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© 2009 Foreship Lt d.

SOME I MPORTANT NAVAL ARCHI TECTURAL TERMS

February 2009

I TEM EXPLANATI ON

A- , B- and C- class divisions SOLAS has t ables f or st ruct ural f ire prot ect i on requi rement of

bulkheads and decks. The requir ement s depend on t he spaces in

quest ion, and are diff erent f or passenger ships and cargo ships.

A- 0, A- 15, A- 3 0, A- 6 0:

Shall be const ruct ed of st eel or equivalent mat erial, shall be

const ruct ed t o prevent passage of smoke and f lame f or 1 h in

St andard Fire Test , shall be insulat ed so t hat t he average t emperat ure

of t he unexposed side does not rise more t han 140C ( any point no

more t han 180C) above t he original t emperat ure wit hin 0, 15, 30 or

60 minut es.

B- 0, B- 15 :

Shall be const r uct ed t o pr event passage of f lame f or 0. 5 h i n St andar d

Fire Test , shall be insulat ed so t hat t he average t emperat ure of t he

unexposed side does not rise more t han 140C ( any point no more

t han 225C) above t he or iginal t emperat ure wit hin 0 or 15 minut es.

Shall be const ruct ed of approved non- combust ible mat erial s

( However, combust ible veneer may be used) .

C:

Shall be const ruct ed of approved non- combust ible mat erial s

( However, combust ible veneer may be used) .

Alt ernat ive Design,

Alt er nat ive Arr angement s

Regulat ion allows for designs and arrangement s which are not

according t o SOLAS requirement s, pr oviding an analysis i s made t hat

shows t he pr oposed alt ernat ive design or arr angement is, wi t h regards

t o safet y, at t he same or bet t er level t han t he SOLAS requirement .

Example of an alt ernat ive design are lifeboat s wit h a higher t han 150

person capacit y.

At t ained Subdivision I ndex, “ A” According t o probabili st ic damage st abilit y rules t he vessel’s

probabilit y t o survive a flooding damage ( collision, grounding) is

calculat ed wit h f or mula:

A = p

ì

s

ì

wher e:

i represent s each compart ment or group of compart ment s under

considerat i on.

pi is t he probabilit y t hat only t he compart ment or gr oup of

compart ment s under considerat ion may be flooded.

si is t he probabilit y of survivabilit y aft er flooding of t he

compart ment or group of compart ment s under considerat ion.

The “ A” i s cal culat ed f or t hree dif f erent draf t s and summari zed wit h a

weight ed formula. I f t he “ A” ” R” ( R= required subdivision i ndex) , t he

vessel f ulf ills t he requirement . Typically t he vessel’ s GM- limit s for

damage st abilit y are adj ust ed so t hat “ A” = ” R” .

Ballast Wat er Convent ion, Ballast

Wat er Tr eat ment , BWT

New regulat ion requiring ballast wat er t reat ment syst ems on all ships

( new and old) , in order t o avoid harmf ul organi sms spreading from

one locat ion t o anot her . Typically t he t reat ment is by filt eri ng and UV-

light .

B/ 5, Breadt h divided by 5, B/ 5- line I maginary line used in ship design and damage st abilit y calculat ions:

according t o old rules, no damage ext ends inside t he B/ 5- li ne ( e. g. on

a vessel wit h breadt h of 32. 2 m, maxi mum ext ent of any damage is

6. 44 m fr om ship’s shel l) . Due t o t his, bilge main lines, fuel t anks, et c.

are normal ly locat ed inside t hi s B/ 5. New probabilist ic rules have

made t his r ule obsolet e on new ships.

Block Coef f icient , CB I mport ant coef ficient which describes t he f ullness of t he hull: a lower

coef f icient means t ypical ly lower resi st ance. CB = Displacement

Volume / ( L x B x T) . A t ypical f igure f or a cruise vessel is e. g. 0. 65.

Ot her oft en used coef ficient is CM, Midship Sect ion Coeff ici ent , which

describes t he f ullness of Midship Sect ion.

Page 2( 6)

© 2009 Foreship Lt d.

Cent er of Gravit y, Vert ical Cent er of

Gravit y ( VCG) , Longit udinal Cent er of

Gravit y ( LCG) , KG

Cent er of Gravit y is used especially in connect ion wit h li ght weight ,

deadweight and displacement . VCG is t he ver t ical dist ance bet ween

cent er of gravit y and keel, LCG i s t he longit udinal dist ance bet ween

cent er of gravit y and f rame # 0. Lower VCG means more st abilit y and

LCG af f ect s vessel’s t ri m. Typical VCG f igures f or a Panamax crui se

ship are, f or example:

I t em Wei gh t VCG

Light weight 39, 000t 17. 8m

Deadweight 8, 000t 6. 8m

Displacement 47, 000t 15. 9m

As t his example shows, deadweight has a lower VCG t han l ight weight

and t hus reduces t he VCG of displacement ( and improves st abilit y) .

The sit uat ion is kept like t his by replacing used f uel wit h ballast wat er.

KG is t he same t han VCG. See also GM.

CFD, Comput at ion Fl uid Dynami cs Calculat i on met hod or soft ware whi ch enables hydrodynamic

opt imizat ion of hull form. Has lat ely enabled fast development of

ef ficient hull forms. RANSE in connect ion wit h CFD denot es “ Reynolds

Averaged Navier St okes Equat ion” , and means simulat i on of t he

viscous f low. I n f ut ur e CFD calculat ions can likely replace model t est s.

COP, Coef f icient of Perf ormance Descr ibes t he eff iciency of AC- cooling compressors ( chi llers) . For

example, COP of 4. 0 indicat es t hat for a 4, 000 kW cooling power, t he

chiller requires 1, 000 kW of elect ric power.

Damage Lengt h The lengt h of damage used in damage st abilit y cal culat ions. For

passenger ship t he old ( pre 2009) rules def ined t his lengt h t o be “ 3m

+ 3% of Lpp or 11 m, whichever is less” . I n new pr obabilist i c r ules t he

calculat ed damage lengt hs are based on probabilist ic dist r ibut ion, and

t he calculat ion can include much longer damages t han was required in

old rules.

Damage St abilit y The vessel’s st abili t y charact er ist ics in damaged condit ion. Big crui se

ships can float wit h several f looded wat er t ight compart ment s. Old ( pre

2009) rules required t he ships t o wit hst and a damage of any t wo

adj acent wat ert ight compart ment s, but in new regul at ions t he

calculat i on met hod and requirement is much more complex.

Deadweight , DWT Weight ( and cent er of gravit y) of vessel’ s cargo, st ores, fuel, f resh

wat er, passengers, crew, liquids in t anks, et c. Deadweight of a

Panamax crui se vessel i s t ypically ar ound 8, 000 t . See also l ight weight

and displacement .

Design Draught , TDESI GN The draft t he vessel ( and her deadweight , st abilit y, perf ormance, et c. )

is designed f or. On a Panamax cr uise ship design draf t is t ypically ca.

8. 0 m. Generally more draft means bet t er seakeeping capabilit ies, but

less dr af t of t en means mor e st abilit y. See also Scant ling Dr af t .

Displacement , Di splacement weight The weight ( and cent er of gravit y) of t he vessel herself and vessel’s

cargo, st ores, passenger s, crew, et c. Di splacement = Light weight +

Deadweight . Displacement of a Panamax ( approximat ely 90, 000 GT)

cruise vessel is e. g. ca. 47, 000 t . Di splacement Force ( symbol ) is

Displacement Weight x g ( g= 9. 81 m/ s

2

) , and is t he same as

buoyancy.

Displacement volume ( ) The volume t he vessel’s hull di splaces in wat er. I n seawat er wit h

specific gravit y of 1. 025 kg/ m

3

, t he Displacement Volume f or a vessel

Displacement of 47, 000t i s 45, 854 m

3

. Thus t he vessel needs more

Displacement Vol ume ( and draft ) in fresh wat er t han in sea wat er for

t he same Displacement Weight .

Duckt ail An ext ension t o ship’s st ern. On older ships t he dimini shed st abilit y

can be regained by adding a duckt ail. Duckt ail is also used on

newbuildings; t here t he primary purpose is oft en t o reduce t he power

consumpt ion f or propulsion.

Froude Number, Fn Froude number describes t he vessel’s r elat ive speed, which depends

on vessel lengt h:

F

n

=

:[

m

s

]

_g[

m

s

2

] × I[m]

wher e:

v i s vessel speed in [ m/ s] ( 1 knot 0. 5 m/ s)

g is 9. 81 m/ s

2

L is vessel’s wat erline lengt h

Page 3( 6)

© 2009 Foreship Lt d.

Generally a lower Fn means lower resist ance ( f or f ast , small vessels

t he sit uat ion can be opposit e) . Typical f igure f or a Panamax cruise

ship is Fn= 0. 25.

Fuel Consumpt i on Using a t ypical engine specif ic fuel oil consumpt ion of 200 g/ kWh

( when t olerances, heat value correct ions, et c. are t aken int o account ,

t he real heavy f uel oil consumpt ion is seldom below t his, and oft en

even above t his) , t his corresponds t o a fuel consumpt ion of 0. 2 t / h per

1 MW. Thus, a ship using 30 MW f or propulsion and hot el load,

consumes 6t heavy fuel oil ( HFO) per hour.

Free surface correct ion The GM is correct ed wit h “ free surface correct ion” : i. e. t anks wit h free

surface reduce t he st abilit y of t he vessel; t his correct ion is e. g. - 0. 1

m. The more “ f ree surf aces” ( slack t anks, pools, splash ar eas) t here

is, t he bigger t he corr ect ion is, and t hus more t he GM reduces.

GM, ( t ransverse) Met acent r ic Height Descr ibes t he r ight ing moment of t he vessel: higher GM means bet t er

st abilit y ( condit ion f or posit ive st abilit y is t hat GM> 0. ) . Typical value

f or GM on a Panamax cr uise vessel is ca. 2. 0 m. GM = KM – KG,

where KG is t he VCG of t he ship ( light weight + deadweight ) and KM is

t he dist ance f rom keel t o t he met acent er ( see f igure below) . KM has

t o be higher t han KG f or a ship st ay upr ight ( and GM t o st ay posit ive) .

GM can also used for t he l ongit udinal st abi lit y of t he vessel: t hen

symbol GML is used.

Growt h Margin An addit ional margin added int o vessel weight calculat i on t o cover for

lat er weight incr eases. Pr act ically all ships get heavier when t hey age;

t his is due t o conversions, modif i cat ions, paint ing, et c. and wit hout

preparing f or t his, t he ship can lat er end up wit h st abili t y problems,

requiring a duckt ail or a sponson.

GT ( Gross Tonnage) , ( f ormerly GRT) Gr oss Tonnage descr ibes t he volume and size of t he vessel. GT

includes all t he enclosed spaces ( not balconies, sun decks or si milar

areas) . GT is calculat ed wit h a f or mula:

0I = (0.2 + 0.02 × log

10

I)I

wher e V = vessel’s calculat ed volume in m

3

.

Not es:

Earlier 1 GRT was 100 f t

3

, or 2. 83 m

3

; t hus figures f or e. g.

“ Tit ani c” cannot be direct ly compared wit h GT figures of

t oday’s vessels.

For example, if vessel’s enclosed vol ume i s 294 000 m

3

, t he

GT is ca. 91, 000.

GT is of t en t he base f or dif f erent port and ot her f ees.

As GT is logarit hmic, i t cannot be used for accurat e

compari son bet ween vessels of diff erent size: f or example, on

a 10, 000 GT ship one GT is 3. 44 m

3

, but on a 150, 000 GT

vessel one GT corresponds t o 3. 19 m

3

.

Heeling, Heeling angle The angle vessel is leaning away f rom upright posit ion.

Hot el Load The elect ric power needed for ot her ship f unct ions t han propulsion, i. e.

for AC, light ing, galleys, et c. For a Panamax vessel a t ypical hot el load

is close t o 10 MW.

I nt act St abilit y The vessel st abili t y in int act ( normal , non- damaged) condit ion. I n

int act condit ions t he vessel has t o wit hst and heeling, wi nd, et c. t o

fulfill t he crit eria st at ed in rules.

KM, ( t r ansver se) Met acent r ic Height KM is t he dist ance f rom Keel t o Met acent er, whi ch depends on t he

vessel draf t , displacement and hull f orm. Typical KM f or a Panamax

cruise vessel is 18 m. High KM means more st abil it y, but oft en at t he

expense of speed and sea keeping capabilit ies. See f igur e below.

Light weight , LWT Vessel’s “ empt y” weight ( and cent er of gravit y) , i. e. weight of t he

vessel wit hout fuel, st ores, wat er, cargo, passengers, crew, et c.

Needed liquid in ship syst em piping and syst em t anks is included, but

not liquids in e. g. st orage t anks.

Typical light weight for a Panamax cruise ship is ca. 39, 000 t . See also

displacement and deadweight .

Longit udinal Cent er of Buoyancy ( LCB) Longit udinal Cent er is t he l ongit udinal cent er of wat er t he vessel’s

hull displaces. When t he vessel f loat s, LCB and LCG ar e in same

posit ion. Posit ion of LCB is very import ant f or t he hull resist ance.

Typically LCB is locat ed slight ly af t of midship ( Lpp/ 2) .

Main Dimensions The vessel main dimensi on area:

Page 4( 6)

© 2009 Foreship Lt d.

LOA, Len gt h o ver al l : t he vessel’s absolut e maxi mum lengt h.

LPP, Leng t h bet w een per pen di cul ar s: t he dist ance bet ween rudder

shaft ( t ypical) and t he point where bow st em ent ers wat er at design

dr af t ( t ypical) . Basis f or many calculat ions and coef f icient s.

B, Br eadt h ( moul ded) : The vessel breadt h wit hout t he shell plat ing,

i.e. t he act ual br eadt h of t he vessel is slight ly more.

T, Dr af t ( desi gn ) : The planned design draf t f or t he vessel.

Ot her t ypically used dimensions incl ude wat erline lengt h, ai r draft and

scant ling draft .

Main Fire Zones ( MFZ) ,

Main Vert ical Zones ( MVZ) ,

Main Fire Zone Bulkheads ( MFZB)

The vessel has t o be divided int o vert ical f ire zones: t he basic rule i s

t hat maximum lengt h of a f ire zone is 40m, which can be in cert ain

sit uat ions ext ended t o 48m. Today’s pract ice is t o use 48m fire zones

where ever possible. The maximum permi ssible area of one main f ire

zone on one deck i s 1, 600 m

2

. On some of t oday’s newbui ldings t hese

areas are ext ended beyond t he SOLAS maximums, of t en based on

special cases, or on so called “ Alt ernat ive Design Principles” .

Addit ional r equirement is t hat t he bulkheads bet ween main f ire zones

should not have st eps.

Margin Line I maginary line t hat is def ined t o be 3 inches ( 76mm) below bulkhead

deck: in pre 2009 rules, in damaged condit ion t he Margin Line may

not submerge. Wit h new probabilist ic st abil it y rules margi n line has

become obsolet e.

MCR, maximum cont inuous rat ing The rat ed or maximum cont inuous power of a diesel engi ne. I n real

lif e t his power is never used: on diesel- elect ric ships 90% of MCR is a

t ypical maximum and on a diesel mechani cal ship t he t ypical f igure is

85% MCR.

Net Tonnage ( NT, f or merly NRT) Descr ibes vessel’ s “ net ” volume, i. e. is lower t han GT. I t i s calculat ed

wit h a more compl icat ed for mula t han for GT: t he f ormula t akes int o

account t he volume of cargo spaces, vessel draught and number of

passengers. On a ca. 90, 000 GT ship NT i s t ypically ca. 54, 000, i. e.

ca. 60% of GT. Of t en basis f or dif f erent port , passage et c. f ees.

Permeabilit y Permeabilit y is t he rat io of maximum flooded wat er ( in damaged

condit ion) volume t o t he space volume. I t is used in damage st abilit y

calculat i ons. For example, t he permeabilit y of st ores is 0. 6, i. e. when

a 100 m

3

st ore is f looded, 60 m

3

of wat er i s assumed i n damage

st abilit y calculat ions. For engine rooms t he permeabilit y is 0. 85 and

for t anks, voids and cof ferdams 0. 95.

Probabilist i c Damage St abilit y Rules New rules in for ce since 1. 1. 2009. I n t hese t he damage st abilit y

requirement s are no longer based on si mple rules, but on calculat i on

met hods where vessel’s t heoret ical and simplif ied survival probabilit y

is calculat ed. See At t ained and Required Subdivision I ndex.

Propeller Pressure Pulses,

Propeller Excit at ion Frequency

Pressure pulses propeller generat es in ship’s hull ( mainly due t o t he

pr opeller blade passing near t he vessel hull) . The higher t he pr essure

pulses are, t he higher t he probabilit y for vibrat ion problems. A good

level f or highest pressure pulses is lower t han 1. 5 kPa. More propeller

blades ( e. g. 5 inst ead of 4 - or use of pod propulsion – can reduce t he

pressure pulses) .

St ill, even if t he propeller pressure pulses are low, t he nat ural

f r equency of vessel’s st ruct ur es needs t o be designed t o be above t he

pr opeller blade f r equency. Typical blade f r equency is, f or example, 11

Hz ( 132 rpm x 5 blades) .

Pump power demand Elect ric power demand f or a seawat er pump can be roughly est imat ed

wit h a f ormula:

P

cI

[kw] =

b[m] × ¡low[

m

3

b

]

228

wher e:

h is pump pr essure head

f l ow is pump capacit y

As an example, a seawat er pump wit h 2. 5 bar pressure head ( 25 m)

and capacit y of 100 m

3

/ h, t akes ca. 11 kW of elect ric power.

Page 5( 6)

© 2009 Foreship Lt d.

Required Subdivision I ndex, “ R” I n probabili t ies damage st abil it y rules, if t he at t ained subdivision index

“ A” is great er or equal t o required subdivision index “ R” , t he vessel

fulf ills st abilit y requirement s. For passenger ships, t he R is calculat ed

as f ollows:

R = 1 -

5000

Is + 2.5 × N + 15225

wher e:

LS is subdivision lengt h in met er s ( si mplif ied: t he lengt h of t he

wat ert ight part of t he hull) .

N= N1+ 2 x N2

N1 = number of per son who have lif eboat seat s

N2 = number of persons wit hout lifeboat seat s

The f or mula means, f or example, t he f ewer passengers t her e ar e, t he

lower “ R” is accept ed. Also, increasing t he lif eboat capacit y f rom

SOLAS minimum ( lifeboat s for 75% of t ot al number of persons

onboard on int ernat ional voyages) will al so reduce t he “ R” .

Resist ance Vessel’s resi st ance against moving. Thi s includes, e. g. f rict ion

resist ance, wave making resist ance and wind resist ance. For

est imat ing vessel’s propulsion power demand t hese are measured in

model t est s bef ore f inalizing hull f or m and propulsi on power.

Scant ling draft ( TSCANTLI NG) The draf t vessel st ruct ures are designed f or ( hull plat ing, t ank

bulkheads, et c. ) , i. e. t he maximum st ruct ural draft for t he vessel.

Typically scant ling draft is slight ly more, or t he same, t han design

draught . I f st abilit y requirement s do not require ot herwise, t he

scant ling draf t is t he maximum draf t t o whi ch t he vessel can be

loaded.

Safe Ret urn t o Port New signif icant regulat ion ( 1

st

July 2010) . This requires ( simplified)

t hat a passenger vessel has t o be able t o ret urn t o nearest port , wit h

required syst ems working, when:

a) any compart ment is flooded; or

b) any room is lost due t o f ire

SECA, SOX Emission Cont rol Area Sea areas wher e t here are st rict er SOX limit s t han in ot her areas.

Today, f or example, Nort h Sea, English Channel and Balt ic Sea are

SECAs and requir e use of low sulf ur f uel ( or scr ubbing syst ems) .

Ser vice Speed Speed t he vessel is opt imized for in normal operat ion, or capable t o

sust ain in t ypical sea condit i ons. I n connect i on wit h Service Speed a

sea margin is def ined, for example “ service speed t o be 22. 5 knot s

wit h 15% sea margin” . This means t hat t he vessel has t he power for

22. 5 knot s in t rial condit i ons + 15% addit ional power f or sea margin.

Sea margin compensat es for rough weat her, hull fouling, et c.

Shaf t Power, PS The power available at vessel’s pr opeller shaf t . On a diesel- elect ri c

ship t his is t ypically 0. 92 x available diesel engine power due t o losses

in elect ric drive and shaf t ing. On a diesel- mechanical ship t here are

less losses, i. e. shaf t power is ca. 0. 985 x available diesel engine

power. See also MCR: available diesel power is less t han MCR.

Sponson An ext ension on ship side; t his can be required if t he vessel f aces

st abilit y problems in her service lif e. See also duckt ail . Sponson

t ypically incr eases t he resi st ance.

THD, t ot al harmonic dist ort ion On ships t his t ypically means t he di st ort i on in elect ri c dist ribut ion

net work caused by elect ri cal propulsi on drive. For example, a

specif icat ion can requir e THD t o be below 5%.

Tr ial Speed Vessel speed in t rial condit i ons. Trial condit i ons are t ypically def ined

as f ollows:

Vessel at design dr af t and even keel

Clean hull

Defined engine / propulsion mot or load ( e. g. 90% MCR)

I n deep wat er, no current , calm weat her, no waves

Fin st abilizer s folded in.

Thus in normal oper at ion vessel seldom r eaches t he Trial Speed. Tr ial

speed is measured during sea t rial: due t o weat her condit ions, et c. t he

measured speed needs of t en t o be corr ect ed. See ser vice speed.

Trim When a vessel is not on even keel ( i. e. t he bow is higher t han st ern,

or vice versa) , t he vessel is t rimmed, or has t rim. For example “ t he

vessel has 0. 5 m st ern t rim” , when her draft in st ern is 0. 5 m more

t han draf t in f oreship.

Page 6( 6)

© 2009 Foreship Lt d.

Weight Reser ve Weight reserve in t he vessels weight calculat ion ( bot h weight and

cent er of gravit y) . This is e. g. 2% and 0. 2 m. This is mar gin against

calculat i on inaccuracies and changes during design and building st age.

See also Growt h Margin. Weight reserve is adj ust ed during t he

building process as t he weight dat a get s more accurat e.

Figure: def init ion of GM, KG and ot her relat ed t erms.

and the calculation can include much longer damages than was required in old rules. 47. etc. Calculation method or software which enables hydrodynamic optimization of hull form. On a Panamax cruise ship design draft is typically ca. The weight (and center of gravity) of the vessel herself and vessel’s cargo.854 m3. Thus the vessel needs more Displacement Volume (and draft) in fresh water than in sea water for the same Displacement Weight. Big cruise ships can float with several flooded watertight compartments. Displacement of a Panamax (approximately 90.0 indicates that for a 4. VCG is the vertical distance between center of gravity and keel.000 t.Page 2(6) Center of Gravity.5 m/s) ©2009 Foreship Ltd. liquids in tanks. deadweight and displacement. .) is designed for. For example. The volume the vessel’s hull displaces in water.000t VCG 17.000 GT) cruise vessel is e. stability. Froude number describes the vessel’s relative speed. crew.81 m/s2). KG is the same than VCG. Computation Fluid Dynamics COP.000t 47. DWT Design Draught. Displacement = Lightweight + Deadweight. The draft the vessel (and her deadweight. fuel.81 m/s2 L is vessel’s waterline length = [ ]× [ ] [ ] 0. Displacement weight Displacement volume ( ) Ducktail Froude Number. In future CFD calculations can likely replace model tests. Displacement Force (symbol ) is Displacement Weight x g (g=9. LCG is the longitudinal distance between center of gravity and frame #0. Coefficient of Performance Damage Length Damage Stability Deadweight. Deadweight of a Panamax cruise vessel is typically around 8. See also lightweight and displacement. Lower VCG means more stability and LCG affects vessel’s trim.025 kg/m3.000t 8. KG Center of Gravity is used especially in connection with lightweight. RANSE in connection with CFD denotes “Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Equation”.000t is 45. For passenger ship the old (pre 2009) rules defined this length to be “3m + 3% of Lpp or 11 m. etc. the chiller requires 1. performance. and is the same as buoyancy. and means simulation of the viscous flow. On older ships the diminished stability can be regained by adding a ducktail. the Displacement Volume for a vessel Displacement of 47. The length of damage used in damage stability calculations. there the primary purpose is often to reduce the power consumption for propulsion. etc. Vertical Center of Gravity (VCG). whichever is less”.9m CFD. Has lately enabled fast development of efficient hull forms.8m 15. Weight (and center of gravity) of vessel’s cargo. but less draft often means more stability. In seawater with specific gravity of 1. Longitudinal Center of Gravity (LCG). ca. but in new regulations the calculation method and requirement is much more complex. crew. passengers. TDESIGN Displacement.0 m. which depends on vessel length: where: v is vessel speed in [m/s] (1 knot g is 9. See also Scantling Draft. The situation is kept like this by replacing used fuel with ballast water. Typical VCG figures for a Panamax cruise ship are.000 kW of electric power. passengers. stores. 8. Old (pre 2009) rules required the ships to withstand a damage of any two adjacent watertight compartments. Describes the efficiency of AC-cooling compressors (chillers). Ducktail is also used on newbuildings. In new probabilistic rules the calculated damage lengths are based on probabilistic distribution. See also GM.g. for example: Item Lightweight Deadweight Displacement Weight 39.8m 6. Fn As this example shows. deadweight has a lower VCG than lightweight and thus reduces the VCG of displacement (and improves stability). stores. An extension to ship’s stern.000 kW cooling power. Generally more draft means better seakeeping capabilities.000 t. The vessel’s stability characteristics in damaged condition. COP of 4. fresh water.

Typical value for GM on a Panamax cruise vessel is ca. An additional margin added into vessel weight calculation to cover for later weight increases. etc. non-damaged) condition. Typical KM for a Panamax cruise vessel is 18 m.83 m3. The more “free surfaces” (slack tanks. crew.e. -0. GT is calculated with a formula: where V = vessel’s calculated volume in m3.000 t.000 GT ship one GT is 3. where KG is the VCG of the ship (lightweight + deadweight) and KM is the distance from keel to the metacenter (see figure below).). but often at the expense of speed and sea keeping capabilities. etc. The vessel main dimension area: ©2009 Foreship Ltd. Using a typical engine specific fuel oil consumption of 200 g/kWh (when tolerances.g. for AC. 91. modifications. For example. this correction is e. Thus. = (0. painting. sun decks or similar areas). Notes: Earlier 1 GRT was 100 ft3. requiring a ducktail or a sponson. (formerly GRT) Generally a lower Fn means lower resistance (for fast. GT is often the base for different port and other fees. thus figures for e. heat value corrections. this is due to conversions. the ship can later end up with stability problems. the real heavy fuel oil consumption is seldom below this.e. lighting. passengers. tanks with free surface reduce the stability of the vessel. See also displacement and deadweight.0 m. Needed liquid in ship system piping and system tanks is included. The electric power needed for other ship functions than propulsion. are taken into account. which depends on the vessel draft. i. Position of LCB is very important for the hull resistance. the GT is ca.g. on a 10. wind.e. weight of the vessel without fuel. KM is the distance from Keel to Metacenter.000. and without preparing for this. See figure below. but on a 150. The vessel stability in intact (normal. if vessel’s enclosed volume is 294 000 m3. and often even above this). High KM means more stability. or 2. “Titanic” cannot be directly compared with GT figures of today’s vessels.25. In intact conditions the vessel has to withstand heeling.Page 3(6) Fuel Consumption Free surface correction GM. galleys. it cannot be used for accurate comparison between vessels of different size: for example. GM can also used for the longitudinal stability of the vessel: then symbol GML is used. Gross Tonnage describes the volume and size of the vessel. splash areas) there is. displacement and hull form. etc. etc. Longitudinal Center is the longitudinal center of water the vessel’s hull displaces. 2. Typically LCB is located slightly aft of midship (Lpp/2). stores. the bigger the correction is. GT includes all the enclosed spaces (not balconies. storage tanks. Typical figure for a Panamax cruise ship is Fn=0.44 m3. . small vessels the situation can be opposite). water. Vessel’s “empty” weight (and center of gravity). Practically all ships get heavier when they age. 39. As GT is logarithmic. Describes the righting moment of the vessel: higher GM means better stability (condition for positive stability is that GM>0. i. Heeling angle Hotel Load Intact Stability KM. (transverse) Metacentric Height Growth Margin GT (Gross Tonnage). a ship using 30 MW for propulsion and hotel load.1 m. to fulfill the criteria stated in rules. etc. GM = KM – KG. When the vessel floats. pools. cargo.g.02 × ) Heeling.19 m3.000 GT vessel one GT corresponds to 3. and thus more the GM reduces. KM has to be higher than KG for a ship stay upright (and GM to stay positive).2 t/h per 1 MW.2 + 0. (transverse) Metacentric Height Lightweight. this corresponds to a fuel consumption of 0. LWT Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy (LCB) Main Dimensions Typical lightweight for a Panamax cruise ship is ca. The angle vessel is leaning away from upright position. consumes 6t heavy fuel oil (HFO) per hour. but not liquids in e. The GM is corrected with “free surface correction”: i. LCB and LCG are in same position. For a Panamax vessel a typical hotel load is close to 10 MW.

60% of GT. voids and cofferdams 0. a seawater pump with 2. Main Vertical Zones (MVZ). Main Fire Zone Bulkheads (MFZB) LOA. passage etc.or use of pod propulsion – can reduce the pressure pulses).Page 4(6) Main Fire Zones (MFZ).e. formerly NRT) Permeability Probabilistic Damage Stability Rules Propeller Pressure Pulses. On a ca.6. Length between perpendiculars: the distance between rudder shaft (typical) and the point where bow stem enters water at design draft (typical). i.000 GT ship NT is typically ca. for example. Draft (design): The planned design draft for the vessel. 60 m3 of water is assumed in damage stability calculations. Pressure pulses propeller generates in ship’s hull (mainly due to the propeller blade passing near the vessel hull).000. is lower than GT. Electric power demand for a seawater pump can be roughly estimated with a formula: Margin Line MCR. which can be in certain situations extended to 48m. 90. the actual breadth of the vessel is slightly more. Often basis for different port. New rules in force since 1. the natural frequency of vessel’s structures needs to be designed to be above the propeller blade frequency. i. fees. Additional requirement is that the bulkheads between main fire zones should not have steps. On some of today’s newbuildings these areas are extended beyond the SOLAS maximums. Length overall: the vessel’s absolute maximum length. 5 instead of 4 . the permeability of stores is 0.e.85 and for tanks. Describes vessel’s “net” volume. The rated or maximum continuous power of a diesel engine. in damaged condition the Margin Line may not submerge.600 m2. i. Basis for many calculations and coefficients. B.5 bar pressure head (25 m) and capacity of 100 m3/h. With new probabilistic stability rules margin line has become obsolete. See Attained and Required Subdivision Index. Today’s practice is to use 48m fire zones where ever possible. when a 100 m3 store is flooded.1.g. air draft and scantling draft. For engine rooms the permeability is 0. . ca. often based on special cases. In these the damage stability requirements are no longer based on simple rules. It is calculated with a more complicated formula than for GT: the formula takes into account the volume of cargo spaces.e. but on calculation methods where vessel’s theoretical and simplified survival probability is calculated. The maximum permissible area of one main fire zone on one deck is 1. LPP. Imaginary line that is defined to be 3 inches (76mm) below bulkhead deck: in pre 2009 rules. maximum continuous rating Net Tonnage (NT. vessel draught and number of passengers. takes ca. or on so called “Alternative Design Principles”. Still. 54. In real life this power is never used: on diesel-electric ships 90% of MCR is a typical maximum and on a diesel mechanical ship the typical figure is 85% MCR. Breadth (moulded): The vessel breadth without the shell plating.5 kPa. Other typically used dimensions include waterline length. More propeller blades (e. Propeller Excitation Frequency Pump power demand where: h is pump pressure head flow is pump capacity As an example. Typical blade frequency is. A good level for highest pressure pulses is lower than 1. i. even if the propeller pressure pulses are low. T.95. It is used in damage stability calculations. For example. the higher the probability for vibration problems. 11 Hz (132 rpm x 5 blades). 11 kW of electric power. Permeability is the ratio of maximum flooded water (in damaged condition) volume to the space volume. The vessel has to be divided into vertical fire zones: the basic rule is that maximum length of a fire zone is 40m. [ ]= [ ]× 228 [ ] ©2009 Foreship Ltd.2009.e. The higher the pressure pulses are.

For passenger ships. with required systems working.985 x available diesel engine power.5 m stern trim”.e. . For example. Trial speed is measured during sea trial: due to weather conditions. shaft power is ca. i. the maximum structural draft for the vessel. This means that the vessel has the power for 22. when: a) any compartment is flooded. SOX Emission Control Area Service Speed Shaft Power. Vessel speed in trial conditions. increasing the lifeboat capacity from SOLAS minimum (lifeboats for 75% of total number of persons onboard on international voyages) will also reduce the “R”. This requires (simplified) that a passenger vessel has to be able to return to nearest port. Today. See service speed.e. for example. etc. When a vessel is not on even keel (i. Typically scantling draft is slightly more. the vessel fulfills stability requirements. etc. the lower “R” is accepted. On a diesel-mechanical ship there are less losses.). Vessel’s resistance against moving.5 × + 15225 Resistance Scantling draft (TSCANTLING) Safe Return to Port SECA.5 m more than draft in foreship. New significant regulation (1st July 2010). In connection with Service Speed a sea margin is defined. for example “service speed to be 22. etc. no waves Fin stabilizers folded in. total harmonic distortion Trial Speed Trim ©2009 Foreship Ltd. the vessel is trimmed. for example. Also.g. Trial conditions are typically defined as follows: Vessel at design draft and even keel Clean hull Defined engine / propulsion motor load (e. this can be required if the vessel faces stability problems in her service life. For example “the vessel has 0. This includes. no current. or vice versa). English Channel and Baltic Sea are SECAs and require use of low sulfur fuel (or scrubbing systems). An extension on ship side.92 x available diesel engine power due to losses in electric drive and shafting. On a diesel-electric ship this is typically 0. hull fouling. wave making resistance and wind resistance.Page 5(6) Required Subdivision Index. 0. the scantling draft is the maximum draft to which the vessel can be loaded. 90% MCR) In deep water. PS Sponson THD. the R is calculated as follows: where: LS is subdivision length in meters (simplified: the length of the watertight part of the hull). than design draught. or has trim. calm weather. if the attained subdivision index “A” is greater or equal to required subdivision index “R”. tank bulkheads. The power available at vessel’s propeller shaft. i. Thus in normal operation vessel seldom reaches the Trial Speed. a specification can require THD to be below 5%. friction resistance. Speed the vessel is optimized for in normal operation. when her draft in stern is 0. the measured speed needs often to be corrected.e. For estimating vessel’s propulsion power demand these are measured in model tests before finalizing hull form and propulsion power. N=N1+2 x N2 N1 = number of person who have lifeboat seats N2 = number of persons without lifeboat seats The formula means. the fewer passengers there are. Sea margin compensates for rough weather. or the same. The draft vessel structures are designed for (hull plating. or capable to sustain in typical sea conditions.5 knots in trial conditions + 15% additional power for sea margin. If stability requirements do not require otherwise. Sponson typically increases the resistance. or b) any room is lost due to fire Sea areas where there are stricter SOX limits than in other areas.5 knots with 15% sea margin”. “R” In probabilities damage stability rules. North Sea. the bow is higher than stern.g. See also ducktail. =1 5000 + 2. See also MCR: available diesel power is less than MCR. On ships this typically means the distortion in electric distribution network caused by electrical propulsion drive. e.

.Page 6(6) Weight Reserve Weight reserve in the vessels weight calculation (both weight and center of gravity).2 m. 2% and 0. Figure: definition of GM. KG and other related terms.g. This is e. This is margin against calculation inaccuracies and changes during design and building stage. ©2009 Foreship Ltd. See also Growth Margin. Weight reserve is adjusted during the building process as the weight data gets more accurate.

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