A STRUCTURAL APPROACH TO
THE RULE OF LAW
AS A TOOL TO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
SUBMITTED UNDER THE PSEUDONYM
In Greek mythology, Eunomia was the goddess of law and legislation, of good order and lawful conduct. She was associated with the internal stability of a state, including the enactment of good laws and the maintenance of civil order. In present day Greek language, the word “eunomia” developed a meaning associated with the goddess’ virtues and high moral standards and the word was adopted to mean “good order, governance according to good laws”. The present legal system of Greece designates the Ombudsman to intervene in controversies involving individuals or legal entities against the public administration. The mediation process serves to protect the rights of the former and to ensure the compliance of the latter to the rule of law, operating as a measure to triumph over maladministration. To demonstrate the significance of good laws and civil order in the Greek culture, the Ombudsman’s current international activities include a “Eunomia” project, an action plan tasked to establish Ombudsman-type of mediation institutions in Southeast Europe, run under the auspices of the Council.
REFERENCES : http://www.greekembassy.nl/press http://en.wikipedia.orgwiki/Horae
The rule of law is of great consequence to national development because the Constitution and the system of codes, laws and rules define the legal framework and the government structure within which socio-economic and political activities that lead to national development can take place. A treatment of the rule of law and its role in national development is covered in the succeeding pages in the context of its operation within a governmental framework. The function of the rule of law within a structural process flows from the sovereign power, through a set of laws, over a network of institutions, directed at the growth forces of development and on to the subjects who are expected to act and perform in accordance with defined rules. The function of the rule of law is reliant on the balance of two “powers”: the degree of good governance as administered by the sovereign power and the degree of citizen participation, termed as “citizenry power”. These are the two active powers that will determine the respect for rule of law in a country. Thus, in this aspect, rule of law comprises the system of laws by which the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government contribute to the prevention of the arbitrary exercise of their respective powers upon the citizens, through the preservation of citizens’ rights in order to advance compliance, sustainability and predictability of laws for the purpose of generating a well-ordered society that shall be susceptible to growth forces that create and influence the conditions for national development.
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VIII. VII. Prelude The Practical Concepts of “Rule of Law” The Philosophical and Legalistic Concepts of “Rule of Law” IV. XII. VI.
4 6 7 9
The Basis of Rule of Law The Philippines as a Democratic Government The Concept of National Development Framework of Laws & National Development 10 Role of the Legislative Power Role of the Executive Power Role of the Judiciary Summary Conclusion References
13 16 18 21 25
V. II. XI. X.TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. IX.iii -
. who shall execute the law . . after a decision was handed down by the Sandiganbayan anti-graft court finding the former President guilty of the crime of plunder. The office of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo appealed before the public and declared: "Let the rule of law prevail. who shall execute the law . . .A STRUCTURAL APPROACH TO
THE RULE OF LAW
AS A TOOL TO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
The Constitution defines who shall make the law . thousands of supporters of deposed President Joseph Ejercito Estrada amassed before the Presidential Palace to protest his incarceration. Meantime. The rule of law to prevail requires good country management with a well-governed economy where laws are sound and stable and where the legal interpretation and enforcement of contractual and statutory obligations are reliable.”
. an economy to grow and a peace to win. . who shall interpret the law . . ." Six years later. These require effective collaboration of who shall make the law . .
I. . 2007. on September 12. 2001. we have a country to run. . the Presidential Spokesman issued the following statement: “We hope and pray that the rule of law will prevail. who shall interpret the law . . PRELUDE On May 1. attempting to dethrone the sitting President in order to restore the deposed President. .
Out on the streets. the concept of the rule of law was rather obscure in Philippine politics. under the rule of law . when a political fugitive like Gringo Honasan is able to elude the authorities under the guise of a woman or when Trillanes fails in his attempt to lead a pseudo “Pied Piper” march from the Makati RTC to the famed Peninsula Hotel. much is said. barbershop scuttlebutt and neighborhood chatter. it is undeniable that the integrity of the judicial process is itself put to judgment by the “law of public opinion” and the “law of the streets”. the term is misconstrued. From these momentous occurrences. I did not resort to influence. often than not. peacemakers or even the courts. Estrada proclaimed before members of media: I submitted myself to the rule of law when I allowed the impeachment proceedings against me to take its course. or the “law of the streets” or the “rule of the mob”. The newspaper and tabloid headlines scream and the average man in society “gets excited” when a controversial figure like Jalosjos gets embroiled in a rape scandal.no
. When political or highly controversial figures are made to stand before the law.After the verdict was read. II. the concept became a buzzword and gave birth to different perceptions. THE PRACTICAL CONCEPT OF “RULE OF LAW” A man-on-the-street’s perception of the rule of law operates within a narrow context that the rule of law is a regime that is not governed by the “law of the jungle”. The concept is now heavily used in official and diplomatic addresses. little is understood and. Prior to these almost exclusive historic events." The above state of affairs imparted a limited application of the concept of rule of law in three separate but related historical episodes. in coffee shop politics. Mr. congressional arguments and media communications. Broadly conceived. that the rule of law is a concept equated with the “rule of the many” or the “rule of the popular will”. He identifies rule of law with “law and order” and ultimately associates the same with the competence and effectiveness of the law enforcers.
while the World Bank definition centers on the protection of citizens against abusive government power. We have the government in the exercise of its powers and the citizens in the exercise of their rights. This is a simple and practical workable understanding of the rule of law. In the most basic sense. are accountable to laws that are publicly promulgated. norms and standards. and with equal application to all. Report of the Secretary-General. THE PHILOSOPHICAL AND LEGALISTIC CONCEPTS OF “RULE OF LAW” The United Nations’ definition of rule of law refers to a principle of governance in which all persons.1 A World Bank definition of rule of law is that it is a “legal-political regime under which the law restrains the government by promoting certain liberties and creating order and predictability regarding how a country functions.”2 A careful reading of both definitions finds a parallel ground lying between two sectors. University of Iowa. with the key element that disputes arising therefrom are decided in accordance with laws that are known. equally enforced. Helen and Alison Guernsey. public official or private citizen . Both the citizenry and the government are mandated to submit to its supremacy. with the law having dominion on both sectors. and which are consistent with international human rights. stable. including the State itself. the rule of law is a system that attempts to protect the rights of citizens from arbitrary and abusive use of government power. 23 August 2004. III. Numerous works of jurists describe the rule of law as a power regulator. What is the Rule of Law?
. The United Nations’ definition focuses on accountability before the law. The relationships between the government and the citizens are bound by a set of rules. Yu.no one stands above or beyond the control of the law. public and private institutions and entities.politician. independently adjudicated. where the government in all its actions is
The Rule of Law and Transitional Justice.
the public is informed of the authority’s coercive powers so that citizens may act on the basis of this knowledge. Such functions should be carried out in a manner that is strong enough to stimulate citizen participation. The rule of law is therefore a system by which it serves as a power regulator on the government and a controlling power on the citizens. Equally. V. functioning in defined areas of responsibility through independent institutions and agencies. the practical and philosophical concepts of rule of law meet at a common point: the rule of law prevails when a government is limited by law for the benefit of its citizens.bound by rules which are known and fixed. ultimately delivering efficient service to the public according to constitutional and statutory mandates. IV. effective execution of such laws by the various institutions and the equitable interpretation of those laws by the courts. The concept of rule of law is not rulemaking nor law-making. Legislative and Judicial branches of the government. Lying in its core is the principle that good laws make good governance which. which is drawn up
. uses the rule of law as one of its arms in reaching out to the citizenry as a key ingredient towards national development. The influence and power of rule of law is initiated by the enactment of good laws by Congress. transparency and security apply horizontally to the three government powers and which devolve vertically to the commissions. in turn. draw their legal and political powers from the Constitution. the cabinet consisting of departments. bureaus and other institutions. Within the context of democratic governance as that prevailing in our country. Rule of law and good governance require an effective institutional infrastructure where the factors of accountability. THE BASIS OF RULE OF LAW One aspect of rule of law is the requirement of an existing set of good laws. THE PHILIPPINES AS A DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT The Executive.
It needs economic reforms to attract foreign investments and remove trade barriers. Thus we have the electoral process. it virtually means that the constitution has been upheld and its directives espoused in accordance with its principles and state policies. Its objectives are primarily set at providing an overall enrichment to the lives of the people and delivering to them a higher quality of life. When we say that the rule of law has prevailed. alleviate poverty. It needs social reforms to enhance quality education. basically carried out through socio-economic and political reforms. laws. exercised by the people over the government in what we may term ‘citizenry power’. By virtue of our democratic government. housing. customs and traditions. The rule of law varies in different countries as it derives its powers from the states’ respective Constitutions. Hence. exist to serve the people. quality education. It requires fresh inputs and reforms into its natural resources in order to preserve its environment. health. the legal mechanisms of checks and balances constricting the powers of the three branches are also shared by the citizenry. the Government and the Constitution. The Philippines’ population of more than 80 million inhabitants sets the greatest incentive to induce social reforms and implement economic diversification to target the progress
. Respect for the principle of democracy is an aspect of the rule of law. provide security against terrorism and extrajudicial killings. preserve human dignity and equality to the highest standards and protection against administrative and high-level corruption. THE CONCEPT OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT National development involves a forward change in the different sectors of a country.by the people and sets the limits and defines the framework within which the branches can properly function. both created by the people. As such. VI. there is a direct corelationship between law and constitutionalism. National development entails more than a single action. initiative and referendum and recall election as devices allowing citizen participation in the system of checks and balance.
Laws should advance economic freedom by removing barriers that allow trade to flourish and open the economy to the beneficial forces of globalization while preventing excesses. Applied to our society. The three principal drivers for growth are: (1) the environment system (2) the socio-economic system and (3) the political system. This includes acceleration of educational and skills training. Bureau of Lands. human capital. The development dimension is horizontal thus addressed to the actions of the three branches of government. infrastructure and the private sector. Congress should assess conditions existing in each system as to their access and susceptibility to development and the degree to which they can be expanded to attain national growth.and development of human resources as the single most powerful component required for national development. laws that stimulate and develop human and capital productivity. property rights. trade and industry. optimization of agro-ecological conditions and management and control of the spatial aspects in the interactions between humans and natural resources. security. fishing. In the passage of laws. this includes controls affecting mining.. among others. Laws are instruments that could be utilized to create an enabling environment for the establishment of communal order. The environment system requires control over the conditions and resources of the country’s natural environment where laws need to be passed for protection against environmental degeneration. The socio-economic system includes the development of the country’s human resources. human rights. all with the end in view towards sustainability. all of which fall under the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.e. tourism. VII. Bureau of Fisheries and Bureau of Mines. agrarian reform. farming and land use. FRAMEWORK OF LAWS & NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Laws alone do not create national development. i. It also establishes conditions that influence and smooth the progress of revenue-generating activities needed to improve the quality of life of the citizenry and ultimately attain national development. with responsibilities shared by the Bureau of Forestry. liberalization of
Labor and Employment. treaties. Asian Development Bank and the ASEAN. The court structure and its institutions safeguard civil and political liberties. Trade and Industry.
. socio-economic and political and legal institutions. when applied on the fourth level of the growth system . The third level depicts the system of law and rules and regulations to be enforced. in form of departments and bureaus. the conceptual framework is headed by the three powers of government which enact. within their respective jurisdictions. implemented and interpreted. overseas development assistance. World Bank. execute and defend a system of laws and rules. Agrarian Reform and Foreign Affairs. representing the foreign forces that evolve a reciprocal exchange with our national market forces. National development cannot be attained without the influence of forces derived from external sources lying beyond our territorial boundaries. protection for overseas foreign workers. Thus the framework essentially includes the fifth level. These come in the form of foreign investments. The political and legal systems oversee and regulate the activities of the two aforementioned systems through political institutions and public administration. Tourism. National Defense. to which powers devolve for enforcement. and foreign technology including the inputs of development and financial organizations and our partners in development such as the United Nations. falling under the shared responsibilities of the Departments of Education. Public Works. eradication of corruption and elimination of terrorism. At the top-most level. The second level consists of the institutions. and on to the subject citizenry for their ultimate benefit. including the foreign forces operating thereon. to name a few.foreign investments. applied to a growth system of environment. Summarily. socio-economic and political and legal forces develops a growth mosaic which forms the essential parts of national development. the structural process describes the flow of government authority through a system of laws over a network of institutions. This system of rules.composed of a network of environment.
address the demands of the economy. Ultimately. The Foreign Investment Act. economic and political needs.VIII. as the law-making body of the government. should enact laws articulating citizen interests and public need. terrorism and abuse of power in their implementation. When laws are relevant and responsive to the requirements of the intended beneficiaries. Reforms that cause resistance aggravate corruption. they negate economic development. the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act and the proposal to negotiate for bilateral labor agreements with countries hosting Filipino workers are pieces of legislation that serve the constitutional mandate to protect rights of workers and promote their welfare. A.
. 9372 Human Security Act which fueled domestic opposition and international concern on allegations that its vague language invites the misuse of such law. BuildOperate-Transfer Law and the concurrence to the World Trade Organization Treaty are acts of legislation on reforms that spur economic development and respond to global demands that bring to life the constitutional mandate to develop a self-reliant and independent national economy. Designed to address social. ROLE OF THE LEGISLATIVE POWER The legislative branch. Special Zone Act. The Labor Code. Retail Trade Liberalization Act. Omnibus Investments Code. they effectively connect people to the government and good governance results as a consequence. and stimulate growth and create civil order. A policy of stability will attract and stimulate investments and provide the continuity and time horizons that investors need in planning out project forecasts. Resistance is demonstrated in the recently enacted antiterror law under R. laws should build capacity to address any situation that must be reformed and integrated with an ideal guarantee for compliance. Ineffective laws are detrimental to good governance and consequently undermine respect for the rule of law.
and mediate their differences”. programs and capital. through policies and implementing rules and regulations." Good governance is best described by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and defines it as “the exercise of economic. former Secretary General of the United Nations. Kofi Annan. They comply with constitutional mandates while inducing individual growth and national development. These legislative mechanisms regulate and control the environment. 1793 for better policies on full public disclosure of all government transactions involving public interest demonstrates legislative response to demands for transparency and accountability. meet their obligations. exercise their legal rights. in turn.There are several proposed amendments to existing laws and bills relating to the Tourism Act. They establish an order that provides the smooth interaction of the forces of man. it consists of departments which are created by the legislature to exercise legally defined regulatory powers and which. quality affordable medicines. It comprises mechanisms.
. the intellectual property code and human rights. the rule of law is said to prevail. The need to amend the Government Procurement Reform Act under Senate Bill No. IX. enforced and executed through various institutions. had declared that "Good governance is perhaps the single most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development. Being a large bureaucracy. rules. form several institutions which execute the laws in accordance with the mandate of Congress. Good governance is an extension of the principle of the rule of law. When these conditions exist. and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests. and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels. ROLE OF THE EXECUTIVE The Executive power includes the implementation of the acts of Congress. political. processes.
. Guillermo A. October 2004. special economic zones. in accordance with defined rules. Such a system can only exist where rule of law prevails.10 -
. defended by an independent judiciary. the creation of the barangay justice system and the mediation system at the Departments of Agrarian Reform and Environment and Natural Resources to resolve controversies closer to the grass roots . A secure and prosperous environment for public order must be created. and accountability will the responsiveness of government to the interests and needs of the greatest number of citizens be achieved. Due process must be implemented and respect for human rights must be enhanced. Only when the rule of law bolsters the democratic dimensions of rights. establish social order. election reforms. X. based on legislative mandates.these are but few cases where executive acts. THE ROLE OF THE JUDICIARY “Without a vigorous rule of law. No.The definition imparts the structural process describing the flow of government authority over a network of institutions and on to the subjects who act and operate. 32-46
. Journal of Democracy – Vol. and enhance human capital. They go where the rules are stable and where laws do not change overnight and wipe out a business by a mere change of legislation. rights are not safe and the equality and dignity of all citizens are at risk. equality. A capacity for law enforcement must be developed. pp. Investors are attracted to economies where there are proper functioning institutions that promote stability and legal certainty. Investors prefer to go where governance is good. Foreign policies must be designed to promote national growth. open our markets to more investments. The creation of the Presidential Anti-Graft Commission to strengthen institutionalized measures against graft and corruption.3
O’Donnell. 4. Why the Rule of Law Matters. tax reforms. 15.
2 May 1997 6 David vs Arroyo. R. 118295.Sound laws protect the citizens from consequences of their infringement and serve as a shield against abuses of the authorities. which was the goal of this legislation.11 -
. The Court upheld the Senate’s concurrence to the WTO5 membership by recognizing the free market espoused by the WTO and its status as the only viable structure for multilateral trading. A. 79424 as constitutional. 171396. G. R. No. The Supreme Court defended the people’s rights when it struck down the “calibrated pre-emptive response” 6 embodied in Presidential Proclamation No. R. 3 May 2006
. G. 1 December 2004. 127882. Tanada vs Angara. Several recent judgments have demonstrated the sensitivity of the courts to promoting the rule of law in the pursuit of national development. By declaring the Mining Law under R. A strong and independent judiciary is vital to the economic and social development of the nation since a strong legal system and adherence to the rule of law are components of national development. 1017 which was used as basis for violent dispersals of peaceful assemblies. The primary role of the judiciary is the administration of justice. applying them equally to all its citizens and consistently over time. The concept of rule of law puts the weight of its effectiveness on how the legal system sustains the laws in resolving conflicts. in accordance with laws enacted by legislature and to safeguard civil liberty by defending these laws. the Supreme Court participated in the advancement of economic development through increased mining activities that translated to billions worth of investments and created more job opportunities. A significant test of the force of the rule of law in the Philippines took place when the Supreme Court upheld the constitutional power of a co-equal branch to conduct legislative inquiries in aid of legislation and invalidated an act of another
La Bugal vs Ramos. G.
the primacy of such laws and the adherence of society to such laws. it mandates a set of laws. Effective laws are good laws.co-equal branch when it declared certain provisions of Executive Order No. XI. proclamations and implementing rules and regulations in accordance with the spirit intended by Congress and is mandated to bring out the effect of
Senate vs Ermita. sound and strong laws. by way of orders. through its bureaucracy. 20 April 2006
. stimulate opportunities for growth. Compliance to laws is respect for the rule of law. Good laws stimulate compliance. brought to the Supreme Court for resolution. which are the basic precepts of the principle of rule of law. Congress determines the laws that go into the system and bears the responsibility to formulate good. and can break down trade barriers to allow foreign investments to come in. The force of rule of law commands civil order and requires such order as a condition for rule of law to prevail. G. They are strong when they are stable. The Executive bears the responsibility to enforce the law. They are sound when they involve legal certainty. The above cases.12 -
. It upheld the right of lawmakers to compel the appearance of officials of the executive branch in legislative inquires so as not to frustrate legislative investigations and serve the people’s right to take part in government affairs. facilitate the management of national economy and protect people and investments. SUMMARY All three powers of government utilize laws and rules as mechanisms to achieve good governance. but not stagnant. No. are consistent with international standards and are predictable and enduring. Laws are good when they create rights. which is a precondition to achieve national development. are manifestations of its mandate to uphold the supremacy of the law and maintain equality before the law. To be operative. 4647 as unconstitutional. contain no infirmities. 169777. articulating citizen preference and public need. The rule of law contributes to national development. R.
Disregard of the law undermines the rule of law. Investors go where the legal system provides recourse when their rights are denied by private parties or by public administration.13 -
. Rule of law prevails where laws exist.such laws pursuant to the objectives they were set out for. to which pronouncements Congress and the President must defer. Without compliance. a point in fact is that the heaviest burden of upholding the principle is loaded on the shoulders of the Judiciary as the guardian of the rule of law. with a duty to close gaps between legal pronouncements and enforcement while infusing transparency and accountability into the enforcement process.
. Good law enforcement optimizes the pieces of legislation as instruments to license. In an age of globalization. While a system of checks and balances aligns and delineates the respective jurisdictions of the three powers. Building capacity and developing an attitude for ensuring compliance to laws is an order for the Executive. lack of foreign capital will impede national development. regulate. where laws are observed and where laws are upheld. thus making risks predictable and calculable. laws and regulations are inconsequential. Proper use of laws on the appropriate subjects will induce obedience to laws and regulations. While the Legislative and the Executive participate indispensably in establishing the force of rule of law upon society. generate or to charge. The absence of the rule of law is absence of public order and closes the doors to foreign investments. Legal systems that provide strong legal protection for offended parties and investors will allow the implementation of reforms and marketoriented programs executed and protected under legal basis. The onus of law enforcement is addressing laws to their intended beneficiaries. balancing the various interests in society in order to form the synergy required for progressive-oriented actions. protect. judicial reach covers not only civil society but extends even over their co-equal branches through judicial reviews in order to determine whether or not legislative and executive acts lie within the bounds of the Constitution.
the guarantee of his civil liberty . Whether the exertions to reach the goal are evenly balanced or not. civil order builds industries. these are abstract ideologies to his mind and too complicated for him to appreciate. there is national development. industries build economies. This for the most part involves reforms and programs that intensify the ability to subject the people’s attitudes (referring to mental facilities) and behavior (referring to physical actions) under the supremacy of laws. if he is secure in his home and his neighbor does not steal his chickens. Where there is order.14 -
.XII. most important.00 apiece. He gives no importance if we can attain our 7% economic growth target for 2007. the rule of law as a tool to national development may be summarized in the following conceptual structural framework. Claims for one million jobs are irrelevant to him if he is employed. it does not matter which horse had brought the carriage to the finish line. All said. the Philippines should invest more in its most potent asset. CONCLUSION
The reins of the government are held by the Legislative. What then is relevant to him? The average Filipino rates the government in accordance with the improvement of his standard of living on a day-to-day basis. Executive and the Judiciary. there is order. The expressions of a prosperous economy. With priority over all other resources. economies build a nation. if his electricity bill does not fluctuate significantly. Where the law is supreme. Following the wisdom of an aphorism. Laws build civil order. if he can provide his children a better education and give them a better life than what he had. He will not monitor the country’s economic indicators. human capital. rule of law prevails. Where the economy is market-oriented. To him the government is doing well if he himself receives a regular salary increase. the average Filipino belonging to the majority of the population below the poverty line. When all these happen. We must admit that the common man on the street. He is happy if the price of “pandesal” can be maintained at P2. .
. does not probably think of national development. These are his economic indicators. the horses that pull the carriage will reach their target destination all at the same time. investors find their way in the markets with facility because all forces take their own course. that is. if he still has money left to put aside for savings. if the cost of his LPG stays constant from one purchase to the other. . He even complains of a strong peso because the overseas remittance he receives from the Middle East had become less.
Code of Com erc m e .Pleadings .Other issuances
Rules .Conceptual Structural Framework
L E G IS L A T IV E E X E C U T IV E J U D IC IA R Y
C o m m i t te e s :
SC D A R D epEd D B M D SW D D TI D oE D FA D oH D oS T D IL G DO LE D oJ D oT D PW H C A RT C M eTC M TC SB SD C M C T C SC C C TA
B lu e R i b b o n E c o n o m i c A ff a i rs E th ic s F in an c e F o r e ig n R e la t io n s E d u c a tio n E n erg y J u s ti c e R u le s W ay s & M ea n s O th e r s
D N D D oTC
NE D A
LAW & RULES
.Ex ecutive O rs rde .Constitution .15 -
.Revised Penal Code .Civ Cod il e .Im entingRules plem &Reg ulations .Proc edure .Le Profession gal .Other Legislations
.Policies .Prac e tic .Proclam ns atio .Prote ction &Enfo em rc ent of Constitutional Rights
S o c io -E c o n o m i c
E n v iro n m en t P o lit ic a l L eg a l
Foreign Investments ASEAN
UN Overseas Development Assistance
pdf World Bank.usinfo. U.
. Regina. located at http://www.Thus. What is the Rule of Law?. What is Rule of Law?.16 -
. Danielle and Birner. NEDA. 5. Supreme Court. Perspectives.org/Perspectives/5_043000/what_is_ rule_of_law. we may revisit the message embodied in the “Prologue” of this piece of writing which had attributed a structural approach to the rule of law as a tool in national development. Does Good Governance Contribute to Pro-Poor Growth? located at http://www.gov/journalsites0303/ijee/dobriansky. No.org/divs/ dsgd/papers/dsgdp30. REFERENCES Dobriansky. Principles of Good Governance. located at http://www.
The rule of law is of great consequence to national development because the Constitution and the system of codes.edu/ifdebook/faq/ Rule_of_Law. Resnick.ifpri. Senate. Conformably. Vol. Paula.htm Bo Li. Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs. 1. located at http://www. laws and rules define the legal framework and the government structure within which socio-economic and political activities that lead to national development can take place.uiowa. we can sufficiently conclude that the operation of the rule of law is effective when it follows an orderly structural process which recognizes authorities and symbiotic relationships existing in all levels of government that adequately influence the creation of conditions susceptible to national development. Yu.S.oycf.htm. Helen and Alison Guernsey.shtml Websites of Malacanang.state.A.