. The silkworm extrudes the liquid fiber from two tiny orifices or spinneret’s in its head. and wound onto a wheel called a reel. . The fibers are coated with the gummy substance called sericin. but the Bombyx mori is the only one raised under controlled conditions. Processing: Reeling: Silk filaments are unwound from the cocoons in a manufacturing plant called a filature.
Thus silk is highly oriented. The presence of gum or sericin increases the tendency for silk to water spot. giving silk its elasticity. Chemical Composition and Molecular structure The protein in silk is fibroin. which gives the fiber its strength. The molecular chains are not folded as in wool. Silk has reactive amino (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) groups. called fibroin is composed of about fifteen amino acids hooked together in long molecular chains.Throwing: As the fibers are combined and pulled onto the reel. Silk has no cross linkages and no bulky side chains. Sericin. It is left on through the fabric construction process. Spinning: Short ends of silk fibers from the outer and inner edges of the cocoons and from broken cocoons are spun into yarns in a manner similar to that used for cotton. and the resulting yarn is thrown yarn. twist can be inserted to hold the filaments together. This is called throwing. As with all fibers there are some amorphous areas between the crystalline areas. De-gumming: Sericin remains on the fibers during reeling and throwing. Before finishing the gum is removed by boiling the fabric in soap and water. which contains 15 amino acids in polypeptide chains. the gum that holds the filaments together is also a protein substance. The actual fiber protein. . but are almost fully extended and packed closely together. Fiber Properties: Silk is natural protein fiber.
transparent rod. Wet: 33-35 . % elastic recovery % elongation 92 at 2% extension Dry: 10-25. less regular surface.H. 65% R. wet: 2.0-4. The two filaments are called brins. usually measures 1000 to 1300 yards and can be as long as 3000 yards.Microscopic Properties Longitudinal View: Cultivated de-gummed silk resembles a smooth. Wild silk is uneven and is tan to light brown in color. Color: Off-white to cream. Dry: 2.25-1. Fibers are smooth. high.4-5. Width: 9 to 11 microns. Wild silk tends to be uneven and darker. This can be explained by the fact that two filaments are extruded simultaneously by each silkworm. Wild silks have duller luster because of their coarser size. and presence of sericin.3 Luster Strength-gpd Resiliency Medium Density 1. Two filaments usually lie with their flat sides together.34 Moisture 11 absorption 20˚C. It may have longitudinal striations. If gum is still present fiber surfaces are rough and irregular. Physical Properties: Shape and appearance Fine and long.1. Cross-sectional View: It shows triangular fibers with no markings.
and ammonia cause little damage to silk unless they remain in contact with the fabric for a long time. used in sportswear. Weak alkalies such as soap.Thermal Properties: Silk will burn directly in the path of flame. lingerie. blouse and shirt fabrics. men’s and women’s suits. It is attacked by carpet beetles. Cleaning solvents and spot removing agents do not damage silk. dress. which results in the build up of static charges. Like other protein fibers it has lower thermal or heat conductivity than cellulosic fibers. Silk in use: Silk has been queen of fibers for centuries. Silk is poor conductor of electricity. Chemical properties: Silk is damaged by strong alkalies and will dissolve in heated caustic soda. Hydrogen peroxide and perborate bleaches can be used safely. organic acids do not damage and are used in finishing processes. Sunlight tends to accelerate the breakdown of silk. Rustling and crunching sound is developed by exposure to organic acids. While mineral acids can dissolve silk and cause contraction and shrinkage. but chlorine bleaches cause fiber disintegration. After removal from flame it sputters and eventually extinguishes itself. Biological properties: Silk resists attack by mildew and most other bacteria and fungi. It scotches easily if ironed with temperatures above 149˚C and white silk will turn yellow if pressed with a hot iron. brittle ash and gives off an odor like that of burning hair or feathers. Silk offers variety of fabrics. It is used as luxury fabrics and for high fashion items. and decorator fabrics for home and offices. . It leaves a crisp. borax.
Preparing a viscous or syrupy dope. Example: acrylics.Regenerated Fibers Man-made fiber spinning processes All manufactured fiber spinning processes are based on these three general steps: 1. Polymer Solution metering pump take up spinneret drawing winding Dry Spinning: The polymer solution is extruded into a stream of warm air which evaporates the volatile solvent and solidifies the filaments. Wet spinning: The polymer solution is extruded into a bath containing chemicals which neutralize the solvent and coagulate (solidify) the filaments. acrylics. Examples: viscose. There are three major types of process for spinning man-made fibers. polymer solution coagulation bath metering pump warm air spinneret solvent winding drawing . Extruding the dope through a spinneret to form a fiber. a fluid in which the filaments are formed. 2. 3. and a take up mechanism which draws the filaments and winds them onto a package. a spinning jet (spinneret). evaporation or cooling. acetate. Solidifying the fiber by coagulation. They have several basic elements in common: a reservoir and a metering pump for the fiber forming material.
The manufactured cellulosic fibers. determine the final filament diameter. according to requirements. Manufactured protein fibers.Melt Spinning: The molten polymer is extruded into a cold air stream which cools the melt and solidifies the filaments. Acetate burns freely. furnishings and industrial products. Man-Made Cellulosic Fiber: Rayon Manufactured fibers are produced from naturally occurring polymers. melts and decomposes to a black char. thus processing is needed to convert them into fiber form. The manufactured cellulosic fibers appear similar microscopically. polyester. . Spinneret size. molten polymer metering pump spinneret cold air winding drawing After the filaments have been extruded and solidified. There are two groups of manufactured or regenerated fibers: cellulosic and protein. These fibers are referred to as regenerated fibers.rayon and acetate are more important and are used in apparel. Rayon burns like cotton or flax. This enables the production of filaments having different cross sections. These polymers do not naturally occur as fibers. Drawing can also be a separate process. Cellulosic man-made fibers can be classified according to the solvent system which is used to convert the cellulose raw material into spinnable solution. plus spinning and drawing conditions. The holes in the spinneret may be circular or some other shape. azlon are made by dissolving and re-solidifying protein substances from animal or grain sources. The solubility test can differentiate between the two. since none of other fibers dissolves in acetone. The acetone test is a specific identification test for acetate. Both have striations and irregular cross sections. Examples: nylon. they are drawn out between rollers having different speeds.
These sheets are steeped in an alkaline solution (sodium hydroxide solution). This process changes its color from white to bright orange and results in a product called sodium cellulose xanthate. skeining and coning . to form soda cellulose. and then allowed to aged for a specific time. purified wood pulp caustic soda or cotton linters solution Steeping press sodium hydroxide solution dissolving shredder storage tank ageing unit carbon disulfide xanthanting filter feed tank spin bath to desulfurizing. the soda cellulose is shredded. The acid reacts with the solution. The filaments are thoroughly washed to remove any residual color and impurities that might adhere to the fibers. After pressing off excess liquor. Ageing causes a reduction in the length of the cellulose molecules. The viscose solution is pumped to the spinning tanks. This penetrates into the molecular bundles and loosens their structure. The solution is aged until it reaches the correct viscosity or thickness. The xanthate is dissolved in dilute sodium hydroxide. After aging it is being treated with carbon disulphide. They are processed and pure cellulose is extracted and formed into thin sheets about 2 feet square. causing pure cellulose to coagulate into filament fibers.RAYON Rayon received its name in 1924. bleaching. to form fibers. Manufacturing processes: The principal raw material of viscose rayon is wood pulp and cotton linters. drying. washing. This method of making fibers is called wet spinning. delivered to the spinning machines. which makes them easier to dissolve. before that it had been called artificial silk. and forced by pump through spinnerets into a dilute acid bath. and becomes honey-colored liquid. twisting.
and chemical properties. A new process has been developed. Special viscose fiber: Most leading manufacturers of viscose rayon produce it in different tenacities. The fibers then move to the spinning machines. and since the use of carbon disulphide is avoided. and high tenacity viscose rayon differ primarily in strength and to some degree in the elongation properties. and better textile performance properties. both wet and dry. then dissolved in a solution of ammonia. so to reduce the luster a chemical usually titanium dioxide. Fiber Composition: Viscose: Chemically. The most important modification available is high-wet modulus viscose rayon or Modal fibers achieved by changing proportions of chemicals used in the coagulating bath and by elimination of ageing. the new process is much more environmentally friendly. copper sulphate. so a new generic name. rinsed. After fiber formation it is again cellulose and is regenerated cellulose. Since almost all of the solvent can be recovered and re-used. and caustic soda. Its fibers are more like cotton than other rayons in their mechanical. where they are washed. The spinning solution is pumped through the spinnerets into a funnel through which soft water is running. The resultant clear blue liquid requires no aging before spinning and is not damaged if extended storage is required. the cellulose molecules are shorter then those of cotton and their organization in the fiber are different. cellulose from cotton linters or wood pulp is purified and bleached to a pure white. The movement of water stretches the newly formed filaments and introduces a small amount of molecular orientation. Any un-dissolved cellulose and other impurities are filtered out of the liquid mixture before fibers are formed. Fiber Properties . They have better dimensional stability. which utilizes an organic solvent (amine oxide) which together with water is capable of dissolving the cellulose on a single step. put through a mild acid bath to remove any adhering solution. Regular. Lyocell. medium. and twisted into yarns.Viscose fibers are bright and shiny. The resulting fibers have a structure and properties significantly different from the viscose types. physical. the cellulose is scarcely altered by the viscose process. some manufacturers are producing modified fibers that have properties considered desirable for selected end-use requirements. This yields a higher strength. In addition to standard viscose fibers. These modifications result in longer cellulose molecules and an improvement of the structure and orientation of the crystalline areas. is added to the solution before spinning. This is the main reason for the lower strength of viscose fibers. Thus the chemical structure of viscose is comparable to cotton. Cuprammonium Rayon: In the cuprammonium process. has been specified for the products of this new process. This de-lusturing agent breaks up the light rays and reduces the shine. Nevertheless.
0 95 1.4 1. The cross section of the fiber shows highly irregular or serrated edges. while bright fiber appears crystal clear. Controlled by manufacturer 1. followed by relaxation shrinkage after laundering.5-2. The strength is relatively low and is further decreased when fibers are wet. High-tenacity viscose is similar to regular viscose. Elastic recovery and resiliency of regular viscose and cuprammonium rayons are low. In the longitudinal view cuprammonium rayon is uniform in width.Cuprammonium Modulus Can be controlled by the manufacturer. The presence of delusterants is indicated by a spotted effect. Rayon fibers have good moisture absorbency. Regular rayons are subject to stretching in yarn and fabric manufacture.0-5.7-1.35 75 High % elastic 82 recovery at 2% extension .2 0. which makes them accept dyes well. The cross section is round or oval and relatively clear.4-5. Viscose Property Shape Luster Strength-gpd Dry Wet Regular Medium High-Wet.9-4. it will have a grainy. Physical properties The length.7-2. thus. The same for high wet modulus rayon. can vary considerably in appearance. The length or the longitudinal appearance of regular viscose rayon exhibits uniform diameter and interior parallel line called striations. with dry and wet strength equal to or better than cotton. the high-wet-modulus viscose rayon fibers do not stretch easily. It may appear round in cross section.9 97 3.7-4. width (diameter) and luster of rayon fibers can be controlled.3 0. pitted appearance. the maker can control its size and shape to a great extent. bright fiber is relatively transparent. High-wet-modulus rayon is less subject to stretching and wrinkling. High tenacity and high wet modulus viscose fibers are considerably stronger.2-1.5 2. If the fiber has been delustered.4-3. it is smooth surfaced and has no markings or striations. and different types of rayon fibers. These fabrics tend to wrinkle and stretch easily. Therefore uniform in appearance.Microscopic Properties: Since rayon is a manufactured fiber.0 1.95-1.4 2. except that it may have a less irregular contour and therefore show fewer striations in the longitudinal view.3 To 100 3. while elongation for both fibers is high.
Rayon fibers are subject to harm by rot-producing bacteria.5 Specific gravity 1. Rayon Fibers in Use Rayon is extensively used in apparel and home furnishing fabrics.% elongation Dry Wet Moisture Absorption at 20ºC 65% RH 15-30 20-40 11.0-33 10-17 17-33 12. Biological Properties Rayons resist all insects except silverfish. Mildew will destroy rayons of all types. the high-wet-modulus viscose is fairly resistant to these bacteria. leaving a small amount of light gray residue with afterglow. Bleaches will not harm most fabrics but some finishes materials may react very unfavorably to them. Resistance to dry-cleaning solvents and stain removal agents is good. Hot and cold concentrated acids cause rayons to disintegrate. Hot dilute acids result in fiber deterioration. Regular rayon fibers will deteriorate from extended exposure to the sun. Exposure to high temperatures foe an extended period of time results in fiber degradation Chemical Properties Strong alkali solutions cause rayon fibers to swell and eventually produce a loss of strength. which are injurious to fibers unprotected by special finishes. . but cold dilute acids have little or no effect.5-18 7.46-1. weak alkalis do not damage them.54 Thermal Properties Rayon is cellulose. where as highwet-modulus rayons will withstand it well. it burns rapidly with yellow flame.5-16 15-20 17-30 9-26 14-34 6.
To produce the spinning solution. This spinning solution is forced. Here the acetone evaporates and is recovered for reuse while the acetate coagulates as it falls through the chamber. These striations are farther apart than in viscose rayon. it precipitates out in the form of small flakes. cellulose acetate. The pretreated pulp is transferred to kneading machines called acetylators. the dried triacetate flake is dissolved in methylated chloride and dry spun into a warm air chamber. bleached. Bright acetate is clear while dull or pigmented acetate appears speckled or pitted. but the ripening stage. Hydrolysis occurs during the ripening and results in the formation of acetate. It may have clearer striations. then purified. acetic acid. This method of fiber manufacture is called dry spinning. and shredded. the shredded cellulose is thoroughly mixed with glacial acetic acid and held for a specific length of time. Manufacture of Triacetate (Arnel): Triacetate is manufactured from the same raw material as secondary acetate. The filaments traveling downward are twisted together to form yarns. and the cross section is both lobed and somewhat serrated. Fed into pre-treatment tanks. It is aged or ripened in special storage tanks. is omitted in triacetate production. When this secondary acetate solution is mixed with water. Cellulose is obtained from either wood pulp or cotton linters. The clear liquid is called acid dope. plus sulphuric acid as a catalyst. Fiber Properties Microscopic Properties: Longitudinally acetate is uniform in width with several lines parallel to the length.Modified Cellulose Fibers: Acetate and Triacetate Manufacture of Acetate (Secondary or Regular) The raw material for manufacturing acetate includes cellulose. where acetic anhydride is added. During this step the cellulose assumes liquid form as a new chemical compound. Triacetate is very similar in microscopic appearance to acetate. The cross section of acetate is lobed with irregular curves but no sharp serrations like found in viscose. Physical Properties: . with water added as needed to reduce the acid concentration. in which hydrolysis of the acetate occurs. first through the spinnerets into a warm air chamber. During the precipitation and washing process the excess acetic acid and sulphuric acid are recovered for reuse. and acetic anhydride. The flakes are washed thoroughly and dried. The cellulose acetate flakes are dissolved in acetone to form spinning dope.
0 80-84 @ 4% extension 23-45 35-45 low 6.Property Shape Luster Strength gpd Dry Wet %elastic recovery % elongation Dry Wet Resiliency % moisture absorption At 20ºC 65% RH Acetate Triacetate Can be controlled by manufacturer controlled controlled 1. The same treatment also permits setting permanent pleats and creases in Arnel triacetate fabrics. paint removers and the like. Concentrated acids weaken the fibers drastically and in most instances cause complete disintegration. Cold dilute acids weaken the fiber if exposure is prolonged.9-1. too acetate fibers become weaker while Arnel triacetate has excellent stability to aging. a loss of strength.5 0. at least. forming a hard. Chemical Properties: Dilute alkalis have little effect on acetate or triacetate. phenol and chloroform will destroy the fibers. .8-1.4 0.0 48-65 @ 4% extension 1. Because of their sensitivity to high temperatures. Concentrated alkalis cause saponification of both and eventually a loss in fiber weight and reduction in the soft hand of fabrics. solvents such as acetone. The fiber melt and burn evenly.2-1. for they often contain acetone. black bead ash. One should be cautious using finger nail polish remover. Triacetate can be “heat treated” to withstand higher temperatures without damage. Dilute hot acids may cause decomposition or.2-1. They give off an odor similar to that of hot vinegar.2-3. Sunlight causes a loss of strength in acetate fiber but has little effect on triacetate. In storage.5 25-40 30-40 Good 3.5 Thermal Properties: Acetate and triacetate are thermoplastic fibers and are easily softened by high temperatures. Petroleum products used in dry cleaning do not damage acetate or triacetate. . acetate fabrics should be ironed at low to medium settings with steam. However.
It has a crisper hand than acetate. acetate should be either dry cleaned or laundered and ironed at warm. Moths and other household pests do not damage acetates and triacetates. In addition to a wide variety of apparel applications.All acetates develop static charges. Biological Properties: Fungi such as mildew and bacteria may discolor acetate fibers. acetate is used in household fabrics. Triacetate accepts permanent pleats and creates that will withstand wear and maintenance. The fabric is dimensionally stable and can be processed and maintained at temperatures slightly higher than regular acetate. especially when dry. temperatures. . Use: Regular acetate is preferred by many designers for its outstanding drapability and desirable hand. The relatively low moisture regains of acetate renders fibers resistant to damage by staining and size change from shrinkage or stretch. such as drapery and upholstery materials. Because of the thermoplastic property. thickness and degree of softness or stiffness. because they are poor conductors of electricity. Some weakening of acetate may occur but triacetate retains its strength. It can be made into fabrics of varying weight. Silver fish may attack heavily sized fibers in order to eat the sizing. not hot.
the polymer must be synthesized or made. a double bond between 2 carbon atoms is broken and many monomers are connected together. Used in industrial applications where chemical resistance is required Storage is no problem. Holes may appear. Used in geotextiles. The polymerization process is either addition or condensation polymerization. In addition polymerization. Increases possibility of static. Pleats. Yarns can be textured for bulk. Many synthetic fibers are made from petrochemicals (petroleum based chemicals). 1 or 2 compounds are connected to form a monomer and a small molecule.Synthetic Fibers Synthetic fibers are also considered manufactured fibers. resist waterborne stains. often water. In producing synthetic fibers. creases and other three dimensional effects can be heat-set in fabrics. they are polymerized or connected into one extremely large linear compound called polymer. is a by-product of the reaction. In condensation polymerization. Before the synthetic fiber can be produced. sandbags. Resistance to most chemicals Resistant to moths and fungi Low moisture absorbency . (a) 3(A=B) → A-B-A-B-A-B Addition Polymerization (b) 3D-H + 3E-OH → D-E-D-E-D-E + 3H2O Condensation Polymerization Common properties of synthetic fibers Properties Heat Sensitive Importance to consumers Fabrics will shrink and melt if exposed to excess heat. Lack of comfort in humid weather. Water does not cause shrinkage. Difficult to dye. Fabric can be stabilized by heat setting. the fiber is made. Once the polymer is available. hence the name synthetic fiber. the fiber-forming compounds must be made from basic raw materials. Many monomers are then connected to form polymer. tenting and other industrial applications Products dry quickly. Once the raw material are available.
Specific amounts of two chemicals are combined in solution to the intermediate nylon salt to poly (hexamethylene adipamide). packable for travel. Abrasion resistance good to excellent Good appearance retained longer (acrylics lowest) because holes and worn places do not appear as soon. and chipped into small flakes or pellets. May cause sparks that can cause explosions or fires. Resilience excellent Easy-care apparel. Strength good to excellent Strongest fibers make good ropes. This salt is purified. (nylon modified to improve resistance) Indoor/outdoor carpet. extruded in ribbon form. 6 and Nylon 6 Nylon 6. More product per unit mass May occur in staple length fiber products. belts and women’s hosiery. banners and awnings.6 is a linear condensation polymer made from hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid. After cooling. dry weather is unpleasant. Resist breaking under stress. where the nylon filaments are formed. to orient the molecules in the fibers and develop fiber strength and fineness.Oleophilic Oil and grease absorbed into the fiber must be removed by dry cleaning agents Electrostatic Clothes cling to wearer. Curtains and draperies. Flags. Manufacturing Process of Nylon 6. Used in many industrial applications. Flame resistance Varies from poor to excellent. the filaments are stretched. polymerized. Check individual fibers Density of specific gravity Pilling Varies as group but tends to the light weight. Resilient carpeting. Then the polymer is melted and extruded through spinnerets into cool air. Adipic Acid Hexamethylene diamine . Sunlight resistance good to excellent Webbing for outdoor furniture. or cold-drawn. Shock in cold. Less wrinkling during wears.
When this molecule polymerizes. and the molecules join up in a continuous chain.Poly (hexamethylene adipamide) Nylon 6 is polymerizing caprolactum (a cyclic amide derived from a particular amino acid) to polycaprolactam. Nylon 6. Like nylon 6. chipped into pellet or flake form.6 has two sets of six carbons. This already contains an amide link. extruded. Nylon 6 has six carbons in the repeating unit. Different types of polyamide are made by using starting materials (monomers) of different sizes (different numbers of carbon atoms). 6 the nylon 6 polymer is formed under pressure. Poly caprolactum Fiber composition Polyamides are linear macromolecules containing amide groups (-CO-NH-) at regular intervals. the ring opens. and melt-spun through a spinneret. . The filaments are cold drawn.
cold drawing. because of it. tends to cause an accumulation of static electric charges on nylon. Physical Properties Like other man-made fibers. One of the major advantages of nylon fibers is their strength and abrasion resistance. Its resistance to abrasion makes it appropriate to many different end-uses. nylon can be extruded in a variety of diameters and lengths. Nylon has good to very good resiliency and fabrics recover easily from crushing or wrinkling. and twisting pressure chamber Flow chart showing steps in the manufacture of nylon 6. . together with poor electrical conductivity. and since it retains much of its strength when wet. fabrics dry quickly after laundering. nylon has rather low moisture absorbency. and its transparency and luster can be controlled.hexamethylene diamine adipic acid polymerization reactor autoclave chipper water water evaporator water washer air to bobbin. 6 Fiber properties of Nylon 6. the low moisture absorption. This quality assures outstanding shape retention of nylon fabrics. In spite of this quality. Nylon’s tenacity ranks high among the man-made fibers. Compared with natural fibers. When viewed in cross section nylon is usually perfectly round. Nylon is highly elastic fiber with excellent recovery from elongation. it requires no special care. Longitudinal magnification shows relatively transparent fibers of uniform diameter with a slight speckled appearance. nylon accepts dyes well. 6 and Nylon 6 Microscopic properties: Nylon filaments are smooth and shiny. However.
2-8.0 23-42 27-34 4.Property Shape Luster Strength gpd Dry Wet % elastic recovery % elongation Dry Wet Resiliency Density Moisture absorption 20˚C.2-4.9-8.6-8. including better sunlight resistance . can be heat set at higher temperatures Softening point 250ºC Softening point 220ºC Difficult to dye Better dye affinity than nylon 6. and better weathering properties.6 100% at 4% extension 26-32 30-37 Good to very good 1. 65% RH Nylon 6.8 4.6 Made of hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid Nylon 6 Made of caprolactum Heat setting 205ºC Heat setting 150ºC Pleats and creases. Greater elasticity.6.5 4.14 3.0 Comparison of Nylon 6. Softer hand.5 1.0-7.6 and Nylon 6 Nylon 6. elastic recovery. takes deeper shades.5-5.6 Nylon 6 Controlled by manufacturer Controlled by manufacturer 4.14 4.
Biological Properties Nylon is highly resistant to attack by most insects and microorganisms. Stain removal or dry cleaning substances do not damage it. However. home furnishings. Most organic solvents have little or no effect on nylon. but it does not damage the fiber. But if temperatures approach 177˚C to 205˚C. For outer wear. Safe ironing temperatures for nylon 6. The fiber will stretch under stress but will return to its original size after release of the stress. Nylon 6 should not be ironed at temperatures above 149˚C. and discoloration and loss of strength occur. synthetic detergents and bleaches can be used safely. the fiber softens. Mildew may attack finishes used on nylon. Nylon in use Nylon is popular in fabrics for apparel. .Thermal Properties Nylon 6. and abrasion resistance. If stored away from light. but acids whether of the mineral variety such as hydrochloric or the organic kind such as formic will destroy fiber. Nylon melts away from flame and forms a gummy gray or tan ash that hardens as it cools. shape retention. It is a leading fiber in the manufacture of hosiery and has considerable importance in the lingerie market. including ants. some insects normally found out doors. Because nylon is heat sensitive or thermoplastic. but it does not support combustion. Therefore. Application of temperatures higher than those used for heat setting may cause fiber deformation and shrinkage. Age appears to have no effect on the fiber. and industry. The fiber will burn if held in an open flame. cricket will eat nylon if they are trapped in folds or creases. it will last for many years. All nylon can withstand temperatures to 149˚C for long periods of time without damage. it is blended with other fibers to contribute dimensional stability. For that reason nylon is not recommended as window curtain or drapery fabric. it is important to avoid high temperatures for most nylon products. 6 are considered to be between 149˚C and 177˚C. elastic recovery. in order to maintain dimensional stability.6 melts at approximately 250˚C and nylon 6 at 210˚C. Sunlight is destructive to nylon and causes a marked loss of strength after extended exposure. it can be heat set during processing so that it will retain its shape during use and maintenance. Chemical properties Nylon is not affected by alkalis. Soaps.
After drawing the flat filaments are usually textured or cut into staple fibers. for the fiber wears well. Fiber properties . windbreakers. Polyester Terephthalic acid combines with ethylene glycol to form dihydroxyethyl terephthalate. or used as the netting of bridal veils. The greater the amount of stretch. swimwear. tires and life vests. which is cast and cut into chips. condensation polymerization proceeds to form poly (ethylene terphthalate). the stretching contributes strength to the fiber and controls elongation. umbrellas and luggage. from which they are fed to the melt spinning tank. active wear. the stronger the fiber will be. bedspread and draperies. and does not require special protection against moths and carpet beetles. with the elimination of water. and the lower the elongation. The chips are melted at about 280ºC and extruded (melt spinning process). The hot solution is forced through the spinnerets and solidifies into fiber form upon contact with air. The chips are diced and conveyed to a hopper. Polyester macromolecule Fiber Composition The polyester macromolecule contains the ester group (-CO-O-) at regular intervals. Much carpeting and upholstery are made of nylon. Esters are produced by the reaction of an organic acid with an alcohol.Nylon is popular for hosiery and is used to make track pants. It can also be made into parachutes. shorts. At high temperature and vacuum. combat uniforms. is easy to clean. polyester. Filaments are stretched while hot.
it will not shrink or stretch during normal use. Generally. or any other shaping lines. Ironing temperatures for polyesters vary with fiber type. and a rod like appearance. This wicking property can produce end –use products that carry exterior moisture through to the inside. The fiber is partially transparent and white or slightly off-white in color. In light fabric constructions the fibers melt and drip away from the source of ignition. There is no loss of strength when polyester fibers are wet. The moisture regain of polyesters fiber is very low-less than 0. Elongation is another controlled property in polyesters. preventing the propagation of flame. and its resiliency is excellent.5%. Thermal properties: Polyester fibers melt at temperatures from 238˚C to 290˚C depending upon type and modification. Like cotton and linen. Optical brighteners are frequently added to produce clear. Physical Properties Polyester can be made in any length or diameter required for end-use. moisture has little effect on fiber strength. polyesters have a high degree of wick ability. a temperature of 121˚C is considered safe. It. depends on end use and is controlled by the manufacturer. Strong acids at high temperatures. will destroy polyester. polyesters require little or no pressing to retain a smooth appearance. smooth surface.Microscopic properties: A longitudinal view of polyester fiber exhibits uniform diameter. too. it forms a gray or tawny-colored bead that is hard and non-crushable. Chemical properties Polyester has good resistance to weak alkalis but only moderate resistance to strong ones. and static electric charges are accentuated. bright fibers. Pigment can be combined with the spinning solution. which permits control of the degree of luster. The cross section is usually round. As the fiber melts. Polyesters will burn and produce a dark smoke and an aromatic odor. Furthermore. But the fiber’s elastic recovery overall is very good. or body perspiration through to the outside. polyester will hold creases. pleats. When properly heat set. but modifications can include trilobal and pentalobal filaments. however. Weak acids do not affect the fiber. wrinkle-free properties associated with the fiber. Heat setting of polyester yarns and fabrics is essential if they are to have the easy-care. Because of the low regain. The strength of the polyester varies widely. the low moisture absorption demands special techniques in dyeing and finishing. Once heat set. . If polyester is properly heat set. nor do strong acids at room temperature. as long as proper care procedures are followed.
if trapped. contribute easy maintenance. However. In addition to apparel. and sail cloth. comfort and absorbency. ropes. tires. The fabrics require little or no ironing. Direct sunlight weakens polyester. It is. women and children. wrinkle-free. beetles and similar insects will cut their way through the fabric as a means of escape. cotton. press covers to fishing nets. or linen with polyester fibers are popular with both men and women. Bleaches can be used safely. Biological Properties Insects will not destroy polyesters if there is other food available. therefore. polyester appears in home furnishings. abrasion resistance. rayon. but it has good resistance to sunlight when behind glass. protein or cellulosic fibers enhance dye ability. to laundry bags. The use of polyesters in rugs. fiber resists organic solvents. satisfactory for window curtains and drapes. textured woven and knit fabrics. Polyester in Use The most important characteristic of polyester fibers are wrinkle free appearance and ease of care. In blended fabrics polyester fibers. strength. while reducing static charges. they are easy to launder and quick to dry. Fabrics of 100% polyester filament are used in apparel for men. industrial fabrics. industrial applications range from conveyor belts and fire hoses. Acrylics and Mod Acrylics Acrylic Production . shape and size retention. relatively wrinkle-free appearance. Blends of wool. While microorganisms will not harm the fiber.In general. durability. they may attack finishes that have been applied. and protective clothing. Polyester fibers seem to be the most satisfactory choice for blended fabrics with durablepress finishes and for the easy-care. Chemicals used in stain removal and cleaning do not damage it.
and the porous fiber Dunova. Fiber composition The polyacrylic linear chain molecule is built from repeating units of CH2CHCN. which are highly resistant to burning. Fiber Modifications . producing continuous filaments which later may be cut into staple. the solvent is evaporated. made from propylene and ammonia. dry and wet. and either wet or dry spun to acrylic filaments. It is dissolved in dimethylformamide or dimethylacetamide or nitric acid. the spinning solution is extruded into a liquid coagulating bath to form filaments. Acrylic fibers are produced by two basic methods of spinning (extrusion). is polymerized to form polyacrylonitrile powder. modacrylics (modified acrylics). which are drawn. Acrylonitrile. After extrusion through the spinneret.Acrylic fibers are linear polymers formed by addition polymerization of at least 85% by weight of acrylonitrile (vinyl cyanide) units [-CH2-CH(CN)-] . There are three broad types of acrylic fibers: normal acrylics. dried. In wet spinning. and processed. if desired. material to be spun is dissolved is a solvent. In the dry spinning method.
and 3. so they form a fiber with an acorn or mushroom shaped cross section. Physical shape. Bicomponent Fiber . The other may have a higher moisture regain and can accept a deeper shade of color because of easier dye penetration. Each component differs in properties. one component curls and gives a spiral crimp or coil to the fiber. Texturizing processes have developed special crimp. Other chemical modifications alter the dyeing properties. 2. Appearance. Among the most important modifications are Bicomponent Fibers. viewed longitudinally. so that the spiral crimp develops properly and the yarn returns to its original size.Trademarked acrylics are produced in several varieties that may differ in such characteristics as 1. This feature assumes particular importance with the increasing use of acrylics in carpeting. Fiber properties: Microscopic Properties Acrylic fibers. show uniform diameters. They are made of two different chemical formulations extruded simultaneously. It is essential that bicomponent fibers be dried without any tension. These differences indicate minor modifications in chemical structure. In acrylic modifications special chemicals are added to reduce flammability. Some possesses a dumbbell or acorn shaped cross section to round or bean shaped or nearly round. and some irregularly spaced striations or parallel lines. Cross section views of the various acrylics exhibit considerable differences. resulting in a crimping of the filament that makes it stretchable. . When dry. Dye ability.A synthetic fiber of the continuous filament type composed of two related components which have a different degree of shrinkage. a rod like appearance.
elongation increases. . With proper heat setting and appropriate care. The fibers are thermoplastic and respond to heat-setting procedures. Acrylic fibers have good resiliency. acrylic fibers show little dimensional change. a problem that increases when the humidity is low. This can be quite evident when knitted acrylic sweaters receive improper care. have good to very good elastic recovery. The elastic recovery of acrylics is good at extensions of 1 to 2 percent. but at higher degrees of extension the recovery drops sharply. such as Sayelle and Wintuk. semi dull. Bicomponent acrylics. they can be tumbled dry after laundering and will recover their original size. Acrylics are available in bright. the application of excess heat and steam will cause shrinkage and a loss of loft or bulk. which results in speedy drying but contributes to difficulty in dyeing. The strength of acrylics is slightly lower than that of cotton. or dull luster. but it is still adequate for a variety of end uses. they retain their shape very well. Thermal properties Acrylic fibers have good resistance to heat. Bulky fabrics especially resilient and lofty. The moisture regain of acrylics fibers is relatively low. this does not pose any problem in use and care. However. The elongation of acrylic fibers varies from 20-55 percent. Although the fibers tenacity is reduced when wet. When fibers are wet. Static electricity will build up in acrylics.Physical Properties Acrylics can be controlled in terms of length and diameter.
Bleaches can be used if directions are followed. Manufacturers recommend that these fibers should not be subjected to boiling water. since excessive shrinkage can occur. but strong ones cause rapid degradation. bulky. The same is true for soaps and detergents. they burn with a yellow flame and form a gummy. Acrylic fibers are found in items of apparel where shape retention and easy care are important considerations. Their light. Acrylic Fiber in Use All types of acrylic fibers appear in knitted and woven fabrics. concentrated acids cause a loss of fiber strength. Acrylic fibers have low density.Upon exposure to fire. and the ease of maintenance. soft. and light in weight compared to fabrics of similar construction made of natural fibers. Weak acids have no destructive effect. Commonly used blends of acrylic fibers : wool. Chemical properties Acrylic fibers have good resistance to weak alkalis. soft Properties . Ironing temperatures should be below 161˚C. and common household pests will not attack or eat acrylic fibers. They are popular in sportswear. hot residue that drips away from the burning fiber. Biological Properties Mildew. Acrylics have excellent resistance to sunlight. The solvents used in cleaning and stain removal are not damaging to acrylic fibers. carpeting and upholstery are excellent for acrylics because of the fiber’s rapid recovery from deformation. End uses such as blankets. These properties contribute to producing fabrics that are bulky. and they are soft. other cellulosic fibers such as rayon. its light weight. This residue is hot enough to ignite combustible substances upon which it may fall. and fibers such as nylon. other microorganism. cotton.
Dunova. children’s snow suits. Most acrylic fabrics can be washes safely in home laundry equipment and dried in home dryers with variable temperature controls. noticeable odor when wet Resistant to weak alkalis Harmed Resistance to moths and fungi Effect of water None Mod Acrylic fibers Production . Many acrylic fibers accept brilliant dyes in a wide variety of patterns. Fiber Property Effect of alkalis Effect of acids Effect of solvents Effect of sunlight Stability Permanence of creases Effect of heat Acrylic Resistant to most acids Can be dry cleaned Excellent resistance Can be heat set for shape retention Creases can be set and removed by heat Thermoplastic-sticks at 450ºF-490 ºF Resistant Wool Resistant to weak acids Dry cleaning recommended Low resistance Subject to felting. Deep pile fabrics frequently have acrylic fibers in their construction to contribute resiliency. It is used for warm and absorbent underwear. becomes brittle at high temperature Harmed by moths. the porous acrylic fiber contains many micro capillaries which are able to absorb liquids. and sport shirts. shrinkage Creases set by heat and moisture-not permanent Scorches easily. stored wool May felt or mat. They have good wash and wear properties and will take permanent pleats and creases if heat set properly. mildew forms on soiled.make them prized in ski clothes.
but they self extinguish as soon as the flame source is removed. where the filaments coagulate. Verel. The strength of modacrylics is similar to that of cotton. They must be C-shaped. peanut shaped or some what flat. are self extinguishing and do not drip while burning. Ironing temperatures should not exceed 121˚C. Modacrylic fibers are made from resins that are copolymers (combinations) of acrylonitrile and other materials. They will burn when placed directly in a flame. and because of it dyeing requires special care. Moisture regain on the other hand. Chemical Properties Modacrylic fibers have good resistance to most alkalis. The fibers have high elongation with excellent elastic recovery. the fiber’s resiliency is very good. The polymer is dissolved in acetone. Hot concentrated acids affect Dynel. Thermal properties Modacrylic fibers do not support combustion. The fibers are then dried and stretched. causing loss of color and loss of strength. transparent striations. and extruded into a water bath. is very low. Dynel is naturally a cream color and it is crimped. such as vinyl chloride (CH2CHCl). Fiber Properties Microscopic Properties The longitudinal view of modacrylics shows clear. Physical Properties Length and diameter of the fiber are controlled. a white fiber. . filtered to remove any solids. are very difficult to ignite. Higher temperatures will cause fiber shrinkage. (-CH2CH[CN]-)x. vinylidene chloride (CH2CCl2) or vinylidene dicyanide (CH2CCN2) or vinyl bromide (CH2CHBr). Cross sections are irregular. Modacrylic fibers are either dry spun or wet spun. Although concentrated solutions may cause discoloration. any reduction of strength is minimal. was available in smooth or crimped contours.Modacrylic fiber a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of less than 84% but at least 50% by weight of acrylonitrile units.
Most organic solvents used in cleaning and stain removal do not damage modacrylics. carpeting. stable in size. Their properties include flame resistance. draperies. acetone will dissolve the fibers and some paint solvents may stiffen them. Comparison of Modacrylic and Acrylic Fibers-Durability Factor Modacrylic Acrylic . the major differences being flame retardancy and improved heat resistance of modacrylics. knitted goods. The fibers produce fabrics that are soft. Modacrylics are similar to acrylics in their properties. wigs and hairpieces. Sunlight may cause Dynel to discolor and lose some strength. They are made into protective clothing and drapes. and resistant to fire damage. However. blankets. Modacrylic fibers in use Modacrylics are modified acrylic fibers. low in pilling. All types of soaps. detergents. resilient. The major end uses for modacrylic fibers include fake furs. and bleaches can be used safely. industrial materials and in children’s sleepwear. Biological Properties Modacrylic fibers are highly resistant to microorganisms and insects.
6 g/d 2.Strength 1.7-2.0-3.0 g/d Elongation 30%-60% 35% Elastic Recovery 99.5% 92% Sunlight Resistance Excellent Excellent .
The fibers resist dyeing. so colored olefin fibers are produced by adding dye directly to the polymer prior to or during melt spinning. polypropylene is the more favored for general textile applications because of its higher melting point. polyethylene or polyolefin. propylene. The olefin raw material is polymerized under pressure with a catalyst. This drawing process introduces molecular orientation and makes the fibers fine and pliable. After the filaments have cooled. Physical properties . and it will then be irregular in cross section. an early name for ethylene meaning "oil-forming".Olefin Fibers Olefin fiber is a synthetic fiber made from alkenes. Fiber properties Microscopic properties Olefin fibers resemble glass rods in both longitudinal and cross-section views. they are drawn or stretched to six times the spun length. Production The Federal Trade Commission’s definition for olefin fiber is: “A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of ethylene. Olefin fibers (polypropylene and polyethylene) are products of the polymerization of propylene and ethylene gases. To produce fiber filaments. or other olefin units”. They are even. Olefin fibers are characterized by their resistance to moisture and chemicals. Olefin is also referred to as polypropylene. Polypropylene can be extruded from specially shaped spinnerets. clear and round. the polymer is melt spun into a current of cooling gas. Of the two. It is used in the manufacture of various textiles. The name comes from the term olefiant gas. Products to be of use as fibers: Polymerization must be carried out under controlled conditions with special catalysts that give chains with few branches.
and its elastic recovery is excellent. and bleaches are safe. but it varies with the degree of polymerization and molecular orientation from about 3. which creates a serious problem in dyeing.Length and diameter of olefin fibers are controlled by the manufacturer. Polyethylene has a wide range in elongation. This is comparable to nylon. smooth and white. waxy smoke. They are subject to staining by oil and grease.5 to 8 grams per denier. it can lose some of its shape. Laundry soaps. Cleaning solvents containing chlorinated hydrocarbons should never be used. The strength of olefin fibers is good. However. if it is stretched more than 10 percent. They will stretch or shrink only if subjected to temperatures higher than the heat setting. Chemical Properties They have good resistance to acids. Biological Properties Olefin fibers are seldom attacked or damaged by either mildew or insects. synthetic detergents. The elongation of polypropylene also varies widely. Properly heat-treated olefin fibers will retain their size and shape. Because of this property polypropylene gives good service in carpeting. but it is considered to be less than on nylon. or wool. Both olefin fibers have good resistance to crushing. Polyethylene and polypropylene both types of olefin are waxy. The fibers have little or no moisture absorption. Thermal Properties Olefin fibers burn slowly and give off a sooty (jet black). except for oxidizing acids which weaken them. Olefins will lose strength after prolonged exposure to sunlight. polyester. Olefins do have static electric build up. but normal laundering usually removes the stains. while the elastic recovery is outstanding. . as they cause olefin fibers to swell and eventually to degrade.
carpet backing. Upholstery. concrete reinforcement. trunks. lining fabrics.and coffee-bags) . resin replacement as binder fibers. ropes. Industrial: Carpets.g. filter fabrics. slipcovers. and suitability. heat-sealable paper (e.Olefin fibers in use Apparel : Sports & active wear. bagging. Olefin has almost completely replaced jute in carpet backing because of its low-cost. thermal underwear. draperies. sun visors (shades). Home Furnishing: Indoor and outdoor carpets and carpet tiles. easy processing. floor coverings Automotive: Interior fabrics. socks. arm rests. tea. excellent durability. door and side panels. geo-textiles that are in contact with the soil. wall coverings.
3. The term lastrile may be used as a generic description for fibers falling within this category. Rubber in fiber form originated in the 1920s as a result of research by the U. A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is a poly-chloroprene or a copolymer of chloroprene in which at least 35% by weight of the fiber forming substance is composed of chloroprene units. which had high elongation and elastic recovery. A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is a copolymer of acrylonitrile and a diene (such as butadiene) composed of not more than 50% but at least 10% by weight of acrylonitrile units. These early fibers were . and cold temperatures no longer hardened the rubber or made it brittle. (-CH2-C=CH-CH2-) I Cl Natural Rubber Natural rubber is an elastomer—an elastic hydrocarbon polymer—that was originally derived from a milky colloidal suspension. including the following categories: 1. copolymers of dienes and hydrocarbons. Scientists discovered that liquid rubber (latex) could be extruded in round forms of minute fineness. Strength and elasticity increased.Elastomers Elastomers are elastic. The purified form of natural rubber is the chemical polyisoprene which can also be produced synthetically. Rubber company. or latex.S. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products. They can be prepared in various forms. A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is a hydrocarbon such as natural rubber. The thick gummy liquid obtained from trees of the Hevea species has been used for many hundred of years. Rubber A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is comprised of natural or synthetic rubber. rubber like substances. poly-isoprene. poly-butadiene. or amorphous (non-crystalline) poly-olefins. found in the sap of some plants. 2. All elastomers are characterized by extremely high elongation and outstanding elastic recovery. In 1839 Charles Goodyear discovered that the properties of rubber were greatly changed when it was heated with sulphur.
.not used alone but served as a central core for other fibers such as cotton. Rubber products can be laundered in warm water. Fabrics with rubber are comparatively crease resistant and require a minimum of ironing. Synthetic rubbers were first developed in the early 1930s. which were wrapped around them. because they remove oily dirt better than mild detergents. Synthetic rubber has fewer of these drawbacks than natural rubber. The properties that make rubber desirable in certain end-uses include a high degree of elasticity flexibility and pliability strength toughness impermeability to water and air resistance to cutting and tearing resistance to many chemicals Rubber yarns contribute support and improved fit to end-use products. Strong soaps and synthetic detergents are recommended. Properties of rubber that can cause problems are deterioration by sunlight and smog loss of strength and elasticity through aging damage from body oils damage caused by solvents commonly encountered in cleaning sensitivity to temperatures over 93˚C that cause deterioration and loss of pliability.
lingerie straps. underwear. and elastic tape. Spandex in use Spandex is utilized in the bare filament or uncovered form. Spandex fibers will burn and form a gummy residue. Chemical Properties: The resistance of spandex to chemicals is good. Spandex has several advantages over rubber: It is resistant to degradation by sunlight and smog and to damage from body oils and perspiration. tops of socks and hosiery. surgical fabrics (such as elastic bandages and support hosiery). but because of their tremendous elongation (500-800 percent). sock tops. They accept dyestuffs easily and evenly. however. so laundering is recommended. Soaps and synthetic detergents do not damage the fiber. bras. hosiery. Spandex can be found in articles such as foundation garments. swimwear. and medical products requiring elasticity.Rubber yarns are used in foundation garments. . and in core spun yarns where staple fibers are fed around the core filament to make a single yarn. in yarn constructions where the fibers are wrapped spirally with other fibers to produce covered yarns. shoe fabrics. Concentrated alkalis at high temperatures cause eventual degradation. They can be ironed safely at temperatures below 149˚C. Acids have little effect. Spandex The Textile Fiber Products Identification Act defines spandex as “a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is a long chain synthetic polymer of at least 85% of a segmented polyurethane”. Dry cleaning agents with chlorine compounds may alter colors. chlorine bleaches may cause yellowing and some loss of strength. Spandex fibers are relatively weak. elastic yarns are used for decorative stitching. Their elastic recovery is excellent. they have good durability.
which results in garments that are lighter and sheerer but still provide the same degree of figure control. superior flex life. . Spandex is lighter in weight than rubber and has a higher elasticity. ability to be dyed and to be laundered easily and dryer-dried safely.
but it has good elongation. It will melt and burn slowly if held in a flame. Saran is practically nonflammable. They are highly lustrous and silky in appearance. Vinal. . The moisture absorbency of saran is very low. Staple fibers are less lustrous and have a built in crimp. and the only alkalis that damage it are sodium hydroxide and ammonium compounds. Saran is made from vinylidene chloride and vinyl chloride or vinyl cyanide. (-CH2-CCl2-). if ironing is needed. Saran is not strong. and as soon as the source of flame is removed it self extinguishes. therefore.Organic Non Cellulosic Fibers (Saran. Novoloid) Saran A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 80% by weight of vinylidene chloride units. Vinyon. Acids have no effect on saran. Nytril. the fiber does not stretch or shrink. If it is properly processed and if high temperatures are avoided. and almost perfectly round in cross section. even. it should be done with a low-temperature setting. smooth. These properties contribute to make the fiber a good choice for carpeting. Saran fibers are transparent. very good resiliency. and excellent elastic recovery. The fibers do have a relatively low melting point. The filaments are melt spun and cold drawn. which makes coloring difficult. but it does not support combustion.
carbon tetrachloride. It has smooth. Sunlight causes saran to tan or discolor. resiliency is good. It can be made in any length or diameter. Soaps and synthetic detergents have no damaging effect. which have many of the same properties and less expensive.Most cleaning solvents and stain removal agents are entirely safe. The fiber does develop static electric charges. . There is a tremendous spectrum of elongation. elastic recovery is fair. which makes them soften at temperatures greater than 65˚C and limits their use to applications where no ironing is required. Saran is immune to attack by house hold pests and microorganisms. The best use of saran fiber is in furnishing fabrics such as upholstery. Vinyon fibers have extreme heat sensitivity. The tenacity of vinyon is similar to that of dry rayon. dog-bone or dumbbell shape cross section. Vinyon Vinyon is a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of vinyl chloride units (CH2CHCl) The fiber has round. It is frequently utilized for automobile upholstery and out door furniture. because it is easily cleaned with soap and synthetic detergents. Application of the fiber has not proceeded as expected due to increased production of olefin fibers. but there is little or no loss in strength. but acetone. and carpeting. draperies. but there is no difference in dry and wet strength. and alcohol cause a loss in fiber strength if used at temperatures over 65˚C. even and relatively clear longitudinal views.
and solvents used in cleaning do no damage except for ketone and aromatic hydrocarbons. In non woven fabrics vinyon is occasionally used as the bonding agent. . and floor matting. the fibers are water soluble and must be treated with formaldehyde to make them insoluble. They are white in their natural form.The fibers offer excellent chemical resistance. they seldom occur in fabrics for apparel or furnishings. They are generally found in products such as women’s handbags. and in which the total of the vinyl alcohol units and any one or more of the various acetal units is at least 85% by weight of the fiber. which permits relatively easy dyeing. As extruded. The fiber has good strength and moderate elongation. Vinyon fibers are widely used in industry. U shaped. Soaps and synthetic detergents are quite safe. Vinal Vinal is manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 50% by weight of vinyl alcohol units (CH2CHOH). or nearly round. and characterized by faint striations. hats. The cross section may be bean shaped. but it is weaker when it is wet than dry. Because of their low softening and melting temperatures. Longitudinal view of vinal fibers appears smooth. Its moisture absorbency is slightly higher than that of nylon. some what grainy. Acids and alkalis have no effect.
filter fabrics.Vinal does not support combustion. Natural Mineral Fiber Asbestos . cross-linking of a melt-spun novolac resin with formaldehyde. in garments for firefighters. welders. hats. Novoloid fibers appear mainly in situations where flame resistant products are required. umbrellas. they are ideal in suits for racing car drivers. suiting fabrics. socks. Chlorine bleaches as well as soaps and detergents can be used safety. tire cord. minimal shrinkage and easy care. It is only being used limitedly in industrial applications. three-dimensional. Since Kynol fabrics are not only fireproof but also comfortable. Novoloid Cross-linked. it softens at 200˚C and melts at 220 ˚C. Its resistance to chemicals is good. The fiber is useful also in airplane fabrics.for example. jackets. Nytril A manufactured fiber containing at least 85% of a long chain polymer of vinylidene dinitrile (CH2C(CN)2). and gloves. and the military. The fiber has a high tolerance to sea water and excellent resistance to microorganisms and insects. In Japan and some other countries it is employed in protective apparel-raincoats. phenolic-aldehyde fibers typically prepared by the acidcatalyzed. Industrial uses include fishing nets. draperies and protective apparel for laboratory workers. It is characterized by resistance to flames and chemicals. Combination with cotton or rayon in blends is very attractive and silky. For unexplained reasons the fiber is currently not produced anywhere in the world. tarpaulins and bristles.
but different from other naturally occurring minerals in that it is a crystal and composed of long thin fibers. and adequate length for spinning into yarns. They also have a silky texture. Treated to produce exceptionally smooth and uniform surfaces. and borax. The same techniques of yarn processing are employed as with other fibers. For this technique the fabric must be 100 percent asbestos or there will be damage to other fibers. . Man-Made Mineral Fibers Glass Fiber Production: The raw material for glass is primarily silica sand and limestone. In extreme cases they may be subjected to open flames to burn out the dirt. Chrysotile is the asbestos most often found in textiles because of several properties making it especially adaptable to fabrics. These materials are melted at high temperatures and formed into clear marbles (called cullet) about 5/8 inch diameter. Asbestos is as resistant to chemicals as it is to fire. protective pads for tables and stoves. toughness. firesmothering blankets. with small amounts of modifiers such as aluminium hydroxide. The fibers have good strength. protective clothing for firefighters. protective mitts for cooking. they can be made into materials for asbestos curtains. Fabrics can be washed carefully or simply wiped clean with a sponge. Special care and safety precautions are required to prevent workers from developing lung ailments. sodium carbonate. Asbestos cords have many industrial applications. Asbestos fibers may be blended with 5-20 percent cotton or rayon for yarns and fabrics. It is important to comment on the manufacturing of asbestos yarns and fabrics. Asbestos is classified into two groups: Serpentine and Amphibole It is the only mineral matter used as a textile fiber in the form in which it is obtained from natural sources. flexibility. Yarns can be used in fabrics of various structures. Only perfect marbles are selected for the fiber making process.Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral. The fine bits of asbestos settle in worker’s lungs unless they wear protective masks. low conductivity.
. fiber strength returns. When folded. To form staple fibers a different procedure is followed.only 3 percent. as for hems in draperies. and the molten glass falls by gravity through a platinum spinnerets. It has excellent dimensional stability. Through the development of special techniques glass fibers can be dyed or printed in a variety of colors and patterns. they are hit by a jet of stream under high pressure. Its elongation is low. The cross section is circular. and wound on tubes in strand from for fabric manufacture. Hydrofluoric and hot phosphoric are the only acids that attack glass fibers. it solidifies. they lack abrasion resistance. and transparent. The fibers do not absorb moisture and have excellent resistance to wrinkling. and furniture. This group includes such items as sports car bodies. The fibers are damaged by strong alkalis at any temperature and by weak ones at high temperatures.but elastic recovery is 100 percent. Fiber Properties Glass fiber is strong. For filament yarns the fibers are pulled together. Fibers of glass will not burn. such as the floor or window still. lubricated for ease in handling. As soon as the heat is reduced. screens. As the fibers leave the spinneret and begin to solidify.The marbles are then fed into a small furnace. Glass Fibers in Use Various plastic materials reinforced through impregnation with glass fibers are often called fiberglass products. They will soften at about 815˚C and strength begins to decline at temperatures greater than 315˚C. even. Glass is not utilized for apparel as yet because the sharp fiber ends that are found at cut edges frequently cause skin irritations. where they are re-melted. Major home uses of the fiber are in window curtains and tablecloths. Glass fabrics should not be dry cleaned but laundered. The fibers are pulled into a sliver and processed as for cotton or wool. boats. This breaks the filaments into short lengths ands blows them onto a drum. the edge will tend to crack if it is subjected to rubbing against another surface. As the melted glass leaves the spinnerets. Glass fibers are pliable and flexible.separately. lampshades. They are smooth. ironing-board covers. Organic solvents and mild laundry agents have no effect. but most alkalis do.
metal coated plastic. or cellulose acetate-butyrate. First. Silver tarnishes quickly in the air. and bleaches can be used. Fabrics should be rinsed thoroughly. Gold. plastic-coated metal. Some fabrics from orient are still made with pure gold and silver threads. and gold may discolor. The second product is cheaper. so aluminium has replaced these fibers. Gold and silver yarns are extremely costly. silver. but the polyester is more desirable. Metallic Fibers or Threads The Textile Fiber Products Identification Act defines metallic fiber as “a manufactured fiber composed of metal. flexible product. Mild soaps. generally silk or very fine copper wire. Occasionally they are pure metal. it is more common for thin strips of the product to be wrapped around a central core of a strong. or a core completely covered by metal.They should not be washed in a machine because the residue from the fibers may be left behind and transferred to articles washed in the following loads. Glass fiber residue also can cause skin irritation. such as Mylar. then rolled or wiped with a towel. but since these metals are soft. aluminium may be encased in a plastic coating of either a polyester. . Color is applied either to the plastic coating or directly to the aluminium by an adhesive. and aluminium are the metals most often used in textile products. Modern aluminium yarns are made by one of two basic procedures. detergents. The major points to remember : Never wring or spin dry glass fiber Do not rub Do not use strong alkaline detergents Rinse laundry equipment after use to prevent transfer of fiber residue to other items.
Metallic yarns are not especially strong. and tablecloths. and they blend satisfactorily with other fibers. Chromel: Alloys of nickel and chromium (chromel) are important to the aerospace industry for space suits and other products. but they are quite adequate for normal decorative purposes. and then laminating this product to clear Mylar polyester. Miscellaneous Fibers Graphite: Continuous filament yarns of graphite are made by converting filament fibers such as rayon or acrylic into pure carbon. and braided on standard equipment. The yarns are colorfast to light and laundering. which may be made into yarn as a monofilament fiber or in combination with other fibers. One of the better known trade names for steel fibers is Brunsmet. and thermal conductivity. and bathing suits. bedspreads. and alkaline detergents. it is non-flammable and static free.contain metallic yarns. Metallic will enhance apparel. towels. water. Steel fibers may be utilized in floor coverings and upholstery. upholstery. . never hot. The graphite fibers are extremely strong and resist high temperatures. strength. A wide variety of home furnishing fabrics. woven.The second technique for manufacturing involves mixing finely ground aluminium. from evening gowns and cocktail dresses to sportswear. They are widely used in aerospace products. shorts. Chromel resists extremely high temperatures. Addition to metallic fibers is stainless steel. Boron nitride is a flexible white fiber. The yarns are bright and colorful and do not tarnish. chlorine. Warm. It has been used in space fabrics and protective apparel.most frequently with gold and silver effects. such as slacks. tear and abrasion resistance. It also reduces static build up in floor coverings. color and polyester together.including drapery and curtain materials. Both types of metallic yarns can be obtained in a variety of color. The fibers can be knitted. temperatures should be used in the care process. Boron: Fibers from boron and from boron nitride are employed in industries where heat resistance. Polyester-coated yarns are stronger than those coated with acetate-butyrate and are often used in fabrics for evening wear. Stainless steel in fabrics contributes strength. The plastic coating prevents damage from salt. and flexibility are important.
cables. and flexible. while in mechanical properties they are similar to nylon. Polyurea Fibers: Polyureas are strong. Filament absorbs no water. stockings. Generic Group Sub-group Form Special Properties Applications . resists temperatures greater then 177˚C for very long periods of time and temperatures above 538 ˚C for a short time. and average resistance to heat. comfortable. more washable. Polypropylene Staple Absorbs no water Sports but good capillary undergarments action. It is Filament manufactured from at least 85% of polyurethane Olefins Very highly Usually in extensible (up to combination 80%). with other easily dyed. temperature. (rapid wicking of perspiration). nets. It is non-flammable.PBI Fiber: Poly-benzimidazole. Generic Group Sub-group Form Special Properties Applications Elastomerics Elastane. low Industrial split film softening textiles: ropes. The fiber has been used in apparel for space and for drogue chutes (parachute). flexible under suit worn by astronauts. filters. As yet the fibers have been used only in industrial applications. fibers for swim Compared to wear. By feel polyurea fibers resemble silk. more resistant to light and oxidation Polyethylene Monofilament Low density. good resistance to chemicals. One special product is the soft. they have low moisture regain. rubber: can be stretch clothing made finer. or PBI. and elastic.
Glass Glass Filament Staple Metal Metal Non-flammable. brocades. brittle. out metal. percentage of sandwiched metal fibers between films of inhibits the acetate or formation of static polyester. low reinforced plastics. Wire-drawn. absorption. flat effect yarns in Staple. very finely drawn lurex are used as Filament. . wall low moisture coverings. Furnishing. charge. extensibility. drawn are like fine trimmings and Metallised. Wire drawn are Metal fibers and Flat drawn. Inclusion Plastic Lurex is a very thinof a small ribbons sheet of metal. ribbons.
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