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WHENARABIAWASEASTERNETHIOPIA(Part 4)byDanaMarniche

WhenArabiawasEasternEthiopia(Part4)byDanaMarniche TheAfroArabianOriginsoftheAd,AmalekandAram,Uz,SabaandHimyar:Ethnohistoryofthe Mahra/Shahara/Somalipopulations ParadiseandHellwereshowntomeHellwasshowntome,andwasbroughtsoclosethatI steppedbackforfearthatitwouldtouchme.IsawaHumayrwomanwhowastallandblack,being punishedonaccountofacatthatsheowned:shehadtieditup,notgivingitanythingtoeatordrink, orallowingittoeatoftheverminoftheearthAccountofawomanofthetribeofHimyarorHumayr. SaheeAlJami2/298,2394aHadith,alJannahwaanNaar.InTheLightoftheQuraanandSunnah. CompiledbyAlBukhari9thcenturyfromBukharaUzbekistan. CheikhAntaDiophadcommentedthattheJoktanides(Qahtan)camedownfromtheNorth conqueringoriginaltribesofAditesbasinghisbeliefonmoderninterpretationsofBiblicalandArabian history.ArabiantraditionhoweveraffirmsthatthetribesofHam,ShemandJaphetwereactually closelyrelatedtribesofAfricanaffiliationandoriginationwhowereoriginallysettledinsouthwestern andextendingtotheregionMeccaandMedina. ThemodernMahraextendfromHadramauttoOmanandarefoundinSomalia.Theyhadclans namedSamudayt(ThamudorSamud)andMashek(MashekisalsocalledMashintheBible)and RiyamorRigamancientlyknownfromtheirkingRekemorArkam,Mahli(MahlitheKorahite?)andIdi. The13thcenturytravelerIbnMudjawirspeaksoftheMahra(alsocalledMaheyra,Mahri)livingin thosedaysinOmanastallandhandsomewhichcanalsobesaidoftheMahraofSomalia. The1986neweditionofEncyclopediaofIslamsaystheywereofbrowncomplexionwithblack,often curlyhair.TheRigamorRiyamclanofMahraissuggestedtohavecomefromthepeoplesknownas theRhagmanitaeorRaymanitaeofPliny1stcenturyandotherGreekwriterswhoarementionedas livinginYemenandthePersianGulf..(theRhagmatorRaamahofBiblicaltradition).Seep.226of CharlesForsterstheHistoricalGeographyofArabia,1844.AccordingtotraditiontheleaderRekemor Rigam(alsowritteninliteratureArqam,Rukayim,orRukaym)wasthesonofAramorotherwise,son ofAbir(Heber),AramsbrotherandasonofAdwholedtheMahrasouthtotheHadramautandOman. SirRichardBurtonrecountedthetraditionthat,thelastkingoftheAmalek,ArkambinArkamwas slainbyanarmyofthechildrenofIsraelsentbyMosestopurgeMadinahandMeccaoftheirinfidel inhabitants. Also,IbnMudjawirassertedthattheMahraweretheremnantofAdwhomwhenGoddestroyedthe greaterpartofthemwenttoliveinthemountainsofZufarandSokotraandalMasirahintheYemen andOman,atraditionelaboratedonbyIbnKhaldunandothers.ModernMahraclaimdescentfrom KudaasonofHimyar,sonofSabaofYemen.SeetheEncylopaediaofIslam(DerIslamimSpiegel zeitgenssischerLiteraturderislamischenWelt)p.82claimedIbnIshaqgavethegenealogyofQudaa

binMalikbinHimyarbinSababinYashjubbinYarub(Arab)binQahtan(Joktan).(Retso19)The HimyaritesandSabaeanswereconsideredAdites. TheSamudaytclanoftheMahra,fromwhichcametheTsamudorThamud,accordingtotradition werethe2ndAdorremnantoftheAditeswhosepoweronceextendedfromSanaainYementoSyria andEgypt,heisvariouslycalledthesonofAbir(Eber)orJathiar(otherwiseknownasJetur,Jazaror Gezer)or.HislandwascalledAdanorAden.TheThamudweresaidtohavefoughtagainstthe IsraeliteleaderJoshuasonofNunnearMecca.TheseAditesholdingtheareaofMeccaandMedina werealsoknownasAmalikortheAmalekitesofRephidim.ItwastheywhoaccordingtobothArabian andBiblicalstoriesmettheYisraelorfollowersofMosesataplacecalledMeriba(Exodus17:7) whichwastheSabaeancapitalofMaribinYemen). AccordingtoMuslimcommentatorsthiskingoftheAmalekites,dweltinthelowerpartofMekkaEl Harith,sonoftheHimyariterulerModad(Almodad),kingoftheDjurhamorDarimtribe(Hadoramson ofShemofGenesis)disputedhiscontrolofthesanctuarythere.TheHadoram(Adramitaeor Dreematae)arementionedinGreektextsasSabaeans. Masudiinthe10thcenturywroteofthiskingsaying,ThekingofSyria,esSomeida,sonofHubar, (whoisTsamudorThamudsonofAbirsonofMalikmarchedagainstJoshua,sonofNun,andafter manyfights,waskilledbythelastone,whoconqueredhiskingdomThecircumstancesofthisare mentionedinthefollowingversesbyAwf,sonofSaad,theDjorhamite:HaventyouseenatElath (Elah)theskinoftheAmalekite(Someida),sonofHubar(AbirorAbar),putintoshredswhenhewas attackedbyanarmyofeightythousandJews,protectedornotbyshields?TheseAmalekitecohorts, whotrainedmeticulouslyjumpedbehindhim.Onehasntmetthemeversinceamongthemountainsof Mekka,andnobodyhasseenagainesSomeida.SeeLesPrairiesdOrtranslationThePrairiesof Gold,Chapter39,Paris1861. InAssyriantextstheyarethehistoricalTamudi(circa8thcB.C.)andinRomantimestheyarethe SaracenscalledThamudenioiEquites(equestrianThamud)whooccupiedDumah(modernDumaatal JandalinJordanwheretheyhadalsocametobecalledIdumaeans(Dumah,childofIshmael). ThamudsoriginalhomehoweverwasfartothesouthaswiththerestoftheIsmaelitesorNorth Arabianbedouin.ThesesecondAditesaccordingtosomewerealsothosethatwereruledby Lokman,sonofAdandwhoalsoleftSabaatoneoftheburstingsoftheMaribdamofIramorAram (modernYarim). WhenthisdamburstnotonlydidtheydisperseinArabia,buttheywentintoAfrica.Josephusclaimed thepeoplealongtheNileasatMeroewereSabaeans,descendantsofKeturahthroughJokshan. JokshansdescendantsincludeJudadas,Ashurim,andLeummim,HementionstheYudadas,(Dedan) inWesternEthiopiaandtheAshurim(orSurim)ofLibya(knowntotheRomansasAsuriani, Astacures,AstrikesandSaturianiabranchofthecamelowningLevathesMauresorTuareg)asthe tribewhohadharassed,conqueredandnamedAssyriaundertheleadershipofNimrodwerealsoin Africa.(AsshuranorChronusashewascalledinGreecewasanameforthevenerateddeityalso calledSaturn.) Exodus:MovementofJahPeoples(TheTribesofArammovefromSaba)

ForthosewhofinditdifficulttoimaginehowsomanyoftheBiblicalpeoplesendedupinAfricaunder theirancientnamesitwouldbegoodtolookatKamalSalibisTheBibleCamefromArabiafirst publishedinthe1970s.Salibiwasactuallyabletolocatehundredsofnamesofthetownsofancient Canaan,IsraelandJudahcitedintheBibleinArabiaexplainingwhyonlyahandfulofBiblicalplace nameshavebeenfoundinthemodernregionofIsraelPalestineandwhymanymodernBiblical archeologistshaveevenbeguntosuspectthatKingSolomonandDavidthemselvesnevereven existedinthemodernIsrael. ThebookseemstoprovidemorethanabundantevidencethatthehomeoftheoriginalJerusalemand followersMoses,theCanaanitesandPhoeniciansandJudaeanswasmuchfurthersouthinArabia thentheearlyGreekinterpretersofHebraictraditionimpliedtheyoriginated.Evensuchnamesas Kush,KuthandMisrahavebeenbySalibiandothersdiscoveredtocorrelatewiththenamesof ancienttribesandtownsinsouthernandnorthernArabiaasmuchaswithAfricaandSyria,aswillbe shown.AtthetimeofthefloodingoftheSouthArabiandamofMarib(MeribaoftheBibleExodus17:7) manyofthepeopledispersedtothenorthandintoAfrica.Amongthemwerethefollowersofaman namedMuzaikiyyaalsocalledAmrorAmrubinAmir,whowastheBiblicalMoses.Thedescendantsof thesepeopleweretheKhazrasandAusorAwza(BiblicalGezerandUz,childrenofAram)whosettled inHejazintheareaofabrookorstreamcalledKushanorKishonnotlongafterthetimeoftheirleader AmrubinAmir.TheirdescendantswerecalledtheKushanorKassanorKusiminSyriandialects.They weretheBiblicalJokshanwhowassaidtobebrotherofMidian,whominHabbakukarecalled Kushan. AccordingtoDavidGoldenbergin,TheCurseofHam,theprophetHabbakukparallelsKushanwith Midian:TheTentsofKushanthedwellingsofMidianandbecausescholarshaveconcludedthereis someconnectionbetweenKushanandMidian:TheKushanarehistoricallyknownintheworksof Ptolemy.ThesametribenamedbyAgatharchidesasCassandreisandbyDiodorustheGasandi. TheywerelocatedsoutheastofMeccaandarealsocalledGhassan.(SeePartIIfortheMidianitesor Ishmaelitestocome) ThemodernSomali(Samaal),Afar,DanakilandotherCushiticspeakersareexamplesofthepeoples knowntohistoriansasAdorAad,Amalek,Qahtan,SabaandHimyarkingdoms.Namesoftheirclans Rahawein,Mahra,Darood,YaharandHubirgivecredencetothedocumentsthatstatetheSabaeans migratedtoAfrica,manyoftheseBaribarialsoendedupinNorthAfrica.Thecommentsofearly RomanandGreekwriterssuchasJosephusandStrabobecomemoreunderstandable.Theyclaimed theEthiopiansofMeroewereactuallyArabiansorSabaeansandthateverythingeastoftheNilewas infactArabia. ThesearethenamesandpeopleoftheancienttribesoftheSabaeanschildrenofJoktan.According tothebookTheYemeninEarlyIslam,publishedin1988theclansRahawein(Ruayn,Rahawiyyin, RahawiinearlyArabiaReu)belongedtotheMadhhijorMadhhaj.OthersclansoftheMaddhijwere theMuradorAmurathalsocalledQaran,RuallaorRuwallabinAnaeza,AnsorAnaezabinWail, NakhlorAnNakha,Badiah,GhutayfbinHaritharelatedtotheGhatafan,Nashirah,SaadalAshirah, Zaafar,ZubaydorZabeida,alAmlukorAmalekwasaclanoftheRahawiyin,aswasthetribeof Qataban(BanuKitaa),andYafi(Ephah).

AlmostalloftheseclansarelistedintheGenesisoftheBible.TheyareReu,Amorites,Reuelsonof Esau,Esau,Hawila,Anoch,Hatepha,Ashira,Zabid,AmalekandQahitorKohathandEphah.Itisnot improbable,thatMadhhijwhoarelistedwiththeMaadeiwhoarementionedinSyrianinscriptionsof the3rdcenturyB.C.atNemaraareinfacttheMadianitesespeciallysincethepluralofMaadiwas MadanwhowascalledbrotherofMadian. TheMadhhijorMadhajwerelargebranchoftheHamdanwhointhetimeofMohammedwereoften mentionedinthesouthernArabianarea.TheyarealsocalledtheMalikbinUdadwhodescendedfrom YashjubwhodescendedfromKahlansonofSaba. HamdanorHamranasvariousversionshaveitwasthesonofDishonbrotherofDishan(Banu Jayshan)inGenesis.TheyarementionedasdescendantsofZibeon,theHiviteorHivimwhoare calledCanaanitesintheBible. HamdanisinfactbrotherofCheran(Qaran)andEshban(Ishban)whomlaterMuslimmanuscripts saidweretheblackdescendantsofCanaan.AccordingtoDavidGoldenberg,WahibnMunabbihin the7thcentury,anIraniandescendantborninArabia(asweremanyinhabitantsoftheYemenofthat time)saidtheQaranalongwiththeBarbar(BerberearlynameforSomaliandtheirdescendantsinthe Maghreb),Copts,andZaghawa(ZaghweofAbyssinia)weredescendantsofCushandCanaanwhile theIshbaninthebookAkhbaralZamanwhoseauthorwasthoughttobeMasudi,300yearslatersays Ishban(BanuShabanofYemen)wasadescendantofKanaan.ThusQaranandIshbanalongwiththe 70tribesthatmultipliedintheMaghrib(theBerber)aredescendantsofCanaan.Qaranarealsocalled Murad(Amurath)invariouswritings.IthasbeensuggestedthatthenameoftheHawiyeclanof SomaliaisrelatedtothenameoftheHivites.Canaananditscitieswereevidentlylocatedinsouthwest ArabiabeforeitspeoplesspreadnorthandcolonizedSyria. TheBanuZubyan,(calledDhubyanorDhubaniyyainSudan)areawellknowntribewhose descendantsliveinmodernSudanandArabia.ItisclearthatthedescendantsofEsau,Himyar,Saba, Ad,Amluk,CushandCanaanarerepresentedbythecopperblackanddarkreddishbrowninhabitants ofSomalia,northernSudan,Djibouti,EthiopiaandEritrea.However,asweshallseeinother segmentsthesonsofShemandJaphetintotalareinfactwellrepresentedbytheinhabitantsofthe hornofAfricaandbyAfroArabiansstillintheArabianpeninsulaintheirlandsandplacesandunder theirageoldnames. ToBeContinued PostedinRastas. ByDonJaide January18,2009