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4 LIST OF NEWSPEAK WORDS:
In keeping with the principles of Newspeak, all of the words listed here serve as both nouns and verbs; thus, crimethink is both the noun meaning "thoughtcrime" and the verb meaning "to commit thoughtcrime". To form an adjective, one adds the suffix "-ful" (e.g., crimethinkful) and to form an adverb, "-wise" (e.g., crimethinkwise). There are some irregular forms, such as the adjectival forms of Minitrue, Minipax, Miniplenty, and Miniluv (Ministry of Truth, Ministry of Peace, Ministry of Plenty, and Ministry of Love, respectively – all ministries of the active government in “Nineteen Eighty-Four”).To say that something or somebody is the best, Newspeak uses doubleplusgood, while the worst would be doubleplusungood (e.g., "Big Brother is doubleplusgood, Emmanuel Goldstein is doubleplusungood"). Bellyfeel The word bellyfeel means a blind, enthusiastic acceptance of an idea. The word likely comes from the idea that any good Oceanian should be able to internalize Party doctrine to the extent that it becomes a gut instinct – a feeling in the belly.
Blackwhite Blackwhite is defined as follows:” this word has two mutually contradictory meanings. Applied to an opponent, it means the habit of impudently claiming that black is white, in contradiction of the plain facts. Applied to a Party member, it means a loyal willingness to say that black is white when Party discipline demands this. But it means also the ability to believe that black is white, and more, to know that black is white, and to forget that one has ever believed the contrary. This demands a continuous alteration of the past, made possible by the system of thought which really embraces all the rest, and which is known in Newspeak as doublethink”. The word is an example of both Newspeak and doublethink. It represents the active process of rewriting the past, control of the past being a vital aspect of the Party's control over the present.The ability to blindly believe anything, regardless of its absurdity, can have different causes: respect for authority, fear, indoctrination, even critical laziness or gullibility. Orwell's blackwhite refers only to that caused by fear, indoctrination, or repression of one's individual
On the other hand. and dark is preferred to unlight. cold is preferred to unwarm or unhot. the Party controls one's ability to think negatively by sometimes . for example. which is approved by the Party. but to speak rubbish and lies for the good of "The Party" may be good. The Party's choice for the less pleasant versions of an antonym may be interpreted as another way the Party makes its subjects depressive and pessimistic to suppress unorthodox thought. rather than caused by laziness or gullibility. which is considered subversive. and whether what they are saying is in following with the ideals of Big Brother. Prefixes: -“Un-“ is a Newspeak prefix used for negation. even though cold and darkness are not physical phenomena as opposed to light and heat. Crimethink Crimethink is the Newspeak word for thoughtcrime (thoughts that are unorthodox. Therefore. This ability is likened to the total erasure of information only possible in electronic storage. and without thought. To speak rubbish and lies may be ungood. If properly done.critical thinking ("to know black is white"). Duckspeak Duckspeak is a Newspeak term meaning literally to quack like a duck or to speak without thinking. depending on who is speaking. there is no memory or recovery of the "incorrect" information that could cause unhappiness to the Party member by committing thoughtcrime. is the opposite of crimethink. warm becomes uncold. since there are no antonyms in Newspeak. Therefore. It is used as a prefix to make the word negative. expunge any "incorrect" information and totally replace it with "true" information from the Party. Ownlife Ownlife refers to the tendency to enjoy being solitary. as well as the verb meaning "to commit thoughtcrime". A true Party member could automatically. Duckspeak can be either good or "ungood" (bad). It is often decided to keep the word which has a more unpleasant nuance to it when choosing which one of the antonyms should be kept in the process of diminishing vocabulary. Goodthink. or are outside the official government platform).
even by close friends and family members. -“-ed” is the only method to make a non-auxiliary verb past tense in the A-vocabulary. photographs. The idea is that such a person would. be forgotten completely (for it would be impossible to provide evidence of their existence). . -“Plus-“ is an intensifier. This decreases the number of words required to express tenses by removing irregular conjugations. the concept that the person may have existed at one time and has disappeared cannot be expressed in Newspeak. etc. and articles so that no trace of their existence could be found in the historical record. is thoughtcrime.allowing only the positive term preceded by "un-". according to the principles of doublethink. When placed before a verb. Unperson: An unperson is a person who has been “vaporized”. -“-wise” is a Newspeak suffix used to turn another word into an adverb. This is similar to the adding of "mal" for negation in Esperanto. Mentioning his or her name. for example. unproceed means "do not proceed". Ran becomes runned. quickly would be rendered as speedwise. rapid would be rendered as speedful. -“Ante-“ is added to a word in place of using the word “before” (and literally means “before” in Latin). Therefore "He ran very quickly" would become "He runned plus-speedwise". For example. or even speaking of their past existence. who has not only been killed by the state. so doubleplusgood is used in place of excellent or best. Such a person would be written out of existing books. but effectively erased from existence. drank becomes drinked. the concept of "bad" can be expressed only with ungood. Thus. "un-" becomes a negative imperative. -“Doubleplus-“ further intensifies “plus-“. For example. Suffixes: -“-ful” is a Newspeak suffix used to turn another word into an adjective. For example. “antefiling” would mean “before filing”. in place of “more” or the suffix “-er” (in some situations). For example. great or better becomes plusgood.
ante~: A prefix used meaning “pre~”or “before”. .current . as the concepts of “political freedom” and "intellectual freedom" do not exist in Newspeak.file .crimestop: to rid oneself of unwanted thoughts. since there is no such concept as social inequality in purportedly egalitarianistic Ingsoc. .. . thoughts that interfere with the ideology of the Party.doublethink .full: (The adverb fullwise appears in the Records Department's written orders.forecast .free: meaning Negative freedom (without) in a physical sense. etc. but consisting largely of Newspeak words — used in the Ministry for internal purposes”).equal: Only in the sense of physically equal.artsem: Artificial insemination. .) .) . . .good: (Can also be used as a prefix vaguely meaning “orthodox”.facecrime: An indication that a person is guilty of thoughtcrime based on their facial expression. This way.Other Newspeak words: (Many of these are in fact merely part of the “abbreviated jargon — not actually Newspeak. a person avoids committing thoughtcrime. It does not mean socially .politically or economically . like equal height/size.dayorder: Order of the day.bb: Big Brother. .e.equal. . . only in statements like “This dog is free from lice”. i.
miniluv: “Ministry of Love” (secret police.minipax: “Ministry of Peace” (Ministry of War.prolefeed: the steady stream of mindless entertainment to distract and occupy the masses . department in which Winston works) . interrogation and torture) . culture and entertainment) .Ingsoc: English Socialism. i.pornosec: Subunit of the Fiction Department of the Ministry of Truth that produces pornography .e.recdep: “Records Department” (division of the Ministry of Truth that deals with the rectification of records. perhaps any language that is not Newspeak. ..miniplenty: “Ministry of Plenty” (keeping the population in a state of constant economic hardship) .misprints: Errors or mispredictions which need to be rectified in order to prove that the Party is always right.issue: children produced by goodsex . See misprints below. plusgood means “very good”).. . .oldthink: ideas inspired by events or memories of times prior to the Revolution. to give an adjective or an adverb a stronger meaning (e. .oldspeak: English.minitrue: “Ministry of Truth” (propaganda and altering history.goodthink: Vaguely translatable to orthodox thought. .g.joycamp: forced labor camp . See malquoted above.plus~: A prefix used in the sense of very. . . cf: “Department of Defense” vs “War Department”) .malquoted: flaws or inaccurate presentations of Party or Big Brother-related matters by the press.
sec: Sector..yp (year plan) 1.rectify: Used by the Ministry of Truth as a euphemism for the deliberate alteration of the past.verify .1 EXTENDING THE LANGUAGE WITH NEW WORDS ACCORDING TO THE NEW EDITION OF THE LONGMAN DICTIONARY OF CONTEMPORARY ENGLISH: Paul Meara.For example: -Internet n the Internet a computer system that allows millions of computer users around the world to exchange information.upsub: submit to higher authority.speakwrite: An instrument used by Party members to note or “write” down information by speaking into an apparatus as a faster alternative to an “ink pencil”. . used in the Ministry of Truth by the protagonist Winston Smith. In one scene in the novel. .report . . . . as the following entries from the new edition of the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English indicate. This linguistic phenomenon continues to take account of new developments in technology. and submit it to his superiors before filing it: rewrite fullwise upsub antefiling. It is.thinkpol: The Thought Police . Winston Smith is instructed to alter a document to conform with the Party line. for example. pointed out how English readily forms new words by combining two. .telescreen: television and security camera-like devices used by the ruling Party in Oceania to keep its subjects under constant surveillance .ref: To refer (to).
and might make the learner despair. film. GRIME:What's all that grunge in the bathtub? 2 a style of fashion popular with young people in the early 1990s. it reduces the number of people it employs in order to reduce costs -downsizing n [U] . television programmed. or computer SOFTWARE that educate and entertain at the same time Simpler forms of combination. Youth culture. and writing to give information. chiefly through the work of the author William Gibson. or high grade semi human robot. is also described as cyberpunk. This example illustrates the wide ranging. pictures. and ringfence.multimedia adj [only before noun] using a mixture of sound. and was first adopted in science fiction with cyborg. especially with computers: the latest multimedia encyclopedia multimedia n [U] -edutainment n [U] films. and some euphemistic. in which the term cyberspace occurs. information. like downsize. -Inter. These combinations are part of the official vocabulary that might be found in formal announcements and official publications. . no holds barred operation of English word formation. pictures etc exist when they are sent from one computer to another: We didn't meet in San Francisco we met in cyberspace. Cyber has leapt from obscurity. Other combinations that describe new developments in communications technology are: . But word combination can be a vivid. and space are all words in common usage. in which they wear clothes that look dirty and untidy 3 a type of loud music played with electric GUITARS popular during this period. which present a greater challenge to us as lexicographers.-cyberspace n [U] a word from SCIENCE FICTION. It was originally part of the technical term cybernetics. like outplacement. Gibson's fiction.downsize v [I. net (or network. the study of automatic control systems. produces lessclearly structured words and meanings. on the other hand. and easily understood. have evolved to describe new features of countries in economic recession: -outplacement n [C. a cybernetic organism. . used to mean the place where electronic messages. -grunge n [U] 1 AmE informal dirt. of which this net is a short form). some stark.U] the process of a company helping people to find new jobs after asking them to leave their employment.T1 if a company or organization downsizes its operations. Combinations of this kind are underclass that made its first appearance in the Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture. way of extending the language.
-buddy n [C] 1 informal a friend: We're goodbuddies. perhaps most. In estuary English the letters 't'.2 trousers worn to protect your legs. 2 AmE spoken used to speak to a man you do not know. such as these relatively new compounds: -animal rights n [U] the idea that people should treat animals well. and shows the process of new vocabulary being generated to describe a way of helping AIDS sufferers. sense 2 of leggings was the only one represented. and especially not use them in tests to develop medicines or other products: animal rights. . -ambient music n [U] slow electronic music that you listen to when you want to relax. as here: -leggings n [plural] 1 women's tight trousers without a ZIP. A) New combinations: We can pick new words out of the corpus by requesting words which only appear after a certain date. the fourth is new. The third sense of horny entered British English from American English some time ago. involves the development of completely new meanings of existing words. -estuary English n [U] a way of speaking English that is common in the London area and is now starting to spread to other areas of England. B) New meanings: A great deal of language change. 'l'. BUD: Hey buddy! This your car? 3 someone who offers to look after and become a friend to a person who has AIDS. such as horn 2 skin that is horny is hard and rough 3 informal sexually excited: feeling horny 4 informal sexually attractive: I think he's horny. which stretch to fit the shape of your body . and 'h' are often not pronounced. -horny adj 1 made of a hard substance. protector/campaigner (= someone who tries to stop cruelty to animals). and used by young people. The third meaning is very specific. In the last edition of the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.-mega adj slang very big and impressive or enjoyable: a really mega party – mega.
and usually illegally. e. many of them not enduring or important enough to be mentioned in a learners' dictionary. Politicians' words are taken up and used against them:”but he didn't inhale” (American politician distances himself from youthful indiscretion of smoking marijuana). different and therefore interesting. or introduce a word used by a small group to a wider audience.politician may be dismissed or should resign). wood etc used to close the top of a container see picture at laboratory 2 BrE slang money given to someone secretly. Types of music and dance salsa. which has steadily become more varied and enjoyable since the 1950s.”he needs to spend more time with his family” (British .g.C) Comings and goings: Borrowing has always been a rich source of new vocabulary in English. an English word. and burritos. For example. for instance. to make them do something. has acquired a new meaning roughly. Recent straight borrowings from foreign languages by English have perhaps been most evident in the region of food. ethnic. What was American English last year is often assimilated into British English the next year. tai chi. But with the arrival of the Spoken Corpus and the Longman Spoken American Corpus. Borrowings by American English can be hard to keep track of. but someone who is admired for breaking the rules or having his own unorthodox style of behaviour. tandoori. As a result of all this. and words for types of clothing have come and sometimes gone a sarong is no longer defined as ” worn by Malay women and men”. sushi. Longman lexicographers now have access to a fascinating area Of British and American English. Television programmes or films introduce new words that are taken up in conversation and sometimes words acquire a different connotation for no apparent reason. not just a man. A scandal or court case may lead to a new coinage by journalists. but the word does come originally from American English. The British would hardly bother to avoid using blizzard as an Americanism. the British geezer is now sometimes used by young people to mean. lambada have been assimilated and so have types of sport and exercise sumo. Other intriguing shifts happen within British and American English. Fashion has adopted influences from other countries. as in recent football corruption cases: -bung n [C] 1 a round piece of rubber. This process has been going on for decades. Questions such as” Do British teenagers use the faintly American Get off my case?” can be answered on the basis of the latest corpus evidence with a resounding”Yes”. .
OK.-get off my case spoken used to tell someone to stop criticizing you or complaining about you: OK. lexicographers can't afford to take their eyes off the language for a moment! . just get off my case already! But all in all.