SBI4U Exam Review

Unit 1 – Biochemistry 1. Q. Name and Describe all four types of Active transport. A: Ion pump [ATP is used to move ions across an integral protein against its concentration gradient] Co-transport [Two substances are simultaneously transported across a membrane by a protein or protein complex] Endocytosis [The cell engulfs a substance by extending arm-like projections to wrap around the substance and form a vesicle] Exocytosis [The cell’s vesicles fuse with the cell’s membrane, opening up and releasing waste]. 2. Q. What do proteins consist of? A: Proteins consist of one or more polypeptide chains (which are single linear polymer chains of amino acids formed by peptide bonds) typically folded into globular or fibrous form. 3. Which one of these functional groups is hydrophobic? a) b) c) d) hydroxyl carboxyl sulfhydryl carbonyl

4) What are carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are long chains of hydrocarbons used by the body for energy. 5) Circle and identify the functional groups in the molecule below:

A:

10) What is the difference between a polar and non-polar covalent bond? Give one example of each. These intermolecular forces of attraction are stronger than London Forces. 9) In what direction does water diffuse when a cell is placed in: a. Water diffuses out of the cell. There is no net movement. contain no double bonds and are solid at room temperature. A hypertonic solution? i. b. A hypotonic solution? i. Ex) H20 11) What is allosteric regulation and what two ways is it accomplished? A: it’s the regulation of enzyme activity by inhibitors and activators. c. . They are the only intermolecular forces that hold non-polar molecules to one another. An isotonic solution? i.diffusion requiring an integral protein Osmosis. Unsaturated fats are bent. but if an inhibitor binds to an allosteric site the enzyme is stabilized in it’s inactive form. The partially positive side of one polar molecule attracts the partially negative side of adjacent polar molecules. Water diffuses into the cell. PH3 where as a non-polar covalent bond shares electrons equally. 12) What is the difference between London Forces and Dipole. Dipole. Ex. contain at least one double bond and are liquid at room temperature. 1) restricting the production of certain enzymes 2) inhibiting the actions of enzymes that are already produced.6) What are the differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids? A: Saturated fats are linear.diffusion of water Ion Channel diffusion. If an activator binds to an allosteric site the enzyme is stabilized in it’s active found. A polar covalent bond has one atom that has a better ability to attract shared electrons than the other. A: Facilitated diffusion. 7) Name and differentiate between all three types of passive transport.dipole Forces? A: London Force: are weak forces of attraction between all atoms and molecules.diffusion of ions using a protein channel 8) What is allosteric regulation? A: The inhibition or activation of enzyme activity through the allosteric sites found on enzymes.dipole forces: hold polar molecule to one another.

However. Thus.13) Proteins are polymers of what monomer? a) Steroids b) Glucose c) Amino acid d) Cholesterol e) All of the above Answer: amino acid 14)What are the differences between Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis? Answer: Phagocytosis is called “cell eating” and is the process of absorbing large molecules into the cell with pseudopods. a 5-C sugar. 15)What is the monomer of a nucleic acid and what does it consist of? Answer: The monomer of a nucleic acid is a nucleotide which consists of a phosphate group. 16) Triglycerides are formed by the condensation reaction of …. the noncompetitive inhibitor causes the enzyme to change shape so that it can no longer bind to the substrate to its active site. and a nitrogen base. Answer: Competitive inhibitors: similar to the substrate. Pinocytosis is called “cell drinking” and is the process of absorbing small molecules into the cell with vesicles. Noncompetitive inhibitors: Attach to a site on the enzyme that is not the active site. once attached. they enter the active site and block the substrate from binding. a) b) c) d) Saturated 1 Glycerol and 3 Fatty acids Unsaturated Phospholipids 17) Distinguish the differences between competitive inhibition and noncompetitive inhibition. .

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