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Fluid Mechanics

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A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously when subjected to a tangential or shear stress, however small the shear stress may be. Such a continuous deformation under the stress constitutes a flow. Fluid mechanics is therefore the study of mechanics of such matter. As such, it pertains mostly to the study of liquids and gases, however the general theories may be applied to the study of amorphous solids, colloidal suspensions and gelatinous materials. Fluid mechanics is a subdivision of continuum mechanics. Consequentially, fluids are considered continuous media for analysis, and their discrete nature is of no consequence for most applications. This assumption is valid mostly on length scales much larger than intramolecular distances. The departure from continuum is characterised by a dimensionless parameter, the Knudsen Number, defined by Kn = / L, where L is a characteristic length scale of the flow. The continuum hypothesis holds good if Kn < 0.01. However, recent applications in nanotechnology and biotechnology are demonstrating that the governing equations are still relevant on smaller scales, specifically when they are modified to include the effects of electrostatic, magnetic, colloidal and surface-tension driven forces. Some fluid mechanics problems can be solved by applying conservation laws (mass, momentum, energy) of mechanics to a finite control volume. However, in general, it is necessary to apply those laws to an infinitesimal control volume, then use the resulting differential equations. Additionally, boundary values, initial conditions and thermodynamic state equations are generally necessary to obtain numeric or analytic solutions.

Fluid Mechanics/Analysis Methods

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1 Pathlines and Streamlines 2 Hydrostatics 3 Control Volume Analysis o 3.1 Bernoulli's Equation

3.1.1 Energy in terms of Head

 Pathlines and Streamlines The path which a fluid element traces out in space is called a pathline. For steady nonfluctuating flows where a pathline is followed continuously by a number of fluid elements , the pathline is called streamline. A streamline is the imaginary line whose tangent gives the velocity of flow at all times if the flow is steady, however in an unsteady flow, the streamline is constantly changing and thus the tangent gives the velocity of an element at an instant of time. A common practice in analysis is taking some of the walls of a control volume to be along streamlines. Since there is no flow perpendicular to streamlines, only the flow across the other boundaries need be considered.

 Hydrostatics
The pressure distribution in a fluid under gravity is given by the relation dp/dz = g where dz is the change in the direction of the gravitational field (usually in the vertical direction). Note that it is quite straightforward to get the relations for arbitrary fields too, for instance, the pseudo field due to rotation. The pressure in a fluid acts equally in all directions. When it comes in contact with a surface, the force due to pressure acts normal to the surface. The force on a small area dA is given by p dA where the force is in the direction normal to dA. The total force on the area A is given by the vector sum of all these infinitesimal forces.

 Control Volume Analysis

A fluid dynamic system can be analysed using a control volume, which is an imaginary surface enclosing a volume of interest. The control volume can be fixed or moving, and it can be rigid or deformable. Thus, we will have to write the most general case of the laws of mechanics to deal with control volumes. The first equation we can write is the conservation of mass over time. Consider a system where mass flow is given by dm/dt, where m is the mass of the system. We have,

And for incompressible flow, we have

If we consider flow through a tube, we have, for steady flow, 1A1V1 = 2A2V2 and for incompressible steady flow, A1V1 = A2V2. Law of conservation of momentum as applied to a control volume states that

where V is the velocity vector and n is the unit vector normal to the control surface at that point. Law of Conservation of Energy (First Law of Thermodynamics)

where e is the energy per unit mass.  Bernoulli's Equation Bernoulli's equation considers frictionless flow along a streamline. For steady, incompressible flow along a streamline, we have

We see that Bernoulli's equation is just the law of conservation of energy without the heat transfer and work. It may seem that Bernoulli's equation can only be applied in a very limited set of situations, as it requires ideal conditions. However, since the equation applies to streamlines, we can consider a streamline near the area of interest where it is satisfied, and it might still give good results, i.e., you don't need a control volume for the actual analysis (although one is used in the derivation of the equation).

 Energy in terms of Head Bernoulli's equation can be recast as

This constant can be called head of the water, and is a representation of the amount of work that can be extracted from it. For example, for water in a dam, at the inlet of the penstock, the pressure is high, but the velocity is low, while at the outlet, the pressure is low (atmospheric) while the velocity is high. The value of head calculated above remains constant (ignoring frictional losses).

Fluid Mechanics/Kinematics

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1 Fluid Kinematics 2 I.The Velocity Field o 2.1 Eularian & Lagrangian Flow o 2.2 Steady vs Unsteady Flow o 2.3 Streamlines, Streaklines, Pathlines 3 II.Acceleration Field o 3.1 Material Derivative o 3.2 Unsteady and Convective Effects o 3.3 Streamline coordinates o 3.4 III. Reynolds Transport Theorem 4 Fluid Mechanics as a Subset of the Continuum Mechanics 5 Frames of Reference in Fluid Mechanics

 Fluid Kinematics

In this section fluid motion will be described without concern with the actual forces necessary to produce the motion. The principles of conservation of mass and conservation of momentum permit some patterns of fluid motion, and exclude others. Many important real-world situations can be analyzed using this approach, without considering friction.

 I.The Velocity Field

Fluids tend to flow easily, which results in a net motion of molecules from one point in space to another point as a function of time. Using the continuum hypothesis, fluids are broken down

into fluid particles, which are composed of numerous fluid molecules. These particles interact with one another and with their surroundings. Thus the motion of a fluid, using a Eulerian model (continuum hypothesis), can be described in terms of the acceleration or velocity of fluid particles and not in terms of molecular motion. The continuum assumption allows for any fluid property (density,pressure, velocity, acceleration, ...) to be described as a function of fluid location. The representation of fluid parameters in terms of spacial coordinates is called a field representation. Ex: T = T(x,y,z,t)

 Eularian & Lagrangian Flow Eulerian analysis uses the field concept, derived from the continuum assumption. Lagrangian analysis involves following individual fluid particles as they move about, and determining how fluid properties vary as a function of time. (-See below)  Steady vs Unsteady Flow  Streamlines, Streaklines, Pathlines

 II.Acceleration Field

The acceleration of a particle is the time rate of change of its velocity. Using the an Eulerian description for velocity, the velocity field V = V(x,y,z,t) and taking deriving it with respect to time, we obtain the acceleration field. Now, consider a fluid particle A, moving along its pathline with velocity VA VA = VA(rA,t) = VA[xA(t), yA(t), zA(t), t] Differentiate to obtain the acceleration: (chain rule) (1) = dV/dt + dV/dx dx/dt + dv/dy dy/dt + dv/dz dz/dt

Note: these are partial derivs, since velocity a function with several variables. Changing the partial velocity components u = dx/dt, v = dy/dt, w = dz/dt in EQ. 1 we obtain: = dV/dt + u dV/dx + v dv/dy + w dv/dz

 Material Derivative The material derivative is sometimes referred to as the substantial derivative, ...  Unsteady and Convective Effects The material derivative, as seen above, contains two types of terms. Those involving the time derivative d()/dt and those involving spatial derivatives d()/dx, ... , ... . The time derivative portion is denoted as the local derivative, and represents the effects of unsteady flow. The local derivative occures during unsteady flow, and becomes zero for steady flow. The portion of the material derivative represented by the spatial derivatives is called the convective derivative. It accounts for the variation in fluid property, be it velocity or temperature for example, due to the motion of a fluid partiacle in space where its values are different.  Streamline coordinates  III. Reynolds Transport Theorem

 Fluid Mechanics as a Subset of the Continuum Mechanics  Frames of Reference in Fluid Mechanics
There are two different frames of reference that are commonly used in the analysis of fluid mechanics problems: Fixed (Eulerian) reference frames and Material (Lagrangian) reference frames.

In fixed reference frames fluid motion is defined with respect to a coordinate system that does not vary with time or fluid motion. In material reference frames fluid motion is defined with respect to a coordinate system that follows the motion of the fluid so that the same volume of fluid remains enclosed throughout the analysis. The Reynold's Transport Theorem (to be defined later) is used to solve fluid mechanics problems when the frame of reference is Lagrangian.

Fluid Mechanics/Ch3

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1 Control Volume Analysis o 1.1 Conservation of Mass o 1.2 Conservation of Momentum o 1.3 Conservation of Energy 2 Conservation Equations of Mass, Momentum and Energy o 2.1 Equation of Continuity o 2.2 Euler's Equation
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 Control Volume Analysis

A fluid dynamic system can be analyzed using a control volume, which is an imaginary surface enclosing a volume of interest. The control volume can be fixed or moving, and it can be rigid or deformable. Thus, we will have to write the most general case of the laws of mechanics to deal with control volumes.  Conservation of Mass The first equation we can write is the conservation of mass over time. Consider a system where mass flow is given by dm/dt, where m is the mass of the system. We have,

And for incompressible flow, we have

If we consider flow through a tube, we have, for steady flow, 1A1V1 = 2A2V2 and for incompressible steady flow, A1V1 = A2V2.  Conservation of Momentum Law of conservation of momentum as applied to a control volume states that

where V is the velocity vector and n is the unit vector normal to the control surface at that point. The sum of the forces represents the sum of forces that act on the entirety of the fluid volume (body forces) and the forces that act only upon the bounding surface of a fluid (surface forces). Body forces include the gravitational force  Conservation of Energy The law of Conservation of Energy in fluid mechanics is a specific application of the First Law of Thermodynamics.

 Conservation Equations of Mass, Momentum and Energy

 Equation of Continuity

since

applies conservation of momentum in creeping flow limit (low Reynold's Number)

Fluid Mechanics/Ch4

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1 Units/Dimensions 2 Rayleigh Method o 2.1 Step 1: Setting up the equation o 2.2 Step 2: Solving for the exponents o 2.3 Step 3: Determining the dimensionless groups o 2.4 Notes 3 The Buckingham Theorem/Method o 3.1 Forming Groups o 3.2 Step 1: Setup groups o 3.3 Step 2: Determine groups 4 Common Groups

 Units/Dimensions
The defined units are based on the modern MLT system: mass, length, time. All other quantities can be express in terms of these basic units. For example, velocity m/s = L/T acceleration m/s = L/T force kgm/s = ML/T Where L/T, L/T, ML/T, etc. are referred to as the derived units. Another system for dimensionless analysis is the FLT system, the force, length, time system. In this case, mass F/a, which makes the units of mass as FT/L, since acceleration has units of L/T.

 Rayleigh Method

An elementary method for finding a functional relationship with respect to a parameter in interest is the Rayleigh Method, and will be illustrated with an example, using the MLT system. Say that we are interested in the drag, D, which is a force, on a ship. What exactly is the drag a function of? These variables need to be chosen correctly, though selection of such variables depends largely on one's experience in the topic. It is known that drag depends on Quantity Size Viscosity Density Symbol Dimension l L m/LT m/L3

Velocity V Gravity g

L/T L/T2

This means that D = f(l,,V,g) where f is some function. With the Rayleigh Method, we assume that D=ClabcVdge, where C is a dimensionless constant, and a,b,c,d, and e are exponents, whose values are not yet known. Note that the dimensions of the left side, force, must equal those on the right side. Here, we use only the three independent dimensions for the variables on the right side: M, L, and T.  Step 1: Setting up the equation Write the equation in terms of dimensions only, i.e. replace the quantities with their respective units. The equation then becomes

On the left side, we have MLT-2, which is equal to the dimensions on the right side. Therefore, the exponents of the right side must be such that the units are MLT-2  Step 2: Solving for the exponents Equate the exponents to each other in terms of their respective fundamental units: M: 1 = b + c since M = MbMc L: 1 = a - 3b - c + d + e since L = LaL-3bL-cLdLe T: -2 = -c - d - 2e since T-2 = T-cT-dT-2e It is seen that there are three equations, but 5 unknown variables. This means that a complete solution cannot be obtained. Thus, we choose to solve a, b, and d in terms of c and e. These choices are based on experience. Therefore, From M: b = 1 - c (i) From T: d = 2 - c - 2e (ii) From L: a = 1 + 3b + c - d - e (iii) Solving (i), (ii), and (iii) simultaneously, we obtain a=2-c+e Substituting the exponents back into the original equation, we obtain D = Cl2+e-c1-ccV2-c-2ege Collecting like exponents together,

Which means D = Cl2lel-c-ccV2V-cV-2ege For the different exponents, Terms with exponent of 1: C Terms with exponent of 2: l2V2

(iv)

Terms with exponent of c: l-c-ccV-c =

(v)

The right sides of (iv) and (v) are known as the dimensionless groups.  Step 3: Determining the dimensionless groups Note that e and c are unknown. Consider the following cases:

If e = 1 then (iv) becomes If e = -1 then (iv) becomes If c = 1 then (v) becomes If c = -1 then (v) becomes Where is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. And so on for different exponents. It turns out that:

Where NR or Re and NF or Fr are the usual notations for the Reynolds and Froude Numbers respectively. Such dimensionless groups keep reoccurring throughout Fluid Mechanics and other fields. Choosing exponents of -1 for c and - for e, which result in the Reynolds and Froude Numbers respectively, we obtain D = g(Fr, Re)l2V2 Where g(Fr, Re) is a dimensionless function This can also be written as

Which is a dimensionless quantity, and a function of only 2 variables instead of 5. This dimensionless quantity turns out to be the drag coefficient, CD.

 Notes The Rayleigh Method has limitations because of the premise that an exponential relationship exists between the variables.

 The Buckingham Theorem/Method

This method will be illustrated by the same example as that for Rayleigh Method, the drag on a ship. Say that we have n number of quantities (e.g. 6 quantities, which are D,l,,,V, and g) and m number of dimensions (e.g. 3 dimensions, which are M, L, and T). These quantities can be reduced to (n - m) independent dimensionless groups, such as Re and Fr. Say that A1 = f(A2, A3, A4, ... , An) where Ax are quantities such as drag, length, and so forth, as mentioned under the n number of quantities, and f implies the functional relationship between A1 and the other quantities. Then re-arranging, we obtain 0 = f(A2, A3, A4, ... , An) - A1 = f(A1, A2, A3, A4, ... , An) Which can be further reduced, using the Buckingham Theorem, to obtain

0 = f(1, 2, ... , n-m)  Forming Groups For each group, take m of the quantities, Ax, known as m repeating variables, and one of the other remaining variables. Note that experience dictates which quantities make the best repeating variables. The groups, in general form, would then be 1 = A1x1A2y1A3z1A4 2 = A1x2A2y2A3z2A5 n-m = A1xn-mA2yn-mA3zn-mAn which are all dimensionless quantities.  Step 1: Setup groups For the MLT System, m = 3, so choose A1, A2, and A3 as the repeating variables. Using the Buckingham Theorem on the Drag Equation: f(D, l, , , V, g) = 0 Where m = 3, n = 6, so there will be n - m = 3 groups. We will select , V, and l as the repeating variables (RV), leaving the remaining quantities as D, , and g. Note that if the analysis does not work out, we could always go back and repeat using new RVs. Thus, 1 = x1Vy1lz1D 2 = x2Vy2lz2 3 = x3Vy3lz3g Which are all dimensionless quantities, i.e. having units of M0L0T0  Step 2: Determine groups For the first group,

1 Expanding and collecting like units, we can solve for the exponents: For M: 0 = x1 + 1 x1 = -1

For T: 0 = -y1 - 2 y1 = -2 For L: 0 = -3x1 + y1 + z1 + 1 z1 = 3(-1) - (-2) - 1 = -2 Therefore, we find that the exponents x1, y1, and z1 are -1, -2, and -2 respectively. This means that the first dimensionless group, 1, is

1 = -1V-2l-2D = For the second group,

2 Solving for the exponents, For M: x2 + 1 = 0 x2 = -1 For T: -y2 - 1 = 0 y2 = -1 For L: -3x2 + y2 + z2 - 1 = 0 z2 = 1 - (-1) + 3(-1) = -1 Thus,

However, we will now invert 2 so that

It is permissible to exponentiate any group, e.g. -1, , 2, etc., to form a new group, as this does not alter the functional form. For the third group,

3 Solving for the exponents, For M: x3 = 0 x3 = 0 For T: -y3 - 2 = 0 y3 = -2 For L: -3x3 + y3 + z3 + 1 = 0 z3 = -1 - (-2) = 1 Thus,

Thus, the three groups can be written together as

Finally,

Note that this is the same result as obtained with the Rayleigh Method, but with the Buckingham Method, we did not have to assume a functional dependence.

 Common Groups

Using the Buckingham Theorem, we will now examine the groups which appear most frequently in fluid dynamics. Most fluid flow situations depend on the following quantities: l D V p g K or Ev length diameter surface roughness velocity of flow density of fluid pressure drop gravity absolute/dynamic viscosity surface tension Compressibility/Bulk Modulus

There are 10 quantities, n = 10, and 3 dimensions, m = 3, so this gives n - m = 7 groups. Choosing V, , and l as the repeating variables, performing the Buckingham analysis, and using different exponents for some groups, we obtain the following groups, which are common in the study of Fluid Mechanics:

General
Navier--Stokes equations, which govern the conservation of momentum for Newtonian fluids, have been known for more than 200 years. However, it has not been possible to solve them analytically, except for very special and also very simple flow cases with related boundary conditions. The non-linearity of this system of partial differential equations is the main barrier for its analytical solution. In principle direct numerical solutions of turbulent flow problem are possible, since the governing equations constitute a closed system. However, with increasing Reynolds number the ranges of length and temporal scales increase. Hence, more spatial and temporal resolution of the simulations are required, such that one rapidly reaches the limits of the available computer power. Therefore, it is impossiblefor now and the foreseeable future to apply direct numerical simulations for most of the turbulent flows of technological interest. Being aware of these difficulties, after Feynman, it developed into folklore to say that turbulence is the last great unsolved problem of classical physics. In spite of the difficulties related to the nature of turbulence, numerous investigations aimed at understanding turbulence and, consequently, modeling and controlling turbulent flows have been conducted.

Fluid Mechanics/Ch11

Fluid Mechanics/Fluid Properties

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1 Density 2 Specific Weight 3 Relative Density (Specific Gravity) 4 Viscosity 5 Dimensionless parameters
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5.1 Reynolds Number

 Density The density of a fluid, is generally designated by the Greek symbol (rho) is defined as the mass of the fluid over an infinitesimal volume. Density is expressed in the British Gravitational (BG) system as slugs/ft3, and in the SI system kg/m3.

If the fluid is assumed to be uniformly dense the formula may be simplified as:

 Specific Weight The specific weight of a fluid is designated by the Greek symbol (gamma), and is generally defined as the weight per unit volume. The units for gamma are; lb/ft3 and N/m3 in BG and SI systems, respectively. =*g g = local acceleration of gravity and = density Note: It is customary to use: g = 32.174 ft/s2 = 9.81 m/s2

= 1000 kg/m3  Relative Density (Specific Gravity) The relative density of any fluid is defined as the ratio of the density of that fluid to the density of the standard fluid. For liquids we take water as a standard fluid with density =1000 kg/m3. For gases we take air or O2 as a standard fluid with density, =1.293 kg/m3.  Viscosity Viscosity (represented by , Greek letter mu) is a material property, unique to fluids, that measures the fluid's resistance to flow. Though a property of the fluid, its effect is understood only when the fluid is in motion. When different elements move with different velocities, each element tries to drag its neighbouring elements along with it. Thus, shear stress occurs between fluid elements of different velocities.

Velocity gradient in laminar shear flow The relationship between the shear stress and the velocity field was studied by Isaac Newton and he proposed that the shear stresses are directly proportional to the velocity gradient. The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of dynamic viscosity. Another coefficient, known as the kinematic viscosity (, Greek nu) is defined as the ratio of dynamic viscosity and density. I.e., = / It is the property of a fluid that quantifies resistance to flow of the fluid.

 Dimensionless parameters

Dimensionless parameters are used to simplify analysis, and describe the physical situation without referring to units. A dimensionless quantity has no physical unit associated with it.  Reynolds Number Reynolds number (after Osborne Reynolds, 1842-1912) is used in the study of fluid flows. It compares the relative strength of inertial and viscous effects.

The value of the Reynolds number is defined as: where (rho) is the density, (mu) is the absolute viscosity, V is the characteristic velocity of the flow, and L is the characteristic length for the flow. Example 0.1: Reynold's number for flat plate flow Air at 293K temperature, and 1.225 kg m-3 density is flowing past a flat plate at 1 m s1 . What's the Reynold's Number 1 m downstream from the leading the edge of the plate? Absolute viscosity for air is 1.8 10-5 N s m-2.

Additionally, we define a parameter (nu) as the kinematic viscosity. Low Re indicates creeping flow, medium Re is laminar flow, and high Re indicates turbulent flow. Reynolds number can also be transformed to take account of different flow conditions. For example the Reynolds number for flow within a pipe is expressed as

where u is the average fluid velocity within the pipe and d is the inside diameter of the pipe. Application of dynamic forces (and the Reynolds number) to the real world: sky-diving, where friction forces equal the falling body's weight. (jjam)